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Sample records for abuse nida supports

  1. 76 FR 22406 - National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA); Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Study of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... disorders; (2) attitudes of healthcare professionals toward patients with these disorders; and (3... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug... Drug Abuse (NIDA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed...

  2. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  3. Sociodemographic and Substance Use Disorder Determinants of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior in Men and Women in Outpatient Drug Treatment in the NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jeremy D; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-06-07

    Sexual risk behavior is now the primary vector of HIV transmission among substance users in the United States with gender as a crucial moderator of risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in factors (age, race/ethnicity, education) that predict main-partner unprotected sexual occasions (USO) using the unique platform of two parallel NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network gender-specific safer sex intervention trials. Baseline assessments of male (N = 430) and female (N = 377) participants included demographic characteristics; past 3-month sexual activity; and a diagnostic assessment for alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, and opioid use disorders. Using mixed effects generalized linear modeling of the main outcome USO, two-way interactions of gender with age, race/ethnicity, and education were evaluated and adjusted by alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, or opioid use disorder. When adjusted for alcohol use disorder, the interaction of education and gender was significant. For men, a high school or greater education was significantly associated with more USO compared to men with less than high school. For women, greater than high school education was significantly associated with less USO compared to women with a high school education. None of the other interactions were significant when adjusted for cocaine/stimulant or opioid use disorder. Conclusions/Importance: This study demonstrates gender differences in the relationship of education, alcohol use disorder, and main-partner USO in individuals in substance abuse treatment. This underscores the importance of considering demographic and substance use factors in HIV sexual risk behavior and in crafting prevention messages for this population.

  4. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  5. User's Manual for the Naval Interactive Data Analysis System-Climatologies (NIDAS-C), Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Clifton

    1996-01-01

    This technical note provides the user's manual for the NIDAS-C system developed for the naval oceanographic office. NIDAS-C operates using numerous oceanographic data categories stored in an installed version of the Naval Environmental Operational Nowcast System (NEONS), a relational database management system (rdbms) which employs the ORACLE proprietary rdbms engine. Data management, configuration, and control functions for the supporting rdbms are performed externally. NIDAS-C stores and retrieves data to/from the rdbms but exercises no direct internal control over the rdbms or its configuration. Data is also ingested into the rdbms, for use by NIDAS-C, by external data acquisition processes. The data categories employed by NIDAS-C are as follows: Bathymetry - ocean depth at

  6. [Association between supporting child and elder abuse in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X; Hu, Y K; He, P; Wang, Z J; Zheng, X Y

    2017-04-10

    Objective: To examine the association between child-supporting from their folks and elder abuse in China so as to provide evidence for prevention and control of elder abuse. Methods: Based on the third survey on the Status of Chinese women, organized by the All-China Women's Federation and the National Bureau of Statistics, 7 159 residents aged 65 and older were included and general information on supporting child and elder abuse were gathered. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to investigate the association between supporting child from elderly and elder abuse. Results: The overall prevalence of elder abuse was 6.71 % . Risks of elder people being abused by family numbers varied from different supporting child situations. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, ORs for the elderly appeared as follows: OR =1.99 (95 %CI : 1.56-2.54) for those who only providing support to male children; OR =2.07 (95 %CI : 1.51-3.79) for those only providing support to the female offspring and OR =2.32 (95 % CI : 1.72-3.13) for those who did not support their children regardless of their sex identity. Elderly who provided support to their children on both sexes were exposed to lower risk of being abused than those who only supporting their male offspring. There was no significant difference appearing on the risk of elder abuse between those elderly who only supporting the male ( OR =1.00) or the female offspring ( OR =1.04, 95 % CI : 0.63-1.71), among all the participants in our study. However, such associations were different in urban and rural areas. Conclusions: High prevalence of abuse was seen in China. The pattern of supporting child was associated with risk of elder abuse. Elderly who showed poor support to their children were under higher risk of being abused by their family members.

  7. MaNIDA: an operational infrastructure for shipborne data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Ana; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-Infrastruture to support discovery and re-use of data archived in a distributed network of data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI1.2 and session ESSI2.2). Because one of the primary focus of MaNIDA is the underway data acquired on board of German academic research vessels, we will be addressing various issues related to cruise-level metadata, shiptrack navigation, sampling events conducted during the cruise (event logs), standardization of device-related (type, name, parameters) and place-related (gazetteer) vocabularies, QA/QC procedures (near real time and post-cruise validation, corrections, quality flags) as well as ingestion and management of contextual information (e.g. various types of cruise-related reports and project-related information). One of MaNIDA's long-term goal is to be able to offer an integrative "one-stop-shop" framework for management and access of ship-related information based on international standards and interoperability. This access framework will be freely available and is intended for scientists, funding agencies and the public. The master "catalog" we are building currently contains information from 13 German academic research vessels and respective cruises (to date ~1900 cruises with expected growing rate of ~150 cruises annually). Moreover, MaNIDA's operational infrastructure will additionally provide a direct pipeline to SeaDataNet Cruise Summary Report Inventory, among others. In this presentation, we will focus on the extensions we are currently implementing to support automated acquisition and standardized transfer of various types of data from German research vessels to hosts on land. Our concept towards nationwide common QA/QC procedures for various types of underway data (including versioning concept) and common workflows will also be presented. The "linking" of cruise-related information with quality-controlled data

  8. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  9. Defeating abusive supervision: Training supervisors to support subordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Morales, M Gloria; Kernan, Mary C; Becker, Thomas E; Eisenberger, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Although much is known about the antecedents and consequences of abusive supervision, scant attention has been paid to investigating procedures to reduce its frequency. We conducted a quasiexperiment to examine the effects of supervisor support training on subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision and supervisor support. Supervisors (n = 23) in 4 restaurants were trained in 4 supportive supervision strategies (benevolence, sincerity, fairness, and experiential processing) during 4 2-hr sessions over a period of 2 months. We compared perceived supervisor support and abusive supervision before and 9 months after training for 208 employees whose supervisors received support training and 241 employees in 4 similar control restaurants. Compared to employees in the control restaurants, employees whose supervisors received the support training reported higher levels of perceived supervisor support and less abusive supervision. These findings suggest that a relatively brief training program can help managers become more supportive and less abusive. Theoretical and practical implications for effectively managing abusive supervision are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Patterns of workplace supervisor support desired by abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nancy A; Yragui, Nanette L; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or job loss. We conducted interviews in Spanish or English with adult women working in low-income jobs who had been physically or sexually abused by an intimate partner/ ex-partner in the past year ( N = 133). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct clusters that form a hierarchy of type of support wanted: those who desired limited support; those who desired confidential, time-off, and emotional support; and those who desired support in wide variety of ways from their supervisor. The clusters appeared to reflect stages of behavior change in an abusive relationship. Specifically, the limited-support cluster may represent an early precontemplation stage, with women reporting the least interference with work. The support-in-every-way cluster may represent later stages of change, in which women are breaking away from the abusive partner and report the greatest interference with work. Women in the confidential-, time-off-, and emotional-support cluster are in a transition stage in which they are considering change and are exploring options in their abusive relationship. Understanding the hierarchy of the type of support desired, and its relationship to stages of change in the abusive relationship and work interference, may provide a strong foundation for developing appropriate and effective workplace interventions to guide supervisors in providing support to women experiencing IPV.

  11. Dimensions of support among abused women in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yragui, Nanette L; Mankowski, Eric S; Perrin, Nancy A; Glass, Nancy E

    2012-03-01

    The authors draw on social support theory to examine supervisor support match (support wanted and received), support mismatch (support not wanted and received) and work outcomes for abused low-wage working women, and to determine if supervisor support match and mismatch are more strongly associated with work outcomes than global supervisor support Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a community sample of abused, employed women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year (N = 163). Using hierarchical regression, we found, after accounting for global supervisor support; a higher level of supervisor support match was associated with greater job satisfaction, fewer job reprimands and less job termination. Findings from the study inform theories of social support and have practical implications for workplace interventions for IPV.

  12. Patterns of Workplace Supervisor Support Desired by Abused Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…

  13. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  14. Middle School Students' Learning of the Impact of Methamphetamine Abuse on the Brain through Serious Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    2009-01-01

    In response to the solicitation of the National Institute on Drug Use (NIDA) (NIDA, 2006) for the "Development of a Virtual Reality Environment for Teaching about the Impact of Drug Abuse on the Brain," a virtual brain exhibit was developed by the joint venture of Entertainment Science, Inc. and Virtual Heroes, Inc.. This exhibit included a…

  15. Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Birtel, Michèle; Wood, Lisa; Kempa, Nancy J.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with substance abuse may suffer from severe public and internalized stigma. Little is known about how social support can reduce stigma and improve mental health and well-being for them. This research examined how perceived stigma influences individuals in treatment for substance abuse, and whether internalized stigma and shame are mechanisms which link social support with better mental health and well-being. Sixty-four participants in treatment for substance abuse (alcohol, drugs)...

  16. 76 FR 15328 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA's Science...; Development & Manufacture of Pharmaceutical Products/Addiction Treatment (8899). Date: May 24, 2011. Time: 9 a...

  17. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Madigan, Margaret A; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L; Gold, Mark S

    The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x 2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x 2 = 40.78, p Durkheim's social bond theory. Stronger spiritual/religious beliefs and practices are directly associated with remission from abused drugs except crack. Much like the value of having a sponsor, for clients who abuse drugs, regular spiritual practice, particularly weekly attendance at the religious services of their choice is associated with significantly higher remission. These results demonstrate the clinically significant role of spirituality and the social bonds it creates in drug treatment programs.

  18. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  19. National Institute on Drug Abuse International Program: improving opioid use disorder treatment through international research training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Steven W; McCormally, Judy

    2018-07-01

    For more than 25 years, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has supported research-training programs, establishing a global research network and expanding the knowledge base on substance use disorders. International research to inform approaches to opioid addiction is particularly important and relevant to the United States, where opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose constitute an emerging public health crisis. This article summarizes the NIDA International Program and illustrates its impact by reviewing recent articles about treatment approaches for opioid use disorders (OUD). Studies in several countries have demonstrated the effectiveness of physician office-based opioid substitution therapies. Other research has demonstrated the effectiveness of different formulations and doses of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, as well as different approaches to providing naloxone to treat opioid overdose. Continuing research into implementation of evidence-based treatment in international settings with limited resources is applicable to US regions that face similar structural, legal, and fiscal constraints. The current review describes international research on OUD treatment and opioid overdose, most coauthored by former NIDA fellows. The findings from outside the United States have important implications for best practices domestically and in other countries that are experiencing increases in OUD prevalence and related overdose deaths.

  20. Aggregation Bias and Woman Abuse: Variations by Male Peer Support, Region, Language, and School Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the Canadian National Survey data on woman abuse to compare results for geographic regions, types of schools, and whether the students took the survey in French or English. None of these factors influenced the results. Male peer support measures did strongly affect male behavior in both physical and sexual abuse. (Author/JDM)

  1. Educational Support Group in Changing Caregivers' Psychological Elder Abuse Behavior toward Caring for Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti

    2009-01-01

    Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…

  2. 75 FR 36659 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Brain Power! The NIDA Junior Scientist Program and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... of the Brain Power! Program's ability to: Increase students' knowledge about the biology of the brain... Request; Brain Power! The NIDA Junior Scientist Program and the Companion Program, Brain Power! Challenge.... Proposed Collection: Title: Brain Power! The NIDA Junior Scientist Program, for grades K-5, and the...

  3. Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Bahareh; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barros, Henrique; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Lindert, Jutta; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 9606 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Boulevard... Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel NIDA CEBRA R21 Review. Date: March 17, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 5 p.m...

  5. 78 FR 6122 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel... on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4245, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-9550, 301-451-4530, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA...

  6. 75 FR 54348 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse.... [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, NIDA B/Start... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Blvd., Bethesda...

  7. 75 FR 25277 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, NIDA B/START... Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401, 6101 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD, 301-402-6626, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special...

  8. 78 FR 73866 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Center... Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National...

  9. 77 FR 27075 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel....D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH... . Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel NIDA B/START Small Grant...

  10. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Blending..., Training and Special Projects Review Branch, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse... Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of Health...

  11. Gender differences in the association between childhood physical and sexual abuse, social support and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Fisher, Helen L; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Craig, Thomas K; Morgan, Craig

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from south-east London and Nottingham, UK, was utilised. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to elicit retrospective reports of exposure to childhood adversity, and the Significant Others Questionnaire was completed to collect information on the current size of social networks and perceptions of emotional and practical support. There was evidence of an interaction between severe physical abuse and levels of support (namely, number of significant others; likelihood ratio test χ(2) = 3.90, p = 0.048). When stratified by gender, there were no clear associations between childhood physical or sexual abuse, current social support and odds of psychosis in men. In contrast, for women, the highest odds of psychosis were generally found in those who reported severe abuse and low levels of social support in adulthood. However, tests for interaction by gender did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the potential benefits of social support as a buffer against the development of adult psychosis amongst those, particularly women, with a history of early life stress.

  12. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  13. Guardian support of sexually abused children: a study of its predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M; Lamb, J Leah

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a study of intervening variables for guardian support. It is this article's thesis that guardian support is better conceptualized as a complex reaction to the disclosure of abuse that is shaped by a number of factors, some of the most important of which are the stressors impinging on guardians and their previous patterns of relating within the family. The sample included 92 guardians of sexually abused children presenting at a medical center for a sexual abuse medical and forensic evaluation. This study found that the most important intervening variables for guardian support in multivariate analysis were the attachment/relationship style of child and guardian and whether a second guardian accompanied the child to the hospital. This study highlights the importance of relational considerations between the child and nonoffending guardian as well as the importance of using more than a single nonoffending caregiver.

  14. Unpaid Child Support: The Abuse of American Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    Noting that fewer than half the single mothers in the United States receive complete and regular child support payments, this paper discusses reasons for unpaid child support, examines whether stricter enforcement of child support obligations will help solve the overall problem, and proposes another option for solving the problem of unpaid child…

  15. Support by trained mentor mothers for abused women: a promising intervention in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosman, Gert-Jan; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2014-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women provided by trained mentor mothers in family practice. The aim was to reduce exposure to IPV, symptoms of depression as well as to improve social support, participation in society and acceptance of mental health care. A pre-post study of a 16-week mentoring intervention with identified abused women with children was conducted. After referral by a family doctor, a mentor mother visited the abused woman weekly. Primary outcomes are IPV assessed with the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS), depressive symptoms using the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90) and social support by the Utrecht Coping List. Secondary outcomes are analysed qualitatively: participation in society defined as employment and education and the acceptance of mental health care. At baseline, 63 out of 66 abused women were referred to mentor support. Forty-three participants completed the intervention programme. IPV decreased from CASt otal 46.7 (SD 24.7) to 9.0 (SD 9.1) (P ≤ 0.001) after the mentor mother support programme. Symptoms of depression decreased from 53.3 (SD 13.7) to 34.8 (SD 11.5) (P ≤ 0.001) and social support increased from 13.2 (SD 4.0) to 15.2 (SD 3.5) (P ≤ 0.001). Participation in society and the acceptance of mental health for mother and child improved. Sixteen weekly visits by trained mentor mothers are a promising intervention to decrease exposure to IPV and symptoms of depression, as well as to improve social support, participation in society and the acceptance of professional help for abused women and their children.

  16. Parenting stress and social support of mothers who physically abuse their children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y C

    1994-03-01

    Thirty-seven identified abusive mothers were matched on demographic and socioeconomic parameters with a known nonabusive comparison sample in order to examine the role of parenting stress and maternal social support. The mothers were assessed using a personal (demographic) questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Maternal Support Index (MSSI). Demographic data showed that the two groups were comparable on all variables except abusive mothers had significantly more children (p = .01). Abusive mothers showed significantly more stress on total PSI scores (p = .005), as well as in all three of the subjects: Child Domain (p = .007) Parent Domain (p = .02), and Life Stress (p = .016). Abusive mothers scored lower in all seven items on the MSSI. The difference was significant on the MSSI as a whole (p = .007) and on four subsets: number of people to count on in time of need (p = .02), perceived neighborhood support (p = .04), satisfaction with spousal relationship (p = .01), and degree of community involvement (p = .03). The greatest percentage (74.32%) of correct predictions of child abuse was achieved by combining the number of children, the Life Stress Scale and the MSSI. Implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Stigma and social support in substance abuse: Implications for mental health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtel, Michèle D; Wood, Lisa; Kempa, Nancy J

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with substance abuse may suffer from severe public and internalized stigma. Little is known about how social support can reduce stigma and improve mental health and well-being for them. This research examined how perceived stigma influences individuals in treatment for substance abuse, and whether internalized stigma and shame are mechanisms which link social support with better mental health and well-being. Sixty-four participants in treatment for substance abuse (alcohol, drugs), aged between 18 and 64, completed an online survey measuring perceived stigma, internalized stigma, shame, perceived social support, and mental health and well-being (self-esteem, depression and anxiety, sleep). We found that perceived stigma was associated with lower self-esteem, higher depression and anxiety, and poorer sleep. Furthermore, perceived social support followed the opposite pattern, and was associated with higher self-esteem, lower depression and anxiety, and better sleep. The effects of perceived stigma and of perceived social support on our outcome measures were mediated by internalized stigma and by internalized shame. Helping individuals with substance abuse to utilize their social support may be fruitful for combatting the negative impact of internalized stigma and shame on mental health and well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Resilience and social support as protective factors against abuse of patients with dementia: A study on family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Lídia; Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Ruisoto, Pablo; Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Ramos, Francisco; Rivera-Navarro, Jesús

    2018-05-24

    Scientific literature has identified different vulnerability factors associated to abuse in people with dementia (PWD), but little is known about the psychosocial protective variables against abuse. The main objective of this study is to investigate a set of caregiver and patient factors linked to abuse-related behavior of PWD. A total of 326 primary and family caregivers, residents of the Castilla and León community (Spain), were evaluated. All participants filled out a standardized protocol, which assessed the sociodemographic characteristics, patient and care-related variables, as well as the perceived burden, resilience, and social support. Abuse-related behavior was evaluated using the Caregiver Abuse Screen. Results show that the severity of cognitive impairment and behavior disorders of PWD, a greater number of caregiving hours, a worse previous relationship with the caregiver, and perceived burden are positively related with abuse. However, resilience and social support showed a negative relationship with Caregiver Abuse Screen scores, suggesting a protective effect on abuse, even after controlling the effect of a number of covariates. Indeed, resilience was the only variable that remained significant after including the effect of burden. This paper states the role of burden in abuse of PWD, while resilience and social support are abuse protective factors. These variables should be considered in future guidelines for the prevention of abuse against PWD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Social Support Influences on Substance Abuse Outcomes among Sober Living House Residents with Low and Moderate Psychiatric Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Korcha, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    Social support and psychiatric severity are known to influence substance abuse. However, little is known about how their influences vary under different conditions. We aimed to study how different types of social support were associated with substance abuse outcomes among persons with low and moderate psychiatric severity who entered Sober Living…

  20. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J

    2013-01-01

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  1. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. METHODS: The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  2. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  3. Effect of Social Support and Disclosure of Child Abuse on Adult Suicidal Ideation: Findings From a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Fallon, Barbara; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi

    2017-11-16

    To examine the proportion of Canadian adults with a history of child abuse who disclosed the abuse to child protection services before age 16 years and identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on lifetime suicidal ideation. Data for this study came from the Statistics Canada 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N = 9,076). Binary logistic regression was conducted to identify the effect of social support and disclosure of child abuse on suicidal ideation while simultaneously adjusting for the effect of type of child abuse and demographic, socioeconomic, health, and mental health factors. Of the 9,076 respondents who experienced at least one child abuse event, 21.5% reported ever experiencing suicidal ideation. Fewer than 6% of the respondents disclosed the abuse to someone from a child protection service before age 16 years. In the multivariate logistic regression model, respondents who disclosed the abuse to someone from child protection services were 1.37 times more likely to report lifetime suicidal ideation (95% CI, 1.10-1.71) than those who did not. Each additional unit increase in social support decreased the odds of lifetime suicidal ideation by a factor of 3% (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). Social support interventions that are effective in improving individuals' perception that support is available to them may help reduce suicidal ideation among those with a history of child abuse. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. 75 FR 71712 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; NIDA Cutting... Administrator, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 220, MSC 8401... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug...

  5. Psychometrics of a Child Report Measure of Maternal Support following Disclosure of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W; Sawyer, Genelle K; Heck, Nicholas C; Zajac, Kristyn; Solomon, David; Self-Brown, Shannon; Danielson, Carla K; Ralston, M Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    The study examined a new child report measure of maternal support following child sexual abuse. One hundred and forty-six mother-child dyads presenting for a forensic evaluation completed assessments including standardized measures of adjustment. Child participants also responded to 32 items considered for inclusion in a new measure, the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report (MSQ-CR). Exploratory factor analysis of the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report resulted in a three factor, 20-item solution: Emotional Support (9 items), Skeptical Preoccupation (5 items), and Protection/Retaliation (6 items). Each factor demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Construct and concurrent validity of the new measure were supported in comparison to other trauma-specific measures. The Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report demonstrated sound psychometric properties. Future research is needed to determine whether the Maternal Support Questionnaire-Child Report provides a more sensitive approximation of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, relative to measures of global parent-child relations and to contextualize discrepancies between mother and child ratings of maternal support.

  6. Substance Abuse Counselors’ Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors’ personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Results Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients’ struggles. Discussion Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors’ recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments. PMID:28626597

  7. Substance Abuse Counselors' Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors' personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients' struggles. Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors' recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments.

  8. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  9. By Hook or by Crook: Exposing the Diverse Abuse Tactics of Technical Support Scammers

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Bharat; Kountouras, Athanasios; Miramirkhani, Najmeh; Alam, Monjur; Nikiforakis, Nick; Antonakakis, Manos; Ahamad, Mustaque

    2017-01-01

    Technical Support Scams (TSS), which combine online abuse with social engineering over the phone channel, have persisted despite several law enforcement actions. The tactics used by these scammers have evolved over time and they have targeted an ever increasing number of technology brands. Although recent research has provided insights into TSS, these scams have now evolved to exploit ubiquitously used online services such as search and sponsored advertisements served in response to search qu...

  10. In what sense is the Louw/Nida dictionary authoritative? | Vorster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay deals with four factors which make the Louw/Nida dictionary authoritative. These include the presentation of lexical meanings in semantic domains, the definition of meanings, the distinction that is made between meaning and reference, and the layout of the dictionary. All factors a re discussed critically and ...

  11. MaNIDA: Insight into the German Marine Network for Integrated Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Angela; Scientific MaNIDA Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) builds a sustainable e-Infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of data from distinct marine and earth science data providers in Germany (see ESSI1.2 and ESSI2.2). Thereby we implement the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" for coherent discovery, view, download and dissemination of aggregated content. MaNIDA receives a unique momentum from the cooperation and financial partnership between main German marine research institutes (AWI, MARUM, HZG, GEOMAR, Uni Hamburg, Uni Kiel, Uni Bremen) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency as well as active participation in international and major EU-initiatives (ICSU, GEOSS, SeaDataNet, EMODNET, ODIP). Together with a coherent management strategy coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, sustainability will be achieved via the long-term commitment of framework funding by the Helmholtz Association, Germany's largest scientific research organization for large-scale facilities and scientific infrastructure. Strategic Aims The installation of the "Data Portal of German Marine Research" will address the urgent demands of the German research community for reliable and easy access to marine research data at one single point of access and truth. Primary focus will be given to data derived from nationally operated research and monitoring facilities (vessels, observatories, alert systems, etc), whereby related contextual content and publications will become an integral part of the aggregation effort. For the scientific community we define responsibilities and commitments across partners while complementing existing data repositories and the new portal with well-articulated workflows from the instrument to the data product. Necessary level of quality assurance and user support will be implemented to achieve substantial enhancements in the whole lifecycle management of marine scientific data. The creation of a data

  12. Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, R.S.; Nwachuckwu, C.; Pervaiz, A.; Wallace, C.; Landes, C.; Offiah, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

  13. Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, R.S. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nwachuckwu, C. [Department of Paediatrics, Whipps Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pervaiz, A. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, C.; Landes, C. [Department of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Childrens NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Offiah, A.C. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: OffiaA@gosh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

  14. Self-esteem and anxiety: key issues in an abused women's support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpey, M L

    1989-01-01

    A support group was organized for women who sought help to cope with physical and emotional abuse from their male partners. Women who have lived through the cycle of violence may experience a stress response that includes fear, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. High anxiety can interfere with problem solving and with developing new coping patterns. Low self-esteem can accompany depression and intensify the sense of helplessness and powerlessness abused women feel. A descriptive study was conducted to determine to what extent women in the group experienced high anxiety and low self-esteem. Results indicated that high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem were present in the group. Anxiety reduction strategies and techniques to enhance self-esteem were developed.

  15. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hébert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This analysis examined the contribution of personal, family (maternal and paternal support; sibling support and extra-familiar (peer support; other adults resilience to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Controls were established for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity and multiple abuse in a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec. A total of 15.2% of adolescent females and 4.4% adolescent males in high school reported a history of sexual abuse in childhood. Sexually abused adolescent females (27.8% were more likely than adolescent males (14.9% to achieve scores with high clinical levels of PTSD. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience factors (maternal and peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD attaining the clinical threshold. Alternative intervention and prevention practices geared to adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed.

  16. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  17. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  18. A decision support tool for identifying abuse of controlled substances by ForwardHealth Medicaid members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Allan T; Cummings, Stephen W; Mugdh, Mrinal

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to use Wisconsin's Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support (MEDS) data warehouse to develop and validate a decision support tool (DST) that (1) identifies Wisconsin Medicaid fee-for-service recipients who are abusing controlled substances, (2) effectively replicates clinical pharmacist recommendations for interventions intended to curb abuse of physician and pharmacy services, and (3) automates data extraction, profile generation and tracking of recommendations and interventions. From pharmacist manual reviews of medication profiles, seven measures of overutilization of controlled substances were developed, including (1-2) 6-month and 2-month "shopping" scores, (3-4) 6-month and 2-month forgery scores, (5) duplicate/same day prescriptions, (6) count of controlled substance claims, and the (7) shopping 6-month score for the individual therapeutic class with the highest score. The pattern analysis logic for the measures was encoded into SQL and applied to the medication profiles of 190 recipients who had already undergone manual review. The scores for each measure and numbers of providers were analyzed by exhaustive chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) to determine significant thresholds and combinations of predictors of pharmacist recommendations, resulting in a decision tree to classify recipients by pharmacist recommendations. The overall correct classification rate of the decision tree was 95.3%, with a 2.4% false positive rate and 4.0% false negative rate for lock-in versus prescriber-alert letter recommendations. Measures used by the decision tree include the 2-month and 6-month shopping scores, and the number of pharmacies and prescribers. The number of pharmacies was the best predictor of abuse of controlled substances. When a Medicaid recipient receives prescriptions for controlled substances at 8 or more pharmacies, the likelihood of a lock-in recommendation is 90%. The availability of the Wisconsin MEDS data warehouse has

  19. Social Support as a Mediator between Internalized Stigma and Coping Behaviors of Individuals with Substance Abuse Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Robb, Jayci Lynn; Clay, Matthew Christopher; Chronister, Julie Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 51 individuals from online substance abuse support groups were surveyed to investigate the mediating role of social support on the relationship between internalized stigma and coping. Regression and bootstrapping were conducted to perform mediation analysis. Findings suggest that social support mediates the negative impact of…

  20. A trial essay about studies of Grief Toward to recovery support for mothers who abuse their children

    OpenAIRE

    遠藤, 野ゆり

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a short essay about studies of Grief which are written by Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, John Bowlby, and Keigo Okonogi. The final aim is to describe parents’, mainly mother’s mechanism of recovery process from their abusing of children. This paper is one piece of this aim. The lag of support for abusing mother seems to be caused by the complexity and difficulty of their mechanism. They often have been abused in their childhood and can’t remember it. The process of recovery is pa...

  1. Understanding management and support for domestic violence and abuse within emergency departments: A systematic literature review from 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; McGarry, Julie

    2017-12-01

    To identify, review and critically evaluate published empirical studies concerned with the prevalence, management and support for survivors of domestic violence and abuse who present at emergency department. Domestic violence and abuse is a global phenomenon with a wealth of studies that explore the different aspects of the issue including the economic, social and health effects on survivors and on society as a whole. Emergency department is widely recognised as one healthcare facility where domestic violence and abuse survivors will often disclose domestic violence and abuse. In the UK, National Institute of Clinical Excellence produced guidelines in 2014 requiring all sectors of health care and those they work alongside to recognise support and manage survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Whilst there is an increasing body of research on domestic violence and abuse, limited synthesised work has been conducted in the context of domestic violence and abuse within emergency department. This review encompasses empirical studies conducted in emergency department for screening interventions, management and support for domestic violence and abuse patients including prevalence. This review included studies that included emergency department staff, emergency department service users and domestic violence and abuse survivors. A systematic approach across five electronic bibliographic databases found 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria published between 2000-2015. From the 35 studies, four descriptive overarching themes were identified (i) prevalence of domestic violence and abuse in emergency department, (ii) use of domestic violence and abuse screening tools and emergency department interventions, (iii) current obstacles for staff working in emergency department and (iv) emergency department users and survivor perspectives. Having knowledgeable and supportive emergency department staff can have a positive benefit for the longer-term health of the domestic

  2. Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie Halpenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

  3. From Equivalence to Skopos: a theoretical 'dialogue' between Nida and the Functional School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Chanyu

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Equivalence and Skopos Theory are two important translation theories in the fields of translation, which many scholars spare no efforts to research on. This essay intends to compare and complement between Nida's Dynamic Equivalence and Skopos theory after briefly reviewing these two translation theories. It is aimed at helping readers improve their translation skills via stimulating them to consider translation issues from different angles.

  4. Answers to Student's Most Popular Questions about Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Facts Week Web site National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) For more information call 301-443-1124 2321 events registered for 2018! Check out 2018's events from around the ... Learn about Chat Day Drugs: SHATTER THE MYTHS Order Free Copies Now for ...

  5. Sex-gender differences in drug abuse: a shift in the burden of proof?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherington, Cora Lee

    2007-10-01

    In the early years of NIDA-supported drug abuse research, much of the research on women was treatment related and conducted out of concern for their pregnancy status. Since then, drug abuse research on women has expanded to include females of all ages, including infants, children, and adolescents, both human and animal. This expansion has also extended to the study of male-female differences. In the early years of the expansion, National Institutes of Health study sections demanded a heavy burden of proof from drug abuse researchers who proposed to study male-female differences. The need for such research appeared not to have face validity. The tide has now changed with the growing body of literature attesting to its scientific and clinical validity. This change is often reflected in concerns expressed in study sections reviewing drug abuse grant applications that an applicant does not propose to analyze the data for sex-gender differences when in fact the literature suggests that such differences would be observed. Although the change has been slow, it suggests that the burden of proof is shifting from having to defend why sex-gender differences should be studied to having to defend why they should not. (c) 2007 APA

  6. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362

  7. Support and monitoring of families after child abuse detection based on parental characteristics at the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderich, H M; Pannebakker, F D; Dechesne, M; Buitendijk, S E; Oudesluys-Murphy, A M

    2015-03-01

    The 'Hague Protocol' enables professionals at the adult Emergency Department (ED) to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (i) suicide attempt or self-harm, (ii) domestic violence or (iii) substance abuse, and to refer them to the Reporting Centre for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN). This study investigates what had happened to the families three months after this referral. ED referrals based on parental characteristics (N = 100) in which child abuse was confirmed after investigation by the RCCAN were analysed. Information was collected regarding type of child abuse, reason for reporting, duration of problems prior to the ED referral, previous involvement of support services or other agencies, re-occurrence of the problems and outcome of the RCCAN monitoring according to professionals and the families. Of the 100 referred cases, 68 families were already known to the RCCAN, the police or family support services, prior to the ED referral. Of the 99 cases where information was available, existing support was continued or intensified in 31, a Child Protection Services (CPS) report had to be made in 24, new support was organized for 27 cases and in 17 cases support was not necessary, because the domestic problems were already resolved. Even though the RCCAN is mandated to monitor all referred families after three months, 31 cases which were referred internally were not followed up. Before referral by the ED two thirds of these families were already known to organizations. Monitoring may help provide a better, more sustained service and prevent and resolve domestic problems. A national database could help to link data and to streamline care for victims and families. We recommend a Randomized Controlled Trial to test the effectiveness of this Protocol in combination with the outcomes of the provided family support. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

  9. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  10. Review of the Empirical and Clinical Support for Group Therapy Specific to Sexual Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L; Deming, Adam

    2017-12-01

    This review compiles 48 empirical studies and 55 clinical/practice articles specific to group therapy with sex offenders. Historically, group therapy has always been the predominant modality in sex offender-specific treatment. In the first decades of the field, treatment applied a psychoanalytic methodology that, although not empirically supported, fully appreciated the primary therapeutic importance of the group modality. Conversely, since the early 1980s, treatment has applied a cognitive behavioral method, but the field has largely neglected the therapeutic value of interpersonal group dynamics. The past decade has seen a growing re-appreciation of general therapeutic processes and more holistic approaches in sex offender treatment, and there is an emerging body of empirical research which, although often indirectly concerned with group, has yielded three definitive conclusions. First, the therapeutic qualities of the group therapist-specifically warmth, empathy, encouragement, and guidance-can strongly affect outcomes. Second, the quality of group cohesion can profoundly affect the effectiveness of treatment. Third, confrontational approaches in group therapy are ineffective, if not counter-therapeutic, and overwhelmingly rated as not helpful by sex offenders themselves. Additional conclusions are less strongly supported, but include compelling evidence that sex offenders generally prefer group therapy over individual therapy, that group therapy appears equally effective to individual therapy, and that mixing or separating groups by offense type is not important to therapeutic climate. Other group techniques and approaches specific to sexual abuse treatment are also summarized.

  11. 'I am stronger, I'm no longer afraid...', an evaluation of a home-visiting mentor mother support programme for abused women in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Wong, S.H.; Romkens, R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate which factors make a mentor mother support programme for abused women successful. METHOD: We used semi-structured interviews with abused women and focus group discussions with the mentor mothers to evaluate their experiences and needs within a mentor support

  12. An exploratory study of engagement in a technology-supported substance abuse intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanDeMark Nancy R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The continuing gap between the number of people requiring treatment for substance use disorders and those receiving treatment suggests the need to develop new approaches to service delivery. Meanwhile, the use of technology to provide counseling and support in the substance abuse field is exploding. Despite the increase in the use of technology in treatment, little is known about the impact of technology-supported interventions on access to services for substance use disorders. The E-TREAT intervention brings together the evidence-based practice of Motivational Interviewing and theories of Persuasive Technology to sustain clients' motivation to change substance use behaviors, provide support for change, and facilitate continuity across treatment settings. Methods This study used descriptive statistics, tests of statistical significance, and logistic regression to explore the characteristics and perceptions of the first 157 people who agreed to participate in E-TREAT and the predictors of their active engagement in E-TREAT services. In addition, responses to open-ended questions about the participants' experiences with the intervention were analyzed. Results The data reveal that clients who engaged in E-TREAT were more likely than those who did not engage to be female, have children and report a positive relationship with their recovery coach, and were less likely to have completed treatment for a substance use disorder in the past. A majority of people engaging in E-TREAT reported that it was helpful to talk with others with similar problems and that the program assisted them in developing a sense of community. Conclusions The authors conclude that technology-assisted interventions hold promise in expanding access to treatment for substance use disorders especially for women and parents. Further, the characteristics of the relationship with a coach or helper may be critical to engagement in technology-supported interventions

  13. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  14. Evidence Supporting an Independent Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Lifetime Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…

  15. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  16. NIDA Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  17. Tests of the mitigating effects of caring and supportive relationships in the study of abusive disciplining over two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2013-10-01

    To examine evidence of the continuity in abusive discipline across two generations (G1 and G2) and the role of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships (SSNRs) as protective factors. Data are from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of the causes and consequences child maltreatment that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 children and their parents. Data were most recently collected in 2008-2010 from 80% of the original child sample (N = 357) when they were adults age 36 years on average. Of those assessed as adults, 268 participants (G2s) were parenting children and thus comprise the analysis sample. Analyses examined the association between harsh physical discipline practices by G1 parents and G2's reports of similarly severe discipline practices used in parenting their own children. Analyses also investigated the direct and interactive (protective) effects of SSNR variables that pertain to the care, warmth, and support children received from their mothers, fathers, and siblings over their lifetimes. A measure of an adult partner's warmth and support was also included. A case-level examination of G2 harsh discipliners was included to investigate other forms of past and more recent forms of abuse exposure. Results show a significant predictive association between physical discipline by G1 and G2 parents (β = .30; p disciplined as a child was inversely related to reports of having had a caring relationship with one's mother (r = -.25; p discipline by G2s (β = -.24; p discipline on G2 discipline. A case-level examination of the abusive histories of G2 harsh discipliners found they had in some instances been exposed to physical and emotional abuse by multiple caregivers and by adult partners. There is continuity in physical disciplining over two generations. SSNRs measured in this study did not mediate or moderate the effect of G1 on G2 harsh physical discipline, although care and support from fathers was inversely related to the

  18. Association Between Depression and Elder Abuse and the Mediation of Social Support: A Cross-Sectional Study of Elder Females in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Ochoa-Laginas, Adriana; Gaitan-Rossi, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the association between depression and elder abuse, and the mediation effect of social support among elder women in Mexico City. A total of 526 noninstitutionalized elder women, residing in Mexico City and attending public community centers were selected. Logistic regressions and structural equation models (SEM) were estimated. One fifth of the elderly women were at risk of depression, one third suffered some type of abuse in the past 12 months, and 82% reported low social support. Logistic models confirmed that depression was statistically associated with elder abuse and vice versa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97 and 1.96, respectively). In both models, social support significantly reduced the association between these variables leading to study these associations through SEM. This approach highlighted that social support buffers the association between depression and elder abuse. Findings underline the relevance of programs and strategies targeted at increasing social support among urban older adults.

  19. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  20. Interpreting child sexual abuse: Empathy and offense-supportive cognitions among child sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, I.S.; Buck, N.M.L.; van Vugt, E.S.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children’s behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by

  1. Effects of an Educational and Support Program for Family and Friends of a Substance Abuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Platter, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Many family members are adversely affected by their loved ones drinking or drug problem. The aim of the present study was to explore changes in coping and enabling behaviors among family members who attended a community educational and psychosocial group for friends and family of a substance abuser, and to examine the concerns of these family…

  2. The School Nurse's Ability to Detect and Support Abused Children: A Trust-Creating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Lisbet Engh; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse has negative health consequences. Early detection and preventive measures lead to avoidance of prolonged and more complex problems. School nurses have a child protection role and should pay attention to vulnerable children. Through health dialogues and other interactions with pupils, school nurses have the opportunity to detect child…

  3. Support by trained mentor mothers for abused women: a promising intervention in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women

  4. Perceived Needs for Support Program for Family With Child Sexual Abuse Victim in South Korea: Focus Group Interview With Therapists and Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed perceived needs for psychological support program for family with victim of child sexual abuse in South Korea. We conducted two separate focus group interviews with five therapists who served child sexual abuse victims and families as well as four mothers of a child sexual abuse victim. Consensual qualitative research analysis revealed four domains: Emotional support for parents, psychoeducation, family therapy, and tailored and flexible service delivery. Core ideas of the four domains were identified. The results were consistent with the family support program contents developed in Western countries and suggested culture-specific contents and culturally sensitive service delivery. Clinical implications for developing family support program in South Korea were discussed.

  5. Understanding factors associated with early therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment: adherence, childhood sexual abuse history, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stephanie M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history and poor social support may impede the development of early alliance in those receiving PTSD treatment. We sought to examine treatment adherence, CSA history, and social support as factors associated with early alliance in individuals with chronic PTSD who were receiving either prolonged exposure therapy (PE) or sertraline. At pretreatment, participants (76.6% female; 64.9% Caucasian; mean age = 37.1 years, SD = 11.3) completed measures of trauma history, general support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), and trauma-related social support (Social Reactions Questionnaire). Over the course of 10 weeks of PE or sertraline, they completed early therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and treatment adherence measures. Early alliance was associated with PE adherence (r = .32, p history was not predictive of a lower early alliance. Given the associations with adherence, clinicians may find it useful to routinely assess alliance early in treatment. Positive trauma support, not CSA history, may be particularly important in the development of a strong early therapeutic alliance. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Support and monitoring of families after child abuse detection based on parental characteristics at the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Dexhesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ‘Hague Protocol’ enables professionals at the adult Emergency Department (ED) to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (i) suicide attempt or self-harm, (ii) domestic violence or (iii) substance abuse, and to refer them to the Reporting Centre for Child Abuse and

  7. A Structural Equation Modeling of the Relationships between Depression, Drug Abuse and Social Support with Suicidal Ideation among Soldiers in Iran in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Mehdi; Halvaiepour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Military service is a crucial period in the lives of young people and during this period soldier facing with multiple psychosocial problems. The present study aimed to explore structural analysis of the relationships between depression, drug abuse, social support and the risk of suicidal ideation among Military Medical University soldiers in Iran. In the present correlational research, a sample of 176 soldiers, from three units, was selected using randomly stratified sampling. Data were collected through the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and the Possibility of Drug Abuse Scale (LDAS). Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the model, identify direct and indirect effects of the psychosocial correlates. Data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS software (Verson22). out of the whole subjects, 28.4% had suicidal ideation and 65.3% had degrees of depression (mild to severe). A significant reverse relationship was observed between social support and suicidal ideation (pdrug abuse and suicidal ideation. The final structural model indicated that 74% of the variance in suicidal ideation was explained by the three examined variables of depression, social support and drug abuse. The overall results showed that the risk of suicidal ideation, depression and drug abuse are relatively significant in Military Medical University soldiers requiring taking serious actions by the authorities and other relevant organizations in order to improve the psychosocial health status of these soldiers.

  8. El Dios iranio Mithra y la Monarquía Persa Aqueménida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Campo Méndez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La figura del dios Mithra encarna en el mundo iranio antiguo la divinización de la idea de contrato. Desde el periodo de las tribus indo-arias que se asientan en la región desde mitad del Segundo Milenio a.c. el culto de esta divinidad evoluciona, vinculándose de manera especial con el poder político que ostentan los reyes y jefes tribales. El período de formación del Imperio Persa, bajo la dinastía aqueménida se convierte en un momento histórico importante, en el cual la presencia de Mithra logra mantenerse y seguir vinculada al poder real, a pesar de la implantación de la reforma zoroastriana, que en un principio desplaza su culto.The figure of the god Mithra embodies in the Ancient lranian World the deification of the contract idea. From the period of the Indo-Aryan tribes, settled in the region from half of the Second Millennium B.C., the cult of this divinity evolves, being linked in a special way with the political power that the kings and tribal bosses show. The period of formation of the Persian Empire, under the Aquemenid Dynasty becomes an important historical moment, in which the presence of Mithra is able  to stay and to continue linked to the royal power, in spite of the installation of the zoroastrian reformation that displaces its cult in a principle.

  9. Supporting the need for an integrated system of care for youth with co-occurring traumatic stress and substance abuse problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Liza M; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Briggs, Ernestine C; Titus, Janet C

    2012-06-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for violence exposure and initiation of drug use. Co-occurring substance use and trauma exposure are associated with increased risk of mental health disorders, school underachievement, and involvement with multiple systems of care. Coordination and integration of systems of care are of utmost importance for these vulnerable youth. This study delineates the negative sequelae and increased service utilization patterns of adolescents with a history of trauma, substance abuse, and co-occurring trauma and substance abuse to support the need for integrated mental health and substance abuse services for youth. Data from two national sources, the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and Center for Substance Abuse Treatment demonstrate the increased clinical severity (measured by reports of emotional and behavioral problems), dysfunction, and service utilization patterns for youth with co-occurring trauma exposure and substance abuse. We conclude with recommendations for an integrated system of care that includes trauma-informed mental health treatment and substance abuse services aimed at reducing the morbidity and relapse probability of this high-risk group.

  10. Márgenes y zonas de densidad : Acerca de un manuscrito de Leónidas Lamborghini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Repetto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into Leónidas Lamborghini?s creating process through the concept of margin, understood as difference, added value and place of appropriation. The paper shows the existence in the writing process 'from his own texts and from those of others' of a space of creation where Lamborghini distorts, subverts, produces added value (in the appropriation which he expresses in his own narrative. Likewise, from the enquiry, survey and description of Trento's pre-texts it is shown how a fundamental part of Lamborghini's original writing is found in the margins of his manuscripts

  11. Márgenes y zonas de densidad : Acerca de un manuscrito de Leónidas Lamborghini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Repetto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks into Leónidas Lamborghini?s creating process through the concept of margin, understood as difference, added value and place of appropriation. The paper shows the existence in the writing process 'from his own texts and from those of others' of a space of creation where Lamborghini distorts, subverts, produces added value (in the appropriation which he expresses in his own narrative. Likewise, from the enquiry, survey and description of Trento's pre-texts it is shown how a fundamental part of Lamborghini's original writing is found in the margins of his manuscripts

  12. The Role of Irrational Beliefs, Self Efficacy and Social Support in Relapse of Abuse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toraj Hashemi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to determine the role of irrational beliefs system, self efficacy and social support network in predicting of relapse/non-relapse of drug misusing, and comparison of mentioned variables between these two groups. Method: For this purpose 100 persons who had repeated relapse and 100 persons who did not have relapse were selected by available sampling of Rehabilitation Organization of Tabriz city. Albert Alic’s irrational beliefs, Sherer’s self efficacy and Wax’s social support questionnaires administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that, there were significant differences between two relapse and non-relapse groups on irrational beliefs, self-efficacy and social support. Conclusion: The results have applied implications in addiction treatment clinics.

  13. MaNIDA: Integration of marine expedition information, data and publications: Data Portal of German Marine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near

  14. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    ...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...

  15. Parenting Efficacy and Support in Mothers With Dual Disorders in a Substance Abuse Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzanne; Hicks, Laurel M; Tracy, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 73% of women entering treatment for substance use disorders are mothers of children younger than 18, and the high rate of mental health disorders among mothers with substance use disorders increases their vulnerability to poor parenting practices. Parenting efficacy and social support for parenting have emerged as significant predictors of positive parenting practices among families at risk for child maltreatment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of parenting support and parenting efficacy on the likelihood of out-of-home placement and custody status among the children of mothers with dual substance use and mental health disorders. This study examined the impact of parenting efficacy and assistance with childcare on the likelihood of child out-of-home placement and custody status among 175 mothers with diagnosed dual substance and mental health disorder and in treatment for substance dependence. Logistic regression was utilized to assess the contributions of parenting efficacy and the number of individuals in mothers' social networks who assist with childcare to the likelihood of out-of-home placement and custody loss of children. Parenting efficacy was also examined as a mediator using bootstrapping in PROCESS for SPSS. Greater parenting efficacy was associated with lower likelihood of having at least one child in out-of-home placement (B = -.064, SE = .029, p = .027) and lower likelihood of loss of child custody (B = -.094, SE = .034, p = .006). Greater number of children in the 6 to 18 age range predicted greater likelihood of having at least one child in the custody of someone else (B = .409, SE = .171, p = .017) and in out-of-home placement (B = .651, SE = .167, p child in out-of-home placement (B = .927, SE = .382, p = .015) or to have lost custody of a child (B = -1.31, SE = .456, p = .004). Finally, parenting efficacy mediated the relationship between parenting support and likelihood of out-of-home placement (effect

  16. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, auricular acupuncture to support patients with substance abuse and behavioral health disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuyt EB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth B Stuyt,1 Claudia A Voyles2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Pueblo, CO, 2Department of Clinical Studies, AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA-standardized 3- to 5-point ear acupuncture protocol, born of a community-minded response to turbulent times not unlike today, has evolved into the most widely implemented acupuncture-assisted protocol, not only for substance abuse, but also for broad behavioral health applications. This evolution happened despite inconsistent research support. This review highlights the history of the protocol and the research that followed its development. Promising, early randomized-controlled trials were followed by a mixed field of positive and negative studies that may serve as a whole to prove that NADA, despite its apparent simplicity, is neither a reductive nor an independent treatment, and the need to refine the research approaches. Particularly focusing on the last decade and its array of trials that elucidate aspects of NADA application and effects, the authors recommend that, going forward, research continues to explore the comparison of the NADA protocol added to accepted treatments to those treatments alone, recognizing that it is not a stand-alone procedure but a psychosocial intervention that affects the whole person and can augment outcomes from other treatment modalities. Keywords: National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA, ear acupuncture, acudetox, addiction, mental health, trauma

  17. Drug-using and nonusing women: potential for child abuse, child-rearing attitudes, social support, and affection for expected baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S

    1994-10-01

    Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.

  18. Individual and contextual factors for the child abuse potential of Croatian mothers: The role of social support in times of economic hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduković, Marina; Rajter, Miroslav; Rezo, Ines

    2018-04-01

    The study assessed mothers' risk for abusing their children in middle adolescence in relation to individual and contextual factors during the economic crisis in Croatia. Socioeconomic status of mothers, family economic pressure, and mothers' exposure to stress were measured. Special attention was given to the perceived availability of social support as one of protective factors potentially buffering the negative impact of risks of child abuse. The community sample included 746 mothers (Mage = 42.85; SDage = 5.319). The results showed that the risk of child abuse is higher for mothers with lower education, those who perceive themselves as suffering greater family economic hardship, those who have experienced a higher number of stressful events, and those with lower social support. When the mothers perceive a lower availability of social support, the effects of exposure to cumulative risk, namely the combination of socioeconomic status, economic pressure, and exposure to stress, are stronger. Since social support proved to be one of the key protective factors in the relationship between adverse life circumstances and parenting, the development of effective and non-stigmatized interventions aiming to increase social support, positive social relationships, and adequate parenting practices for parents facing economic hardship is an important direction for future family policy measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  20. Predicting family health and well-being after separation from an abusive partner: role of coercive control, mother's depression and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Sharon; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn

    2017-08-01

    Drawing on the Strengthening Capacity to Limit Intrusion theory, we tested whether intrusion (i.e. unwanted interference from coercive control, custody and access difficulties and mother's depressive symptoms) predicted family health and well-being after separation from an abusive partner/father, and whether social support moderated intrusion effects on family health and well-being. Experiences of coercive control and the negative consequences related to those experiences have been documented among women who have separated from an abusive partner. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 154 adult, Canadian mothers of dependent children who had separated from an abusive partner and who participated in Wave 2 of the Women's Health Effects Study. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test whether intrusion predicts family health and well-being as well as whether social support moderated this relationship. Families were found to experience considerable intrusion, yet their health and well-being was similar to population norms. Intrusion predicted 11·4% of the variance in family health and well-being, with mother's depressive symptoms as the only unique predictor. Social support accounted for an additional 9% of explained variance, but did not buffer intrusion effects on family health and well-being. Although women had been separated from their abusive partners for an average of 2·5 years, the majority continued to experience coercive control. On average, levels of social support and family functioning were relatively high, contrary to public and academic discourse. In working with these families postseparation, nurses should approach care from a strength-based perspective, and integrate tailored assessment and intervention options for women and families that address both depression and social support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparing Efficacy of Four Preventive Methods on Attitude of Drug Substance Abuse and Self–Esteem in Students Supported by Emdad Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz allah agha babaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of four drug substance abuse preventive methods: cognitive–behavioral social traioning, life skills training, poster presentation and short message system on attitude change and enhancement self-esteem in students supported by Emdad Committee. Method:This was a quasi experimental study. 150 students were selected and randomly assigned to the four experimental and control groups. The groups were completed attitude of drug substance abuse and self-esteem inventories. Experimental groups received: group 1 received 10 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral social training 120 minutes each, group 2, 10 sessions of life skills training, 120 minutes each, group 3 for 10 weeks into presented of 40 posters and group 4 short message service for 10 weeks. Findings: The results revealed that preventive techniques were effected on attitude and self–esteem. Also results of post-hoc (LSD test revealed that preventive techniques with difference effectiveness were effected on change attitude of substance abuse. Also cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training techniques were effected on self esteem. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that all the four techniques were effective in the generation negative attitude into drug abuse, otherwise only cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training enhancement on self esteem.

  2. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  3. EFFECT OF JOB SKILLS TRAINING ON EMPLOYMENT AND JOB SEEKING BEHAVIORS IN AN AMERICAN INDIAN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, K; Pallas, D; Forcehimes, A A; Houck, J M; Bogenschutz, M P; Keyser-Marcus, L; Svikis, D

    2010-10-26

    Employment difficulties are common among American Indian individuals in substance abuse treatment. To address this problem, the Southwest Node of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network conducted a single-site adaptation of its national Job Seekers Workshop study in an American Indian treatment program, Na'Nizhoozhi Center (NCI). 102 (80% men, 100% American Indian) participants who were in residential treatment and currently unemployed were randomized to (1) a three session, manualized program (Job seekers workshop: JSW) or (2) a 40-minute Job Interviewing Video: JIV). Outcomes were assessed at 3-month follow up: 1) number of days to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program, and 2) total hours working or enrolled in a job-training program. No significant differences were found between the two groups for time to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program. There were no significant differences between groups in substance use frequency at 3-month follow-up. These results do not support the use of the costly and time-consuming JSW intervention in this population and setting. Despite of the lack of a demonstrable treatment effect, this study established the feasibility of including a rural American Indian site in a rigorous CTN trial through a community-based participatory research approach.

  4. Power of automated algorithms for combining time-line follow-back and urine drug screening test results in stimulant-abuse clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Neal L; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C; Wakim, Paul G; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Somoza, Eugene; Lewis, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    In clinical trials of treatment for stimulant abuse, researchers commonly record both Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) self-reports and urine drug screen (UDS) results. To compare the power of self-report, qualitative (use vs. no use) UDS assessment, and various algorithms to generate self-report-UDS composite measures to detect treatment differences via t-test in simulated clinical trial data. We performed Monte Carlo simulations patterned in part on real data to model self-report reliability, UDS errors, dropout, informatively missing UDS reports, incomplete adherence to a urine donation schedule, temporal correlation of drug use, number of days in the study period, number of patients per arm, and distribution of drug-use probabilities. Investigated algorithms include maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimates, self-report alone, UDS alone, and several simple modifications of self-report (referred to here as ELCON algorithms) which eliminate perceived contradictions between it and UDS. Among the algorithms investigated, simple ELCON algorithms gave rise to the most powerful t-tests to detect mean group differences in stimulant drug use. Further investigation is needed to determine if simple, naïve procedures such as the ELCON algorithms are optimal for comparing clinical study treatment arms. But researchers who currently require an automated algorithm in scenarios similar to those simulated for combining TLFB and UDS to test group differences in stimulant use should consider one of the ELCON algorithms. This analysis continues a line of inquiry which could determine how best to measure outpatient stimulant use in clinical trials (NIDA. NIDA Monograph-57: Self-Report Methods of Estimating Drug Abuse: Meeting Current Challenges to Validity. NTIS PB 88248083. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1985; NIDA. NIDA Research Monograph 73: Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NTIS PB 89151971. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1987; NIDA. NIDA Research

  5. Countering abuses at the granting of additional measures of state support to families with children: the possibilities of the legislator and law enforcement practice experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg S. Kurchenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is abuses at the granting of additional measures of state support to families with children and measures of its preventionThe purpose of the article is to analyze legal rules governing the provision of additional measures of state support for families with children, to determine their completeness and adequacy for countering abuses in this area.Characteristic of the problem field. The implementation of the legislation on additional measures of state support for families with children, has proved to be connected with widespread attempts to use the maternity (family capital by the persons who do not have the right, or to use it contrary to the restrictions established by law. Analyzed legislation has shortcomings that create the conditions for illegal actions.Methodology. Both general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, description and special scientific methods (comparative-legal and formal-legal methods were used in the research process .Results. Countering abuses requires improvement (changes and additions of the law governing the provision of additional measures of state support for families with children. Refinement and extension of powers of the Pension Fund’s of the Russian Federation bodies in this area, however, inevitably entails an increase in the number of organizational actions performed by these bodies when considering applications of the entitled persons. The flip side of strengthening the fight against illegal actions in this sphere can also be the limitation of the possibilities of the entitled persons and the extension of discretion of authorized bodies. When the effective legislative means are absent the judicial practice plays a prominent role in preventing the illegal use of maternity (family capital. In particular, the qualification of improvement of housing conditions as a necessary result of the contract of purchase and sale of real estate became one of the obstacles to illegal receipt of

  6. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...

  7. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  8. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  9. Poéticas de la reescritura: Héctor Viel Temperley y Leónidas Lamborghini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biviana Hernández O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente ensayo se contrastan las poéticas de Héctor Viel Temperley y Leónidas Lamborghini a partir de las nociones de subjetividad y experiencia que los autores construyen en dos textos claves de sus respectivas obras, en el contexto de la poesía argentina de los 60’s: Hospital Británico (1986 de Viel Temperley, y Carroña última forma (2001 de Lamborghini. Ambas operan como una summa poética que actualiza su trayectoria desde de una visión carnavalesca y autoparódica de la figura del poeta y la poesía, por un lado; intimista y confesional, por otro, pero de acuerdo con un horizonte de sentido común: el de la reescritura como un modo de producción de la textualidad en tanto que dispositivo de mediación entre la obra y la vida del escritor.

  10. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  11. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  12. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Maltrato Físico Infantil y Apoyo Social: Un Estudio Descriptivo - Comparativo Entre Maltratadores Físicos y No Maltratadores de la Ciudad de Temuco Child Physical Abuse and Social Support: A Descriptive and Comparative Study Between Physical and Non Physical Abusers From the City of Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Medina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar intervenciones preventivas o terapéuticas con familias maltratadoras, es relevante conocer los déficit predominantes en la variable apoyo social. Es por ello, que el objetivo del presente estudio es describir y comparar aspectos estructurales y funcionales del apoyo social de padres maltratadores físicos y no maltratadores. Este estudio, es un análisis secundario realizado con datos del proyecto FONDECYT 1960795 "Construcción de un instrumento para detectar potencial maltrato físico infantil". La investigación utiliza diseño de casos y controles, incluye 325 sujetos, 112 maltratadores físicos y 213 no maltratadores. El análisis de datos incluyó análisis univariado de la varianza y análisis de varianza factorial. Los aspectos funcionales del apoyo social resultan ser más significativos al diferenciar padres no maltratadores de padres maltratadores físicos. Se discuten principales hallazgos, implicancias y limitaciones del estudio.To carry out preventive and therapeutic interventions in abusive families, it is very important to consider the huge deficit of social support for these families. For this reason, the outcome of this research is the description and comparison of structural and functional aspects of abusive and non-abusive parent's social support. This investigation is a secondary analysis carried out with data taken from the FONDECYT 1960795, "Building up an instrument to detect potencial physical abuse". For the research a cases-control design is used including 325 subjects, 112 physical abusers and 213 non-physical abusers. The data analysis included a univariate analysis of variance and analysis of factorial variance. The functional aspects of the social support turn out to be more significant when comparing physical abusive parents and non-physical abusive parents. Main discoveries, implications, and limitations are discussed.

  14. Predictors of PTSD Treatment Response Trajectories in a Sample of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: The Roles of Social Support, Coping, and PTSD Symptom Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Shelley; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark; Armour, Cherie

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to (a) identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories in a sample of Danish treatment-seeking childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors and (b) examine the roles of social support, coping style, and individual PTSD symptom clusters (avoidance, reexperiencing, and hyperarousal) as predictors of the identified trajectories. We utilized a convenience sample of 439 CSA survivors attending personalized psychotherapy treatment in Denmark. Four assessments were conducted on a six monthly basis over a period of 18 months. We used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to test solutions with one to six classes. Following this, a logistic regression was conducted to examine predictors of the identified trajectories. Results revealed four distinct trajectories which were labeled high PTSD gradual response, high PTSD treatment resistant, moderate PTSD rapid response, and moderate PTSD gradual response. Emotional and detached coping and more severe pretreatment avoidance and reexperiencing symptoms were associated with more severe and treatment resistant PTSD. High social support and a longer length of time since the abuse were associated with less severe PTSD which improved over time. The findings suggested that treatment response of PTSD in CSA survivors is characterized by distinct patterns with varying levels and rates of PTSD symptom improvement. Results revealed that social support is protective and that emotional and detached coping and high pretreatment levels of avoidance and reexperiencing symptoms are risk factors in relation to PTSD severity and course. These factors could potentially identify patients who are at risk of not responding to treatment. Furthermore, these factors could be specifically addressed to increase positive outcomes for treatment-seeking CSA survivors.

  15. Improving the healthcare response to domestic violence and abuse in sexual health clinics: feasibility study of a training, support and referral intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Alex Hardip; Pathak, Neha; Blake, Sarah; Apea, Vanessa; Berry, Judith; Bailey, Jayne; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene

    2018-03-01

    Sexual health and gynaecological problems are the most consistent and largest physical health differences between abused and non-abused female populations. Sexual health services are well placed to identify and support patients experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA). Most sexual health professionals have had minimal DVA training despite English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations. We sought to determine the feasibility of an evidence-based complex DVA training intervention in female sexual health walk-in services (IRIS ADViSE: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety whilst Assessing Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments). An adaptive mixed method pilot study in the female walk-in service of two sexual health clinics. Following implementation and evaluation at site 1, the intervention was refined before implementation at site 2. The intervention comprised electronic prompts, multidisciplinary training sessions, clinic materials and simple referral pathways to IRIS ADViSE advocate-educators (AEs). The pilot lasted 7 weeks at site 1 and 12 weeks at site 2. Feasibility outcomes were to assign a supportive DVA clinical lead, an IRIS ADViSE AE employed by a local DVA service provider, adapt electronic records, develop local referral pathways, assess whether enquiry, identification and referral rates were measurable. Both sites achieved all feasibility outcomes: appointing a supportive DVA clinical lead and IRIS ADViSE AE, establishing links with a local DVA provider, adapting electronic records, developing local referral pathways and rates of enquiry, identification and referral were found to be measurable. Site 1: 10% enquiry rate (n=267), 4% identification rate (n=16) and eight AE referrals. Site 2: 61% enquiry rate (n=1090), a 7% identification rate (n=79) and eight AE referrals. IRIS ADViSE can be successfully developed and implemented in sexual health clinics. It fulfils the unmet need for DVA training. Longer

  16. A centralized informatics infrastructure for the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeng-Jong; Nahm, Meredith; Wakim, Paul; Cushing, Carol; Poole, Lori; Tai, Betty; Pieper, Carl F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical trial networks were created to provide a sustaining infrastructure for the conduct of multisite clinical trials. As such, they must withstand changes in membership. Centralization of infrastructure including knowledge management, portfolio management, information management, process automation, work policies, and procedures in clinical research networks facilitates consistency and ultimately research. Purpose In 2005, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) transitioned from a distributed data management model to a centralized informatics infrastructure to support the network’s trial activities and administration. We describe the centralized informatics infrastructure and discuss our challenges to inform others considering such an endeavor. Methods During the migration of a clinical trial network from a decentralized to a centralized data center model, descriptive data were captured and are presented here to assess the impact of centralization. Results We present the framework for the informatics infrastructure and evaluative metrics. The network has decreased the time from last patient-last visit to database lock from an average of 7.6 months to 2.8 months. The average database error rate decreased from 0.8% to 0.2%, with a corresponding decrease in the interquartile range from 0.04%–1.0% before centralization to 0.01%–0.27% after centralization. Centralization has provided the CTN with integrated trial status reporting and the first standards-based public data share. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis showed a 50% reduction in data management cost per study participant over the life of a trial. Limitations A single clinical trial network comprising addiction researchers and community treatment programs was assessed. The findings may not be applicable to other research settings. Conclusions The identified informatics components provide the information and infrastructure needed for our clinical trial

  17. Dependence of the neutron-gamma log on the porosity of Malmian limestones from the central part of the Nida Trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, A.

    1974-01-01

    Results of correlation-regression analysis of the relationship of the prosity Kp to the relative intensity of neutron-induced gamma radiation dIng are reviewed. The geophysical results and laboratory tests of Malmian carbonate rocks from 10 boreholes from the central part of the Nida trough have been utilized to study this relationship. The regression equation dIng=∫(Kp) and the nomogram to determine the porosity Kp on the basis of neutron-gamma log or neutron-gamma and gamma logs, when the correction for the content is to be considered, have been also presented. (author)

  18. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  19. Elder Abuse: What's a Clinician To Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Bruce E.

    Incidence rates are critically examined in light of varying definitions of what constitutes elder abuse. It is suggested that the clinician's position of mandatory reporting is an unrealistic response in many cases of elder abuse due to the lack of adequate support services for either the abuser or the elder. Outcome studies are used to support…

  20. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  1. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  2. Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...

  3. A crisis worker's observations on the psychosocial support for victims and families following child sexual abuse; a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Daniel R; Jones, Alyson

    2014-10-01

    The Lancashire Sexual Assault Forensic Examination (SAFE) centre in Preston saw 204 children aged 16 and under for examination following allegation of sexual assault in 2013. The psychological impact on the child is well known but not always addressed correctly or appropriately; the impact and resulting difficulties faced by the parent/carer of the child can also easily go un-noticed. Mrs A attended the centre with her 2 year old daughter in 2013, where I was the crisis worker in the case. She was contacted five months later and the support they received after attending the centre discussed. Her experiences, along with my own anecdotal experiences are discussed. Independent Sexual Assault Advisors (ISVAs) offer support following attendance at the centre, and various charitable organisations offer counselling, emotional and practical support. Health visitors, paediatricians, school nurses and social workers also play a role in looking after children and families following allegations of assault. However, the organisations and agencies involved in psychological aftercare for victims and parents are hindered by strict referral criteria and lack of funding or appropriate specialist expertise. The psychological, educational and behavioural support for parents and children, and specifically pre-trial counselling for children need significant improvement if we are to offer the best support for victims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. NIDA for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts and more! Drug Facts Heads Up: Real News About Drugs Take Our Poll Drugs & Health Blog How Dangerous Are Synthetic Drugs? Test Your Knowledge Fake Prescription Pills Are Real Danger Non-Addictive Drugs: ...

  5. An Exploratory Analysis of Unhealthy and Abusive Relationships for Adults with Serious Mental Illnesses Living in Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forenza, Brad; Bermea, Autumn M

    2017-08-01

    Individuals living with serious mental illness are at high risk of chronic homelessness, victimization, and intimate partner violence. In recent years, supportive housing programs have emerged as one way to prevent homelessness and victimization for this population, while also expanding social interactions and social networks. In concert with a focal supportive housing program, this research conducted two focus groups with 18 individuals who have a serious mental illness diagnosis. The authors sought to answer the research question, "What are perceptions of healthy and unhealthy relationships among formerly homeless people with serious mental illness?" To this end, the eight-item questionnaire was created around dimensions of power and control, as well as relationship equality. Findings from an inductive thematic analysis reveal three broad families of themes (relationship ideals, lived experiences, and risk/resources in supportive housing), around which smaller themes and subthemes are organized. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are also discussed.

  6. Depression and social support among women living with the substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS syndemic: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Samantha L; Burke, Jessica G; Chander, Geetanjali; Gielen, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are described as the SAVA "syndemic" among low-income urban women because of their intersecting and synergistic presence in these women's lives. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with these SAVA factors and although social support is potentially protective for depression, little is understood about its impact on depression associated with the SAVA syndemic. This paper investigates how women living with SAVA experience and describe depressive symptoms, and examines how the types of social support they access impact their experiences of SAVA and depressive symptoms. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 HIV-positive, low-income, urban women who experienced IPV and used cocaine or heroin in their lifetime. Interviews were analyzed based on study aims, principles of thematic content analysis, and grounded theory. Women identified multiple SAVA factors as catalysts for depression and noted their synergistic effect on depressive symptoms, which were both a trigger for and a result of drug use. Women accessed varying sources of social support to address their SAVA factors and associated symptoms of depression, relying on informal sources for instrumental support related to IPV and formal sources for support related to HIV, drug use, and depression. These findings have important implications for health providers who serve SAVA-affected women, and suggest that comprehensively addressing all SAVA factors (and IPV in particular) and improving their access to quality social support at critical times is essential to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Association Between Childhood Abuse and Elder Abuse Among Chinese Adult Children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Li, Ge; Simon, Melissa A

    2017-07-01

    The previous researchers have postulated that an abused child may abuse his or her abuser parent when the parent is getting old, also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence. However, few studies use data to support this model, and it has yet to be examined in the U.S. Chinese community. This study aims to examine the association between childhood abuse and elder abuse reported by Chinese adult children in the United States. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and older participated in this study. Childhood abuse was assessed by four-item Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) scale. Elder abuse was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Logistic regression analysis was performed. Childhood abuse was associated with caregiver abuse screen results (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.95). Being physically hurt (r = .13, p abuse screen results. This study suggests that childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of elder abuse among Chinese adult children in the United States. Longitudinal research should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which childhood abuse and its subtypes links with elder abuse. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...

  10. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…

  11. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  12. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  13. In-house consultation to support professionals' responses to child abuse and neglect: Determinants of professionals' use and the association with guideline adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke A J; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Kaya, Anna H; Haasnoot, Maria E; Need, Ariana

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the presence and strengths of determinants associated with consultation of an in-house expert on child abuse and neglect (CAN) by preventive child health care professionals who suspect CAN. This study also assessed the relationship between in-house CAN expert consultation and professionals' performance of six recommended activities described in a national guideline on preventing CAN for preventive child health care professionals. A total of 154 professionals met the study's inclusion criteria. They filled in a questionnaire that measured in-house consultation practices and twelve determinants associated with the professional, the in-house expert, and the organizational context. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Almost half of the participants (46.8%) reported to consult the in-house expert in (almost) all of their suspected CAN cases. Professionals who reported better recollection of consulting the in-house expert (i.e. not forgetting to consult the expert) (p=.001), who were more familiar with consultation (p=.002), who had more positive attitudes and beliefs about consultation (p=.011) and who reported being more susceptible to the behavior (p=.001) and expectations/opinions (p=.025) of colleagues regarding in-house expert consultation were more likely to consult the in-house expert. Furthermore, in-house expert consultation was positively associated with two of six key guideline activities: consulting the regional child protection service and monitoring whether support was provided to families. The implications of these results for improving professionals' responses to CAN are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parent education: an evaluation of STEP on abusive parents' perceptions and abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  16. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    : abuse of the embryo, foetus or new-born child, and sexual abuse. In Portugal the existence of various forms of poverty (whether in material or educational terms), and the lack of family support services and mechanisms, are of particular significance. And tied in with this structural aspect there is the significant factor of alcoholism, which in the sample under investigation is statistically much more significant than drug addiction.

  17. Domestic abuse : even the judges are getting it wrong

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrow-Marshall, LJ; Dubrow-Marshall, R

    2017-01-01

    A judge in a recent court case involving domestic abuse stated that the victim of abuse had not been vulnerable because of her university education and circle of supportive friends. The authors comment on the nature of coercive control, and the lack of understanding about the universal vulnerability to domestic abuse, which is not mitigated by education or social support.

  18. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  19. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  20. National profiling of elder abuse referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, Marguerite

    2011-05-01

    there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

  1. Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae (Festuco-Brometea class in the Nida Basin (Małopolska Upland after 90 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Towpasz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seslerio uliginosae-Scorzoneretum purpureae is the only xerothermic community of the Festuco-Brometea class, where a rare species known as Sesleria uliginosa occurs in Poland. A couple of sites hosting this association in the Nida Basin were described in the 1920s and 1950s. All these stands are now situated in the areas designated as xerothermic nature reserves. The study aimed at describing the present-day characteristics of this rare association, the most likely being endemic in Poland, as well as the changes that have occurred in it. The species diversity and the contribution of xerothermic plants have decreased significantly in terms of their number and cover coefficient. Some of the diagnostic species of the association have become extremely rare. Sesleria uliginosa is the only one without visible changes in their dominant position in the community. Mosses, that have played a significant role before, were among the vanished species. At the same time, an increase in number and cover of mesophilous meadows species was observed. Mesophilous grasses belong to the group of species growing in significance in the phytocoenoses. The observed changes in species composition were reflected in a statistically significant increase of nitrogen indicator value. The slow process of succession observed in the Seslerio-Scorzoneretum purpureae could be attributed to the lack of appropriate land use, e.g. mowing and grazing that have been ceased in the nature reserves.

  2. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  3. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  4. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  5. Predictors of Intention of Reporting Child Abuse among Emergency Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Ji-Soo

    The current study investigates predictors of intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses in Korea. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected from 200 emergency nurses in eight general hospitals in Korea through a questionnaire that asked about their general characteristics, knowledge about child abuse, perceived behavioral control, experiences of child abuse cases and reporting, and attitude toward child abuse. Multiple regression analysis indicated that attitude toward child abuse was the most influential predictor of the intention of reporting child abuse among Korea's emergency nurses. Knowledge about child abuse, and perceived behavioral control were also significant influencing predictors of reporting intention. These variables explained 22.1% of the variances in the intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses. Reporting child abuse has not yet been established as a professional responsibility among Korea's emergency nurses. Increasing the level of awareness of the characteristics of child abuse and encouraging communication among nurses about the responsibility to report suspected child abuse will increase nurses' confidence to report. Training for reporting child abuse should be implemented in the near future to improve emergency nurses' understanding of child abuse. A support program is also needed to help emergency nurses build confidence in reporting child abuse as a professional responsibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [When and how to report suspected child abuse to child protective services. Construction and evaluation of a specific support tool for primary care physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, E; Fleury, J; Launay, E; Pendezec, G; Gras-Le-Guen, C; Vabres, N

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to create a specific tool and evaluate its impact on the knowledge of primary care physicians (PCPs) in reporting child abuse to child protective services (CPS). Prospective "before/after" study assessing the knowledge of general practitioners (GPs) registered at the medical board in a French administrative area through anonymous questionnaires. The tool was adapted from the guidelines published in 2014 by the French Health authorities. The main criterion was the median score (/100) calculated for each questionnaire before (Q1) and after (Q2) the dissemination of the tool. These median scores were compared and associations between scores and some PCPs' characteristics were tested through multiple linear regression. A total of 279 GPs answered the first questionnaire (Q1) and 172 answered the second (Q2). PCPs who answered were mainly women (68% and 74%), were between 30 and 50 years old (61% and 66%), practiced in association with other physicians (82% and 84), and had 15-30% children in their patient population. For Q1, the general median was 65 [IQR: 40-81] versus 82 [IQR: 71-91] for Q2 (P<0.001). The PCPs' characteristics leading to significant variations in the scores for Q1 were age older than 50 years, being female, and having been trained in diagnosis and management of child abuse, with the β coefficient at -16.4 [95% CI: -31.1; -1.69], +8.93 [95% CI: 2.58; 15.27] and +12 [95% CI: 6.33; 17.73], respectively. This study confirms the significant impact of this new tool on PCPs' knowledge concerning reporting suspected child abuse to the CPS. Wider dissemination of this tool could increase PCPs' awareness and comprehension of when and how to make a report to the CPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on elder abuse and neglect among patients in a medical college hospital, Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  9. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-12-18

    Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as "S4E"). A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician-adolescent HIV/STI and drug use communication

  10. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  12. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  14. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  15. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  17. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  18. Maximizing Effectiveness Trials in PTSD and SUD Through Secondary Analysis: Benefits and Limitations Using the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network "Women and Trauma" Study as a Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Denise A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Ruglass, Lesia M; Saavedra, Lissette; Mathews, Abigail G; Kiriakos, Grace; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Recent federal legislation and a renewed focus on integrative care models underscore the need for economical, effective, and science-based behavioral health care treatment. As such, maximizing the impact and reach of treatment research is of great concern. Behavioral health issues, including the frequent co-occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are often complex, with a myriad of factors contributing to the success of interventions. Although treatment guides for comorbid SUD/PTSD exist, most patients continue to suffer symptoms following the prescribed treatment course. Further, the study of efficacious treatments has been hampered by methodological challenges (e.g., overreliance on "superiority" designs (i.e., designs structured to test whether or not one treatment statistically surpasses another in terms of effect sizes) and short term interventions). Secondary analyses of randomized controlled clinical trials offer potential benefits to enhance understanding of findings and increase the personalization of treatment. This paper offers a description of the limits of randomized controlled trials as related to SUD/PTSD populations, highlights the benefits and potential pitfalls of secondary analytic techniques, and uses a case example of one of the largest effectiveness trials of behavioral treatment for co-occurring SUD/PTSD conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) and producing 19 publications. The paper concludes with implications of this secondary analytic approach to improve addiction researchers' ability to identify best practices for community-based treatment of these disorders. Innovative methods are needed to maximize the benefits of clinical studies and better support SUD/PTSD treatment options for both specialty and non-specialty healthcare settings. Moving forward, planning for and description of secondary analyses in randomized trials should be given equal

  19. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  20. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  1. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  2. Does verbal abuse leave deeper scars: a study of children and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G

    1987-06-01

    This study investigating the effects of verbal abuse on children and their abused parents, tends to support the clinical impression that verbal abuse may have a greater impact for a longer period of time. Although there are very few pure forms of verbal abuse, there are some parents who use verbal abuse but would hit their children, neglect them, or involve them in sex. Verbal abuse may become an increasingly frequent form of controlling and disciplining children because of the increased awareness of physical abuse and because of the possible declining value of children. Verbal abuse may have a greater impact because the abused child has greater difficulty defending himself from the attack. Because children tend to identify with their parents, the verbal abuse by their parents becomes a way in which they then abuse themselves.

  3. Evaluation of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA) program: A community intervention for child abuse victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany

    2017-12-01

    Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Middle school students' learning of the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain through serious game play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu

    In response to the solicitation of the National Institute on Drug Use (NIDA) (NIDA, 2006) for the Development of a Virtual Reality Environment for Teaching about the Impact of Drug Abuse on the Brain, a virtual brain exhibit was developed by the joint venture of Entertainment Science, Inc. and Virtual Heroes, Inc.. This exhibit included a virtual reality learning environment combined with a video game, aiming at improving the neuroscience literacy of the general public, conveying knowledge about the impacts of methamphetamine abuse on the brain to the population, and establishing a stronger concept of drug use prevention among children. This study investigated the effectiveness of this interactive exhibit on middle school students' understanding and attitudes toward drug use. Three main research questions are addressed: (1) What do students learn about basic concepts of neuroscience and the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain via the exhibit? (2) How are students' attitudes toward methamphetamine use changed after exposure to the exhibit? (3) What are students' experiences and perceptions of using the exhibit to learn the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain? A mixed-method design, including pre/post/delayed-post test instruments, interviews, and video recordings, was conducted for 98 middle school students ranging from sixth to eighth grades to investigate these questions. The results show that students' understanding of the impact of methamphetamine abuse on the brain significantly improved after exposure to the exhibit regardless of grade or gender. Their pre-existing knowledge and their understanding after the exhibit indicated a tendency of progression. Most of the students consistently expressed negative attitudes toward general methamphetamine use regardless of whether it was before or after exposure to the exhibit. However, this exhibit gave them a better reason and made them feel more confident to refuse drugs. Finally, student learning

  6. Exploring the belief systems of domestic abuse victims using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Spruin, E.; Alleyne, E.; Baker, R.; Papadaki, I.; Franz, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Support service provisions for domestic abuse victims has typically focused on the immediate risk and etiological factors associated with abuse. Consequently, there is limited research exploring more persistent and pervasive factors involved in this cycle of abuse, such as subjective experiences and beliefs held by victims of domestic abuse. The current study is a preliminary exploration of the individual experience of domestic abuse including the belief systems of participants. Incr...

  7. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    strategies to diagnose and support the victims, namely, systematic denouncement by professionals who suspect this type of abuses, and systematic forensic psychological examination for better valorization of the victim's testimony as well as the veracity of its content.

  8. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated.

  9. Hair Analysis as a Diagnostic and Forensic Tool in a Social Support System for Families with Underage Children and Drug Abusing Parents: Four Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Pragst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2014, 388 hair samples from children (age 1-14 years and 594 hair samples from parents/caregivers were analyzed for methadone, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabinoids and benzodiazepines by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Hair testing was preferentially performed for parents/ caregivers. Children were included in case of positive parents/caregivers results or in urgent cases after a court decision if the parents/caregivers declined the testing. A follow-up hair test was performed after 6-months (positive results or 12-months (negative results. Results: The children hair appeared to be a sensitive indicator of the handling of drugs in their environment and often showed a similar or the same drug profile as their parents. The annual statistics for the initial test of children were no drugs 22-33%, methadone 9-25%, heroin 7.5-28%, cocaine 46-57%, amphetamines and ecstasy 1.6-7.0%, cannabinoids 21-49% and benzodiazepines 0-5%. As a rule, concentrations in hair of younger children were higher than of their elder siblings. In severe cases and based on the entire information about the case, the children were immediately taken into custody, the family court was appealed, the children were admitted to children's homes or foster families, or the drug consuming adult was separated from the family and a withdrawal treatment was initiated. Follow-up tests showed an improvement in the situation of the children particularly in severe cases. Conclusion: Hair analysis proved to be a very efficient working instrument for social authorities in the systematic improvement of child-welfare in drug abusing environments.

  10. Environmental modulation of drug taking: Nonhuman primate models of cocaine abuse and PET neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Michael A; Banks, Matthew L

    2014-01-01

    The current review highlights the importance of environmental variables on cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of drug abuse. In addition to describing the behavioral consequences, potential mechanisms of action are discussed, based on imaging results using the non-invasive and translational technique of positron emission tomography (PET). In this review, the role of three environmental variables - both positive and negative - are described: alternative non-drug reinforcers; social rank (as an independent variable) and punishment of cocaine self-administration. These environmental stimuli can profoundly influence brain function and drug self-administration. We focus on environmental manipulations involving non-drug alternatives (e.g., food reinforcement) using choice paradigms. Manipulations such as response cost and social variables (e.g., social rank, social stress) also influence the behavioral effects of drugs. Importantly, these manipulations are amenable to brain imaging studies. Taken together, these studies emphasize the profound impact environmental variables can have on drug taking, which should provide important information related to individual-subject variability in treatment responsiveness, and the imaging work may highlight pharmacological targets for medications related to treating drug abuse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Victims of crime, with special emphasis on victims of work abuse and domestic violence: Analysis of the service VDS info and victim support for 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Danica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of the VDS info and victim support service for the period January 1st 2009 - December 31st 2009. It contains the data about victims, type and quality of assistance and support provided by the Service, and also about institutions and organizations the victims contacted before or after contacting the Service and their satisfaction with the help they received.

  12. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  13. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  14. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  15. Elder physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  17. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  18. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  19. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome.

  20. Exploring the Correlates to Depression in Elder Abuse Victims: Abusive Experience or Individual Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana João; Nunes, Baltazar; Kislaya, Irina; Gil, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms have been studied both as risk factors and consequences of elder abuse, even though the most common cross-sectional design of the studies does not allow inferring cause or consequence relationships. This study estimates the proportion of older adults who screened positive for depressive symptoms among those self-reporting elder abuse and examines whether individual characteristics and/or abusive experience aspects are associated with self-reported depressive symptoms. Participants were 510 older adults self-reporting experiences of abuse in family setting enrolled in the cross-sectional victims' survey of the Aging and Violence Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed through the abbreviated version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5). Poisson regression was used to determine the prevalence ratio (PR) of screening depressive symptoms according to individual and abusive experience covariates: sex, age group, cohabitation, perceived social support, chronic diseases, functional status, violence type, perpetrator, and number of conducts. Women (PR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 1.35]) individuals perceiving low social support level (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.16, 1.60]) and with long-term illness (PR = 1.17, 95% CI = [1.02, 1.33]) were found to be associated with increased risk for screening depressive symptoms. In regard to abusive experience, only the number of abusive conducts increased the PR (PR = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.05, 1.09]). Routine screening for elder abuse should include psychological well-being assessment. Interventions toward risk alleviation for both mental health problems and elder abuse should target women perceiving low social support level and with long-term illness.

  1. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...

  3. Signs of domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  4. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  5. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  7. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  8. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.

  9. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  10. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  11. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  12. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  13. Improving detection and quality of assessment of child abuse and partner abuse is achievable with a formal organisational change approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Russell; Ritchie, Miranda; Wilson, Mollie

    2008-03-01

    To improve detection and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse within a health service. A formal organisational change approach was used to implement the New Zealand Family Violence Intervention Guidelines in a mid-sized regional health service. The approach includes obtaining senior management support, community collaboration, developing resources to support practice, research, evaluation and training. Formal pre-post evaluations were conducted of the training. Barriers and enablers of practice change were assessed through 85 interviews with 60 staff. More than 6000 clinical records were audited to assess rates of questioning for partner abuse. Identifications of partner abuse and referrals made were counted through the Family Violence Accessory File. Referrals to the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services (CYFS) were recorded routinely by the CYFS. Audits assessed quality of assessment of child and partner abuse, when identified. More than 700 staff were trained in dual assessment for child and partner abuse. Evaluations demonstrate improved confidence following training, though staff still need support. Barriers and enablers to asking about partner abuse were identified. Referrals from the health service to the CYFS increased from 10 per quarter to 70 per quarter. Identification of partner abuse increased from 30 to 80 per 6-month period. Routine questioning rates for partner abuse vary between services. Achieving and sustaining improved rates of identification and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse is possible with a formal organisational change approach.

  14. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  15. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  16. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs So Hard to Quit? National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) Loading... Unsubscribe from National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ...

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  18. Empowering Young Abused and Neglected Children through Contingency Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsberg, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    Argues that contingency play as an intervention strategy can ameliorate abused and neglected children's alienation from adults, reduce stress, and develop positive modes of behavior. The argument is supported by a case study of a four-year-old girl in a day treatment center for abused and neglected children. (BB)

  19. An assessment of Internet Abuse in Nigeria | Ezema | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is behavior that has been labeled Internet abuse symptomatic of other problems such as depression, sexual disorders, or loneliness in Nigeria? What are alternative explanations for this phenomenon? Is there adequate research to support Internet abuse as a distinct disorder? Key words: Internet, Packet Switching, World ...

  20. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  1. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  2. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  3. Attributions of Blame in a Hypothetical Child Sexual Abuse Case: Roles of Behavior Problems and Frequency of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Kate; Hansen, David J

    2017-06-01

    Youth who are blamed for their sexual abuse may experience increased negative outcomes, such as amplified self-blame. Similarly, blaming nonoffending parents can impede their ability to support their child following disclosure. Understanding the factors that influence how people perceive victim, caregiver, and perpetrator responsibility is imperative for the protection and treatment of families who have experienced sexual abuse. Little research has explored victim and abuse characteristics that influence the perception of sexual abuse. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the roles of behavior problems and frequency of abuse in the attribution of blame in a hypothetical sexual abuse case. In addition, the relationship between several respondent characteristics and assignment of responsibility were explored as secondary aims. The study used a two (behavior problems: three suspensions in one school semester vs. no mention of behavior problems) by two (one abuse occurrence vs. five abuse occurrences) between-subjects design. Seven hundred forty-two participants read one of the four child sexual abuse (CSA) vignettes and completed measures related to responsibility. ANOVAs revealed those who read a vignette where the youth experienced multiple abuse incidents rated the victim as more responsible regardless of whether or not the youth was described as having behavior problems. Results indicate that respondents may have attributed more blame to the victim due to the belief that she could have done something to stop the abuse after the first incident. The abuse frequency manipulation when combined with the behavior manipulation appeared to relate to how respondents perceived the victim's parents. Males and younger respondents attributed more blame to the victim; however, sexual abuse or assault history did not associate with victim responsibility ratings. Clinical and research implications were discussed.

  4. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  5. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  6. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  7. Factors Related to Korean Nurses' Willingness to Report Suspected Elder Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungmee Ko, PhD

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: As the Welfare of the Aged Act included a clause on mandated reporters, nurses' role in intervening in elder abuse cases has become more critical. In order to increase nurses' reporting, education on elder abuse should be provided to all nurses, and support programs should be designed for nurses to effectively involve them in reporting elder abuse.

  8. Sexually Abused Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  9. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  11. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

  12. Interns’ perceived abuse during their undergraduate training at King Abdul Aziz University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rahila Iftikhar,1 Razaz Tawfiq,2 Salem Barabie2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2General Practice Department, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background and objectives: Abuse occurs in all workplaces, including the medical field. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of perceived abuse among medical students, the types of abuse experienced during medical training, the source of abuse, and the perceived barriers to reporting abuse. Method: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between September 2013 and January 2014 among medical graduates of King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. The survey questionnaire was designed to gather information regarding the frequency with which participants perceived themselves to have experienced abuse, the type of abuse, the source of abuse, and the reasons for nonreporting of perceived abuse. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Result: Of the 186 students enrolled in this study, 169 (90.9% reported perceiving some form of abuse during medical school training. Perceived abuse was most often verbal (86.6%, although academic abuse (73.1%, sex discrimination (38.7%, racial or ethnic discrimination (29.0%, physical abuse (18.8%, religious discrimination (15.1%, and sexual harassment (8.6% were also reported. Professors were most often cited as the sources of perceived abuse, followed by associate professors, demonstrators (or assistant teaching staff, and assistant professors. The Internal Medicine Department was the most frequently cited department where students perceived themselves to have experienced abuse. Only 14.8% of the students reported the abuse to a third party. Conclusion: The self-reported prevalence of medical student abuse at King Abdul Aziz University is high. A proper system for reporting abuse and for supporting victims of abuse should be set up, to promote a good learning environment. Keywords: maltreatment

  13. Generational Reproduction of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana M., Oswaldo; Pomalaya V., Ricardo; Yanac Reynoso, Elisa; Malaver S., Carmela; Herrera F., Edgar; Sotelo L., Noemi; Campos C., Lilia; Sotelo L., Lidia; Orellana García, Daphne; Velasquez M., Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is the study of the abuse rising in two generations, of parents and children and establishing the relationship between background child’s abuse with the potential abuse. The sample is comprised of 441 students and 303 parents who agreed to answer the Memories of Abuse Questionnaire. The used instruments were the Child History Questionnaire adapted for the purpose of this research, the Inventory of Potential Child Abuse (Milner, J. 1977), adapted by De Paul, Arru...

  14. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  15. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 03. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) 9,079 views 1:03 Anyone Can Become Addicted ... abuse and addiction with Dr. Volkow NIDA - Duration: 9:44. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA/NIH) ...

  16. Sexual Abuse of Children as a Form of Power Abuse and Abuse of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...

  17. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  18. Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…

  19. Elder Abuse: Some Questions for Policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, James J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Claims elder abuse is not clearly defined, affects relatively small numbers of older persons, is an under-funded area of social service and has weak political support. Recommends a broad-based service strategy for older persons. (Author/ABL)

  20. A Study on Substance Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seçim, Gürcan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine options to increase the supportive power of parents, teachers, school administrators, and counselors who directly interact with children and adolescents and have a fundamental responsibility to protect them from the risks of substance abuse and evaluate the effectiveness of associated training programs. The study design…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of peer-delivered interventions for cocaine and alcohol abuse among women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prah Ruger

    Full Text Available To determine whether the additional interventions to standard care are cost-effective in addressing cocaine and alcohol abuse at 4 months (4 M and 12 months (12 M from baseline.We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (1 NIDA's Standard intervention (SI; (2 SI plus a Well Woman Exam (WWE; and, (3 SI, WWE, plus four Educational Sessions (4ES.To obtain an additional cocaine abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $7,223 at 4 M and $3,611 at 12 M. Per additional alcohol abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $3,611 and $7,223 at 4 M and 12 M, respectively. At 12 M, 4ES was dominated (more costly and less effective by WWE for abstinence outcomes.To our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis simultaneously examining cocaine and alcohol abuse in women. Depending on primary outcomes sought and priorities of policy makers, peer-delivered interventions can be a cost-effective way to address the needs of this growing, underserved population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01235091.

  2. Elder abuse in Chinese populations: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers.

  3. Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Miragoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide preliminary findings on the reliability and the validity of the Italian Child Abuse Potential (CAP Inventory, a screening tool that measures parents’ potential for child physical abuse. The CAP Inventory and measures on parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index–Short Form [PSI-SF] and parents’ perceptions of child adjustment (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL] were administered in a nonclinical sample of Italian parents (N = 551 with a 2- to 6-year-old child. The Abuse scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = .87, with significantly negative correlations between socioeconomic status and educational level of the parents. Also, the Abuse scale scores were significantly predicted by high levels of parenting stress and by parental negative perceptions of the child’s behavior. Finally, using a cut score for the English version of the Abuse scale (where 95% of parents would be expected to be classified, 93.8% of Italian parents were classified as nonabusive by the Abuse scale. These results supported the cross-cultural generalizability of the Abuse scale. However, complementary studies with abusive samples are needed to verify the ability of the instrument to discriminate between abusive and nonabusive parents also in the Italian population.

  4. [Child sexual abuse: an irremediable hurt?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention.

  5. Counselling Strategies for Dealing with Sexual Abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    online support group and resource centre for African-American sexual abuse survivors .... Younger children do well with developmental play groups, while older children and youth can ... indirect, avoidance); aggressive behaviour. ―I win, you ...

  6. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... parents and caregivers who have support--from relatives, friends, neighbors, and their communities-- are... identify, treat, and prevent abuse. I encourage all Americans to learn more about what they can do at: www...

  7. Escape/Aggression Incidence in Sexually Abused Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, John W.; Gutierres, Sara E.

    1979-01-01

    Reports a continuation of prior research testing a theoretical model which predicts that juveniles subjected to abuse will not become aggressive but will engage in escape and social avoidance behaviors. Analysis supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  8. prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expended providing treatment for these injuries. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: ... that violent practices are deployed by men against women in attempts to maintain ... child abuse, or sexual harassment; social support; and experiences with police and ...

  9. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

  10. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  11. Working at the frontline in cases of elder abuse: 'it keeps me awake at night'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Jane; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2014-03-01

    To explore the experiences of frontline health and welfare practitioners in working with older people experiencing abuse. In-depth interviews with 16 Tasmanian community-based health and welfare practitioners regarding their experiences of working in 49 recent cases of elder abuse. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. All participants found working in cases of elder abuse challenging and the work itself was perceived as difficult, complex and at times dangerous. The cumulative effect of intimidating work contexts, practice dilemmas and a lack of support resulted in frustration and stress for many practitioners. Nevertheless, participants were committed to providing ongoing services and support for older people experiencing abuse. Frontline practitioners working in cases of elder abuse face significant challenges and could be better supported through strengthening organisational elder abuse policies, increased management support and more age-inclusive family violence support services. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. The complexities of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Positive work environments of early-career registered nurses and the correlation with physician verbal abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Obeidat, Rana F; Budin, Wendy C

    2013-01-01

    Verbal abuse in the workplace is experienced by registered nurses (RNs) worldwide; physicians are one of the main sources of verbal abuse. To examine the relationship between levels of physician verbal abuse of early-career RNs and demographics, work attributes, and perceived work environment. Fourth wave of a mailed national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. RNs' perception of verbal abuse by physicians was significantly associated with poor workgroup cohesion, lower supervisory and mentor support, greater quantitative workload, organizational constraints, and nurse-colleague verbal abuse, as well as RNs' lower job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to stay. RNs working in unfavorable work environments experience more physician abuse and have less favorable work attitudes. Causality is unclear: do poor working conditions create an environment in which physicians are more likely to be abusive, or does verbal abuse by physicians create an unfavorable work environment? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual Abuse in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: To Ask or Not to Ask – That Is the Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ilnyckyj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common and costly disorder in Canada. The paucity of medical treatment underscores the importance of examining every element of the management approach. Data exist supporting an increased prevalence of abuse among individuals with IBS. Importantly, the pathophysiology underlying the link between abuse and IBS is increasingly understood. Treatment recommendations by opinion leaders support an abuse inquiry. However, many clinicians view abuse inquiry as an ethical dilemma.

  15. Interventions for preventing abuse in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen

    2016-08-16

    , although there were few details on the components and analysis of the costing.We are uncertain whether these interventions reduce the occurrence or recurrence of elder abuse due to variation in settings, measures and effects reported in the included studies, some of which were very small and at a high risk of bias (low- and very low-quality evidence).Two studies measured the occurrence of elder abuse. A high risk of bias study found a difference in the post-test scores (P value 0.048 and 0.18). In a low risk of bias study there was no difference found (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =0.48, 95% 0.18 to 1.27) (n = 214). For interventions measuring abuse recurrence, one small study (n = 16) reported no difference in post-test means, whilst another found higher levels of abuse reported for the intervention arms (Cox regression, combined intervention hazard ratio (HR) = 1.78, alpha level = 0.01).It is uncertain whether targeted educational interventions improve the relevant knowledge of health professionals and caregivers (very low-quality evidence), although they may improve detection of resident-to-resident abuse. The concept of measuring improvement in detection or reporting as opposed to measuring the occurrence or recurrence of abuse is complicated. An intervention of public education and support services aimed at victims may also improve rates of reporting, however it is unclear whether this was due to an increase in abuse recurrence or better reporting of abuse.The effectiveness of service planning interventions at improving the assessment and documentation of related domains is uncertain. Unintended outcomes were not reported in the studies. There is inadequate trustworthy evidence to assess the effects of elder abuse interventions on occurrence or recurrence of abuse, although there is some evidence to suggest it may change the combined measure of anxiety and depression of caregivers. There is a need for high-quality trials, including from low- or middle-income countries

  16. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  17. The impacts of institutional child sexual abuse: A rapid review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Tamara; Herbert, James Leslie; Arney, Fiona; Parkinson, Samantha

    2017-12-01

    While awareness of institutional child sexual abuse has grown in recent years, there remains limited understanding of its occurrence and outcomes as a distinct form of abuse. Drawing on research commissioned by the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, this article presents a rapid review of available evidence on the impacts of institutional abuse on victim/survivors. Literature searches identified 75 sources spanning international peer reviewed work and reports to Government that document or quantify the impacts of mostly historical child sexual abuse occurring in religious, educational, sporting and residential or out-of-home care settings. Consistent with child sexual abuse in other contexts, institutional child sexual abuse is found to be associated with numerous, pervasive and connected impacts upon the psychological, physical, social, educative and economic wellbeing of victims/survivors. Further, institutional child sexual abuse is associated with vicarious trauma at the individual, family and community level, and with impacts to the spiritual wellbeing of victims/survivors of abuse that occurs in religious settings. The identified literature suggests the trauma of institutional child sexual abuse may be exacerbated by the interplay of abuse dynamics in institutional settings, which may reduce or impede circumstances supporting disclosure, belief, support and protection from future harm. Acknowledging the limitations of the present study and the available evidence, this narrative synthesis provides insights into the complex impacts of institutional child sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  19. Depression, Abuse, Relationship Power and Condom Use by Pregnant and Postpartum Women with Substance Abuse History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p power (-0.48, p power (0.15, p power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.

  20. [Drinking and drug abuse among gymnasium students in Szczecin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Barbara; Czaja-Bulsa, Grazyna; Szechter-Grycewicz, Aneta; Brodzińska, Beata; Marasz, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the extent and causes of drinking and drug abuse by the youth. A questionnaire was administered to 918 students aged 13-16 years from five gymnasia in Stettin. The results were analyzed statistically. In the group of 918 students, 76% were alcohol drinkers and 15% abused psychoactive substances. Among causes of drinking and drug abuse were family and personal problems, impressing colleagues, fashion, advertisements, and stress. Alcohol drinking and drug abuse are not only a response to personal and family problems, but also the result of role models accepted by gymnasium students. Lack of control and support within the family are factors liberating alcohol consumption and drug abuse among the youth.

  1. National Center on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  2. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  3. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  4. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  5. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  6. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  7. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  8. Partner, workplace, and stranger abuse during pregnancy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Hertlein, Linda; Friese, Klaus; Stöckl, Doris

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence, perpetrators, sociodemographic correlates, and health impacts of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse during pregnancy among women attending a maternity ward in Germany. A written questionnaire was given to pregnant women in a maternity ward of a university hospital in Munich. Abuse during pregnancy was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. Of 552 women, 401 completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 72.6%. The prevalence of psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy by any perpetrator was 6.7% (n = 27); the main perpetrators were women's partners and work colleagues. After controlling for the effect of age, psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was significantly associated with a history of abuse, low education level of the woman and the father of her child, short relationship duration, unintended pregnancy, financial problems caused by the pregnancy, having more than 3 children, and insufficient social support. Women who reported abuse during pregnancy were significantly more likely to smoke and to have adverse maternal health outcomes. Psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was experienced by 1 in 15 women who attended a maternity ward in Munich and adversely affected maternal health outcomes. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [The Process of Healing Child Physical Abuse: Sprouting and Twining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tseng, Ren-Mei

    2018-06-01

    Child physical abuse impacts the physical and psychological health of survivors. Healing child abuse is an essential process that helps survivors reorganize the meaning of the trauma and pursue a normal life. Considering the trauma of child physical abuse within the social context allows the experiences of individual survivors to be reflected in their process of healing. To explore the social interaction and construction process of healing experienced by survivors of child physical abuse. A qualitative research design using grounded theory was applied. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit survivors of childhood physical abuse who had experienced healing. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were used and data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The process of healing child physical abuse in this study was a process of sprouting and twining. Three core categories emerged: thriving, relationships, and ethics. The healing process was analogous to a seed growing in poor soil, sprouting out from the ground, and striving to live by seeking support. The survivors constantly established interactive relationships with their selves and with others and struggled to keep family bonds grounded and growing within the frame of ethics. The healing process of sprouting and twining for child physical abuse survivors in Taiwan integrates thriving, relationships, and ethics. Professionals working with child-physical-abuse survivors must recognize conflicts in ethics. Strategies should be developed to assist survivors to cope with the impact of childhood trauma in order to facilitate the healing process.

  10. Domestic violence and abuse: an exploration and evaluation of a domestic abuse nurse specialist role in acute health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Julie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of clinical staff in responding to disclosure of domestic violence and abuse, and to evaluate the effectiveness of training and support provided by a dedicated Domestic Abuse Nurse Specialist across one acute National Health Service Trust in the UK. The impact of domestic violence and abuse is well documented and is far reaching. Health care professionals have a key role to play in the effective identification and management of abuse across a range of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the constituents of effective support for practitioners within wider nonemergency hospital-based services. A qualitative approach semi-structured interviews (n = 11) with clinical staff based in one acute care Trust in the UK. Interviews were informed by an interview guide and analysed using the Framework approach. The organisation of the nurse specialist role facilitated a more cohesive approach to management at an organisational level with training and ongoing support identified as key facets of the role by practitioners. Time constraints were apparent in terms of staff training and this raises questions with regard to the status continuing professional development around domestic violence and abuse. Domestic violence and abuse continues to exert a significant and detrimental impact on the lives and health of those who encounter abuse. Health care services in the UK and globally are increasingly on the frontline in terms of identification and management of domestic violence and abuse. This is coupled with the growing recognition of the need for adequate support structures to be in place to facilitate practitioners in providing effective care for survivors of domestic violence and abuse. This study provides an approach to the expansion of existing models and one which has the potential for further exploration and application in similar settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  12. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  13. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  14. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  15. The globalization of addiction research: capacity-building mechanisms and selected examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F; Gust, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States, and western Europe have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study, with advice from NIDA, the substance use disorder problems that affect their societies. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment, and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address substance use disorders.

  16. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  17. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  18. The perspective of evil in understanding and treating child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, J; Hershberger, J K

    1981-09-01

    This paper places the problem of child abuse in the perspective of evil. In so doing it calls into question the amoral assumptions of social science and human services. The current social science paradigm paradoxically dismisses evil as a real factor in the world, despite its concern for indisputably moral issues such as child abuse. The practical advantages of a perspective incorporating evil are several. Among them are a more realistic appreciation of the need for mechanisms of social control in preventing abuse, the role of confession and conversion, and the role of pastoral care as a support system for families.

  19. Prevalence of child abuse in school environment in Kerala, India: An ICAST-CI based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj Therayil; Kumar, Sebind; Singh, Surendra P; Kar, Nilamadhab

    2017-08-01

    Very few studies focus on childhood abuse in developing countries and only a small fraction of such studies explicitly deal with abuse in a school environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in a school environment in a developing country. Abuse history was collected using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Children's Institutional Version (ICAST-CI). Demographic variables were also collected. Student supportive measures were provided both during and after the survey. 6682 school attending adolescents in Thrissur, Kerala participated in this cross sectional self report study. One year and lifetime prevalence of physical (75.5%, 78.5%), emotional (84.5%, 85.7%) and sexual (21.0%, 23.8%) abuse was high. Abuse was considered to be present even if an individual item from these three categories was reported. Most abuse was reported as occurring 'sometimes' rather than 'many times'. More males than females reported being victims of abuse; figures for one-year prevalence were: physical abuse (83.4% vs. 61.7%), emotional abuse (89.5% vs. 75.7%), and sexual abuse (29.5% vs. 6.2%). Various factors significantly increase the likelihood of abuse-male gender, low socioeconomic status, regular use of alcohol and drugs by family member at home, and having other difficulties at school. Children tended to report abuse less frequently if they liked attending school and if they always felt safe at school. The results highlight the urgent need to address the issue of abuse in the school environment and minimize its impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing an mHealth HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Intervention for Primary Care: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician

  1. Elder Abuse in the African Diaspora: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Charles P; Southerland, Janet H

    2017-01-01

    As with many other populations, abuse of older adults is a growing problem across the Africa Diaspora. Modernization and urbanization are eroding the traditional values of respect for older adults. Also, older adults living in environments with limited social and economic resources, and having no means of economic support create a recipe for elder abuse and neglect. This article reviews the current literature on the epidemiology, risk factors, and interventions used for elder abuse across the African Diaspora. Reports of elder abuse range from 24.9% to 81.1% across the Diaspora. Risk factors include cognitive and physical impairment, social isolation, lack of resources and widowhood. Community-based programs using the unique social networks of older populations of African descent can provide a venue to improve caregiver training and support, reinforce traditional filial and informal caregiving practices, increase the utilization of available governmental and institutional. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "Keep Telling until Someone Listens": Understanding Prevention Concepts in Children's Picture Books Dealing with Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann

    2010-01-01

    Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…

  3. Evaluation of the Relative Abuse of an OROS® Extended-release Hydromorphone HCI Product: Results from three Post-market Surveillance Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A; Cassidy, Theresa A

    2018-01-02

    Formulating prescription opioids to limit abuse remains a priority. OROS® extended-release (ER) hydromorphone HCl (EXALGO®) may have low abuse potential. Three post-marketing studies of the relative abuse liability of OROS hydromorphone ER were conducted. Estimates of abuse, unadjusted and adjusted for prescription volume, were generated for OROS hydromorphone ER and comparators from Q2 2010 through Q2 2014 for a high-risk, substance abuse treatment population and the general population using poison control center data. Comparators were selected for compound, market penetration, and route of administration (ROA) profile. ROA comparisons were made among the substance abuse treatment population. Internet discussion was examined to determine abusers' interest in and desire for the OROS formulation. Examination of abuse prevalence among adults within substance abuse treatment, intentional poison exposures and Internet discussion levels generally support the hypothesis that OROS hydromorphone ER may have lower abuse potential than many other opioid products. OROS hydromorphone ER also appears to be abused less often by alternate ROAs (e.g., snorting and injection). Lower levels of online discussion were observed along with relatively low endorsement for abuse. Abuse of OROS hydromorphone ER was observed in high-risk substance abuse and general population samples but at a very low relative prevalence. Evidence suggests it may be less often abused by alternate ROAs than some comparators. Online data did not find evidence of high levels of desire for OROS hydromorphone ER by recreational abusers. Continued monitoring of this product's abuse liability is warranted.

  4. Using text mining and machine learning for detection of child abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Paauw, Tim; Aly, Robin; Lavric, Miha; Lavric, Miha

    2016-01-01

    Abuse in any form is a grave threat to a child's health. Public health institutions in the Netherlands try to identify and prevent different kinds of abuse, and building a decision support system can help such institutions achieve this goal. Such decision support relies on the analysis of relevant

  5. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    A Chitsaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injec...

  6. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  7. Abuse of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J [UKAEA

    1976-09-01

    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view.

  8. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  9. Evaluations of children who have disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botash, A S; Babuts, D; Mitchell, N; O'Hara, M; Lynch, L; Manuel, J

    1994-12-01

    To review the findings of interdisciplinary team evaluations of children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication. Case series. Tertiary care hospital outpatient child sexual abuse program in central New York. Between January 1990 and March 1993, 13 children who disclosed sexual abuse via facilitated communication and were referred to a university hospital child abuse referral and evaluation center. The range of previously determined developmental diagnosis included mental retardation, speech delay, and autism. None. Medical records were reviewed for (1) disclosure, (2) physical evidence, (3) child's behavioral and medical history, (4) disclosures by siblings, (5) perpetrator's confession, (6) child protective services determinations, and (7) court findings. Four children had evidence of sexual abuse: two had physical findings consistent with sexual abuse, one also disclosed the allegation verbally, and one perpetrator confessed. These results neither support nor refute validation of facilitated communication. However, many children had other evidence of sexual abuse, suggesting that each child's case should be evaluated without bias.

  10. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Process Funding Priorities Research Training News & Events News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts ... of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The Link ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Videos NIDA and Scholastic - Heads Up NIDA Media Campaign Postcards Public Service Announcements Other Government Observances for Substance Abuse Education Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide ...

  13. Elder Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nan Hervig; Giordano, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on elder abuse and examines categories of abuse, the incidence of abuse, and characteristics of the typical abused person. Concluded that the abused person is characteristically a severely impaired woman, aged 75 and over, White, widowed, and living with relatives. (LLL)

  14. Psychological Consequences of Wife Abuse | Chovwen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also showed that old abused women scored significantly lower on depression than young abused women, F(1,337)=P<.01. Likewise, high education abused women self-reported significantly higher on depression than low education abused women, t(2,337)= 5.44. On self-esteem, old abused women were ...

  15. Several unusual cases of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, H; Weston, J T

    1976-10-01

    All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.

  16. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  17. The Appalachian Tri-State Node Experiences with the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M; Daley, Dennis C; Byrne, Mimmie; Demarzo, Larry; Smith, Doris; Madl, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored Clinical Trial Network (CTN) recently celebrated 10 years of conducting "real world" research into the treatment of addiction. This article reviews the history and results of the most recent CTN studies and describes the experiences of one of the 13 participating research affiliates, the Appalachian Tri-State (ATS) Node. We discuss our "bidirectional" collaboration with multiple community treatment programs (CTPs) on research and dissemination activities and include their experiences as a member of our ATS Node.Results of CTN clinical trials have found unexpectedly that treatment as usual (TAU) is often almost as good as evidence-based interventions such as Motivational Interviewing (MI), possibly due to the difficulty in implementing evidence-based practices most effectively among divergent treatment sites and heterogeneous clinical populations. Some expected findings from the reviewed research are that severity of addiction and comorbidity moderate treatment outcomes and must be accounted for in future CTN-sponsored studies. Notwithstanding these results, much has been learned and recommendations are suggested for changes in CTN research designs that will address methodological limitations and increase treatment effectiveness in future CTN studies.

  18. Prevalence of child abuse in Khorramabad junior high school students, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh Malekshahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.

  19. Benzodiazepine abuse among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines belong to the hypnotic-sedative class of drugs which have anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic properties. These drugs have been in clinical use for at least half a century. The propensity for development of dependence, especially on prescription benzodiazepines, coupled with the risk of falls and cognitive impairment due to benzodiazepines makes the elderly population susceptible to adverse outcomes with the use of benzodiazepines, and hence, cautious use is desired in this population. This review discusses the various aspects pertaining to benzodiazepine abuse in the elderly including pharmacology, prevalence of abuse, adverse consequences of benzodiazepine abuse, and subsequently assessment and management of elderly patients with benzodiazepine abuse.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  1. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  2. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori

    2002-01-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  3. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  4. Social Resource Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Peter W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…

  5. Wife Abuse and the Wife Abuser: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Ann D.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews clinical, theoretical, and empirical literature on wife abuse/abusers. Presents historical and contextual information, overview of domestic violence, prevalence data, and descriptions of evolution and current status of public and professional awareness and response. Proposes integrative model for understanding etiologic, dynamic, and…

  6. Violence and Abuse in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  7. Prevalence of experienced abuse in healthcare and associated obstetric characteristics in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle; Schei, Berit; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Tabor, Ann

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Routine antenatal care in six European countries. In total 6923 pregnant women. Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Abuse in healthcare, fear of childbirth and preference for birth by cesarean section. One in five pregnant women attending routine antenatal care reported some lifetime abuse in healthcare. Prevalence varied significantly between the countries. Characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare included a significantly higher prevalence of other forms of abuse, economic hardship and negative life events as well as a lack of social support, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. Among nulliparous women, abuse in healthcare was associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.12) for severe abuse in healthcare. For multiparous women only severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 4.04 (95% CI 2.08-7.83). Current severe suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with the wish for cesarean section, and counselling for fear of childbirth for both nulli- and multiparous women. Abuse in healthcare among women attending routine antenatal care is common and for women with severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare, this is associated with fear of childbirth and a wish for cesarean section. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Women's views and experiences of antenatal enquiry for domestic abuse during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Debra; Baird, Kathleen M; White, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the acceptability of antenatal enquiry for domestic abuse from the perspective of women using maternity services. It also sought to understand the experiences of referral and support offered to women who had positively disclosed abuse. A multimethod approach was adopted including quantitative and qualitative elements. The survey assessed women's views of the acceptability and impact of routine enquiry for domestic abuse. Interviews aimed, to understand the views and experiences of women who had positively disclosed abuse during their contact with maternity services. 94.4% of those surveyed felt comfortable with a midwife asking about abuse. 96.6% of the participants also believed it was appropriate for a midwife to ask and that midwives should be able to respond to positive disclosure. Interviewees subject to abuse during pregnancy were happy to be questioned, even though they did not always feel able to disclose immediately. Women had a positive view of antenatal enquiry for domestic abuse in healthcare settings and support its continuation. Women expect to be asked and that midwives can respond appropriately. Raising the issue creates a culture in which women are made aware of the impact of abuse and understand there are avenues of support even if she decides not to leave the relationship. Women may choose not to disclose about the abuse at the initial time of asking, for fear of their own safety but asking signifies that she can disclose about at a later contact. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-03-08

    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.

  10. Working on Memories of Abuse....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

  11. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The parents are unable to explain how ... the fractures is not child abuse. It is osteogenesis imperfecta , or OI. OI is a genetic disorder characterized ...

  12. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  13. [Recognizing signs of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and frequency of abuse increases.” 76 o Among adolescents, suicide attempters report more sexual abuse than non-attempters ... suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 ...

  15. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1977-01-01

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  16. Association of childhood abuse with homeless women's social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J

    2012-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women

  17. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  18. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  19. Human Figure Drawings: Abusing the Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardos, Achilles N.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Notes recent approaches to interpretation of human figure drawings and cites flaws in argument against…

  20. Generation Z: Adolescent Xenobiotic Abuse in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, William; Stork, Christine

    2015-12-01

    NMDA receptor antagonists include the prescription medication ketamine, the illicit xenobiotics PCP, MXE, and other novel PCP analogs, and the OTC medication DXM. The NMDA receptor antagonist most commonly abused by adolescents in the United States is DXM. These xenobiotics cause dissociative effects by non-competitively inhibiting the action of glutamate at the NMDA receptor. Additionally, these agents modulate the actions of monoamine neurotransmitters, agonize opioid receptors, and inhibit nitric oxide synthase. Patients typically present with sympathomimetic and neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations after abuse of NMDA receptor antagonists. Treatment is generally symptomatic and supportive. Interventions include benzodiazepines, propofol, fluids, antiemetics, aggressive cooling, and respiratory support.

  1. Adult-Perpetrated Animal Abuse: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Parfitt, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Adults perpetrate the majority of animal abuse incidents yet clinicians are left with very little evidence base to advance/enhance their practice. The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize and evaluate the current literature on adult-perpetrated animal abuse and to identify the etiological factors related to this type of offending. Twenty-three studies met the specific inclusion criteria but most importantly, they examined the characteristics of adult perpetrators of animal abuse. The findings from this review were demarcated by sample type: (1) Participants were the perpetrators of the animal abuse or held offense-supportive attitudes and (2) participants were victims of intimate partner violence reporting incidents of animal abuse perpetrated by their partner. From the perpetrator perspective, there were key developmental (i.e., maladaptive parenting strategies), behavioral (such as varied offending behaviors), and psychological (e.g., callousness, empathy deficits) factors highlighted in the literature. Finally, in the context of intimate partner violence, findings indicated that perpetrators abuse animals to control, coerce, intimidate, and/or manipulate their victims (this effect is moderated by the victims' emotional attachment to their pet). This review inherently underlines treatment targets that could achieve greater clinical gains, but we also conclude that more empirical and theoretical work is needed in order to set an agenda that prioritizes future research and effective practice.

  2. Association between alcohol abuse, childhood adverse events and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ana Politakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Differences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.

  3. From Freud to Feminism: Gendered Constructions of Blame Across Theories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.

  4. Meanings intrafamilial sexual abuse for female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hilario Maranhão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.

  5. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  6. Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis

    2002-01-01

    The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child…

  7. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  8. Adult Disclosure of Sexual Abuse: A Primary Cause of Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Craig; Wardle, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This paper surveys research evidence relating to the disclosure of childhood sexual abuse by adults and argues that, for some adults, the disclosure of sexual abuse may be a primary cause of psychological distress, resulting in the dissolution of social support systems and increasing the individual's vulnerability to psychiatric disorder.…

  9. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from First Macedonian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Defining the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in the context of our country can facilitate support of abused older people and, most importantly, may help develop policy and programmes based on evidence-based practices, targeting prevention and response.

  10. Self-Mutilating Behavior of Sexually Abused Female Adults in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk

    1998-01-01

    Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)

  11. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  12. Correlates of violent response among Peruvian women abused by an intimate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Lam, Nelly; Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2010-01-01

    The authors sought to identify correlates of violent response among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Lima, Peru. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to IPV and women's physical violent reaction towards their abuser. Women who were sexually abused by their partners, as compared with women who experienced emotional abuse only, were more than twice as likely to respond in a violent manner to the abuse (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.14-4.74). Similarly, women who reported being physically abused, were 4 times as likely than those who experienced emotional abuse only to retaliate in a physically violent manner (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 2.68-6.11). Women's educational status, history of witnessing parental violence as a child, and type of IPV are significantly associated with women's violent response. Community support networks and culturally appropriate intervention programs designed to prevent and mitigate the impact of IPV are needed.

  13. Drug Use, the Drug Environment, and Child Physical Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.

  14. Attributional style as a mediator between parental abuse risk and child internalizing symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-05-01

    This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.

  15. Update on child abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D; Lane, Wendy G; Walsh, Christina M

    2007-12-01

    Child abuse remains a significant problem in the United States with 2.9 million reports and 825 000 indicated cases in 2005. This report will highlight recent efforts toward child abuse prevention, focusing on home visiting programs, abusive head trauma primary prevention, parent training programs, sexual abuse prevention, and the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment. Most home visitation programs have demonstrated a lack of effectiveness in recent randomized trials. One exception is the Nurse Family Partnership, which remains the most effective and longest enduring intervention for high-risk families. Child sexual abuse prevention programs and parent training programs need further evaluation with more rigorous methodology and outcome measures. Providing universal parent education about coping with crying infants appears to be effective in lowering the incidence of abusive head trauma. Although advocated for, further study will determine the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment or mandating abusive head trauma education to parents of newborns. Pediatricians play an important role in the prevention of child maltreatment. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of different programs can help guide parents toward appropriate services.

  16. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  17. Neuroimaging of child abuse: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd eHart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is a severe stressor that can lead to the development of behaviour problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, executive function and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, grey and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during executive function and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioural and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity, independently of secondary

  18. El uso de bases de datos curatoriales para reconstruir la historia del conocimiento taxonómico: un ejemplo con papiliónidas y piéridas mexicanas (Insecta: Lepidoptera Use of curatorial data bases as an element to reconstruct taxonomic knowdlege: an example with Mexican papilionids and pierids (Insecta: Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Oñate-Ocaña

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la cronología de la información sobre mariposas papiliónidas y piéridas de México, así como los patrones de recolección y los recolectores más destacados a partir de una base de datos curatoriales y fuentes bibliográficas. La base cuenta con 40 752 registros de ejemplares albergados en 12 museos y/o registrados en 145 fuentes bibliográficas. Se destaca el alcance que tiene el uso de las bases de datos curatoriales en la reconstrucción histórica del conocimiento de un grupo, tomando como ejemplo las mariposas papilónidas y piéridas mexicanas.The aim of this paper is to determine the chronology of the information on papilionid and pierid butterflies of Mexico, as well as the patterns of collection and who were the most active collectors from a curatorial databases and bibliography. The database has record of 40 752 records of individuals housed in 12 museums and/or recorded in 145 bibliographic sources. The relevance of this work is to highlight the amplitude of curatorial databases for the reconstruction of the historical knowledge of a biological group, taking Mexican papilionid and pierid butterflies as an example.

  19. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louwers Eveline CFM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members. The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs.

  20. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  1. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  2. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  3. Acute neurotoxicology of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, S J; Levine, M D

    2017-01-01

    Many substances can affect the central nervous system, and may cause patients to become critically ill. Acute central neurotoxicologic syndromes associated with drugs of abuse are usually caused by an overdose of sedative-hypnotic agents (including alcohol) or opioids, withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic agents, or an overdose of anticholinergic or sympathomimetic agents. Clinical findings are often syndromic, making physical examination the most important diagnostic tool in the approach to the patient with an unknown ingestion. Treatment focusses on supportive care as the most important intervention for all such patients, augmented by antidotal therapy when appropriate. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal Abuse: Science, Ethics and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat ESCARTÍN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study links science, ethics and literature on the subject of animal abuse after the peak surgical period of the 16th and 17th centuries, with advocates of vivisection (Physicians like Gómez Pereira or Descartes and detractors who denounced these practices (Montaigne, Gassendi, Cureau de la Chambre, using the rationality of animals as an argument to respect them. In 18th-century Spain, the response of B. J. Feijoo to this controversy will be compassion, an approach that will mark the way for philosophers, scientists and writers who, after him, will support his proposal to unite scientific progress, ethical consideration and respect for animals.

  5. Moving beyond disrespect and abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michelle; Mario, Santos; Ruiz Buron, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despi...

  6. Risk factors associated with domestic abuse directed at adults with disabilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mee; Lee, Byung Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Most research on domestic abuse and disability has focused on women with disabilities, while research on abuse against men with disabilities and their risk factors is virtually non-existent. The purpose of this research is to understand domestic abuse experienced by people with disabilities by investigating its prevalence and risk factors. This research used the National Survey on Persons with Disabilities (2011). Using a stratified sampling method, 5259 respondents were identified to make up the final sample. Ordered logistic regression was used to verify risk factors for abuse. Risk factors for women with disabilities are age, educational attainment level, ADL, experiences of discrimination, awareness of disability discrimination, external support, and satisfaction with number of friends. Risk factors for men with disabilities are region, experiences of discrimination, awareness of disability discrimination, external support, and satisfaction with number of friends. For both women and men with disabilities, more experience of discrimination, greater awareness of disability discrimination, less external support, and less satisfaction with number of friends are associated with a higher likelihood of having experiences of abuse. Men with disabilities living in rural areas have a higher risk of abuse than those living in cities. Younger women, women with lower educational attainment, and those with lower physical functioning are more likely to have experienced abuse. Based on these findings, the authors make recommendations designed to protect people with disabilities from domestic abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating sexual violence and abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Synnott, John

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.

  8. Drugs of abuse--opiates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, W; Wesson, D R

    1990-01-01

    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...

  9. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  10. Personality development after physical abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R K

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  11. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  12. Identifying and responding to gaps in domestic abuse services for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse report more health-related concerns than any other group, and demonstrate a higher incidence of significant mental health issues. Research suggests that older women who have experienced domestic abuse are not having their psychological and physical support needs met by existing services. This article examines the physical and mental health issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers to seeking help. Multidisciplinary healthcare professionals can facilitate the therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited in terms of the support they can offer, however, research suggests that developing a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial.

  13. Breaking the cycle: The effects of role model performance and ideal leadership self-concepts on abusive supervision spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Min-Hsuan; Bono, Joyce E; Shum, Cass; LaMontagne, Liva

    2018-03-19

    Building on identity theories and social learning theory, we test the notion that new leaders will model the abusive behaviors of their superiors only under certain conditions. Specifically, we hypothesize that new leaders will model abusive supervisory behaviors when (a) abusive superiors are perceived to be competent, based on the performance of their teams and (b) new leaders' ideal leadership self-concepts are high on tyranny or low on sensitivity. Results of an experiment in which we manipulated abusive supervisory behaviors using a professional actor, and created a role change where 93 individuals moved from team member to team leader role, generally support our hypotheses. We found the strongest association between abuse exposure and new leader abuse under conditions where the abusive superior's team performed well and the new team leaders' self-concepts showed low concern for others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  15. Female Suicide and Wife Abuse: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Dorothy Ayers

    1987-01-01

    Research suggests that wife abuse may be significant precipitant of female suicide. Case studies and data from several societies suggest that if a woman's support group does not defend her when she is victimized, suicide may be form of revenge. Research focused on relationship between domestic violence and female suicide should be priority for…

  16. The political abuse of international health system comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlke, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Though the science of medicine subscribes to learning from best practices and the transmission of superior treatment regimens across national boundaries, the same ethos does not inform political debates surrounding health system reform. The Canadian and English health systems have been used - and, more frequently - abused by American politicians in their quest to support their own model of reform, or preserve the status quo.

  17. Epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandir Ramlagan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa. Methods. Treatment demand statistics were analysed from South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use records, and a rapid situation assessment was conducted. Twenty-one key informant interviews were conducted in all 9 provinces among provincial substance abuse co-ordinators, and one manager per treatment centre from a sample of treatment centres. Three focus groups were conducted and 46 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres in Free State and North West provinces. Qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory, and quantitative data analysed using SPSS. Results. Treatment records show that the most frequent substance of abuse was alcohol (51%, followed by cannabis (21%, crack/cocaine (9.6%, heroin/opiates (7.9%, methamphetamine (Tik (4.5%, prescription/over-the-counter drugs (2.0%, and cannabis/mandrax (1.7%. More substance abusers were male, of lower education, white or black, than were female, more highly educated, coloured and Indian/Asian. Key informant interviews showed that females are the ‘hidden’ substance abusers and tend not to be identified in research statistics and at treatment centres. Poverty, unemployment, lack of recreational facilities, being surrounded by substance abusers, and long work shifts were also mentioned as factors contributing to substance abuse. The age of initiation of substance abuse using non-drugs such as glue was 9 years old, alcohol 10 - 12 years old, dagga 11 - 12 years old, poly-drug use (alcohol, tobacco and dagga 14 years old, and harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin at 16 - 17 years old, as reported by key informants. Family care and support, improved socio-economic conditions and increased law enforcement would help to discourage substance

  18. Staff experience and understanding of working with abused women suffering from mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Tops, A; Saveman, B-I; Tops, D

    2009-09-01

    The phenomenon of abused women with mental illness is often unrecognised by staff working within welfare services. This may be explained by staff members' attitudes, insecurity or lack of awareness. Today, there are shortcomings in the knowledge of staff members' experiences and interpretations of abuse against women suffering from mental illness. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how staff members experience and understand their work with abused women suffering from mental illness. Thematic interviews were conducted with 13 staff members from various welfare services. Data were subject to content analysis. The findings showed that working with abused women was experienced as ambiguous and painful and made the staff act pragmatically. Feelings of ambiguity were mainly related to the lack of theoretical frameworks for interpreting why women with mental illness are exposed to abuse. Painful experiences involved intertwined feelings of distress, frustration, worthlessness, ambivalence and powerlessness. These were all feelings that emerged in the direct encounters with the abused women. In response to the abused women's comprehensive needs, staff members acted pragmatically, implying networking without any sanction from the leaders of the organisation, compliance with routines and taking action in here-and-now situations. By acting pragmatically, staff members could achieve concrete results through their interventions. It is concluded that staff members, working with abused women with mental illness, are in a vulnerable situation and in need of formally accepted and implemented support and legitimacy as well as theoretical knowledge regarding causes and consequences of abuse in this particular group of women.

  19. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, A M

    2001-03-01

    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  20. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  1. Parent abuse by adolescents with first-episode psychosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Mounir H; Fawzi, Mohab M; Fouad, Amira A

    2013-12-01

    To determine the rate of parent abuse in a sample of Egyptian adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and to identify the association between parent abuse and a number of sociodemographic and clinical factors of interest in these patients. As yet, the abuse of parents by their children, especially mentally ill children, in contrast to child abuse, has remained a research taboo. In a cross-sectional study in Zagazig (Egypt), a sample of 150 adolescent outpatients (82 boys; 68 girls), presenting with FEP, was assessed for the occurrence of parent abuse using both interview and questionnaire methods (Abused Parent Questionnaire, APQ). Univariate analyses were used to compare parent abusers and nonabusers along a number of sociodemographic and clinical variables. Variables that were associated with parent abuse were entered into a multivariate logistic regression analysis model. We found that 61 patients (40.7%) perpetrated abuse against parents, mostly mothers (55/61; 90.2%). Five significant risk factors for parent abuse were identified by multivariate analysis. These were parent's female gender (95% CI = 7.82-45.56), patient's male gender (95% CI = 3.15-37.14), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form total score (95% CI = 1.48-14.91), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive subscale score (95% CI = 1.26-9.59), and duration of untreated psychosis (95% CI = 1.01-4.72). The study indicates that parent abuse, particularly mother abuse, in untreated adolescents with FEP is an issue calling for increased awareness of the problem. The findings may have important implications for parental psychoeducation and support, and earlier access to treatment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dextromethorphan: a case study on addressing abuse of a safe and effective drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, David C; Loyd, Catherine M; Skor, Emily E

    2016-06-23

    Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective cough suppressant, available without a prescription in the United States since 1958. Due to a perceived prevalence of abuse of dextromethorphan by teens, in 2007 the Drug Enforcement Administration requested the Food and Drug Administration evaluate whether dextromethorphan should be recommended for scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act. The Food and Drug Administration held an Advisory Committee meeting in 2010 to provide a scientific and medical evaluation of dextromethorphan and its abuse potential. To address reports of abuse, particularly by teens in the United States, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association initiated an abuse mitigation plan in 2010 with specific goals related to awareness of the behavior, perception of risk, social disapproval, and access to the products. In identifying abuse interventions, experts acknowledge that substance abuse among teens is a highly complex behavior and indicate that the best course of action is to address prevention by focusing on the factors that impact teen behavior. It is noteworthy that the annual prevalence of over-the-counter cough medicine abuse has sharply decreased since 2010. While a true cause-and-effect relationship cannot be assured, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association and its member companies believe that the increased awareness of the issue since the 2010 Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee meeting, and the subsequent implementation of a well-delivered and targeted abuse mitigation plan that addressed the levers influencing teen decisions is contributing to the observed reduction in abuse. During the period of 2010-2015, reported abuse of dextromethorphan by 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) graders decreased 35 %. The authors believe this reduction supports the view of the Consumer Healthcare Products Association at the outset of the abuse mitigation plan effort and today: Controlled substance scheduling or prescription requirements would

  3. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-09-01

    We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Delivering social work services in collaboration with the legal representation for individual clients: An effective, ethical and economical approach to supporting families in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Robbin

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses the need to improve the quality of helping relationships between families and social workers in the child protection system and the growing body of evidence that teams of social workers and lawyers are effective at improving outcomes in child protection legal proceedings. The author presents an alternative structure of delivering social work services within the child protection systems once a court gets involved with a family, proposing that social workers should focus on individual clients in collaboration with their legal representation, rather than the traditional model of a governmental agency social worker serving the family as a unit as it also determines placement of the children. Pairing the social worker to an individual client in tandem with their legal representative would help resolve the widely observed relationship problems between service users and governmental agency social workers that include the power imbalance created by the agency's authority to determine placement of children, the conflicts of interest that agency workers face when required to manage differing family members' needs, and the lack of protection of the due process right of confidentiality for parties involved in legal proceedings. This alternative structure also impacts the need to use resources more efficiently and has been demonstrated to result in substantial returns on investment. This article concludes that when a family becomes involved in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings, the child welfare agency should shift the delivery of social work services to the individual parties, away from the governmental agency and in conjunction with their legal representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child sexual abuse is largely hidden from the adult society. An epidemiological study of adolescents' disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning sexual experiences in this study with a focus on disclosure of sexual abuse (non-contact, contact or penetrating abuse, and including peer abuse). Of the sample, 1,505 girls (65%) and 457 boys (23%) reported experience of sexual abuse. The disclosure rate was 81% (girls) and 69% (boys). Girls and boys disclosed most often to a friend of their own age. Few had disclosed to professionals. Even fewer said that the incident had been reported to the authorities. Logistic regression showed that it was less likely for girls to disclose if they had experienced contact sexual abuse with or without penetration, abuse by a family member, only a single abuse occasion or if they had perceived their parents as non-caring. Boys were less likely to disclose if they studied a vocational program, lived with both parents or had perceived their parents as either caring and overprotective or non-caring and not overprotective. Disclosing sexual abuse is a complex process. Much is hidden from the adult society, especially from professionals and the legal system. Since peers are the most common receivers of abuse information, programs for supporting peers ought to be developed. Differences in disclosure patterns for girls and boys indicate that a gender perspective is helpful when developing guidelines for professionals. Professionals, especially in the school system, need to be more aware of the finding that few sexually abused children seek help from professionals or other adults and that support offers should be directly addressed not only to the vulnerable young persons themselves but also to peers who wish to help a friend.

  6. Health Services Research for Drug and Alcohol Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Roman, Paul M; Sorensen, James; Weisner, Constance

    2009-01-01

    Health services research is a multidisciplinary field that examines ways to organize, manage, finance, and deliver high-quality care. This specialty within substance abuse research developed from policy analyses and needs assessments that shaped federal policy and promoted system development in the 1970s. After the authorization of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patient information systems supported studies of treatment processes and outcomes. Health services research grew substantially in the 1990s when NIAAA and NIDA moved into the National Institutes of Health and legislation allocated 15% of their research portfolio to services research. The next decade will emphasize research on quality of care, adoption and use of evidence-based practices (including medication), financing reforms and integration of substance abuse treatment with primary care and mental health services.

  7. Assessment of the Associations of Depression With Elder Abuse Among the Elderly in Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The study results indicate the importance and necessity of providing health care services and support for the identification of depressed elderly victims of abuse and prevention to solve this problem and improve their situation.

  8. Effects of Systematic Screening and Detection of Child Abuse in Emergency Departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, Eveline C. F. M.; Korfage, Ida J.; Affourtit, Marjo J.; Scheewe, Dop J. H.; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H.; Vooijs-Moulaert, Anne-Françoise S. R.; van den Elzen, Annette P. M.; Jongejan, Mieke H. T. M.; Ruige, Madelon; Manaï, Badies H. A. N.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Bosschaart, Adriaan N.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although systematic screening for child abuse of children presenting at emergency departments might increase the detection rate, studies to support this are scarce. This study investigates whether introducing screening, and training of emergency department nurses, increases the detection

  9. Men of Mexican Origin Who Abuse Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Matthews, Debra W; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Gangialla, Christyn

    2018-03-01

    Current literature indicates that intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon that exists worldwide. However, little is known about why some men of Mexican origin abuse women. This descriptive study was conducted to understand the experiences of men of Mexican origin who abuse their intimate partners. A qualitative research design was used to conduct this study in a south Texas border community adjacent to the United States-Mexico border. This study builds on existing research and furthers the knowledge related to the factors contributing to intimate partner violence, including cultural factors. The results also reinforce the negative impacts of intimate partner violence on children and the family structure. Further research is needed to support the development of a culturally appropriate prevention and intervention program for men of Mexican origin who abuse women and their families.

  10. Glutamatergic neurometabolites during early abstinence from chronic methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Joseph; Tobias, Marc C; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D

    2014-10-31

    The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5-15%, Pright inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (Pabuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (Pright inferior frontal cortex. Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  11. Pattern and Inclination of Adolescents Towards Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mahjoob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcotic drug abuse and illicit use of drugs is a major, complicated multifactorial phenomenon affecting most of the societies today. Incidence of drug abuse among adolescents is very high. Adolescents become addicted to substances more quickly than adults. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of drug abuse among male adolescents in Hamadan. Methods: This study was a descriptive study and samples (n=400 were collected on the basis of snowball sampling method. Information was collected individually through completion of a researcher-designed questionnaire including demographic and epidemiological indices, perceived familial support, religiosity, and locus of control. Results: The results showed that smoking (93%, alcohol (92.5%, marijuana (64.3%, and opium (57.8% use were very high, while LSD (4.8% and Cocaine(2.3% use was rare. 77.8 % of adolescents began drug abuse between 12 and 18 years of age. Moreover, sensation seeking (26.5%, individual interest (24.8%, and peer pressure (22%, were the main reasons for drug abuse. Conclusion: As initial smoking, alcohol and marijuana use play an important role in determining the future addiction of adolescents to narcotics, yearly surveillance programs in the country and evaluation of etiological factors of narcotic addiction need to be studied carefully. All of the preventive and school programs designed for the young should take into account environmental, demographic and policy factors in addition to personal factors so that the programs have a maximum effect.

  12. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  13. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in abused children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanpour, Firoozeh; Hajebi, Ahmad; Panaghi, Leili; Ahmadabadi, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Background: Child abuse is a significant public health and social problem worldwide. It can be described as a failure to provide care and protection for children by the parents or other caregivers. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in abused children and their families. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the psychosocial support unit of a pediatric hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran, from 2012 to 2013. The participants consisted of child abuse cases and their parents who referred to the psychosocial support unit to receive services. Services delivered in this unit included parenting skills training, psychiatric treatments, and supportive services. The effectiveness of the interventions was assessed with Child Abuse Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ). Participants were assessed at baseline, at 3, and 6 months follow-ups. ANOVA with repeated measures and Friedman test were used to evaluate the effect of the interventions. Results: A total of 68 children and their parents enrolled in this study, of whom 53% were males. Post-intervention follow-ups revealed significant changes in mothers' general health questionnaire (pchildren's conduct problem (pabuses significantly decreased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychosocial interventions effectively improved child-parents interaction and mental health of parents. The effectiveness of interventions based on subgroup analysis and implications of the results have been discussed for further development of psychosocial interventions in the health system.

  15. Meeting the substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender women: implications from research to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment

  16. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with th...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  17. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  18. Testing women's propensities to leave their abusive husbands using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghan; Belyea, Michael; Phillips, Linda R; Insel, Kathleen; Min, Sung-Kil

    2009-01-01

    Many Korean women are just beginning to recognize that what they considered to be normal treatment is actually domestic violence. Many are becoming more intolerant of the abuse and more likely to desire to leave an abusive relationship. The aim of this study was to test, using the framework of sociostructural and psychological-relational power (PRP), a model of Korean women's propensities to leave their abusive husbands. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test relationships between variables chosen from the sociostructural power and PRP to explain intolerance to abuse. Married Korean women (n = 184) who self-identified as being abused physically, psychologically, sexually, or financially participated in the study. The multigroup analysis revealed that the relationship of abuse and Hwa-Byung (a culture-bound syndrome that denotes Korean women's anger) with intolerance was supported for women with low education (defined as having an education of high school or less: power was related to high levels of reported abuse and abuse intolerance. For women in the high-education group (education beyond high school: > or =13 years), high power was related to abuse, Hwa-Byung, and abuse intolerance; age did not influence power. Overall, the multigroup model adequately fitted the sample data (chi2 = 92.057, degree of freedom = 50, p = .000; normal fit index = .926, comparative fix index = .964, root mean square error of approximation = .068, Hoelter's critical number = 152), demonstrating that education is a crucial moderator of Korean women's attitude toward the unacceptability of abuse and propensity to terminate the marriage. This study found support for a model of abuse intolerance using the framework of sociostructural power and PRP, primarily for the low-education group. Hwa-Byung was a mediating factor that contributed to intolerance to abuse in women with low education. This study highlights the importance of understanding the cultural assumptions that

  19. Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini PR

    2014-02-01

    not mentioned explicitly. Conclusions: The articles were more focused on prevalence of child abuse in hospital settings. As per newspaper reports, female child abuse (sexual abuse by a known person to family was reported more. It was found more in West part of India. Recommendations: More research/reporting is required to study the extent of problem in different settings of India, settings of abuse, quality of life of victims, parental/community education on indicators of abuse and development of support program to victim.

  20. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K

    1997-01-01

    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  1. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  2. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  3. Small opportunities are often the beginning of great enterprises: The role of work engagement in support of people through the recovery process and in preventing relapse in drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Barbara; Dal Corso, Laura; Di Sipio, Anna Maria; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula

    2016-10-17

    This study, carried out in five Therapeutic Communities (TCs), aims to evaluate the relationship between social support and sense of community for people with pathological addictions and the personal and professional dimensions of hope, resilience, work engagement, future time perspective, and job performance. Support to the person is attained through social support at work by the supervisor and the person's sense of belonging to the community. The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between social support, sense of community, hope, resilience, work engagement, future time perspective, and job performance. In order to verify the relations between those variables, structural equation models with observed variables (path analysis) were estimated using LISREL 8.80. The results show a direct relationship between social support at work by the supervisor and hope, as well as between sense of community and resilience at work, while work engagement plays a mediating role between the two antecedents and the personal and professional variables investigated - hope, resilience, future time perspective and performance at work. Performance was measured through both people's self-perceptions and their supervisors' evaluations. A positive correlation exists between the two assessments. The positive consequences of the research entail both theoretical and practical aspects.

  4. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Eliciting change in at-risk elders (ECARE): evaluation of an elder abuse intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Lydia Morris; McClure, Regina; Robinson, J B; Yang, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based elder abuse intervention program that assists suspected victims of elder abuse and self-neglect through a partnership with local law enforcement. This program, Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders, involves building alliances with the elder and family members, connecting the elder to supportive services that reduce risk of further abuse, and utilizing motivational interviewing-type skills to help elders overcome ambivalence regarding making difficult life changes. Risk factors of elder abuse decreased over the course of the intervention and nearly three-quarters of participants made progress on their treatment goal, advancing at least one of Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Forty-three percent of elders moved into the stages of action and maintenance regarding their goal. The usefulness of eliciting change via longer-term relationships with vulnerable elders in entrenched elder abuse situations is discussed.

  6. Childhood abuse and criminal behavior: testing a general strain theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2013-10-01

    This article draws on general strain theory (GST) to develop and test a model of the childhood abuse-crime relationship. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health),(1) we find that early childhood physical and sexual abuse are robust predictors of offending in adolescence, for the full sample and in equations disaggregated by gender. GST is partially supported in that the effects of childhood physical abuse on offending for both females and males are mediated by an index of depression symptoms, whereas the effect of sexual abuse among females appears to be mediated largely by closeness to mother. The effect of childhood sexual abuse among males, however, is more robust than among females and it persists despite controls for low self-control, ties to delinquent peers, school attachment, and closeness to mother. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Abusive supervision and workplace deviance and the moderating effects of negative reciprocity beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marie S; Ambrose, Maureen L

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the authors examine the relationship between abusive supervision and employee workplace deviance. The authors conceptualize abusive supervision as a type of aggression. They use work on retaliation and direct and displaced aggression as a foundation for examining employees' reactions to abusive supervision. The authors predict abusive supervision will be related to supervisor-directed deviance, organizational deviance, and interpersonal deviance. Additionally, the authors examine the moderating effects of negative reciprocity beliefs. They hypothesized that the relationship between abusive supervision and supervisor-directed deviance would be stronger when individuals hold higher negative reciprocity beliefs. The results support this hypothesis. The implications of the results for understanding destructive behaviors in the workplace are examined.

  8. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Wulani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000 abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000 was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about supervisor’s abusive behavior, and it was also assessed by experts. The results of this study indicated that abusive supervision was a 3-dimensional construct. There were anger-active abuse (6 items, humiliation-active abuse (4 items, and passive abuse (15 items. These scales have internal reliabilities of 0.947, 0.922, and 0.845, in sequence.

  9. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  10. Abuse of rights in Community Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights...

  11. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...

  12. SEXUAL ABUSE IN ADOLESCENTS - DATA FROM A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.

  13. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  14. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  15. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  16. Measuring Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors: Revising the Scale of Economic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; Stylianou, Amanda M

    2016-05-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to understanding how abusers use economic abuse strategies. Unfortunately, limited measures are available to accurately understand the prevalence of economic abuse in the lives of survivors. Recently, researchers created the 28-item Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA) but further validation is needed. This article describes the psychometric evaluation of the SEA through confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses using data collected with 120 survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEA-12 as a shorter instrument to measure economic abuse as a distinct form of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dastjerdi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

  18. Federalizing medical campaigns against alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-03-01

    The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  19. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  20. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Alcohol Facts » Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  1. Signs of Painkiller Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts » Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Listen © ...

  2. Sexual abuse in children -- what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children Suspect sexual abuse when children: Tell ... update 04-03-18. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Sexual Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  4. Domestic abuse in the household of God

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    long term effects of my father's physical, verbal, emotional and financial abuse of my mother along ... are astonishingly similar to my childhood experiences in an abusive household ..... An over labelling of any type of negative affectivity as anger is likely. Self- ... divorce has physical abuse as its root cause. More difficult to ...

  5. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  6. Understanding elder abuse in family practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889

  7. Elder Abuse Reporting: Limitations of Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Elyse; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares 16 state elder abuse reporting statutes and analyzes their implementation. Generally, the statutes have failed to ensure consistent information about elder abuse within or across states. Neglect is more often reported than abuse and little prosecutory activity was noted. Suggestions for improving reporting policies are made. (JAC)

  8. Physicians' Mandatory Reporting of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. Steven; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated physicians' responses to Alabama state elder abuse reporting statutes in Alabama Protective Services Act of 1976. Survey responses from over 100 Alabama physicians suggest that they have reservations about their ability to diagnose abuse, operation of the law, and their willingness to report abuse. (Author/NB)

  9. Protocols for the Assessment of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Wetle, Terrie

    The fact that many states have passed elder abuse reporting laws has left care providers with a dilemma. If suspected abuse is reported, the relationship between caregiver and patient may change and the family's difficulties may increase. Indicators of abuse are not easy to differentiate from health problems, especially in the frail elderly. An…

  10. Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Page Content Alison Kulas Executive Director If you, a family Kulas Begins Tenure as Executive Director The Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, The Alaska

  11. Accumulating experience in a child abuse clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behaviour problems were recorded in 73% of cases. Many different ... management is now a priority in our setting. S Afr Med J 1996; 86: ... abused children, registered nurses, social workers and ... physical abuse, emotional abuse, and "-'1§ct. ~N<: .... aggression (10% of patients), 'clinginess' (12%) and temper tantrums ...

  12. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  13. Accelerant-related burns and drug abuse: Challenging combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Leslie T F; Papp, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Accelerants are flammable substances that may cause explosion when added to existing fires. The relationships between drug abuse and accelerant-related burns are not well elucidated in the literature. Of these burns, a portion is related to drug manufacturing, which have been shown to be associated with increased burn complications. 1) To evaluate the demographics and clinical outcomes of accelerant-related burns in a Provincial Burn Centre. 2) To compare the clinical outcomes with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. 3) To analyze a subgroup of patients with history of drug abuse and drug manufacturing. Retrospective case control study. Patient data associated with accelerant-related burns from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the British Columbia Burn Registry. These patients were compared with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. Clinical outcomes that were evaluated include inhalational injury, ICU length of stay, ventilator support, surgeries needed, and burn complications. Chi-square test was used to evaluate categorical data and Student's t-test was used to evaluate mean quantitative data with the p value set at 0.05. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate factors affecting burn complications. Accelerant-related burns represented 28.2% of all burn admissions (N=532) from 2009 to 2014. The accelerant group had higher percentage of patients with history of drug abuse and was associated with higher TBSA burns, ventilator support, ICU stay and pneumonia rates compared to the non-accelerant group. Within the accelerant group, there was no difference in clinical outcomes amongst people with or without history of drug abuse. Four cases were associated with methamphetamine manufacturing, all of which underwent ICU stay and ventilator support. Accelerant-related burns cause significant burden to the burn center. A significant proportion of these patients have history of drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights

  14. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Comparison of ego defenses among physically abused children, neglected, and non-maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.

  16. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  17. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  18. child sexual abuse in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    This paper bemoans the current scourge of child- sexual abuse as well as the recent .... What we must bear in mind is that these are the. 'reported cases' ..... Plato was trying to advance a theory of motivation for human action and he explains ...

  19. Financial Fraud and Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Allison Dare

    2014-01-01

    A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

  20. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  1. Sharpened legislation on market abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsson, Christian; Andersen, Per Conradi

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with Norway's relationship with the EU directive on market abuse, the dir 2003/6/EC, which instructs the member countries to implement common rules against insider trading and market manipulation in markets for financial instruments. This is very important for the electric power market since regulation of trade with power derivatives will be much more comprehensive than before

  2. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  3. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  4. Feasibility of integrating mental health screening and services into routine elder abuse practice to improve client outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Salamone, Aurora; DePasquale, Alyssa; Halkett, Ashley; Raeifar, Elmira; Banerjee, Samprit; Bruce, Martha L; Raue, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot program was to test the feasibility of mental health screening among elder abuse victims and of offering those victims a brief psychotherapy for depression and anxiety. Elder abuse victims who sought assistance from a large, urban elder abuse service were screened for depression and anxiety using standardized measures. Clients with clinically significant depression (PHQ-9) or anxiety (GAD-7) were randomized to receive one of three different interventions concurrent with abuse resolution services. Staff were able to screen 315 individuals, with 34% of clients scoring positive for depression or anxiety. Of those with mental health needs, only 15% refused all services. The mental health intervention (PROTECT) was successfully implemented in two different formats with collaboration between staff workers. These findings support both the need for mental health care among elder abuse victims and the feasibility of integrating mental health screening and treatment into routine elder abuse practice.

  5. Evidence-Based Approaches to Remedy and Also to Prevent Abuse of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse is a global issue, with an estimated 4–10% of older persons in Canada abused each year. Although Canadian legislation has been created to prevent and punish the abuse of older persons living in nursing homes and other care facilities, community-dwelling older persons are at greater risk of abuse. This paper highlights the importance of evidence-based actions targeted at three determinants of health: (a personal health practices and coping skills, (b social support networks, and (c social environments. Two research studies are profiled as case studies that illustrate the ready possibility and value of two specific types of actions on community-based older-person abuse. This paper argues for the immediate and widespread adoption of these evidence-based measures and for additional empirical evidence to guide the correction of underreporting of abuse, raise awareness of its serious nature, and increase options to not only stop it but ultimately prevent it.

  6. Sexual Abuse in Cameroon: A Four-Year-Old Girl Victim of Rape in Buea Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishugi, John; Franke, Trixy

    2016-01-01

    A young girl was brought to the emergency unit after suffering sexual abuse by an older male. Additional abuses against women and girls include physical beating, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, breast ironing, widow's rites, psychological abuse, and discrimination in education, finance, employment, and legal access. Cameroon has adopted strategies aimed at eliminating violence against women, including ratification of international policies, penal codes, and support of local and international efforts that promote women; however, many of the laws remain in name only and are rarely enforced, given women's lack of financial access to quality lawyers and an unsympathetic male-dominated police force. Underreporting and culturally accepted abuses remain a challenge, too, as the country seeks to understand the extent of abuses and how to effectively fight against them. A complete paradigm shift in cultural attitude toward the female gender is required for abuses to cease.

  7. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  8. Clerical Child Abuse – The Irish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Murphy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland has been overwhelmed in the past two decades by what the Catholic Church itself has called ‘a tsunami’ of revelations of clerical child abuse – physical as well as sexual – of the meticulous concealment of abuse and abusers and of a long-established, and almost universal policy of protecting the assets and reputation of the Church, in preference to exposing the abusers.Between 2006 and 2009 Judge Yvonne Murphy chaired a Commission of Inquiry into the child sex abuse scandal in the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.

  9. Emergency department-based interventions for women suffering domestic abuse: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sereena; Boyle, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Domestic abuse represents a serious public health and human rights concern. Interventions to reduce the risk of abuse include staff training and standardized documentation improving detection and adherence to referral pathways. Interventional studies have been conducted in primary care, maternity and outpatient settings. Women disclosing abuse in emergency departments differ from women attending other healthcare settings, and it is unclear whether these interventions can be transferred to the emergency care setting. This review examines interventional studies to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency department-based interventions in reducing domestic abuse-related morbidity. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched, according to prespecified selection criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 273 search results, nine were eligible for review. Interventions involving staff training demonstrated benefits in subjective measures, such as staff knowledge regarding abuse, but no changes in clinical practice, based on detection and referral rates. When staff training was implemented in conjunction with supporting system changes - for example, standardized documentation for assessment and referral - clinically relevant improvements were noted. Interventions centred around staff training are insufficient to bring about improvements in the management and, thus, outcome of patients suffering abuse. Instead, system changes, such as standardized documentation and referral pathways, supported by training, may bring about beneficial changes. It remains uncertain whether surrogate outcomes employed by most studies translate to changes in abuse-related morbidity: the ultimate goal.

  10. Neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse: a population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yamaoka, Yui; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between neighborhood social capital and infant physical abuse using a population-based sample of women with 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to women who participated in a 4-month health checkup program (n = 1277; valid response rate, 80 %). We inquired about their perceptions of the level of trust in their neighborhood (an indicator of "social capital") as well as the availability of support from their personal social networks. Infant physical abuse during the past month was assessed by self-reports of spanking, shaking or smothering. The prevalence of infant physical abuse at 4 months of age was 9.0 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 7.6-10.7 %). Women living in trusting neighborhoods were less likely to report infant physical abuse compared to those living in areas with low neighborhood trust (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95 % CI 0.06-0.97). In addition, women with supportive social networks were less likely to report infant physical abuse (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99). In addition to one's personal social network, social trust in the neighborhood was independently associated with lowered risk of infant physical abuse. To prevent infant abuse, interventions should consider strengthening community social bonds in addition to strengthening the social network of isolated mothers.

  11. Child Abuse: Abused all the way but determined not to abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a 14-year old girl who was abused right from infancy through childhood, pregnancy labour and immediate post-partum period, and management of both the child mother and her baby is presented. Information was obtained both retrospectively and prospectively. Tender loving care to the child mother and her ...

  12. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  13. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  14. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-04

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult...... and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24). Women...... expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3). Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416...

  16. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...

  17. Hispanic women's experiences with substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and risk for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.

  18. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.

  19. Association between elder abuse and poor sleep: A cross-sectional study among rural older Malaysians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudah Mohd Yunus

    Full Text Available To examine the association between elder abuse and poor sleep using a Malay validated version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI.This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the construct validity and reliability of the Malay version of PSQI. Phase II was a population-based, cross-sectional study with a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Home-based interviews were conducted by trained personnel using a structured questionnaire, to determine exposure and outcome.Kuala Pilah, a district in Negeri Sembilan which is one of the fourteen states in Malaysia.1648 community-dwelling older Malaysians.The Malay version of PSQI had significant test re-test reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.62. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that one factor PSQI scale with three components (subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep disturbances was most suitable. Cronbach's Alpha was 0.60 and composite reliability was 0.63. PSQI scores were highest among neglect (4.11, followed by physical (4.10, psychological (3.96 and financial abuse (3.60. There was a dose-response relationship between clustering of abuse and PSQI scores; 3.41, 3.50 and 3.84 for "no abuse", "1 type of abuse" and "2 types or more". Generalized linear models revealed six variables as significant determinants of sleep quality-abuse, co-morbidities, self-rated health, income, social support and gait speed. Among abuse subtypes, only neglect was significantly associated with poor sleep.The Malay PSQI was valid and reliable. Abuse was significantly associated with poor sleep. As sleep is essential for health and is a good predictor for mortality among older adults, management of abuse victims should entail sleep assessment. Interventions or treatment modalities which focus on improving sleep quality among abuse victims should be designed.

  20. Design and implementation of an empowerment model to prevent elder abuse: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Mostafaei, Davoud; Khanjani, Narges; Khalifehkandi, Zahra Rahimi; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Aghababaeian, Hamidreza; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Older adults are more vulnerable to health risks than younger people and may get exposed to various dangers, including elder abuse. This study aimed to design and implement an empowerment educational intervention to prevent elder abuse. This parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014-2016 for 18 months on 464 older adults aged above 60 years who visited health houses of 22 municipalities in Tehran. Data were collected using standard questionnaires, including the Elder Abuse-Knowledge Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Behavior Questionnaire, Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, Barriers to Healthy Lifestyle, Perceived Social Support, Perceived Self-Efficacy, Loneliness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the SCARED (stress, coping, argument, resources, events, and dependence) tool. The intervention was done in twenty 45- to 60-minute training sessions over 6 months. Data analysis were performed using χ 2 tests, multiple linear and logistic regression, and structural equation modeling (SEM). The frequency of knowledge of elder abuse, self-efficacy, social support and health promoting lifestyle before the intervention was similar in the two groups. However, the frequency of high knowledge of elder abuse (94.8% in the intervention group and 46.6% in the control group), high self-efficacy (82.8% and 7.8%, respectively), high social support (97.0% and 10.3%, respectively) and high health promoting lifestyle (97.0% and 10.3%, respectively) was significantly higher ( P elder abuse risk (28.0% and 49.6%, respectively) was significantly less in the intervention group after the intervention. SEM standardized beta (Sβ) showed that the intervention had the highest impact on increase social support (Sβ=0.80, β=48.64, SE=1.70, P elder abuse risk was indirect and significant (Sβ=-0.406, β=-0.340, SE=0.03, P elder abuse.

  1. Readiness and barriers to adopt evidence-based practices for substance abuse treatment in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Horigian, Viviana E.; Espinal, Paula S.; Alonso, Elizabeth; Verdeja, Rosa E.; Duan, Rui; Usaga, Ingrid M.; Pérez-López, Alejandro; Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo; Feaster, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Evidence shows a lag in adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for substance abuse treatment and supports the need for studying the factors involved in this worldwide problem. Objective: This study aimed to assess the readiness and barriers to adopt EBPs for substance abuse in a sample of outpatient treatment centers of a newly created Mexican Clinical Trials Network. Method: An online survey was administered to directors (n = 8) and clinicians (n = 40) from se...

  2. Physical violence and psychological abuse among siblings :a theoretical and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Kristi L.

    1996-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates a theoretical model based on social learning, conflict, and feminist perspectives to explain teenage sibling physical violence and psychological abuse. Using regression analysis and data from 796 young adults, considerable support is found for all three theoretical approaches and suggests an integrated model best predicts acts of violence and abuse among siblings. For physical violence, males and brothers had significantly higher rates. Spousal...

  3. A GENTLER GESTALT THERAPY: ON REDUCING STIMULATION IN ADULT SURVIVORS OF ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lapides

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult survivors of abuse require a slower progression in treatment. Profoundly abused patients suffering from pre-oedipal conditions may become overstimulated using gestalt methods. This paper will focus on reducing stimulation in the patient using methods borrowed from modern psychoanalysis, which was developed by Hyman Spotnitz. The author argues for a combined approach that emphasizes support rather then frustration in the development of the treatment process.

  4. Combating the corporate paper war: Electronic mail abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Botha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research was to investigate the mailing practices and filing methods in a computer support or administrative environment involving the resulting abuse of paper. In applied research, an exploratory investigation focused on selected higher education institutions in Gauteng with a structured questionnaire as measuring instrument. In the analysis and interpretations of the findings, correlation and cross-tabulation on all sets of variables determined whether any meaningful associations could be found. The investigation indicated that the war against paper abuse is not over by any means. Perceptions regarding a paperless office and assumptions that technology could assist organisations to combat paper abuse were unfounded, mainly because of a lack of guidance, training interventions and control measures. Consequently, follow-up research is presently conducted whereby models will be designed and implemented concomitant with specified computer software features in order to counteract the abuse of paper and facilitate the effective use of information and communication technology interfaced work processes and procedures. This article focuses only on the electronic mail and filing components of the investigation.

  5. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-02-01

    To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a control sample of parents from the general population (n = 100, 45 men and 55 women) with children of elementary school age. General Information Questionnaire, Child Abuse Experience Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) Clinical Abuse Scale were used. Total results on the Clinical Abuse Scale of the CAPI indicated higher risk of child physical abuse in parents with MADD (273.3 ± 13.6) and in fathers with PTSD (333.21 ± 17.98) than in parents from the general population (79.6 ± 9.9) (F = 110.40, P < 0.001; tPTSD,MADD = 13.73, P < 0.001). A hierarchical regression analysis showed that the greatest predictors in the multivariate model were mental health difficulties, poorer economic status, poor social support, and physical and verbal aggression in partner conflicts. Parents with MADD and PTSD exhibit high risk of child abuse. Since parents with PTSD have significantly higher risk of child abuse than parents with MADD, further large-sample research is needed to clarify the relationship between PTSD intensity and the risk of child abuse.

  6. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  7. ILLICIT DOPAMINE TRANSIENTS: RECONCILING ACTIONS OF ABUSED DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abuse...

  8. Radiation abuse and its effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halm, A

    1976-06-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays.

  9. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  10. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  11. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G.; Casteels, I.

    2002-01-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  12. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view. (U.K.)

  13. Prediction of postpartum weight in low-income Mexican-origin women from childhood experiences of abuse and family conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Jewell, Shannon L.; MacKinnon, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The postpartum period represents a crucial transition period in which weight gain or loss can affect lifetime obesity risk. This study examined the prevalence of obesity and the influence of childhood abuse and family conflict on postpartum weight among low-income Mexican-origin women. Depressive symptoms and partner support were evaluated as mediators. Methods At a prenatal assessment, low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; mean age = 27.8; SD = 6.5) reported on childhood abuse and family conflict. Weight was measured seven times between 6 weeks and 2 years postpartum and calculated as body mass index (BMI). Regression and growth models were used to estimate the impact of childhood abuse, childhood family conflict, partner support, and depressive symptoms on weight and weight change. Results Higher family conflict predicted higher weight across the first (β = .12, p = .037) and second (β = .16, p = .012) postpartum years. Family conflict (β = .17; p = .018) and low partner support (β = −.16, p = .028) also predicted increasing weight in the first year. Partner support partially mediated the effect of childhood abuse on weight change in the first year (p = .031). Depressive symptomatology mediated the effects of childhood abuse and family conflict on weight status in the second year (abuse: p = .005; conflict: p = .023). Conclusions For low-income Mexican-origin women with a history of childhood abuse or high family conflict, depression and low partner support may be important targets for obesity prevention efforts in the postpartum period. PMID:27583713

  14. Differentiating corporal punishment from physical abuse in the prediction of lifetime aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Ratzak, Abrianna; Ballantyne, Sage; Knutson, Shane; Russell, Tiffany D; Pogalz, Colton R; Breen, Cody M

    2018-05-01

    Corporal punishment and parental physical abuse often co-occur during upbringing, making it difficult to differentiate their selective impacts on psychological functioning. Associations between corporal punishment and a number of lifetime aggression indicators were examined in this study after efforts to control the potential influence of various forms of co-occurring maltreatment (parental physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, sibling abuse, peer bullying, and observed parental violence). College students (N = 1,136) provided retrospective self-reports regarding their history of aggression and levels of exposure to childhood corporal punishment and maltreatment experiences. Analyses focused on three hypotheses: 1) The odds of experiencing childhood physical abuse would be higher among respondents reporting frequent corporal punishment during upbringing; 2) Corporal punishment scores would predict the criterion aggression indices after control of variance associated with childhood maltreatment; 3) Aggression scores would be higher among respondents classified in the moderate and elevated corporal punishment risk groups. Strong support was found for the first hypothesis since the odds of childhood physical abuse recollections were higher (OR = 65.3) among respondents who experienced frequent (>60 total disciplinary acts) corporal punishment during upbringing. Partial support was found for the second and third hypotheses. Dimensional and categorical corporal punishment scores were associated significantly with half of the criterion measures. These findings support efforts to dissuade reliance on corporal punishment to manage child behavior. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Language Problems Among Abused and Neglected Children: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Bussières, Ève-Line; Bouchard, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Research data show that exposure to abuse and neglect has detrimental effects on a child's language development. In this meta-analysis, we analyze studies (k = 23), to compare the language skills (receptive language, expressive language, pragmatics) of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect with the language skills of children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect and to examine whether age or type of maltreatment moderate the relationship between maltreatment and language skills. Results confirm that the language skills of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect are delayed when compared to children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect. Compared to older children, young children seem particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. No significant differences were demonstrated concerning the type of maltreatment suffered by the child. These findings support the necessity of early detection of language problems in abused and neglected children as well as early intervention in order to implement interventions that will positively stimulate their development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and work environment of early career registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budin, Wendy C; Brewer, Carol S; Chao, Ying-Yu; Kovner, Christine

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and demographic characteristics, work attributes, and work attitudes of early career registered nurses (RNs). Data are from the fourth wave of a national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. The final analytic sample included 1,407 RNs. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample, analysis of variance to compare means, and chi square to compare categorical variables. RNs reporting higher levels of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues were more likely to be unmarried, work in a hospital setting, or work in a non-magnet hospital. They also had lower job satisfaction, and less organizational commitment, autonomy, and intent to stay. Lastly, they perceived their work environments unfavorably. Data support the hypothesis that early career RNs are vulnerable to the effects of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. Although more verbal abuse is seen in environments with unfavorable working conditions, and RNs working in such environments tend to have less favorable work attitudes, one cannot assume causality. It is unclear if poor working conditions create an environment where verbal abuse is tolerated or if verbal abuse creates an unfavorable work environment. There is a need to develop and test evidence-based interventions to deal with the problems inherent with verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Nurse case management for pregnant women experiencing or at risk for abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Mary Ann; Durham, Laurel; Bullock, Linda; Bloom, Tina; Davis, Jan

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether individualized nursing case management can decrease stress among pregnant women at risk for or in abusive relationships. A multisite randomized controlled trial. Two prenatal clinics in the Pacific Northwest and rural Midwest. 1,000 women who spoke English and were 13 to 23 weeks pregnant at time of recruitment. All intervention group women (N = 499) were offered an abuse video and had access to a nurse case manager 24/7. Additionally, participants at risk for or in abusive relationships received individualized nursing care management throughout the pregnancy. The most frequent nursing care management activities were providing support (38%) and assessing needs (32%). The nursing care management group received an average of 22 contacts, most (80%) by telephone and had a significant reduction in stress scores as measured by the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile. Compared to the control group, the differences were in the predicted direction, but not statistically different. A major finding was the choice by abused women to focus on basic needs and their pregnancies rather than the abuse, although all received safety planning. Pregnant women at risk for or in abusive relationships experience very stressful and complex lives. Nurses need to focus on the needs they identify, which may not be the abusive relationship.

  18. Preventing abuse to pregnant women: implementation of a "mentor mother" advocacy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Wiist, W

    1997-01-01

    Abuse to pregnant women is common and can result in complications to maternal and child health. Although screening and detection of abuse in primary health care settings is becoming more commonplace, intervention models that include community outreach have not been developed or tested. An advocacy model was developed and tested for pregnant abused women by melding research on advocacy programs for abused women exiting shelters with the principles of home visitation used to improve outcomes to pregnant women. Advocacy was offered by "mentor mothers," who were residents of the project's service area. The advocacy consisted of weekly social support, education, and assisted referrals to pregnant women identified as abused as part of routine screening offered at the first prenatal visit to a public health clinic. Effectiveness of the advocacy intervention was measured as contact success rate, number and type of advocacy contacts, and number and type of referrals made to the first 100 women to complete the advocacy program. The mentor mother advocates were successful in contacting the abused woman 33% of the time, regardless of whether a telephone call, home visitation, or in-person meeting was attempted. The average number of advocacy contacts was 9.2 (SD = 7.6) with the majority (74%) being via the telephone. The average number of referrals per woman was 8.6 (SD = 7.6) with the largest percentage (38%) being for medical services. Outreach advocacy as an intervention model for pregnant abused women is recommended.

  19. Parental consanguinity and susceptibility to drug abuse among offspring, a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh

    2010-11-30

    Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. It is well established that consanguinity is a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcome of offspring. In the present case-control study we tested the hypothesis of an association between parental consanguinity marriages and risk of offspring substance abuse. The study was performed in Shiraz (Fars province, Iran). Here 156 male drug abusers (case group) and 264 randomly selected healthy blood donors, matched for age and gender as control group, were included in the study. The prevalence of parental consanguineous marriages in the studied sample was 39.1 and 28.0% among cases and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The substance abusers were more smokers and drinkers compared with the control group. There was significant negative linear trend between drug abuse and level of education. The participants stratified using drinking habits and then the analysis was carried out separately for drinker and non-drinker subjects. Among drinkers, neither before nor after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguinity did not show association with risk of substance abuse. Among non-drinkers, after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with increased risk of substance abuse. Our study supports a significant relationship between parental consanguinity and drug abuse among non-drinker subjects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral health-related quality of life in Brazilian child abuse victims: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Júnior, Ivam Freire; Hartwig, Andréia Drawanz; Stüermer, Vanessa Müller; Demarco, Giulia Tarquínio; Goettems, Marília Leão; Azevedo, Marina Sousa

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to assess and compare Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in child abuse victims and non-abused children in a Southern Brazilian city. The study compared two independent samples of children aged 8-10 years: 48 child abuse victims recruited from a centre for Child and Adolescent Psychological Support (NACA) for abused children, and 144 public and private school students. Data collection consisted of administration of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8-10 (CPQ 8-10 ) to measure OHRQoL (dependent variable), clinical examination (dental caries), and collection of socioeconomic and demographic information (age, sex, skin colour, family income, and type of school). Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between presence of abuse and OHRQoL and subscales. After adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic variables, child abuse victims were found to exhibit higher CPQ scores on the overall scale and on the oral symptoms and functional limitations subscales. In conclusion, child abuse victims have a higher impact on OHRQoL. Based on the results, it is possible to suggest that greater care should be taken of these children, not only in providing treatment for oral disorders, but also in providing interdisciplinary care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental trajectories of abuse--an hypothesis for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Caley

    2013-11-01

    The United States has a high rate of child maltreatment, with nearly 12 in 1000 children being victims of abuse or neglect. Child abuse strongly predicts negative life outcomes, especially in areas of emotional and mental health. Abused children are also more likely than their peers to engage in violence and enter the juvenile justice system, as well as to become abusive parents themselves. Research has shown that child abuse and trauma can lead to decreased hippocampal volume, which could be indicative of abnormal hippocampal development. Hippocampal development appears to directly affect the development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain area responsible for emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, and general executive function. Therefore, I hypothesize that if child abuse results in abnormal hippocampal development, which leads to abnormal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex development, many of the correlated risk factors of child abuse, such as emotionally-laden parenting and unfavorable cognitive distortions regarding children's behaviors, may be in part caused by underdevelopment or abnormal functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as a function of the individual's own experiences with abuse during childhood. If this hypothesis is supported with future research, more targeted, successful, and cost-effective prevention and treatment protocols could ensue. For instance, programs that have been empirically shown to increase the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, could be effective in decreasing the incidence of intergenerational transfer of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Substance abuse: medical and slang terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Humera; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Vandeveir, Keith

    2005-03-01

    Substance abuse is among one of the major problems plaguing our society. It has come to the attention of several healthcare professionals that a communication gap exists between themselves and substance abusers. Most of the time the substance abusers are only familiar with the slang terms of abused substances, a terminology that medical professionals are usually unaware of. This paper is an attempt to close that communication gap, allowing health care professionals to understand the slang terminology that their patients use, thus enabling them to make appropriate treatment decisions. In addition, the article presents some key features (including active ingredient, pharmacological classification, medical use, abuse form, usage method, combinations used, effects sought, long-term possible effects, and detectability in urine) of the most commonly abused substances.

  3. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  4. A Profile of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas, Paul

    A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…

  5. A Survey of Abuse of the Elderly in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeff; And Others

    Many elderly persons suffer abuse and neglect from which they cannot escape. Questions concerning the extent of elder abuse, the kinds of abuse, and underlying factors associated with elder abuse in Texas were explored in a survey of professionals most likely to encounter elder abuse in their work. Questionnaires (1,508) were mailed to agencies…

  6. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  7. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  8. Abusive Supervision and Subordinate Performance : Instrumentality Considerations in the Emergence and Consequences of Abusive Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Lam, Catherine K.; van der Vegt, Geert; Huang, X.; Miao, Q.

    Drawing from moral exclusion theory, this article examines outcome dependence and interpersonal liking as key boundary conditions for the linkage between perceived subordinate performance and abusive supervision. Moreover, it investigates the role of abusive supervision for subordinates' subsequent,

  9. The dentist's role in recognizing childhood abuses: study on the dental health of children victims of abuse and witnesses to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecchi, P P; Di Trani, M; Sarzi Amadè, D; Bufacchi, C; Montecchi, F; Polimeni, A

    2009-12-01

    Up to today, little attention and training has been paid, in the Italian dental field, to a dramatically widespread problem, childhood abuse and neglect (CAN). Our research fits into a current of thought on alerting physicians, not only paediatricians, to the problem of abused children. Violence is often part of neglect and carelessness toward children, and it often also concerns their personal hygiene and health care. Aim of our study was to verify the hypothesis that dental neglect, intended as a specific form of neglect, is often associated to other types of neglect, and therefore it could represent an important sign in identifying childhood abuse and neglect situations. These were investigated through the comparison between a group of children with psychological disorder and a control group, as far as their dental health is concerned. Our results indicate that the abused children show: a significantly higher dental plaque index (p=.02); a higher gingival inflammation (p =.2); a higher number of untreated decays (p=.004); more evidences of neglect (p = .0002). Additionally, the abused subjects were less cooperative during dental visits (p=.0005). Our data support the hypothesis that the abused children in our group are, both under the hygiene point of view and access to treatment, more neglected by their caregivers.

  10. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2008-10-01

    Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  11. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  12. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulani, Fenika; Purwanto, Bernadinus M; Handoko, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000) abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000) was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about superviso...

  13. Abuse and maltreatment in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martins

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We found that the abuse and mistreatment are present in the everyday life of many seniors and are a difficult subject to approach. The evidence, invite us to reflect on the development of intervention strategies, particularly at the levels of emotional abuse, neglect, promotion of health and family functioning in order to contribute to the reduction or extinction of abuse and ill-treatment in the elderly.

  14. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  15. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Salter; Selda Dagistanli

    2015-01-01

    Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ...

  16. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  17. Prevention and early identification of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  19. Imaging and Diagnosis of Physical Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marlene M

    2017-09-01

    Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  20. Economic abuse in Lebanon: experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Makarem, Nisrine N; Habib, Rima R

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the experiences and perceptions of Lebanese women and men with economic abuse. Data were drawn from focus group discussions and face-to-face interviews with men, women and social workers. The findings reveal that Lebanese women experience many forms of economic abuse, including the withholding of earnings, restricted involvement in the labor force, and limited purchasing decisions. Inheritance laws and practices still favor men over women. Women tolerate economic abuse to avoid more serious forms of abuse and ensure family stability. Practical implications of the findings are presented.

  1. Relationships with clinical staff after a diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with patients' experience of care and abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Holcombe, Christopher; Clark, Louise; Krespi, Rita; Fisher, Jean; Hill, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    Patients experiencing the crisis of the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer need to form trusting and supportive relationships with clinical staff. However, adverse childhood experiences damage the ability to form supportive relationships as adults. We tested the prediction that women recalling childhood abuse and lack of parental care would experience poorer support from clinical staff caring for them around the time of diagnosis and surgical treatment of breast cancer. Two to 4 days after surgery, women with primary breast cancer (N=355) self-reported: childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and parental care; perceived social support; support experienced from the surgeon and breast and ward nurses; and current emotional distress. Logistic regression analyses and covariance structure modeling tested the dependence of perceived professional support on childhood abuse and care and on current social support, controlling for emotional distress and age. Women who reported feeling fully supported by clinical staff were more likely to recall no abuse and good parental care. The influence of parental care, but not abuse, was explained by its association with experiencing good social support generally, which was itself associated with feeling fully supported by clinical staff. These relationships were independent of current emotional distress. Patients' ability to feel fully supported by clinical staff reflects not only how much support staff make available but also patients' experience of close relationships in childhood. We suggest that, whereas lack of parental care compromises adult supportive relationships in general, abuse specifically reduces support from clinical staff.

  2. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  3. Estimating attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed "abuse-deterrent" prescription opioid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Folensbee, Lesley; Chang, Alan; Katz, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    The present study builds on research to model abusers' perceptions of particular analgesics' attractiveness for abuse and extends these methods to derive an estimate of attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) of a prescription opioid (Remoxy), Pain Therapeutics, Inc., San Mateo, CA, and King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN). In a previous study, the Opioid Attractiveness Technology Scaling (OATS) method identified, from a drug abuser's point of view, the particular features of a prescription opioid relevant to its attractiveness for recreational use. A second online sample rated the extent to which these features applied to particular products they had actually used/abused. These data were used to model the abusers' overall preference for prescription opioids they had used/abused. In the present study, this method was applied to a not-yet-marketed ADF using substance abuse counselors as proxies for prescription opioid abusers. Thirty-eight counselors were given materials describing the new ADF along with four known products. Thirty-two counselors demonstrated sufficient agreement with abusers' ratings of the overall attractiveness of these drugs. The overall model yielded a significant pseudo R(2) of 0.15 (P marketing estimates of attractiveness for abuse of not-yet-marketed ADFs.

  4. Imaging of Neonatal Child Abuse with an Emphasis on Abusive Head Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Spevak, Melissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a serious clinical and socioeconomic problem that is sometimes underestimated. One of the most devastating forms is abusive head trauma. This review addresses the radiological workup in cases of suspected child abuse. The use of all modalities, and their advantages and

  5. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  6. Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Domestic abuse is a worldwide public health issue with long-term health and social consequences. Nurses play a key role in recognizing and responding to domestic abuse. Yet there is considerable evidence that their responses are often inappropriate and unhelpful, such as trivializing or ignoring the abuse. Empirical studies have identified several reasons why nurses' responses are sometimes wanting. These include organizational constraints, e.g. lack of time and privacy; and interpersonal factors such as fear of offending women and lack of confidence. We propose, however, that these factors present only a partial explanation. Drawing on the work of Julia Kristeva, we suggest that alternative understandings may be derived through applying the concept of abjection. Abjection is a psychological defence against any threat (the abject) to the clean and proper self that results in rejection of the abject. Using examples from our own domestic abuse research, we contend that exposure of nurses to the horror of domestic abuse evokes a state of abjection. Domestic abuse (the abject) transgresses established social boundaries of clean and proper. Thus when exposed to patients' and clients' experiences of it, some nurses subconsciously reject domestic abuse as a possibility (abjection). They do this to protect themselves from the horror of the act, but in so doing, render themselves unable to formulate appropriate responses. Rather than understanding the practice of some nurses as wilfully neglectful or ignorant, we argue that through a state of abjection, they are powerless to act. This does not refute existing evidence about nurses' responses to domestic abuse. Rather, as a relatively unknown concept in nursing, abjection provides an additional explanatory layer that accounts for why some nurses respond the way they do. Crucially, it elucidates the need for nurses to be supported emotionally when faced with the transgressive practice of abuse. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review.Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation.The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1 addressed a response (e.g., an intervention to elder abuse, 2 contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3 were available in English.The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics.649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser;physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations.To address the lack of evidence to

  8. [Domestic elder abuse and neglect--conclusions from the evaluation of a model project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2005-02-01

    The main task of a federally funded model project in the German city of Hannover was to develop approaches for prevention and intervention in the field of domestic elder abuse. Over a three year period (1998-2001), different approaches--like a telephone helpline for senior citizens, and social workers operating as counsellors for elderly people and their relatives--were tested at a local level. The paper presents results from the evaluation of the project and draws conclusions for future prevention and intervention in the field. The authors argue that the explicit use of the conceptual framework of "violence"/"abuse" creates potentials for scandalizing the issue and is therefore supportive for media appearance, whereas it can impede the approach to the main target groups (elderly people and their relatives) and reduce accessibility of counselling services for potential clients. In the light of evaluation results the focus of the project ("domestic elder abuse" or "violence against elderly people in close relationships") was too narrow for a local project. Counselling services were used in a relatively small number of cases; analyses of cases show that incidents of domestic elder abuse are often embedded in complex problem constellations. Cases brought to the attention of the model project were multifaceted and not limited to incidents of neglect and abuse of elderly care recipients caused by caregiver overload. Cases of intimate violence in partnerships and of intergenerational violence without any of the participants being dependent on care show the need to develop a broader concept of domestic elder abuse. Integration of the concepts of domestic violence, violence against women, elder abuse/neglect and abuse/neglect in caregiving relationships is necessary on a conceptual level as well as on the level of interagency cooperation of institutions dealing with cases of "elder abuse".

  9. The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among california women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.

  10. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  11. Family Resilience Resources in Coping With Child Sexual Abuse in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Theresa; Greeff, Abraham P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify resources of family resilience that help families cope with child sexual abuse. Data were collected from a purposeful sample of parents representing nine poor families living in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The narratives of the participants were analyzed thematically. The results indicate that the families, despite adverse situations, utilized internal and external resilience resources. Internal resources were the parents' relationship with their children, their own emotional functioning and attitudes, the children's ability to cope with the abuse, boundaries in the family, insight into their children's emotional needs, and sibling relationships. External family resources were the support of extended family members, friends, and a local community-based nonprofit organization working with child sexual abuse and schools. The empowering role of the identified resources for family resilience should be enhanced in interventions, while future studies could further explore these aspects in families confronted with child sexual abuse.

  12. A study on substance abuse among school going male adolescents of Doiwala Block, District Dehradun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vartika; Saxena, Yogesh; Kishore, Gaurav; Kumar, Pratap

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent boys are recognized as a vulnerable group to substance abuse. The present study has the objective to study the biosocial profile and habit pattern of substance abusers. The study was conducted on 511 male adolescents, students of 10 th to 12 th class from the four intermediate schools of the Doiwala block of Dehradun district. 46.9% students accepted substance abuse. In 75.5% cases, friends were providing the substances. 80.2% substance abusers expressed their desire to quit the habit. The study is indicative of need for developing a supportive environment involving both parents and teachers so that adolescent can decide and sustain with the right choices for healthy life.

  13. Substance abuse treatment management information systems: balancing federal, state, and service provider needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J M; Krakow, M; McCarty, D; Argeriou, M

    1992-01-01

    There is increased interest in documenting the characteristics and treatment outcomes of clients served with Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Block Grant funds. The evolution of federal client-based management systems for substance abuse treatment services demonstrates that data collection systems are important but require continued support. A review of the Massachusetts substance abuse management information system illustrates the utility of a client-based data set. The development and implementation of a comprehensive information system require overcoming organizational barriers and project delays, fostering collaborative efforts among staff from diverse agencies, and employing considerable resources. In addition, the need to develop mechanisms for increasing the reliability of the data and ongoing training for the users is presented. Finally, three applications of the management information system's role in shaping policy are reviewed: developing services for special populations (communities of color, women, and pregnant substance abusers, and injection drug users), utilizing MIS data for evaluation purposes, and determining funding allocations.

  14. Personal contextual characteristics and cognitions: predicting child abuse potential and disciplinary style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-02-01

    According to Social Information Processing theory, parents' cognitive processes influence their decisions to engage in physical maltreatment, although cognitions occur in the context of other aspects of the parents' life. The present study investigated whether cognitive processes (external locus of control, inappropriate developmental expectations) predicted child abuse potential and overreactive disciplinary style beyond personal contextual factors characteristic of the parent (hostility, stress, and coping). 363 parents were recruited online. Results highlight the relative importance of the contextual characteristics (particularly stress, avoidant coping, and irritability) relative to cognitive processes in predicting abuse potential and overreactive discipline strategies, although an external locus of control also significantly contributed. Findings do not support that parents' developmental expectations uniquely predict elevated abuse risk. Results indicate stressed parents who utilize avoidance coping strategies are more likely to use overreactive discipline and report increased abuse potential. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention/intervention efforts.

  15. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, T A

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  16. Radiation abuse and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halm, A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays. (author)

  17. Abuse Is Abuse: The Influence of Type of Abuse, Victim Age, and Defendant Age on Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.

  18. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Conclusions- Sexual abuse against male children around Merkato area is rampant, but received less or no attention ..... abusers and started protecting myself from such abuse. Figure 1: .... Then I ran away fast with determination and without.

  19. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)

  20. SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS: THE NEED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY TERMS: Sexual abuse, social work, social exchange theory, Botswana. ... The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... to leave an abusive relationship when the costs of the relationship outweigh ...

  1. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... to curb college alcohol abuse. NIAAA Tools You Can Use The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ...

  2. Prevalence And Determinants Of Drug Abuse Among Youths In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug abuse is a global public health problem that impacts negatively on health, ... and Marijuana and farming occupation was a determinant of drug abuse. ... area, there is need for health education campaigns on harmful effects of drug abuse.

  3. Inhalant-Abuse Myocarditis Diagnosed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsfriend, William; Rao, Krishnasree; Matulevicius, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Multiple reports of toxic myocarditis from inhalant abuse have been reported. We now report the case of a 23-year-old man found to have toxic myocarditis from inhalation of a hydrocarbon. The diagnosis was made by means of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with delayed enhancement. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance to diagnose myocarditis has become increasingly common in clinical medicine, although there is not a universally accepted criterion for diagnosis. We appear to be the first to document a case of toxic myocarditis diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance. In patients with a history of drug abuse who present with clinical findings that suggest myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance can be considered to support the diagnosis.

  4. Effects of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) on Nonopioid Drug Abuse:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to quantitatively synthesize study results.  Results: The search yielded five studies that met inclusion criteria. MDFT was found to be more effective than other treatments on drug abuse problem severity and drug use frequency in the short run but not in the long...... run and demonstrated positive effects on treatment retention compared to control conditions.  Discussion: While additional research is needed, the review offers support for MDFT as a treatment to young nonopioid drug abusers. The number of studies included in this review was limited, however......Purpose: This review evaluates the evidence of the effects of multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) on drug use reduction in young people for the treatment of nonopioid drug use.  Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized...

  5. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  6. [Drug abuse in nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-González, Iria; Bugarín-González, Rosendo; Machín-Fernández, Antonio Javier

    2016-01-01

    To determine the patterns of substance abuse of students attending the Lugo School of Nursing. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in the classroom carried out by survey research in April 2015. 61.5% of students participated (185), 83.2% of whom were females. The first addictive substance consumed by participants was tobacco (at 15 years old). In the last month cigarettes were consumed by 36.2% of students, while alcohol was consumed by 89.9% (58.4% of the total got drunk). 2.2% were consuming tranquilizers/hypnotics in the same time period. The most widely used illegal drug was cannabis (17.8%) and then cocaine (2.2%). There is a significant correlation between illegal drug consumption and being male, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol, living alone or with friends (not family), have poor academic performance and public drinking (botellón). There were no association between illegal drugs and sports or reading. Polydrug use was also studied: a 16.2% declared to have consumed alcohol and cannabis simultaneously, and a 4.9% alcohol and cocaine. Consumption patterns are similar compared to the general population in that age group, with some of them being higher. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures in order to prevent substance abuse at the university level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Tipping Points and the Accommodation of the Abuser: Ongoing Incestuous Abuse during Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Middleton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the widespread reality of ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood had attracted no systematic research. The scientific literature was limited to the occasional case study and brief anecdotal references. This minimal literature was supplemented by biographical works written by or about victims of this form of abuse, and by press reports. With the advent of the Josef Fritzl case there was a very marked increase in the press reporting of such abuse, which in turn provided a reference point for more fine-grained data collection and scientific reporting. This paper introduces the subject of prolonged incest via the lens of organised abuse, summarises research on incestuous abuse and draws on multiple clinical examples to elucidate the mechanisms by which such abuse merges with, or develops into, variations of organised abuse, including that centred on the family, on prostitution, or on that involving abuse networks. The abuse practices, the net-working, and the ploys used to avoid prosecution practiced by the father perpetrating ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood have much in common with other variants of organised sexual abuse.

  8. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  9. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  10. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  11. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  12. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  13. Psychosocial Dysfunction among Adolescents Who Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... ... study was carried out among adolescents selected from five secondary schools in Abakaliki. ... and four students were abusers of one or more substances. ... Psychosocial dysfunction was however not related to age, gender, or social classes in the study population but was related to the abuse of multiple.

  14. Sexual Abuse Trauma Among Chinese Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tsun-yin Echo

    1998-01-01

    This study conducted interviews with 19 survivors of sexual abuse and three social workers in Taiwan. It found sexual stigmatization and feelings of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among the abuse survivors. Effects of cultural attitudes toward sexual victimization of women and Chinese patriarchal familialism are…

  15. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  16. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  18. Child Abuse: The Crying Baby at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, John

    The author considers the relationship between uncontrollable infant crying and child abuse. An integrative scheme is offered from evidence of child abuse literature, experimentally induced infant crying effects, attribution theory, and learned helplessness. It is suggested that infant crying often has causes beyond caregiver control, such as birth…

  19. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  20. Jurors' Reactions to Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L.; Diviak, Kathleen R.; Davis, Suzanne L.

    1997-01-01

    Mock jurors (N=243) rendered judgment about a case involving childhood sexual abuse allegations made with or without allegations of satanic ritual abuse. Although jurors, especially nonreligious jurors, were less likely to believe the satanic ritual allegations than other case details, they were as likely to vote guilty and believe the victim in…