WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse mood disorders

  1. Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They may say they're in a bad mood. A mood disorder is different. It affects a person's everyday emotional state. Nearly one in ten people aged 18 and older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also ...

  2. Does comorbid alcohol and substance abuse affect electroconvulsive therapy outcome in the treatment of mood disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0

  3. Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Anton, Raymond F

    2015-06-01

    Recognition and management of mood symptoms in individuals using alcohol and/or other drugs represent a daily challenge for clinicians in both inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Diagnosis of underlying mood disorders in the context of ongoing substance abuse requires careful collection of psychiatric history, and is often critical for optimal treatment planning and outcomes. Failure to recognize major depression or bipolar disorders in these patients can result in increased relapse rates, recurrence of mood episodes, and elevated risk of completed suicide. Over the past decade, epidemiologic research has clarified the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders in substance-dependent individuals, overturning previous assumptions that depression in these patients is simply an artifact of intoxication and/or withdrawal, therefore requiring no treatment. However, our understanding of the bidirectional relationships between mood and substance use disorders in terms of their course(s) of illness and prognoses remains limited. Like-wise, strikingly little treatment research exists to guide clinical decision making in co-occurring mood and substance use disorders, given their high prevalence and public health burden. Here we overview what is known and the salient gaps of knowledge where data might enhance diagnosis and treatment of these complicated patients.

  4. About Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... About Mood Disorders Marked by changes in mood, depression and ... screening for depression. Bipolar Disorder: More Than a Mood Swing Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) ...

  5. Neurotrophins in the ventral tegmental area: Role in social stress, mood disorders and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, E M; Johnston, C E; Wang, J; Hammer, R P

    2014-12-12

    This review discusses the impact of neurotrophins and other trophic factors, including fibroblast growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, on mood disorders, weight regulation and drug abuse, with an emphasis on stress- and drug-induced changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurotrophins, comprising nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4/5 play important roles in neuronal plasticity and the development of different psychopathologies. In the VTA, most research has focused on the role of BDNF, because other neurotrophins are not found there in significant quantities. BDNF originating in the VTA provides trophic support to dopamine neurons. The diverse intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF may underlie precise physiological functions specific to the VTA. In general, VTA BDNF expression increases after psychostimulant exposures, and enhanced BDNF level in the VTA facilitates psychostimulant effects. The impact of VTA BDNF on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants relies primarily on its action within the mesocorticolimbic circuit. In the case of opiates, VTA BDNF expression and effects seem to be dependent on whether an animal is drug-naïve or has a history of drug use, only the latter of which is related to dopamine mechanisms. Social defeat stress that is continuous in mice or intermittent in rats increases VTA BDNF expression, and is associated with depressive and social avoidance behaviors. Intermittent social defeat stress induces persistent VTA BDNF expression that triggers psychostimulant cross-sensitization. Understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of neurotrophin effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of substance use and mood disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is access to alcohol associated with alcohol/substance abuse among people diagnosed with anxiety/mood disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A L; Bowie, C; Thornton, L E

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between access to off-license alcohol outlets and areas with dual treatment for alcohol/drug abuse and anxiety/mood disorder compared to areas with anxiety/mood disorder only in an urban setting in New Zealand. Ecologic study. Within small areas (2840 meshblocks, mean size 0.05 km(2)) in the city of Auckland, New Zealand, counts of adults receiving anxiety/mood disorder treatment (2008-9) were identified and the proportions of these individuals also receiving treatment for alcohol/drug abuse were generated. Access to off-license alcohol outlets were defined as: 1) shortest road distance from the population-weighted centroid of each small area to an outlet; 2) count of outlets within a 3 km road network buffer; and 3) relative density of outlets across Auckland (determined through kernel density estimates). To test for the relationship between access to alcohol outlets and dual diagnosis, meshblocks without any cases of anxiety/mood disorder were excluded from analyses. Remaining meshblocks were dichotomized into any or no dual diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between access to alcohol outlets and treatment for the dual conditions. Neighbourhoods with dual diagnosis were generally similar to those with anxiety/mood disorder only, in terms of ethnic and gender/age composition. Regression analyses indicated statistically significant decreased risk of dual diagnosis for those areas with the lowest density (using a buffer) of alcohol outlets (OR = 0.75, P-value = 0.027) compared with areas with the highest density, after adjustment for deprivation and population density. All access measures also indicated significant linear trends where dual diagnosis was more likely in areas with greater access. Generally, decreased access to alcohol outlets was associated with decreased odds of dual diagnosis of alcohol/drug abuse and anxiety/mood disorder. Measures to control access to alcohol outlets may be an

  7. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  8. A prospective study examining the effects of gender and sexual/physical abuse on mood outcomes in patients with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S.; McDonald, Leah J.; Graff, Fiona S.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Prior research suggests possible gender differences in the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD). This study prospectively examined gender differences in mood outcomes and tested the effects of sexual/physical abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Participants (49 men, 41 women) with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders (92% alcohol, 42% drug) were enrolled in a group treatment trial. They were followed for 8 months, with monthly assessments, yielding 32 weeks of data. Primary outcome measures were number of weeks in each mood state, recurrences to depression or mania, and polarity shifts from depression to mania or vice versa. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the effects of gender, lifetime abuse, and PTSD on these outcomes. Results Participants met syndromal criteria for a mood episode on a mean of 27% of 32 weeks, with depression occurring most frequently. Compared to men, women reported significantly more weeks of mixed mania (RR = 8.53), fewer weeks of euthymia (RR = 0.58), more recurrences to mania (RR = 1.96), and more direct polarity shifts (RR = 1.49) (all p sexual or physical abuse (68% vs. 33%), which partially explained the relationships between gender and mixed mania and direct polarity shifts. Conclusions Participants experienced persistent mood symptoms over time. Women consistently reported poorer mood outcomes, and lifetime abuse may help explain observed gender differences in mood outcomes. Further research is necessary to better understand the treatment implications of these findings. PMID:19392857

  9. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) No. 110; Updated May 2013 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) is a relatively new diagnosis ...

  10. About Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Podcast Series Q&A Peer Inspiration Life Unlimited Stories Life Unlimited Awards DBSA Honorary Advisory Board I'm Living ... illness marked by extreme changes in mood, thought, energy and behavior. It is called bipolar disorder because ...

  11. Exploratory Study of the Clinical Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with a History of Physical or Sexual Abuse Consulting in a Mood Disorder Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amelie; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Berthiaume, Claude; Balan, Bogdan; Huynh, Christophe; Guile, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal

    2017-07-01

    To examine the clinical characteristics of adolescent girls consulting in a mood disorder clinic with a history of physical or sexual abuse. A retrospective review was conducted of the charts of 55 adolescent girls consulting in a mood disorder clinic. An analysis grid was used to gather data on demographics, personal antecedents, symptoms and diagnoses. Girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse were compared with girls without such a history. Univariate analyses and a logistic regression analysis were performed. Adolescent girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse did not differ statistically from those without such a history in terms of depressive symptoms or type and number of diagnoses. However, proportionally more girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse presented self-harm and relational problems with their parents and peers. Both history of physical or sexual abuse and self-destructive behaviors are rooted in relational problems. The results show that these are related to one another among those adolescent girls. Clinically, these findings suggest that it is important for clinicians do a thorough exploration of self-destructive behaviors and family and peer relations when assessing depressed adolescent girls.

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mood Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Distress - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF What Is Mental Distress - Af-Soomaali (Somali) MP3 EthnoMed Spanish (español) Expand Section Mood Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Trastornos del estado de ánimo: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine ...

  14. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  15. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  16. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  17. Mood disorders and season ofpresentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study of an inpatient sample at Baragwanath Hospital. Mood disorders and season ofpresentation. C.P. SZABO. The relationship between season and nlOod is cmnplex. This study attempts to clarify one aspect ofthe relationship: the impact of season on mood in terms of the hypothesised seasonal variation in.

  18. Binge eating in adults with mood disorders: Results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Soczynska, Joanna K; Maruschak, Nadia A; Syeda, Kahlood; Wium-Andersen, Ida K; Lee, Yena; Cha, Danielle S; Xiao, Holly X; Gallaugher, Laura A; Dale, Roman M; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Muzina, David J; Carvalho, Andre F; Jerrell, Jeanette; Kennedy, Sidney; McIntyre, Roger S

    A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from participants (N=631) with a DSM-IV-TR defined diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. It was determined that 20.6% of adults with mood disorders as part of the IMDCP fulfilled criteria for binge eating behaviour (BE). A higher percentage of individuals with BD met criteria for BE when compared to MDD (25.4% vs. 16%; p=0.004) Univariate analyses indicated that individuals with a mood disorder (i.e., MDD or BD) and BE had greater scores on measures of anxiety severity (p=0.013) and higher rates of lifetime and current substance dependence, lifetime alcohol abuse (p=0.007, p=0.006, and p=0.015, respectively), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (p=0.018) and measures of neuroticism (p=0.019). Individuals with a mood disorder and concurrent BE had lower scores on measures of conscientiousness (p=0.019). Individuals meeting criteria for BE were also significantly more likely to be obese (i.e., BMI≥30kg/m 2 ) (50% vs. 25.5%; peating is common amongst adults utilising tertiary care services principally for a mood disorder. The presence of BE identifies a subset of adults with mood disorders who have greater illness complexity as evidenced by course of illness variables and comorbidity. Screening for BE amongst individuals with mood disorders is warranted; parsing neurobiological substrates subserving non-homeostatic eating behaviour amongst individuals with mood disorders is a future research vista. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  20. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  1. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  2. The influence of early life sexual abuse on oxytocin concentrations and premenstrual symptomatology in women with a menstrually related mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; Pedersen, Cort A; Leserman, Jane; Girdler, Susan S

    2015-07-01

    Oxytocin (OT), associated with affiliation and social bonding, social salience, and stress/pain regulation, may play a role in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, including menstrually-related mood disorders (MRMD's). Adverse impacts of early life sexual abuse (ESA) on adult attachment, affective regulation, and pain sensitivity suggest ESA-related OT dysregulation in MRMD pathophysiology. We investigated the influence of ESA on plasma OT, and the relationship of OT to the clinical phenomenology of MRMD's. Compared to MRMD women without ESA (n=40), those with ESA (n=20) displayed significantly greater OT [5.39pg/mL (SD, 2.4) vs. 4.36pg/mL (SD, 1.1); t (58)=-2.26, p=0.03]. In women with ESA, OT was significantly, inversely correlated with premenstrual psychological and somatic symptoms (r's=-0.45 to -0.64, p'srelationship between OT and premenstrual symptomatology was uniformly low and non-significant in women without ESA. In women with ESA, OT may positively modulate MRMD symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders Depression and bipolar disorder (also known as ... learn more about the signs and symptoms of mood disorders so that you can get the help ...

  4. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  5. Abuse among school going adolescents in three major cities of Pakistan: is it associated with school performances and mood disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Saleem; Khoja, Adeel Akbar; Motwani, Komal

    2015-02-01

    To assess the proportion of various types of abuses and their association with school performances and psychological stress among adolescents from three major cities of Pakistan. The cross-sectional school survey was conducted from March to September 2009, comprising adolescent students at six schools in Karachi, Lahore and Quetta. Data was collected using a self-administered and pre-tested questionnaire by trained medical students. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 414 subjects in the study, there were 223 (54%) boys and 191 (46%) girls with an overall mean age of 14.36 ± 1.08 years. In all, 140 (33.7%) participants were physically abused and 236 (57%) participants were verbally abused in the preceding 12 months. Besides, 245 (59.2%) were involved in physical fight and 195 (47.1%) had suffered injury during the preceding year. There were 171 (41.4%) subjects having suffered bullying during the same period. Verbal abuse (p = 0.05), physical fight (p = 0.05) and bullying (p school performances among adolescents. Physical abuse (p = 0.05), verbal abuse (p = 0.003), injury (p = 0.02) and bullying (p school performance and poor mental health.

  6. [Mood disorders in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; Claes, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The DSM-5 was published in May, 2013. AIM: To discuss and comment on the important changes that appear in the sections of DSM-5 dealing with mood disorders. METHOD: The DSM-5 chapters on mood disorders are reviewed. RESULTS: Bipolar disorders and depressive disorders are now dealt with

  7. Chronobiological therapy for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Alteration of the sleep-wake cycle and of the sleep structure are core symptoms of a major depressive episode, and occur both in course of bipolar disorder and of major depressive disorder. Many other circadian rhythms, such as the daily profiles of body temperature, cortisol, thyrotropin, prolactin, growth hormone, melatonin and excretion of various metabolites in the urine, are disrupted in depressed patients, both unipolar and bipolar individuals. These disrupted rhythms seem to return to normality with patient recovery. Research on circadian rhythms and sleep have led to the definition of nonpharmacological therapies of mood disorder that can be used in everyday practice. These strategies, named chronotherapeutics, are based on controlled exposures to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, and demonstrate good efficacy in the treatment of illness episodes. They include manipulations of the sleep-wake rhythm (such as partial and total sleep deprivation, and sleep phase advance) and of the exposure to the light-dark cycle (light therapy and dark therapy). In recent years, an increasing literature about the safety and efficacy of chronobiological treatments in everyday psychiatric settings has supported the inclusion of these techniques among the first-line antidepressant strategies for patients affected by mood disorders.

  8. Early trauma and mood disorders in youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Elizabeth Konradt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect among young with bipolar disorder (BD, major depression (MDD, and controls. METHOD: Case-control study nested to a population-based cross-sectional study. The diagnosis was performed via the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID. Traumatic events were analyzed using the Portuguese version - Questionário sobre Traumas na Infância (CTQ - based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: The sample comprised 231 adolescents with 95 individuals in the control group, 82 with MDD and 54 with BD (32 of type I and 22 type II. The prevalence of trauma or violence in childhood was 42.2%; among those, 54.7% had BD, 62.2% had MDD and 18.1% were in the control group. Young people with BD or MDD obtained higher means in total CTQ and among their components when compared with those in the control group. DISCUSSION: Reports on early traumatic experiences were more frequent among young people with mood disorders than in the general population, corroborating the literature on the subject. In this sense, the traumatic experiences during childhood seemed to contribute to the onset of the disorder.

  9. Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Botter Maio Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as having its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.

  10. New Therapeutic Targets for Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Machado-Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing pharmacological treatments for bipolar disorder (BPD and major depressive disorder (MDD are often insufficient for many patients. Here we describe a number of targets/compounds that clinical and preclinical studies suggest could result in putative novel treatments for mood disorders. These include: (1 glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 and protein kinase C (PKC, (2 the purinergic system, (3 histone deacetylases (HDACs, (4 the melatonergic system, (5 the tachykinin neuropeptides system, (6 the glutamatergic system, and (7 oxidative stress and bioenergetics. The paper reviews data on new compounds that have shown antimanic or antidepressant effects in subjects with mood disorders, or similar effects in preclinical animal models. Overall, an improved understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of mood disorders is critical in order to develop targeted treatments that are more effective, act more rapidly, and are better tolerated than currently available therapies.

  11. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-07

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of the inflammatory state alteration, highlighted in disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, strongly recalls the microbiota alteration, highly suggesting an important role of the alteration of GI system also in neuropsychiatric disorders. Up to now, available evidences display that the impairment of gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of autism and mood disorders. The application of therapeutic modulators of gut microbiota to autism and mood disorders has been experienced only in experimental settings to date, with few but promising results. A deeper assessment of the role of gut microbiota in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as the advancement of the therapeutic armamentarium for the modulation of gut microbiota is warranted for a better management of ASD and mood disorders.

  12. Mood Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanly, John G; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B

    2015-01-01

    disorders (4 types, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) and 18 other neuropsychiatric events. Global disease activity scores (SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), damage scores (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College...... was associated with Asian race/ethnicity (P = 0.01) and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.003). Mood disorders were associated with lower mental health and mental component summary scores but not with the SLEDAI-2K, SDI, or lupus autoantibodies. Among the 232 patients with depression, 168 (72......OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency, characteristics, and outcome of mood disorders, as well as clinical and autoantibody associations, in a multiethnic/racial, prospective inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Patients were assessed annually for mood...

  13. Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder features in adult mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyu Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Song, Joo Youn; Bang, Yang Weon; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2012-04-01

    A significant overlap between childhood mood disorders and many aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been established. High rates of co-occurrence, familial aggregation, and more severe clinical manifestations of the illnesses when they are comorbid suggest that common genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of both disorders. Research on the co-occurrence of childhood ADHD and mood disorders in childhood has been conducted. We retrospectively investigated childhood ADHD features in adults with mood disorders. Childhood ADHD features were measured with the Korean version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). The sample consisted of 1305 subjects: 108 subjects were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, 41 with bipolar disorder type II, 101 with major depressive disorder, and 1055 served as normal controls. We compared total WURS scores as well as scores on 3 factors (impulsivity, inattention, and mood instability and anxiety) among the 4 different diagnostic groups. The 4 groups differed significantly from one another on all scores. The group with bipolar disorder type II obtained the highest total scores on the WURS. The impulsivity and inattention associated with childhood ADHD were more significantly related to bipolar disorder type II than with bipolar disorder type I. The mood instability and anxiety associated with childhood ADHD seem to be significantly related to major depressive disorder in adulthood. In conclusion, multifactorial childhood ADHD features were associated with mood disorders of adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baweja R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raman Baweja, Susan D Mayes, Usman Hameed, James G Waxmonsky Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. Keywords: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent irritability, temper outbursts 

  15. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: Predictors of current PTSD, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Michael S.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Ironson, Gail H.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Safren, Steven A.; Taylor, S. Wade; Dale, Sannisha K.; Baker, Joshua S.; Wilner, Julianne G.; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46%. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV-prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR: 2.64: CI 1.24 – 5.63), 2 times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02 – 2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04 – 7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56 – 6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16 – 6.36) and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = .02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9 – 8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5 – 10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including PTSD, substance use, and sexual risk taking and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and substance

  16. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Jakob

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable

  17. Progressive multiple sclerosis and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, Lorena; Fenu, G; Trincas, G; Moro, M F; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Cocco, E; Marrosu, M G; Carta, M G

    2015-09-01

    Mood disorders are very common among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but their frequency in patients with progressive course (PMS) has not been adequately researched. Our study aimed to determine the frequency of mood disorders among patients with PMS compared with those with relapsing-remitting MS (RMS) and to explore the associations with disability and disease duration. The study included consecutive outpatients affected by MS according the 2010 revised Mc Donald diagnostic criteria. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined according to DSM-IV by psychiatrists using structured interview tools (ANTAS-SCID). Demographic and clinical data of patients were also collected. Disease courses were defined according to the re-examined phenotype descriptions by the Committee and MS Phenotype Group. Intergroup comparisons were performed by Chi-square test, while logistic regression analysis was performed to assess possible factors associated with mood disorders. In total, 240 MS patients (167 women) were enrolled; of these, 18 % (45/240) had PMS. The lifetime DSM-IV major depression diagnosis (MDD) was established in 40 and 23 % of the PMS and RMS patients, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, the presence of MDD was independent from disease duration and disability and dependent on PMS course (P = 0.02; OR 2.2). Patients with PMS presented with MDD more frequently than those with RMS, independently from disease duration and physical disability. These findings highlight the importance of considering mood disorders, especially MDD, in the management of PMS patients.

  18. Reward Network Immediate Early Gene Expression in Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred J. Robison

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, it has become clear that aberrant function of the network of interconnected brain regions responsible for reward processing and motivated behavior underlies a variety of mood disorders, including depression and anxiety. It is also clear that stress-induced changes in reward network activity underlying both normal and pathological behavior also cause changes in gene expression. Here, we attempt to define the reward circuitry and explore the known and potential contributions of activity-dependent changes in gene expression within this circuitry to stress-induced changes in behavior related to mood disorders, and contrast some of these effects with those induced by exposure to drugs of abuse. We focus on a series of immediate early genes regulated by stress within this circuitry and their connections, both well-explored and relatively novel, to circuit function and subsequent reward-related behaviors. We conclude that IEGs play a crucial role in stress-dependent remodeling of reward circuitry, and that they may serve as inroads to the molecular, cellular, and circuit-level mechanisms of mood disorder etiology and treatment.

  19. Mood disorders and season ofpresentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIe basis for the study was the observation by staff in the Department of Psychiatry at Baragwanath. Hospital that at certain times of the year, specifi- cally in the spring months, patients with bipolar disorder were presenting for admission more frequently. More specifically, it seemed that a 'spring mania' was being observed.

  20. The impact of abuse and mood on bowel symptoms and health-related quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, N; Cassell, B; Bruce, S E; White, K S; Gott, B M; Gyawali, C P; Sayuk, G S

    2016-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common abdominal pain disorder without an organic explanation. Abuse histories (physical, sexual, emotional) are prevalent in IBS. While abuse relates to mood disorders (depression and anxiety) also common in IBS, the influence of abuse on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its independence from psychological symptom comorbidity has not been studied. Consecutive GI outpatients completed the ROME III Research Diagnostic Questionnaire and questionnaires on trauma (Life-Stress Questionnaire), mood (Beck Depression/Anxiety Inventories), somatic symptoms (PHQ-12), and HRQOL (SF-36). Current GI symptom severity and bother were assessed using 10-cm Visual Analog Scales. 272 ROME-defined IBS (47.6 ± 0.9 years, 81% female) and 246 non-FGID (51.6 ± 1.0 years, 65% female) subjects participated. IBS patients reported greater rates of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse (p IBS with abuse. Abuse effects were additive, with greater IBS symptom severity and poorer HRQOL noted in cases with multiple forms of abuse. Mediation analyses suggested that abuse effects on GI symptoms and HRQOL were partially mediated by mood. Abuse experiences common among IBS sufferers are associated with reports of greater GI symptoms and poorer HRQOL, particularly in those with multiple forms of abuse; this relationship may be partially mediated by concomitant mood disturbances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Gut microbiota in autism and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiola, Francesca; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franceschi, Francesco; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of an important role of gut microbiota in the maintenance of physiological state into the gastrointestinal (GI) system is supported by several studies that have shown a qualitative and quantitative alteration of the intestinal flora in a number of gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases. In the last few years, the importance of gut microbiota impairment in the etiopathogenesis of pathology such as autism, dementia and mood disorder, has been raised. The evidence of...

  2. [Drug Abuse Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Óscar Medina

    2012-06-01

    Drug use among patients with bipolar disorder is greater than the one observed in the general population; psychotic episodes are likely to occur after consumption. This has implications in the prevention, etiology, management, and treatment of the disease. Bipolar disorder pathology is likely to have positive response to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, identifying the strategies with better results to be applied in these patients is fundamental for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Review literature in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of drug abuse in patients with bipolar disorder and establish the pharmacological strategies that have produced better results. Literature review. A great variety of studies demonstrate the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use disorder. These patients are hospitalized more frequently, have an earlier onset of the disease, and present a larger number of depressive episodes and suicide attempts which affect the course of the disease. The drug with better results in the treatment of these patients is Divalproate. Satisfactory results have been also obtained with other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Substance abuse is present in a large number of patients with bipolar disorder. The Divalproate is the drug that has shown better results in the studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in children and adolescents. L Scribante. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v15i2.205 · AJOL African Journals ...

  4. Circadian Genes, Rhythms and the Biology of Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McClung, Colleen A.

    2007-01-01

    For many years, researchers have suggested that abnormalities in circadian rhythms may underlie the development of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the treatments that are currently employed to treat mood disorders are thought to act by shifting or “resetting” the circadian clock, including total sleep deprivation and bright light therapy. There is also reason to suspect that many of the mood stabilizers and antide...

  5. Circadian genes, rhythms and the biology of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Colleen A

    2007-05-01

    For many years, researchers have suggested that abnormalities in circadian rhythms may underlie the development of mood disorders such as bipolar disorder (BPD), major depression and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Furthermore, some of the treatments that are currently employed to treat mood disorders are thought to act by shifting or "resetting" the circadian clock, including total sleep deprivation (TSD) and bright light therapy. There is also reason to suspect that many of the mood stabilizers and antidepressants used to treat these disorders may derive at least some of their therapeutic efficacy by affecting the circadian clock. Recent genetic, molecular and behavioral studies implicate individual genes that make up the clock in mood regulation. As well, important functions of these genes in brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with mood regulation are becoming apparent. In this review, the evidence linking circadian rhythms and mood disorders, and what is known about the underlying biology of this association, is presented.

  6. Mood disorders and season of presentation: A preliminary study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between season and mood is complex. This study attempts to clarify one aspect of the relationship: the impact of season on mood in terms of the hypothesised seasonal variation in the presentation of mood disorders at Baragwanath Hospital. Although a preliminary study, the results show a statistically ...

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Aleeze S; Monti, Daniel A; Amsterdam, Jay D; Newberg, Andrew B

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the potential uses of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques for individuals with mood disorders. Mood disorders are among the most prevalent mental health issues today and there are many approaches towards their management. While many different types of medication are available, more and more people turn to CAM interventions to help manage their mood disorders. CAM interventions can include herbal remedies, acupuncture and meditation. There is an increasing number of research studies on CAM intervention in mood disorders, and this article critiques such data and attempts to provide a clinical perspective within which these CAM interventions might be considered.

  8. The role of melatonin in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berardis D

    2015-11-01

    melatonin is often used as an indicator phase position since it is a well-defined, high-amplitude rhythm controlled by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei. Melatonin production is controlled by this endogenous circadian timing system. It peaks during the night and is suppressed by daylight. Mood spectrum disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD, major depressive disorder (MDD, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD, have been observed to be accompanied by circadian dysregulation as well as dysregulation in melatonin secretion. Simultaneously, it has also been documented that disruptions in circadian rhythms, including the sleep/wake cycle, though environmental means can produce mood-related problems in vulnerable individuals. These findings suggested that altered circadian rhythms might be biological markers of these disorders. As melatonin is considered a chronobiotic factor, ie, able to entrain the circadian rhythms of several biological functions (eg, activity/rest, sleep/wake, body temperature, endocrine rhythms, etc, its use may provide a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of affective disorders. However, the available evidence is controversial. This review summarizes the data published so far about reliable evidence on the role of melatonin in affective disorders.Keywords: melatonin, melatonergic system, mood disorders, depression, seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder 

  9. Integrating Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder and Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.

  10. [Artistic creativity and bipolar mood disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2004-08-15

    Several studies and theories propose a connection between psychopathology and artistic creativity i.e. madness and genius characters share common roots. Employing scientific research data, the objective of this review is to elucidate the frequency of psychopathological alterations among writers and artists and to analyse the possible influence of bipolar mood disorder spectrum on the artistic creativity. Reviewing studies a) on retrospective investigations, based on biographies of famous persons with high creative achievements, b) on psychiatric examinations of living writers and artists, c) on individual examples of geniuses in the light of their mental status and work output correlations, and d) on creative traits and skills of diagnosed psychiatric patient populations. Beyond the practical experiences and impressions being held for ages from ancient times, the scientific observations and surveys indicate that psychopathological symptoms, especially those belonging to the bipolar mood disorder (bipolar I and II), major depression and cyclothymia categories occur more frequently among writers, poets, visual artists and composers, compared to the rates in the general population. Self-reports of writers and artists describe symptoms in their intensively creative periods which are reminiscent and characteristic of hypomanic states. Further, cognitive styles of hypomania (e.g. overinclusive thinking, richness of associations) and originality-prone creativity share many common as indicated by several authors. Among the eminent artists showing most probably manic-depressive or cyclothymic symptoms were: E. Dickinson, E. Hemingway, N. Gogol, A. Strindberg, V. Woolf, Lord Byron (G. Gordon), J. W. Goethe, V. van Gogh, F. Goya, G. Donizetti, G. F. Händel, O. Klemperer, G. Mahler, R. Schumann, and H. Wolf. Based on biographies and other studies, brief descriptions are given in the present article on the personality character of Gogol; Strindberg, Van Gogh, H

  11. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: predictors of current post-traumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Michael S; Valentine, Sarah E; Ironson, Gail H; Shipherd, Jillian C; Safren, Steven A; Taylor, S Wade; Dale, Sannisha K; Baker, Joshua S; Wilner, Julianne G; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46 %. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR 2.64: CI 1.24-5.63), two times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02-2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04-7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56-6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16-6.36), and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = 0.02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9-8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5-10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use, and sexual risk taking, and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and

  12. Recent progress in mood disorder research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tadafumi

    2012-01-01

    When papers published in highly-prestigious journals in 2010 and 2011 were categorized, the number of papers on genestic studies was found to be the largest, followed by papers on brain imaging, postmortem brain studies, and animal model studies. Follow-up studies of the findings of initial genome-wide association analyses constitute a major part of genetic studies. Recent brain imaging studies were found to integrate previous findings that indicated altered responces of prefrontal cortex to cognitive stimuli and enhanced responces of amygdala to emotional faces. Reduced size of the hippocampus is reportedly not a result of stress but perhaps a vulnerability factor. Among animal model studies, molecular mechanisms underlying rapid anti-depressive effects of ketamine are drawing attention. The role of neurogenesis in fear memory and depression is complex, and a link between psychopathology and neuroscience may be needed to understand the roles of neurogenesis. Postmortem brain analyses are currently used to investigate several pathophysiological hypotheses related to the roles of monoamine, neuroplasticity, and neuroinflammation in depression, as well as the roles of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons and mitochondria in bipolar disorder. Several studies are integrating postmortem brain analysis and animal model studies. Genetic and neuroimaging studies of mood disorders have advanced, and neurobiological basis of the findings of these studies should be further elucidated in animal models and postmortem brains. (author)

  13. Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F T; Abrams, T; Dulit, R; Fyer, M

    1993-01-01

    The impact of substance abuse on patients with borderline personality disorder was investigated. Substance abuse was common. Female patients preferred alcohol and sedatives. Male patients preferred stimulants. Substance abuse was associated with poor school performance, unemployment, and promiscuity. Depersonalization-derealization was common in nonsubstance using and alcohol-sedative using patients, but was rarely found in stimulant users. Substance abuse appears to be a devastating complication in the patient with borderline personality disorder.

  14. [Co-occuring mood and substance use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adida, M; Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M

    2014-12-01

    Mood and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, yet there is little evidence-based research to guide the pharmacologic management of these comorbid disorders. The authors review the existing empirical findings including current clinical pharmacotherapy practices for treating co-occurring mood and substance use disorders and call into question current clinical practices. The specific mood disorders reviewed are bipolar and major depressive disorders (either one co-occurring with a substance use disorder). The authors also highlight knowledge gaps that may serve as a basis for future research. Findings from the relatively small amount of available data indicate that pharmacotherapy for managing mood symptoms might be effective in patients with substance dependence, although results have not been consistent across all studies. In most studies, medications for managing mood symptoms did not appear to have an impact on the substance use disorder. Research has only begun to address optimal pharmacologic management of co-occurring disorders. In addition, current clinical treatment for drug dependence often exclude new pharmacotherapies approved by the French Haute Autorité de Santé for treating certain types of addiction. With new data becoming available, it appears that we need to revisit current practice in the pharmacological management of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. [Characteristics of catatonia in schizophrenia and mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ameele, S; Sabbe, B; Morrens, M

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia is a psychomotor symptom cluster that co-occurs with schizophrenia and with mood disorders. The characterisation and the differentiation of psychomotor symptom clusters can contribute to a more accurate diagnosis and a better understanding of underlying neurobiological processes. To compare epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment of catatonia in schizophrenia and in mood disorders. We reviewed the literature using PubMed. Catatonia is highly prevalent in both schizophrenia and mood disorders, but is slightly more prevalent in the latter. In spite of a considerable overlap, there are differentiating trends in the catatonic symptom profile of schizophrenia and mood disorders. In both of these disorders catatonia is a marker for increasing severity of the course of the illness. Compared to catatonia in mood disorders, catatonia in schizophrenia has a poorer response to benzodiazepines and ECT. Catatonia in schizophrenia and mood disorders is characterized by a distinctive profile. Comparative research on clinical presentation and neurobiological processes is warranted in order to arrive at a more accurate characterisation of these psychomotor symptom clusters.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders, from the biochemical rationale for their use to the growing body of data supporting their clinical efficacy.

  17. Increased proapoptotic serum activity in patients with chronic mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Pierluigi; Brondino, Natascia; Emanuele, Enzo

    2008-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction may be present in patients with chronic mood disorders. We hypothesized that circulating factors in the sera of patients with chronic mood disorders could induce vascular endothelial damage that in turn may be responsible for increased vascular risk. In this study, we sought to determine whether serum of patients with chronic mood disorders could directly induce apoptosis in human endothelial cells. We examined the proapoptotic activity by an ex vivo proapoptotic activity assay in the serum of 100 individuals: 25 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and no lifetime diagnosis of anxiety disorder, 25 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD) with a current comorbid anxiety disorder, 25 patients with BPD and no anxiety, and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The proapoptotic serum activity of all mood disorder patients was significantly higher than that of the control group (all p values<0.01). This association was found to be independent from potential confounders including age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, blood pressure parameters, family history of cardiovascular disease, serum creatinine, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, NT-proBNP, and C-reactive protein (beta=0.44, t=2.93, p=0.012). Together our findings indicate that chronic mood disorders are associated with higher proapoptotic serum capacity. Although subject to future confirmation, it is possible that the increased systemic proapoptotic activity of the serum in these patients could exert deleterious vascular effects resulting in endothelial dysfunction.

  18. Premenstrual mood symptoms: study of familiality and personality correlates in mood disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer L; Klein, Sarah R; Zamoiski, Rachel B; Zandi, Peter P; Bienvenu, Oscar J; Mackinnon, Dean F; Mondimore, Francis M; Schweizer, Barbara; Swartz, Karen L; Crowe, Raymond P; Scheftner, William A; Weissman, Myrna M; Levinson, Douglas F; DePaulo, J Raymond; Potash, James B

    2009-02-01

    We sought to determine whether premenstrual mood symptoms exhibit familial aggregation in bipolar disorder or major depression pedigrees. Two thousand eight hundred seventy-six women were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies as part of either the NIMH Genetics Initiative Bipolar Disorder Collaborative study or the Genetics of Early Onset Major Depression (GenRED) study and asked whether they had experienced severe mood symptoms premenstrually. In families with two or more female siblings with bipolar disorder (BP) or major depressive disorder (MDD), we examined the odds of having premenstrual mood symptoms given one or more siblings with these symptoms. For the GenRED MDD sample we also assessed the impact of personality as measured by the NEO-FFI. Premenstrual mood symptoms did not exhibit familial aggregation in families with BP or MDD. We unexpectedly found an association between high NEO openness scores and premenstrual mood symptoms, but neither this factor, nor NEO neuroticism influenced evidence for familial aggregation of symptoms. Limitations include the retrospective interview, the lack of data on premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and the inability to control for factors such as medication use.

  19. Anxiety and mood disorders and cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Joyce T W; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Stoduto, Gina; Chan, Vincy; Ala-Leppilampi, Kari; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-03-01

    Cannabis use has been linked to anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) in clinical cases, but little research on this relationship has been reported at the epidemiological level. We examined the relationship between self-reported frequency of cannabis use and risk for AMD in the general Ontario adult population. Data were based on the CAMH Monitor survey of Ontario adults from 2001 to 2006 (n = 14,531). AMD was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). Frequency of cannabis use within the past year was grouped into five categories: No use (abstainer), less than once a month but at least once a year, less than once a week but at least once a month, less than daily but at least once a week, almost every day to more than once a day. Logistic regression analysis of AMD and cannabis use was implemented while controlling for demographics and alcohol problems. AMD was most common among heavy cannabis users (used almost every day or more) (18.1%) and lowest for abstainers (8.7%). Compared to abstainers, the risk of AMD was significantly greater for infrequent cannabis users (OR = 1.43) and heavy cannabis users (OR = 2.04) but not for those in between. These data provide epidemiological evidence for a link between both light and heavy cannabis use and AMD. Recognizing the comorbidity of heavy cannabis use and AMD should facilitate improved treatment efforts. Our results also suggest the possibility that, for some individuals, AMD may occur at relatively low levels of cannabis use.

  20. Melatonin as a treatment for mood disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crescenzo, F; Lennox, A; Gibson, J C; Cordey, J H; Stockton, S; Cowen, P J; Quested, D J

    2017-12-01

    Melatonin has been widely studied in the treatment of sleep disorders and evidence is accumulating on a possible role for melatonin influencing mood. Our aim was to determine the efficacy and acceptability of melatonin for mood disorders. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review of randomized clinical trials on patients with mood disorders, comparing melatonin to placebo. Eight clinical trials were included; one study in bipolar, three in unipolar depression and four in seasonal affective disorder. We have only a small study on patients with bipolar disorder, while we have more studies testing melatonin as an augmentation strategy for depressive episodes in major depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder. The acceptability and tolerability were good. We analyzed data from three trials on depressive episodes and found that the evidence for an effect of melatonin in improving mood symptoms is not significant (SMD = 0.37; 95% CI [-0.05, 0.37]; P = 0.09). The small sample size and the differences in methodology of the trials suggest that our results are based on data deriving from investigations occurring early in this field of study. There is no evidence for an effect of melatonin on mood disorders, but the results are not conclusive and justify further research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Neurocognitive performance as an endophenotype for mood disorder subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Alison K; Cui, Lihong; Calkins, Monica E; Moore, Tyler M; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2017-06-01

    There is growing evidence that neurocognitive function may be an endophenotype for mood disorders. The goal of this study is to examine the specificity and familiality of neurocognitive functioning across the full range of mood disorder subgroups, including Bipolar I (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II), Major Depressive Disorders (MDD), and controls in a community-based family study. A total of 310 participants from 137 families with mood spectrum disorders (n=151) and controls (n=159) completed the University of Pennsylvania's Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) that assessed the accuracy and speed of task performance across five domains. Mixed effects regression models tested association and familiality. Compared to those without mood disorders, participants with BP-I had increased accuracy in complex cognition, while participants with MDD were more accurate in emotion recognition. There was also a significant familial association for accuracy of complex cognition. Mood disorder subgroups did not differ in performance speed in any of the domains. The small number of BP-I cases, and family size limited the statistical power of these analyses, and the cross-sectional assessment of neurocognitive function precluded our ability to determine whether performance precedes or post dates onset of disorder. This is one of the few community-based family studies of potential neurocognitive endophenotypes that includes the full range of mood disorder subgroups. There were few differences in neurocognitive function except enhanced accuracy in specific domains among those with BP-I and MDD. The differential findings across specific mood disorder subgroups substantiate their heterogeneity in other biologic and endophenotypic domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Art Production on Negative Mood and Anxiety for Adults in Treatment for Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurer, Mattye; van der Vennet, Renée

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether art production or viewing and sorting art reproductions would be more effective in reducing negative mood and anxiety for 28 adults with substance use disorders. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and completed pre- and posttest measures of negative mood and anxiety The hypothesis that art…

  3. Biological rhythms and melatonin in mood disorders and their treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfumey, Laurence; Mongeau, Raymond; Hamon, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Affective disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders and seasonal affective disorders have been described as alterations of various neuronal systems. In addition to the classical monoaminergic hypotheses that have been long proposed to explain the pathophysiology of these disorders, a strong association between circadian rhythms and mood regulation has been suggested in the light of several clinical and preclinical findings. In this review, we summarize the different hypotheses on pathophysiology mechanisms underlying depressive disorders and put a special emphasis on the alterations of melatonin secretion and associated changes in biological rhythms that characterize mood disorders. Causal relationships between alterations in circadian rhythms and mood disorders are strongly supported by the antidepressant efficacy of innovative pharmacological treatments aimed at resynchronizing endogenous rhythms in depressed patients. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors generating desynchronization between endogenous biological rhythms and exogenous rhythms driven by environmental and societal constraints are very probably involved in the vulnerability to mood disorders. Further investigations of the molecular/cellular bases of the relationships between stress axis dysfunctions, endogenous biological rhythm dysregulations and associated functional and anatomical brain alterations should allow important progress in the knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms of affective disorders and the downstream development of innovative, more effective and better tolerated, therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. What do patients with psychotic and mood disorders know about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-29

    Jul 29, 2008 ... knowledge about, and insight into, their illness and its treatment. This knowledge enables them to cope more ... In patients with a bipolar disorder, psychoeducation has been shown to enhance adherence to treatment. Training ... with mood or anxiety disorders. Most patients wanted to know their diagnosis ...

  5. Novel glutamatergic drugs for the treatment of mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrough JW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyle AB Lapidus, Laili Soleimani, James W MurroughMood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Mood disorders are common and debilitating, resulting in a significant public health burden. Current treatments are only partly effective and patients who have failed to respond to trials of existing antidepressant agents (eg, those who suffer from treatment-resistant depression [TRD] require innovative therapeutics with novel mechanisms of action. Although neuroscience research has elucidated important aspects of the basic mechanisms of antidepressant action, most antidepressant drugs target monoaminergic mechanisms identified decades ago. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in mood disorders. These data provide a rationale for the pursuit of glutamatergic agents as novel therapeutic agents. Here, we review preclinical and clinical investigations of glutamatergic agents in mood disorders with a focus on depression. We begin with discussion of evidence for the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine, followed by studies of the antidepressant efficacy of the currently marketed drugs riluzole and lamotrigine. Promising novel agents currently in development, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor modulators, 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl propanoic acid (AMPA receptor modulators, and drugs with activity at the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu receptors are then reviewed. Taken together, both preclinical and clinical evidence exists to support the pursuit of small molecule modulators of the glutamate system as novel therapeutic agents in mood disorders. It is hoped that by targeting neural systems outside of the monoamine system, more effective and perhaps faster acting therapeutics can be developed for patients suffering from these disabling disorders

  6. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and its effect on bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Shama; Petti, Victoria; Mellos, George

    2017-05-01

    In the last few decades, a noticeable increase in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in youth has raised concerns, particularly because of a consequent increase in the use of psychotropic medications with adverse side effects. After observing the development of those youth into adulthood, clinicians and researchers have questioned the notion of expanding the diagnostic boundaries of BD to encapsulate these youth. Our research is aimed at gleaning further information on disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) and to observe whether its introduction has affected the rates of BD in children and adolescents. In a retrospective study, we calculated the frequencies of patients with BD admitted to a pediatric psychiatric hospital both before and after the introduction of DSM-5. We also observed age, sex, comorbid disorders, and management of DMDD. We found a decrease in the diagnosis of BD with the introduction of DMDD in DSM-5, without much change in treatment interventions utilized. Research on DMDD is limited so far. Further studies are needed to put together evidence-based guidelines and practice parameters for its management.

  7. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara eRossetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities though, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines and neurotrophic factors.

  8. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Clara; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors that interact with each other. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting a common etiology for eating and mood disorders, with a particular emphasis on signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of energy balance and mood stability, among which orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, metabolic factors, stress responsive hormones, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. PMID:25386150

  9. The Ethics of Clinical Trials Research in Severe Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Allison C; Miller, Franklin G; Henter, Ioline D; Zarate, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    Mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), are highly prevalent, frequently disabling, and sometimes deadly. Additional research and more effective medications are desperately needed, but clinical trials research in mood disorders is fraught with ethical issues. Although many authors have discussed these issues, most do so from a theoretical viewpoint. This manuscript uses available empirical data to inform a discussion of the primary ethical issues raised in mood disorders research. These include issues of consent and decision-making capacity, including patients' motivations for participating in research. We also address drug withdrawals, placebo controls, and the overall safety of research. Finally, we examine the extant literature for studies discussing potential indirect benefits of clinical trials research to participants. Taken together, the evidence suggests that clinical trials research incorporating drug withdrawals and placebo controls can be conducted safely and ethically, even in patients with severe or treatment-resistant mood disorders. In fact, given the dearth of effective treatment options for this population, it is our opinion that a moral imperative exists to extend the offer of research participation to severely ill or treatment-resistant groups. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Seasonal concordance of recurrence in mood disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbini, B; Di Molfetta, D; Gasperini, M; Manfredonia, M; Smeraldi, E

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the seasonal pattern of recurrences and the concordance among first episode (index episode) versus the subsequent recurrences in a sample of 210 patients affected by mood disorders, referred to the Mood Disorder Unit of San Raffaele Hospital. The most depressive recurrences are in spring for unipolar subjects and in fall for bipolars. Manic episodes are more frequent in summer. Patients presented a high concordance rate between the first and the second episode, female patients were more concordant than male subjects, and patients with low cycle of illness (one episode every six or more years) were the most concordant ones.

  11. Cognitive styles and clinical correlates of childhood abuse in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perich, Tania; Mitchell, Philip B; Loo, Colleen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Roberts, Gloria; Green, Melissa; Frankland, Andrew; Lau, Phoebe; Corry, Justine

    2014-09-01

    In a relatively small number of previous studies, childhood abuse has been found to be associated with more severe symptom course, earlier onset, greater comorbidity, and greater suicidality in those diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There have been no prior reports looking for any association between childhood abuse and cognitive style. This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive factors, such as response styles to depressed mood and dysfunctional attitudes, clinical features, and childhood physical and sexual abuse in this population. A total of 157 adult participants diagnosed with DSM-IV bipolar disorder I or II were assessed on clinical features of this condition and measures of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Participants also completed self-report questionnaires covering areas such as symptom measures of depression, anxiety and stress, dysfunctional attitudes, and response styles to depressed mood. Seventy-four participants (37%) reported having experienced either sexual or physical abuse. Those who reported physical or sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report self-harm or suicidal behaviors and showed higher stress scores. Specifically, those who reported sexual abuse were more likely to have simple phobias, to have attempted suicide, and to have had more hospitalizations for depression. After controlling for current mood severity, there were no significant differences on the self-report cognitive style measures for those who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Cognitive styles were not found to be associated with childhood sexual or physical abuse in participants with bipolar disorder. Stress may be important to target in psychological interventions, whilst special attention should also be paid to those with a history of sexual abuse given the greater likelihood of suicide attempt. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

  13. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-06-10

    Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23,395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose-response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. © 2014 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  14. Negative mood regulation expectancies moderate the relationship between psychological abuse and avoidant coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. [Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Cordeiro, Daniel Cruz; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

  16. Fluoxetine Monotherapy in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Non-Bipolar Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Humberto; Butterbaugh, Grant J.; Purnell, William; Layman, Ann K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for developing comorbid non-bipolar mood disorders. Fluoxetine monotherapy is an established treatment for pediatric mood disorders; however its efficacy in ADHD and comorbid mood disorder is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated 30 children who met DSM-IV criteria for…

  17. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from clinical, genetic, neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies have failed to highlight a clear demarcation between the two main psychotic syndromes i.e.. MD and SCZ12, while evidence from brain imaging,. The relationship between schizo- affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients ...

  18. Membrane function alterations in erythrocytes from mood disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and bipolar subjects. Control subjects (randomly selected volunteers). Results: The most significant results were a duration dependent decrease in the TPL/CHL ratio (mole:mole),changes in both the substrate and temperature kinetics properties of AChE and elevated plasma BChE activity in the mood disorder patients.

  19. IMMUNE AND NEUROIMMUNE ALTERATIONS IN MOOD DISORDERS AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexhage, Roosmarijn C.; Weigelt, Karin; van Beveren, Nico; Cohen, Dan; Versnell, Marjan A.; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Guest, PC; Bahn, S

    2011-01-01

    A large number of publications over the past 20 years have indicated that immune system function is altered in schizophrenia and mood disorder patients. This chapter reviews the evidence, which suggests that a proinflammatory state of the cytokine network induces psychopathologic symptoms and may be

  20. Predictors of Service Utilization among Youth Diagnosed with Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Amy N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I investigated patterns and predictors of service utilization for children with mood disorders. The Behavioral Model for Health Care Utilization was used as an organizing framework for identifying predictors of the number and quality of services utilized. Hierarchical regression was used in secondary data analyses of the…

  1. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar

  2. Anxiety, Mood, and Substance Use Disorders in Parents of Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica D.; Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in…

  3. Controversies about a common etiology for eating and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, Clara; Halfon, Olivier; Boutrel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and depression represent a growing health concern worldwide. For many years, basic science and medicine have considered obesity as a metabolic illness, while depression was classified a psychiatric disorder. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that obesity and depression may share commonalities though, the causal link between eating and mood disorders remains to be fully understood. This etiology is highly complex, consisting of multiple environmental and genetic risk factors tha...

  4. Baldness : A Diagnostic Physical Trait In Mood Disorders - Sarvada Sign

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, S.C.; Singh, Sarvesh

    2004-01-01

    Physical traits and features, i.e., body build, colour of eye etc. are often utilized in making diagnosis of psychiatric and physical disorders. A study was carried out to investigate the relationship between baldness and mood disorders on psychiatric out patients, Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, and their available first degree relatives. In this study, 371 psychiatric patients and their first degree relatives were assessed and evaluated. 56.6% male bald ...

  5. Autoimmune diseases and severe infections as risk factors for mood disorders a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E.; Waltoft, Berit L.; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking.......Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking....

  6. Mood disorders in eating disorder patients: Prevalence and chronology of ONSET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, N; Radon, L; Curt, F; Duclos, J; Perdereau, F; Lang, F; Venisse, J L; Halfon, O; Bizouard, P; Loas, G; Corcos, M; Jeammet, Ph; Flament, M F

    2015-10-01

    In a clinical population, we estimated the frequency of mood disorders among 271 patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) in comparison to a control group matched for age and gender. The frequency of mood disorders was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), DSM-IV version. Mood disorders were more frequent among eating disorder (ED) patients than among controls, with a global prevalence of the order of 80% for each ED group. The majority of the mood disorders comorbid with ED were depressive disorders (MDD and dysthymia). The relative chronology of onset of these disorders was equivocal, because mood disorders in some cases preceded and in others followed the onset of the eating disorders. Our sample was characterized by patients with severe ED and high comorbidities, and thus do not represent the entire population of AN or BN. This also may have resulted in an overestimation of prevalence. Mood disorders appear significantly more frequently in patients seeking care for ED than in controls. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of ED patients, and for the aetio-pathogenesis of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anxiety symptoms in a major mood and schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, B; Joffe, G; Aaltonen, K; Suvisaari, J; Baryshnikov, I; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Melartin, T; Oksanen, J; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Paunio, T; Isometsä, E

    2016-09-01

    Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders are present in many psychiatric disorders, but methodological variations render comparisons of their frequency and intensity difficult. Furthermore, whether risk factors for comorbid anxiety symptoms are similar in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) was used to measure anxiety symptoms in psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n=113), bipolar disorder (BD, n=99), or depressive disorder (DD, n=188) in the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, early psychological trauma and distress, self-efficacy, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and attachment style with anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups. Frequent or constant anxiety was reported by 40.2% of SSA, 51.5% of BD, and 55.6% of DD patients; it was described as severe or extreme by 43.8%, 41.4%, and 41.2% of these patients, respectively. SSA patients were significantly less anxious (P=0.010) and less often avoided anxiety-provoking situations (P=0.009) than the other patients. In regression analyses, OASIS was associated with high neuroticism, symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder and low self-efficacy in all patients, and with early trauma in patients with mood disorders. Comorbid anxiety symptoms are ubiquitous among psychiatric patients with mood or schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and in almost half of them, reportedly severe. Anxiety symptoms appear to be strongly related to both concurrent depressive symptoms and personality characteristics, regardless of principal diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug Abuse and Eating Disorders: Prevention Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie

    1992-01-01

    Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,…

  9. Differential brain network activity across mood states in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Roscoe O; Tandon, Neeraj; Masters, Grace A; Margolis, Allison; Cohen, Bruce M; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify how the activity of large-scale brain networks differs between mood states in bipolar disorder. The authors measured spontaneous brain activity in subjects with bipolar disorder in mania and euthymia and compared these states to a healthy comparison population. 23 subjects with bipolar disorder type I in a manic episode, 24 euthymic bipolar I subjects, and 23 matched healthy comparison (HC) subjects underwent resting state fMRI scans. Using an existing parcellation of the whole brain, we measured functional connectivity between brain regions and identified significant differences between groups. In unbiased whole-brain analyses, functional connectivity between parietal, occipital, and frontal nodes within the dorsal attention network (DAN) were significantly greater in mania than euthymia or HC subjects. In the default mode network (DMN), connectivity between dorsal frontal nodes and the rest of the DMN differentiated both mood state and diagnosis. The bipolar groups were separate cohorts rather than subjects imaged longitudinally across mood states. Bipolar mood states are associated with highly significant alterations in connectivity in two large-scale brain networks. These same networks also differentiate bipolar mania and euthymia from a HC population. State related changes in DAN and DMN connectivity suggest a circuit based pathology underlying cognitive dysfunction as well as activity/reactivity in bipolar mania. Altered activities in neural networks may be biomarkers of bipolar disorder diagnosis and mood state that are accessible to neuromodulation and are promising novel targets for scientific investigation and possible clinical intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of mood, anxiety, and sleep disorders on fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Giorgio; Marazziti, Donatella; Ciapparelli, Antonio; Bazzichi, Laura; Massimetti, Gabriele; Giacomelli, Camillo; Rossi, Alessandra; Bombardieri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2012-10-01

    Several studies carried out mainly in North America revealed high rates of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), while the information in other countries is scant. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the prevalence and the impact of such conditions on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the severity of pain in a sample of Italian FM patients. One-hundred and sixty-seven women suffering from primary FM were consecutively enrolled. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by means of DSM-IV criteria. The HRQoL and the severity of pain were measured through the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS-SF-36) and the FM Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Fibromyalgia patients showed a high rate (80.8%) of lifetime and/or current comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders. Patients with psychiatric comorbidity resulted significantly more impaired on the Mental Component Summary score of the MOS-SF-36 and showed a higher FIQ total score than those suffering from FM only. The severity of pain was associated with current psychiatric comorbidity. Patients with current mood disorders showed significantly lower Mental and Physical Component Summary scores of the MOS-SF-36 and higher FIQ total scores than those with current anxiety disorders or those without psychiatric comorbidity. Finally, patients with sleep disorders reported a lower HRQoL than those with a normal sleep, and specifically those with difficulty in falling in sleep had higher severity of pain. Psychiatric comorbidity, in particular with mood disorders, provokes a significant impairment of the HRQoL and, when current, a higher severity of pain in FM patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotional Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-07-01

    To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Examining the Feasibility and Acceptability of an Online Yoga Class for Mood Disorders: A MoodNetwork Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa; Dufour, Steven C; Dinerman, Jacob G; Walsh, Samantha L; Hearing, Casey; Gillette, Lee T; Deckersbach, Thilo; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Weinstock, Lauren; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2018-01-01

    Despite ongoing advances in the treatment of mood disorders, a substantial proportion of people diagnosed with major depression or bipolar disorder remain symptomatic over time. Yoga, which has been shown to reduce stress and depressive symptoms, as well as to improve overall quality of life, shows promise as an adjunctive treatment. However, dissemination of yoga for clinical populations remains challenging. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of an online yoga intervention for individuals with mood disorders. In total, 56 adults who reported being diagnosed with a mood disorder (bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, cyclothymia, or schizoaffective disorder) were recruited from MoodNetwork, an online community of individuals with mood disorders. A feedback survey and a measure of positive and negative affect were administered before and after a 30-minute online Hatha yoga class. In total, 44 individuals (78.6%) completed all components of the yoga class. The mean score on a 10-point Likert scale rating how much participants liked the online yoga class was 7.24 (SD=2.40). Most participants (67.9%) reported that they would be "somewhat likely" or "very likely" to participate in an online yoga program again. There was a statistically significant decrease in negative affect after completing the class (t=-6.05; P0.10). These preliminary data support the utility of online yoga tailored specifically for people with mood disorders as a possible adjunctive intervention that warrants further investigation.

  13. Postpartum Mood Disorders: Recognizing the symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders.

  14. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%-40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve symptoms

  15. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John’s wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar patients. Dehydroepiandrosterone is effective both in bipolar depression and depression in the setting of comorbid physical disease, although doses should be titrated to avoid adverse effects. Ayurvedic and homeopathic therapies have the potential to improve

  16. Color sensitivity and mood disorders: biology or metaphor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Christina B; Taylor, Dianne; Correa, Elsa I

    2002-02-01

    A familiar but overlooked symptom in affective disorders is patient self-report of alterations in color sensitivity. Anecdotal and empirical evidence have suggested an association between mood and color sensitivity. The purpose of this pilot study was to test three hypotheses concerning the relationship between mood disorders and color sensitivity. Using a cross-sectional survey design consisting of a sample of 120 inpatients and outpatients, color sensitivity was assessed by the patient's response to a self-report depression scale item, "I notice that everything seems gray/cloudy/drab/lacking color". Color sensitivity significantly correlated with depression in the total sample (P=0.001). The other two hypotheses approached significance but were not supported. These findings suggest there is evidence that color sensitivity is impaired during depression. Further research using a larger, more homogeneous sample and longitudinal design whereby measures of mood and color sensitivity are correlated before, during, and after treatment in depressed and manic patients would be justified. A study using ophthalmological instrumentation to measure color sensitivity would provide objective, 'hard' evidence of the association between color sensitivity and depression. Whether color perception is metaphorically reported by patients to describe their mood or a biological phenomenon remains to be validated. Findings seem to lend support to the conclusion that abnormalities in brain function alter retinal function.

  17. Comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder in a specialized mood disorders outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Cordera, Paolo; Zimmermann, Julien; Michalopoulos, Giorgio; Bancila, Victor; Prada, Paco; Dayer, Alexandre; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-01

    Comorbidity between ADHD and Bipolar Disorder (BD) is associated with greater severity of BD. The current study aims at investigating, in a specialized mood disorders clinic, the percentage of comorbid ADHD-BD subjects and assessing the impact of ADHD on the severity of BD. Out of 539 mood disorders subjects, the medical records of 138 BD subjects were scrutinized in terms of their clinical and demographic characteristics, and their scores at the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) Symptom Checklist were logged. Those positively scoring at the ASRS-v1.1 underwent clinical assessment by a senior psychiatrist specialized in ADHD. Comorbid ADHD-BD subjects were then compared with BD sufferers without ADHD. Sixty-three (45.65%) of the participants were screened positive at the ASRS-v1.1. 49 were clinically assessed for the presence of ADHD. Only 27 (55%) received a diagnosis of ADHD. Comorbid ADHD-BD subjects were found to be younger at the onset of BD, showed higher numbers of depressive episodes, more anxiety and substance use disorders, more borderline personality traits and greater cyclothymic temperament. Comorbid BD-ADHD subjects reported more childhood emotional abuse. Some subjects were unreachable and thus not clinically assessed for ADHD. More than 20% of BD subjects were suffering from ADHD. The comorbidity of the two disorders was associated with worse outcomes, possibly resulting from stressful early-life events. More than 40% of the subjects who scored positively at the ASRS-v1.1 did not suffer from ADHD, which suggests that this scale should be used with caution in BD subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Test of the Bidirectional Association Between Sleep and Mood in Bipolar Disorder and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lisa S.; Stone, Susan; Gruber, June; Hairston, Ilana S.; Eidelman, Polina; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates sleep, mood, and the proposed bidirectional relationship between the two in psychiatric disorders. Participants with interepisode bipolar disorder (n = 49), insomnia (n = 34), and no psychiatric history (n = 52) completed seven consecutive days of sleep diaries and mood measures. The interepisode bipolar and insomnia participants exhibited greater sleep disturbance than the healthy control individuals. Negative mood was equally heightened in both interepisode bipolar disorder and insomnia, and there were no differences between the three groups in positive mood. Total wake time was associated with next morning negative mood in bipolar disorder, whereas evening negative mood was associated with subsequent total wake time in both bipolar disorder and insomnia. Additionally, positive mood was associated with subsequent total wake time for the insomnia group. Results support the theory that disruptions in nighttime sleep and daytime mood may be mutually maintaining and suggest the potential importance of transdiagnostic or universal processes. PMID:21842957

  19. Altered glial plasticity in animal models for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czéh, Boldizsár; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele

    2013-10-01

    Numerous clinical evidences support the notion that glial changes in fronto-limbic brain areas could contribute to the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Glial alterations have been reported not only in patients, but also in various kinds of animal models for depression. Molecular and cellular data suggest that all the major classes of glial cells are affected in these conditions, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, NG2-positive cells and microglia. The aim of this review was to summarize the currently available experimental results demonstrating alterations in glial morphology and functioning in animal models for mood disorders. Better understanding of these glial changes affecting neuronal activity could help us to identify novel targets for the development of antidepressant drugs.

  20. Genetics and pharmacogenetics of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretti, Alessandro

    2017-04-30

    Genetic research in Psychiatry is viewed by clinicians with both hope and curiosity sometimes mixed with disillusionment. Indeed, in the last 30 years many results have not been confirmed and clinical applications are still missing. However recent findings suggest that we are at the beginning of a new era. A set of variants within neuroplasticity and inflammation genes have been identified as a valid basis for both bipolar disorder and major depression. Similarly, a set of genes has been identified as a liability factor for response and tolerability to antidepressants and the first clinical applications are already in the market. However, some caution should be applied until definite findings are available.

  1. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Naseem; AlBedah,Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have ...

  2. Abuse or dependence on cannabis and other psychiatric disorders. Madrid study on dual pathology prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been associated to a wide variety of mental disorders, the possible causal role of this use in the etiology of severe mental disorders as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder standing out. Moreover, the cannabinoid system is involved in emotional regulation, so cannabis use could disturb this process and provoke anxiety and mood disorders. The main objective of this study was to analyze the cannabis addict subgroup from Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients under treatment in the mental health network or drug network of the Community of Madrid (Spain). Of these, 353 subjects had a lifetime diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence and 357 subjects did not have cannabis substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. It was considered that 76.5% of the cannabis addicts had a current dual disorder. The most prevalent ones were mood and anxiety disorders. Of those addicted to cannabis, 51% had a personality disorder. Most of them had several substance use disorders. Cannabis abuse or dependence subjects had an earlier onset in consumption of other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, and tobacco than addicts without cannabis abuse or dependence. The cannabis addicts also differed from the other addicts because of an association to antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, psychosis and agoraphobia. The presence of these mental disorders was significantly associated to a lower age at initiation of cannabis use. Dual pathology is very high in cannabis addicts under treatment. Said consumption of cannabis, probably within a polysubstance use pattern, is associated to severe mental disorders as psychosis and bipolar disorder. An earlier age of onset in cannabis use is associated to a greater risk of

  3. Dimensional psychiatry: reward dysfunction and depressive mood across psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Rapp, Michael; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Dolan, Raymond J; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A dimensional approach in psychiatry aims to identify core mechanisms of mental disorders across nosological boundaries. We compared anticipation of reward between major psychiatric disorders, and investigated whether reward anticipation is impaired in several mental disorders and whether there is a common psychopathological correlate (negative mood) of such an impairment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task to study the functional correlates of reward anticipation across major psychiatric disorders in 184 subjects, with the diagnoses of alcohol dependence (n = 26), schizophrenia (n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 24), bipolar disorder (acute manic episode, n = 13), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 54). Subjects' individual Beck Depression Inventory-and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-scores were correlated with clusters showing significant activation during reward anticipation. During reward anticipation, we observed significant group differences in ventral striatal (VS) activation: patients with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, and major depression showed significantly less ventral striatal activation compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms correlated with dysfunction in reward anticipation regardless of diagnostic entity. There was no significant correlation between anxiety symptoms and VS functional activation. Our findings demonstrate a neurobiological dysfunction related to reward prediction that transcended disorder categories and was related to measures of depressed mood. The findings underline the potential of a dimensional approach in psychiatry and strengthen the hypothesis that neurobiological research in psychiatric disorders can be targeted at core mechanisms that are likely to be implicated in a range of clinical entities.

  4. Sleep study in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Bleda-Hernández, María J; Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle-Vila, Santiago; Pujals-Altes, Elena; Nascimento-Osorio, María T; Martín-López, Luís M; Álvarez-Martínez, Enric; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Romero-Cela, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased need for sleep has been proposed as a core symptom of mania and it has been associated with the pathogenesis of Bipolar Disorder. The emergence of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) as a new diagnostic has been controversial and much has been speculated about its relationship with the bipolar spectrum. REM sleep fragmentation could be a biomarker of affective disorders and it would help us to differentiate them from other disorders. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study of children with DMDD, bipolar disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). All participants underwent a psychiatric semi-structured interview to obtain the diagnosis, comorbidities and primary sleep disorders. DMDD’s sample was performed following DSM5 criteria. Perform polysomnography in a sample of bipolar, DMDD and ADHD children and compare their profiles to provide more evidence about the differences or similarities between bipolar disorder and DMDD. Bipolar group had the highest REM density values while ADHD had the lowest. REM density was not statiscally different between bipolar phenotypes. REM density was associated with antidepressant treatment, episodes of REM and their interaction. REM latency was associated with antipsychotic treatment and school performance. Bipolar patients had higher scores on the depression scale than DMDD and ADHD groups. No significant differences between the two compared affective disorders were found. However there were differences in REM density between bipolar and ADHD groups. REM sleep study could provide a new theoretical framework to better understand the pathogenesis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  5. Theoretical and clinical overview of affective temperaments in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia Gonda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperaments are imperturbable variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting to the environment that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several different situations. Temperaments usually play a central role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models have attempted to establish the potential relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to Hagop Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were exclusively developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, later extrapolated to capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the current model of affective temperaments was developed on classical traditions and mainly based on the observation of subjects with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may represent a latent state of the staging model, playing a pathoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this overview.

  6. Validity of prototype diagnosis for mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFife, Jared A; Peart, Joanne; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry; Drill, Rebecca; Westen, Drew

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT With growing recognition that most forms of psychopathology are best represented as dimensions or spectra, a central question becomes how to implement dimensional diagnosis in a way that is empirically sound and clinically useful. Prototype matching, which involves comparing a patient's clinical presentation with a prototypical description of the disorder, is an approach to diagnosis that has gained increasing attention with forthcoming revisions to both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases. OBJECTIVE To examine prototype diagnosis for mood and anxiety disorders. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS In the first study, we examined clinicians' DSM-IV and prototype diagnoses with their ratings of the patients' adaptive functioning and patients' self-reported symptoms. In the second study, independent interviewers made prototype diagnoses following either a systematic clinical interview or a structured diagnostic interview. A third interviewer provided independent ratings of global adaptive functioning. Patients were recruited as outpatients (study 1; N = 84) and from primary care clinics (study 2; N = 143). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' self-reported mood, anxiety, and externalizing symptoms along with independent clinical ratings of adaptive functioning. RESULTS Clinicians' prototype diagnoses showed small to moderate correlations with patient-reported psychopathology and performed as well as or better than DSM-IV diagnoses. Prototype diagnoses from independent interviewers correlated on average r = .50 and showed substantial incremental validity over DSM-IV diagnoses in predicting adaptive functioning. CONCLUSIONS Prototype matching is a viable alternative for psychiatric diagnosis. As in research on personality disorders, mood and anxiety disorder prototypes outperformed DSM-IV decision rules in predicting psychopathology and global functioning. Prototype matching has multiple advantages, including ease of use in clinical practice, reduced

  7. Co-occurring mood disorders among hospitalized patients and risk for subsequent medical hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daratha, Kenn B; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; H Burley, Mason; Short, Robert; Layton, Matthew E; McPherson, Sterling; Dyck, Dennis G; McFarland, Bentson H; Tuttle, Katherine R

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to determine if patients hospitalized with a primary medical diagnosis and any co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) were more likely than patients without any co-occurring SMI diagnosis to experience a subsequent medical hospitalization. This was a longitudinal cohort study of 925,705 adult persons (aged 18+ years). Patients hospitalized in Washington State from 2004 to 2008 were followed through 2009 (for an average of 43 months). Compared to patients hospitalized for medical conditions without co-occurring SMI, patients with co-occurring dysthymia, bipolar and major depressive disorders were at an elevated risk for long-term subsequent hospitalization. Patients in the combined co-occurring mood disorders cohort were more likely (hazard ratio=1.13; 99% confidence interval=1.10-1.16; Pdisorders that increased risk for subsequent hospitalization was also observed. Hospitalized patients with co-occurring mood disorders are at high risk for repeat hospitalization for a medical reason. This high-risk population, including those with substance abuse, should be a focus of research efforts to identify and address ambulatory-care-sensitive conditions amenable to strategies that decrease complications and illness leading to subsequent hospitalizations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  9. Molecular imaging in patients with mood disorders: a review of PET findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiaozhen; Liu, Weibo; Li, Huichun; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2011-01-01

    Mood disorders are chronic, recurrent psychiatric disorders with high morbidity rates that cause severe disability. Researchers have used molecular imaging extensively in studies of mood disorders. In this article, we concisely and selectively review the major findings of positron emission tomography studies of patients with mood disorders. Specifically, we describe findings from cerebral blood flow, cerebral glucose/oxygen metabolism, and radioligand studies in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. Patients with mood disorders have mood-correlated regional metabolism changes and molecular abnormalities in several neurotransmitter systems. Although the findings of these studies are not completely consistent and confounding factors, including drug effects and specific methodology, should be strictly controlled, these results reveal the pathophysiology of mood disorders and aid the development of novel treatment approaches for mood disorders. Future positron emission tomography research will benefit greatly from the development of better radioligands to simultaneously identify multiple neurotransmitter systems in the specific brain region and the integration of more detecting methods in specifying the neurobiological predictors of treatment response in patients with mood disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in underlying mood disorders will result in aetiological diagnosis and individualization of treatment of these disorders. (orig.)

  10. Molecular imaging in patients with mood disorders: a review of PET findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiaozhen [Zhejiang University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Department of Psychiatry, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang University, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Weibo; Li, Huichun [Zhejiang University, Department of Psychiatry, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhang, Hong [Zhejiang University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang University, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Mood disorders are chronic, recurrent psychiatric disorders with high morbidity rates that cause severe disability. Researchers have used molecular imaging extensively in studies of mood disorders. In this article, we concisely and selectively review the major findings of positron emission tomography studies of patients with mood disorders. Specifically, we describe findings from cerebral blood flow, cerebral glucose/oxygen metabolism, and radioligand studies in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. Patients with mood disorders have mood-correlated regional metabolism changes and molecular abnormalities in several neurotransmitter systems. Although the findings of these studies are not completely consistent and confounding factors, including drug effects and specific methodology, should be strictly controlled, these results reveal the pathophysiology of mood disorders and aid the development of novel treatment approaches for mood disorders. Future positron emission tomography research will benefit greatly from the development of better radioligands to simultaneously identify multiple neurotransmitter systems in the specific brain region and the integration of more detecting methods in specifying the neurobiological predictors of treatment response in patients with mood disorders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms in underlying mood disorders will result in aetiological diagnosis and individualization of treatment of these disorders. (orig.)

  11. Screening for bipolar disorders in patients with alcohol or substance use disorders: Performance of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Jan; van den Berg, Belinda; Draisma, Stasja; Nolen, Willem A.; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Screening properties of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to detect bipolar disorder (BD) in patients with substance use disorders are unknown. Methods: 403 treatment seeking patients with a substance use disorder completed the MDQ and subsequently 111 MDQ positives and 59 MDQ

  12. Screening for bipolar disorders in patients with alcohol or substance use disorders : Performance of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Jan; van den Berg, Belinda; Draisma, Stasja; Nolen, Willem A.; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Screening properties of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to detect bipolar disorder (BD) in patients with substance use disorders are unknown. Methods: 403 treatment seeking patients with a substance use disorder completed the MDQ and subsequently 111 MDQ positives and 59 MDQ

  13. Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Adolescents with Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Pelham, William E.; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the association between childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence. They compared a group of 142 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years with a history of ADHD in childhood to group of 100 community-recruited adolescents without ADHD. The two groups did not…

  14. Differentiating Bipolar Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified and Severe Mood Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towbin, Kenneth; Axelson, David; Leibenluft, Ellen; Birmaher, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder--not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) and severe mood dysregulation (SMD) are severe mood disorders that were defined to address questions about the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in youth. SMD and BP-NOS are distinct phenotypes that differ in clinical presentation and longitudinal course. The purpose of this review is…

  15. Anxiety and Mood Disorder in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza; Marvin, Alison R; Law, J Kiely; Lipkin, Paul H

    2018-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Understanding the endophenotype of children with both ASD and ADHD may impact clinical management. In this study, we compare the comorbidity of anxiety and mood disorders in children with ASD, with and without ADHD. We performed a cross-sectional study of children with ASD who were enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network, an Internet-mediated, parent-report, autism research registry. Children ages 6 to 17 years with a parent-reported, professional, and questionnaire-verified diagnosis of ASD were included. Data were extracted regarding parent-reported diagnosis and/or treatment of ADHD, anxiety disorder, and mood disorder. ASD severity was measured by using Social Responsiveness Scale total raw scores. There were 3319 children who met inclusion criteria. Of these, 1503 (45.3%) had ADHD. Comorbid ADHD increased with age ( P < .001) and was associated with increased ASD severity ( P < .001). A generalized linear model revealed that children with ASD and ADHD had an increased risk of anxiety disorder (adjusted relative risk 2.20; 95% confidence interval 1.97-2.46) and mood disorder (adjusted relative risk 2.72; 95% confidence interval 2.28-3.24) compared with children with ASD alone. Increasing age was the most significant contributor to the presence of anxiety disorder and mood disorder. Co-occurrence of ADHD is common in children with ASD. Children with both ASD and ADHD have an increased risk of anxiety and mood disorders. Physicians who care for children with ASD should be aware of the coexistence of these treatable conditions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. A Pilot Study of Mood Ratings Captured by Mobile Phone Versus Paper-and-Pencil Mood Charts in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A; Kim, Daniel H; de Dios, Laura Vergel; Wang, Vicki; Ceglowski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Patient reported mood charts are frequently used in management of bipolar disorder. Although mood charts have recently been programmed in electronic devices such as mobile phones, little is known about the impact of the method of data capture on the psychometric properties and validity of these data. In an ongoing pilot study, a sample of outpatients with bipolar disorder were randomized to either complete mood charts on a mobile phone or a standard paper-and-pencil mood chart as part of a 12 week-intervention (primary outcomes for the trial await study completion). We compared these conditions across single item rating of mood state, and we hypothesized that mobile phone based data capture would produce greater compliance to mood ratings, variability between and within participants, and concurrent validity with blinded clinician-rated affective symptom severity. A total of 56 participants were randomized and 40 participants were included in the analyses. There were no significant differences between conditions on demographic or clinical variables. The rate of compliance was significantly higher in paper-and-pencil versus mobile phone ratings. Ratings demonstrated significantly more variability within individuals in the mobile phone condition. Mobile phone mood ratings were significantly correlated with clinician-rated depressive symptom severity across the study and with manic symptom severity at the Week 6 assessment, whereas paper-and-pencil ratings were not significantly associated with clinician-rated depression or mania. Although preliminary, our results suggest a lower rate of compliance with mobile phones compared to paper-and-pencil daily mood rating in bipolar disorder, yet a greater ability to capture variability and concurrent validity in quantifying affective symptoms. This clinical trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01670123.

  17. Overcoming the Social Stigma on Mood Disorders with Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria

    2017-09-01

    In our society, the social stigma against people who suffer from mood disorders is a very powerful factor that negatively affects the healing of patient. He is often isolated from the others for the fear of being judged "fool, crazy or dangerous" or discriminated and emarginated for his mental health problem. For this reason, a cornerstone of mood disorder rehabilitation is the bringing out of the patient from his isolation, the reintegration of the user in the social context with the increase and the improvement in the quality of interpersonal relationships in the family and in the external context. The method used in our project is the dance-therapy one. In particular dancing the "Bachata" becomes a rehabilitation tool to express emotions through the body and to open to the world, on the territory, overcoming the fear of being judged by others, and of the prejudice and the social stigma about mental illness. The strength and cohesion of the rehabilitation group has given to the patients the opportunity to believe in their own abilities, to accept themselves with their difficulties and to improve the relationship with their body in relation to each other.

  18. [Mood disorder after malaria prophylaxis with mefloquine (two case reports)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueriagli Nabih, F; Touhami, M; Laffinti, A; Abilkacem, L

    2011-10-01

    Mefloquine (Lariam) is the drug of choice as malaria prophylaxis for travel to chloroquine-resistant areas. Severe neuropsychiatric side effects are rare. We report two clinical cases of mood disorders: mania and a major depressive episode with psychotic characteristics in two patients with mefloquine antimalarial prophylaxis. FIRST CLINICAL CASE: A 31-year-old man had taken mefloquine at a rate of 250mg/week as malaria prophylaxis for his mission in Democratic Republic of Congo. He developed mania with psychotic symptoms after taking five tablets of 250mg of mefloquine. He exhibited an elevated mood and also developed delusions of grandeur, reference and persecution, with auditory hallucinations. The physical examination and the blood laboratory tests were normal. The patient was treated with an atypical neuroleptic (olanzapine 20mg/d) leading to a complete resolution of symptomatology at the end of 3 weeks. SECOND CLINICAL CASE: A 27-year-old man presented a major depressive episode with psychotic symptoms after 1 week on his return from a stay in Democratic Republic of Congo, where he had taken mefloquine during 6 months as malaria prophylaxis (250mg/week). His physical examination and investigations (full blood test, serology and MRN) were normal. The patient was treated with clomipramine (150mg/d) and olanzapine (20mg/d). The outcome was favorable after 4 weeks. Mefloquine is widely accepted as a safe and effective treatment and a prophylactic agent for chlorquine-resistant malaria. Common neuropsychiatric adverse effects of mefloquine can occur in up to 40% of patients, such as dizziness, sleep disturbances, anorexia, ataxia, and fatigue. Other more serious adverse reactions are rare. They are represented primarily by panic attacks, convulsions, acute psychosis, paranoid delusions, suicidal ideation, disorders of mood: major depressive episode and the manic excitation. The incidence of such neuropsychiatric effects is 1/10,000 to 1/15,000 during the

  19. [A descriptive study of substance abuse and mental health disorders in intimate partner violence abusers in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérrez-Bermejo, C; Alás-Brun, R

    2014-01-01

    To obtain data on substance abuse and mental disorders amongst a population of inmates imprisoned for gender violence. 106 intimate partner violence offenders were recruited in our study, all of whom were prison inmates. The study is descriptive and statistical comparison of percentages was used. the percentage of substance abuse was 61.3%; most of which consisted of alcohol and cocaine. According to DSM-IV R, 25.5% of the inmates had at least one psychiatric diagnosis at the time when entering prison: 11.3% adjustment disorder with depressed mood, 6.6% personality disorders, 2.8% psychosis, 1.9% major depressive disorder, 1.9% bipolar disorder and 1.9% psycho-organic disorder were encountered. The average age of the men of the sample was forty years old. The most common nationality was Spanish. The percentage of immigrants was significant greater than the global percentage of the general population. The percentage of global substance consumption and psychopathologic problems is greater than data obtained in IPV from other populations, like samples of men charged by their partners with gender violence. depressive symptoms, personality disorders, alcohol and cocaine consumption need to be investigated as gender violence risk markers in Spain. Attention should be paid to the role of consumption prevention when entering prison.

  20. Treatment of Substance Abusing Patients with Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Douaihy, Antoine B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To update clinicians on the latest in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders among adults and suggest how these treatments can be combined into an evidence based process that enhances treatment effectiveness in comorbid patients. Method Articles were extracted from Pubmed using the search terms “dual diagnosis,” “comorbidity” and “co-occurring” and were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness for pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments of comorbidity. Results Twenty-four research reviews and 43 research trials were reviewed. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that antidepressants prescribed to improve substance-related symptoms among patients with mood and anxiety disorders are either not highly effective or involve risk due to high side-effect profiles or toxicity. Second-generation antipsychotics are more effective for treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid substance abuse and current evidence suggests clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone are among the best. Clozapine appears to be the most effective of the antipsychotics for reducing alcohol, cocaine and cannabis abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Motivational interviewing has robust support as a highly effective psychotherapy for establishing a therapeutic alliance. This finding is critical since retention in treatment is essential for maintaining effectiveness. Highly structured therapy programs that integrate intensive outpatient treatments, case management services and behavioral therapies such as Contingency Management (CM) are most effective for treatment of severe comorbid conditions. Conclusions Creative combinations of psychotherapies, behavioral and pharmacological interventions offer the most effective treatment for comorbidity. Intensity of treatment must be increased for severe comorbid conditions such as the schizophrenia/cannabis dependence comorbidity due to the limitations of pharmacological

  1. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    Background. A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  2. Family history of alcohol dependence modulates functional neurophysiology in mood/anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Z.; van Tol, M.J.; van den Brink, W.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Aleman, A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background A family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD) not only increases the risk for AD, but is also associated with an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is unknown how a FH of AD affects neural substrates in patients with mood and anxiety disorders. In this study we

  3. Suicidal Behavior Among Inpatients with Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders in Chengdu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wu, Qiu-Hua; Conwell, Yeates; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) among 230 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in a university hospital in China. The rate of lifetime suicidal behavior was found to be significantly higher in patients with mood disorders (62.4%) than in…

  4. Mood disorders in everyday life : A systematic review of experience sampling and ecological momentary assessment studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan het Rot, M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, R.A.

    In the past two decades, the study of mood disorder patients using experience sampling methods (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has yielded important findings. In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the dynamics of their everyday mood have been associated with various

  5. Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua

    2012-04-01

    This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.

  6. Anxiety and mood disorders in narcolepsy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, H.A.; Lappenschaar, M.A.; Furer, J.W.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Renier, W.O.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Overeem, S.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Narcolepsy is a primary sleeping disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as core symptoms. There is increasing interest in the psychiatric phenotype of narcolepsy. Although many authors suggest an overrepresentation of mood disorders, few systematic studies have been

  7. Anxiety and mood disorders in narcolepsy: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Lappenschaar, G.A.M.; Furer, J.W.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Renier, W.O.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Overeem, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Narcolepsy is a primary sleeping disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as core symptoms. There is increasing interest in the psychiatric phenotype of narcolepsy. Although many authors suggest an overrepresentation of mood disorders, few systematic studies have been

  8. The CANMAT task force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and comorbid anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; McIntosh, Diane; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Rector, Neil A; McIntyre, Roger S; Beaulieu, Serge; Swinson, Richard; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2012-02-01

    Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders are commonly seen in clinical practice. The goal of this article is to review the available literature on the epidemiologic, etiologic, clinical, and management aspects of this comorbidity and formulate a set of evidence- and consensus-based recommendations. This article is part of a set of Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Comorbidity Task Force papers. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and November 2010. The search terms were bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, cross-referenced with anxiety disorders/symptoms, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Levels of evidence for specific interventions were assigned based on a priori determined criteria, and recommendations were developed by integrating the level of evidence and clinical opinion of the authors. Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders have a significant impact on the clinical presentation and treatment approach for patients with mood disorders. A set of recommendations are provided for the management of bipolar disorder (BD) with comorbid anxiety and major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid anxiety with a focus on comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, use of cognitive-behavioral therapy across mood and anxiety disorders, and youth with mood and anxiety disorders. Careful attention should be given to correctly identifying anxiety comorbidities in patients with BD or MDD. Consideration of evidence- or consensus-based treatment recommendations for the management of both mood and anxiety symptoms is warranted.

  9. Mood disorders are associated with a more severe hypovitaminosis D than schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzeaux, Raoul; Boyer, Laurent; Ibrahim, El Chérif; Féron, François; Leboyer, Marion; Fond, Guillaume

    2015-09-30

    Patients with psychiatric disorders display high levels of hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D status in psychiatric inpatients, 82 individuals with mood disorders or schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorders were included. Hypovitaminosis D was significantly lower in patients with mood disorders than patients with schizophrenia (standardized β coefficient=0.385, p=0.007). Further studies are warranted to determine specific causes of hypovitaminosis D and the interest of supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomarkers in mood disorders research: developing new and improved therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARK J. NICIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, surrogate neurobiological biomarkers that correlate with target engagement and therapeutic response have been developed and tested in early phase studies of mood disorders. Objective The identification of biomarkers could help develop personalized psychiatric treatments that may impact public health. Methods These biomarkers, which are associated with clinical response post-treatment, can be directly validated using multimodal approaches including genetic tools, proteomics/metabolomics, peripheral measures, neuroimaging, biostatistical predictors, and clinical predictors. Results To date, early phase biomarker studies have sought to identify measures that can serve as “biosignatures”, or biological patterns of clinical response. These studies have also sought to identify clinical predictors and surrogate outcomes associated with pathophysiological domains consistently described in the National Institute of Mental Health’s (NIMH new Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. Using the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonist ketamine as an example, we identified changes in several domains (clinical, cognitive, and neurophysiological that predicted ketamine’s rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in individuals with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD or bipolar depression. Discussion These approaches may ultimately provide clues into the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders and may have enormous impact Backon the development of novel therapeutics.

  11. Comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders in patients with binge-eating disorder: Associations with personality disorder and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-08-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with elevated rates of mood and substance use disorders, but the significance of such comorbidity is ambiguous. We compared personality disorder and eating disorder psychopathology in four subgroups of BED patients: those with mood disorders, those with substance use disorders, those with both, and those with neither. Subjects were 347 patients who met DSM-IV research criteria for BED. Semistructured interviews evaluated lifetime DSM-IV axis I disorders, DSM-IV personality disorder features, and eating disorder psychopathology. Among these patients, 129 had co-occurring mood disorder, 34 had substance use disorder, 60 had both, and 124 had neither. Groups differed on personality disorder features, with those having mood disorder and both mood and substance use disorders showing the highest frequencies. Although groups did not differ in body mass index or binge eating frequency, they did differ on eating disorder psychopathology-with the groups having mood disorder and both comorbidities demonstrating higher eating, weight, and shape concerns. No differences were observed between groups with respect to ages of onset for specific eating behaviors, but some differences were observed for ages of disorder onset. Mood and substance use disorders co-occur frequently among patients with BED. Compared with a previous work, the additional comparison group (those with both mood and substance use disorders) and the control group (those with neither) afforded better discrimination regarding the significance of these comorbidities. Our findings suggest approaches to subtyping BED based on psychiatric comorbidity, and may also have implications for treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders in patients with binge-eating disorder: associations with personality disorder and eating disorder pathology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with elevated rates of mood and substance use disorders, but the significance of such comorbidity is ambiguous. We compared personality disorder and eating disorder psychopathology in four subgroups of BED patients: those with mood disorders, those with substance use disorders, those with both, and those with neither. Method Subjects were 347 patients who met DSM-IV research criteria for BED. Semistructured interviews evaluated lifetime DSM-IV axis I disorders, DSM-IV personality disorder features, and eating disorder psychopathology. Results Among these patients, 129 had co-occurring mood disorder, 34 had substance use disorder, 60 had both, and 124 had neither. Groups differed on personality disorder features, with those having mood disorder and both mood and substance use disorders showing the highest frequencies. Although groups did not differ on body mass index or binge eating frequency, they did differ on eating disorder psychopathology with the groups having mood disorder and both comorbidities demonstrating higher eating, weight, and shape concerns. No differences were observed between groups with respect to ages of onset for specific eating behaviors, but some differences were observed for ages of disorder onset. Conclusion Mood and substance use disorders co-occur frequently among patients with BED. Compared with previous work, the additional comparison group (those with both mood and substance use disorders) and the control group (those with neither) afforded better discrimination regarding the significance of these comorbidities. Our findings suggest approaches to subtyping BED based on psychiatric comorbidity, and may also have implications for treatment. PMID:25700727

  13. Violence and mood disorder: views and experiences of adult patients with mood disorders using violence toward their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chi; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Tu, Chun-Hsien

    2014-04-01

    The study explored the lived experiences of violence by patients with mood disorders against their biological parents who were the major caregivers (13 parent-adult-child dyads), and sought to gain an understanding of the precipitating factors influencing violence. Data were collected by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews, managed and subjected to hermeneutics-guided thematic networks analysis. The phenomenon was that violence was part of life. The four global themes were that increased irritability and poor impulse control lead to violence; violence causes anxiety; a transition from violence to nonviolence is difficult; and moving from descriptions of violence to analyses of violence is important. A comprehensive dyadic parent-child intervention program and de-escalation techniques are suggested to manage violence substantially. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mood Disorders in Mothers of Children on the Autism Spectrum Are Associated with Higher Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma A. Vasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders occur more frequently in family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD than in the general population. There may be associations between maternal mood disorder history patterns and specific ASD phenotypes. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal mood disorders and child autism spectrum disorders in 998 mother-child dyads enrolled in a national online autism registry and database. Mothers of children with ASD completed online questionnaires addressing their child’s ASD as well as their own mood disorder history. In multivariate logistic regression models of ASD diagnoses, the odds of an Asperger disorder versus autistic disorder diagnosis were higher among those children whose mothers had a lifetime history of bipolar disorder (OR 2.11, CI 1.20, 3.69 or depression (OR 1.62, CI 1.19, 2.19. Further, maternal mood disorder onset before first pregnancy was associated with higher odds (OR 2.35, CI 1.48, 3.73 of an Asperger versus autism diagnosis among this sample of children with ASD. These data suggest that differences in maternal mood disorder history may be associated with ASD phenotype in offspring.

  15. The Role of Sexual Abuse and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Perceived Stress and Negative Mood in Pregnant Adolescents: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Basu, Archana; Monk, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Latinas have the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy in the United States. Identifying means to improve the well-being of these young women is critical. The current study examined whether a history of child sexual abuse-itself a risk factor for adolescent pregnancy-was associated with more perceived stress and negative mood over the course of pregnancy and whether dysfunctional attitudes explained these associations. This mixed methods study involved laboratory-based assessments of perceived stress, sexual abuse history, and dysfunctional attitudes, as well as Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) of mood states every 30 minutes during a 24-hour period once during each trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (N = 204, 85% Latina). EMA mood states and laboratory-based retrospective self-reports of perceived stress. One in 4 pregnant adolescents had a history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused adolescents reported greater perceived stress during the first trimester relative to those without, though the groups did not differ on EMA negative mood ratings. Dysfunctional attitudes explained associations between sexual abuse and perceived stress. Sexual abuse was indirectly associated with the intercept and slope of negative mood through dysfunctional attitudes. Findings were circumscribed to sexual abuse and not other types of child abuse. Identifying sexually abused pregnant adolescents and providing support and cognitive therapy to target dysfunctional beliefs may decrease stress during the first trimester as well as negative affect throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Relations between mood disorders and personality. Recent data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschy, G

    1992-01-01

    In the field of studies of links between mood disorders and personality, the need to study only completely remitted patients has been demonstrated recently. Indeed, the clinically depressed state strongly influences the assessment of some personality traits in a more pathological direction (for instance for emotional stability, extraversion, interpersonal dependency, ego strength). The studies concerning unipolar depression have been mainly made according to two methodological approaches which results are relatively consistent. The first one uses batteries of standard self-report personality inventories such as the Hirschfeld and Klerman battery which includes the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory, the shortened version of the Lazare-Klerman-Armor Personality Inventory and two subscales of the MMPI. This approach shows that compared to normal population, recovered depressive, have less emotional strength more interpersonal dependency and a more introverted personality. The second approach uses diagnostic criteria of personality disorders according to DSM III. The clinical evaluation can be performed with the help of the Structured Interview for DSM III Personality Disorders (SIDP) or with of the help the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI), a self rated questionnaire. The most frequent personality disorder among recovered unipolar patients is dependent personality, followed by the avoidant and histrionic personalities and lastly the schizoïd, schizotypal, borderline, compulsive and passive-aggressive personalities. But the interpretation of all these results must be cautious given that a recent study dealing with premorbid personality invites one to consider that not only depression influences personality assessment during illness, but also that depression may result in personality change after recovery. Few studies are available concerning bipolar patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  18. Drug Abuse In Women suffering from Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Krankusová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...

  19. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  20. Comparison of catatonia presentation in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afe Taiwo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder. "n "nMethod: Records of 13,968 patients seen between 1983-1985 and 2003- 2005 were reviewed for symptoms of catatonia by resident doctors in psychiatry. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted. Socio-demographic and clinical features were described for each diagnosis. "nResults: There were a total of 98 cases with catatonia out of the 13,968 case notes reviewed. Schizophrenia accounted for 82.5% and 53.4% in the two periods, while the proportion associated with mood disorders increased from 10% to 20.7%. Male to female  ratio was 1.2:1 in schizophrenia and 1:3 in mood disorder. Those with schizophrenia were younger and with an earlier age of onset of symptoms than those with mood disorders. "nConclusion:Catatonia associated with mood disorder was found to be increasing over the years when compared with schizophrenia. Differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics and number of predominant catatonic symptoms. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines (10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

  1. Comparison of catatonia presentation in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Dada Mobolaji; Olubunmi, Okewole Adeniran; Taiwo, Oduguwa; Taiwo, Afe; Rahman, Lawal; Oladipo, Adepoju

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder. Records of 13,968 patients seen between 1983-1985 and 2003-2005 were reviewed for symptoms of catatonia by resident doctors in psychiatry. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted. Socio-demographic and clinical features were described for each diagnosis. There were a total of 98 cases with catatonia out of the 13,968 case notes reviewed. Schizophrenia accounted for 82.5% and 53.4% in the two periods, while the proportion associated with mood disorders increased from 10% to 20.7%. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1 in schizophrenia and 1:3 in mood disorder. Those with schizophrenia were younger and with an earlier age of onset of symptoms than those with mood disorders. Catatonia associated with mood disorder was found to be increasing over the years when compared with schizophrenia. Differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics and number of predominant catatonic symptoms. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines (10(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4(th) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

  2. A study of relapses in subjects with mood disorder on lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, M; Scherillo, P; Manfredonia, M G; Franchini, L; Smeraldi, E

    1993-06-01

    In a sample of 213 mood disorder subjects on long-term lithium treatment, we analyzed the recurrence indices of relapses during the prophylactic treatment period. The differences found in the recurrence rates were due to the current age and age of onset, duration of illness and polarity of the probands. The patients with personality disorders showed the worst relapse indices and could represent a group of mood disorder subjects with a bad outcome of lithium treatment.

  3. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire improves recognition of bipolar disorder in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppämäki Sami

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland. Methods In a pilot study for the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS, 109 consecutive non-schizophrenic psychiatric out- and inpatients in Espoo, Finland, were screened for bipolar disorder using the Finnish translation of the MDQ, and 38 of them diagnostically interviewed with the SCID. Results Forty subjects (37% were positive in the MDQ screen. In the SCID interview, twenty patients were found to suffer from bipolar disorder, of whom seven (70% of ten patients with bipolar I but only two (20% of ten with bipolar II disorder had been previously clinically correctly diagnosed. The translated MDQ was found internally consistent (alpha 0.79 and a feasible screening tool. Conclusions Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire is a feasible screen for bipolar disorder, which could well be integrated into psychiatric routine practice.

  4. Alcohol use disorders, nicotine dependence, and co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders in the United States and South Korea-a cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S Patricia; Lee, Hae K; Cho, Maeng J; Park, Jong-Ik; Dawson, Deborah A; Grant, Bridget F

    2012-04-01

    The strong comorbidity between substance use disorders (SUDs) and mood and anxiety disorders has been well documented. In view of lack of research findings addressing the co-occurrence of SUDs and mood and anxiety disorders, this study examined the pattern of comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and nicotine dependence (ND) between 2 culturally diverse countries, the United States and South Korea. Using the nationally representative samples of the U.S. and Korean general populations, we directly compared rates and comorbidity patterns of AUDs, ND, and mood and anxiety disorders between the 2 countries. We further examined the rates and the comorbidity pattern among individuals with AUDs who sought treatment in the last 12 months. Twelve-month prevalence rates were derived to estimate country differentials, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated to measure the strength of comorbid associations while adjusting for all sociodemographic characteristics in multivariate logistic models specific to each country. The 12-month prevalence rates of AUDs, ND, and any mood disorder and any anxiety disorder were 9.7, 14.4, 9.5, and 11.9% among Americans, whereas the corresponding rates were 7.1, 6.6, 2.0, and 5.2% among Koreans. These rates were significantly greater (except for any AUD) among Americans than among their Korean counterparts. With respect to comorbidity, both countries showed comparable patterns that the prevalence rates of mood and anxiety disorders were consistently the highest among persons with alcohol dependence (AD). Also, a disparate pattern was observed in Korea that the prevalence rates of mood and anxiety disorders were generally lower among individuals with ND than among those with alcohol abuse and AD. Furthermore, despite significantly greater prevalence of AD in Korea (5.1%) than in the United States (4.4%), alcohol-dependent Americans were 4 times (OR = 3.93) more likely to seek treatment compared to their Korean

  5. Current status of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders: a new therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinati, Helen M; O'Brien, Charles P; Dundon, William D

    2013-01-01

    Mood and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, yet there is little evidence-based research to guide the pharmacologic management of these comorbid disorders. The authors review the existing empirical findings, some of which may call into question current clinical pharmacotherapy practices for treating co-occurring mood and substance use disorders. The authors also highlight knowledge gaps that can serve as a basis for future research. The specific mood disorders reviewed are bipolar and major depressive disorders (either one co-occurring with a substance use disorder). Overall, findings from the relatively small amount of available data indicate that pharmacotherapy for managing mood symptoms can be effective in patients with substance dependence, although results have not been consistent across all studies. Also, in most studies, medications for managing mood symptoms did not appear to have an impact on the substance use disorder. In a recent trial for comorbid major depression and alcohol dependence, combination treatment with a medication for depression and another for alcohol dependence was found to reduce depressive symptoms and excessive drinking simultaneously. However, research has only begun to address optimal pharmacologic management of co-occurring disorders. In addition, current clinical treatment for alcohol and drug dependence often excludes new pharmacotherapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating certain types of addiction. With new data becoming available, it appears that we need to revisit current practice in the pharmacological management of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders.

  6. Signs of mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope R Ferdowsian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In phase 1 of this study, we accessed case reports of chimpanzees who had been reportedly subjected to traumatic events, such as maternal separation, social isolation, experimentation, or similar experiences. We applied and tested DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and major depression to published case reports of 20 chimpanzees identified through PrimateLit. Additionally, using the DSM-IV criteria and ethograms as guides, we developed behaviorally anchored alternative criteria that were applied to the case reports. A small number of chimpanzees in the case studies met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and depression. Measures of inter-rater reliability, including Fleiss' kappa and percentage agreement, were higher with use of the alternative criteria for PTSD and depression. In phase 2, the alternative criteria were applied to chimpanzees living in wild sites in Africa (n = 196 and chimpanzees living in sanctuaries with prior histories of experimentation, orphanage, illegal seizure, or violent human conflict (n = 168. In phase 2, 58% of chimpanzees living in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for depression, compared with 3% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04, and 44% of chimpanzees in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for PTSD, compared with 0.5% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chimpanzees display behavioral clusters similar to PTSD and depression in their key

  7. Sexual dysfunction, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Küçük, Adem; Satan, Yılmaz; İlgün, Erdem; Arslan, Şevket; İlik, Faik

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM). This case-control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1%) suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5%) and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%). Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9%) had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5%) had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%), and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%). SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM.

  8. Prevalence of mood disorders and utility of the PRIME-MD in patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopold, Kenneth A.; Ahles, Tim A.; Walch, Susan; Amdur, Robert J.; Mott, Leila A.; Wiegand-Packard, Linda; Oxman, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a short, structured interview procedure that allows practicing oncologists to quickly and reliably identify mood disorders in their patients, and to estimate the prevalence and types of mood disorders in a radiation therapy patient setting, noting relationships between mood disorders and patient characteristics. Methods: Consecutive, eligible adult patients from the practices of two radiation oncologists were administered the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) by the treating physician. A subset of these patients was also evaluated with the SCID, administered by trained mental health care personnel. Agreement between the two instruments was examined using the kappa statistic. Prevalence of mood disorders was determined from the PRIME-MD. The significance of relationships between patient characteristics and mood disorders was examined by chi-square and ANOVA analysis, and subsequently by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: One hundred twenty-two patients were studied. Fifty-three of these were administered the SCID. Agreement between the two instruments was very good (kappa = 0.70). A diagnosis of a depressive or anxiety disorder by the PRIME-MD was made in 59 of the 122 patients (48%, 95% confidence interval = 39%, 58%). Multivariate analysis showed that a diagnosis of a depressive mood disorder was significantly related to pain intensity and prior history of depression. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the validity and feasibility of the PRIME-MD administered by oncologists in making diagnoses of mood disorders. The prevalence of mood disorders in our set of patients undergoing a course of RT was nearly 50%. Future studies should describe the natural history of these disorders, and determine optimal intervention strategies

  9. Mood disorder in a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Russo, Daniele; Limpido, Lucilla; Marconi, Daniela

    2007-02-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a microdeletion syndrome characterized by physical and neurobehavioural features. This report describes the case of a 27 year old female affected by SMS associated with a diagnosis, according to DSMIV criteria, of Mood Disorder N.O.S. and Intermittent Explosive Disorder. To our knowledge, the association of SMS with mood shifts has never been reported. Considering the genetic alterations that characterizes the SMS, further investigations on the region of the chromosome 17p11.2 could help produce more information on the role of melatonin in the genesis of mood disorder.

  10. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  11. Anxiety and mood disorders in narcolepsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuyn, H A Droogleever; Lappenschaar, Martijn A; Furer, Joop W; Hodiamont, Paul P; Rijnders, Cees A Th; Renier, Willy O; Buitelaar, Jan K; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a primary sleeping disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as core symptoms. There is increasing interest in the psychiatric phenotype of narcolepsy. Although many authors suggest an overrepresentation of mood disorders, few systematic studies have been performed and conflicting results have been reported. Anxiety disorders in narcolepsy have only received little attention. We performed a case-control study in 60 narcolepsy patients and 120 age- and sex-matched controls from a previous population study. The Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry were used to assess symptoms and diagnostic classifications of mood and anxiety disorders. Symptoms of mood disorders were reported by about one third of patients. However, the prevalence of formal mood disorder diagnoses - including major depression - was not increased. In contrast, more than half of the narcolepsy patients had anxiety or panic attacks. Thirty-five percent of the patients could be diagnosed with anxiety disorder (odds ratio=15.6), with social phobia being the most important diagnosis. There was no influence of age, sex, duration of illness or medication use on the prevalence of mood or anxiety symptoms and disorders. Anxiety disorders, especially panic attacks and social phobias, often affect patients with narcolepsy. Although symptoms of mood disorders are present in many patients, the prevalence of major depression is not increased. Anxiety and mood symptoms could be secondary complications of the chronic symptoms of narcolepsy. Recent studies have shown that narcolepsy is caused by defective hypocretin signaling. As hypocretin neurotransmission is also involved in stress regulation and addiction, this raises the possibility that mood and anxiety symptoms are primary disease phenomena in narcolepsy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between anxiety and alcohol versus cannabis abuse disorders among adolescents in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Nancy C; Lee, Sok S; Johnson, Jeffrey G; Williams, Janet B; Harris, Emily S

    2008-10-01

    Both clinical and population-based studies show that anxiety disorders and substance misuse frequently co-occur in adults, whereas among adolescents, less examination of this association has been done. Adolescence is frequently the time of substance use initiation and its subsequent interaction with anxiety disorders has not been fully explored. It is unknown in adolescents whether anxiety is more related to alcohol abuse versus cannabis abuse. In addition, as depression has been implicated in adolescents with both anxiety and substance misuse, its role in the association should also be considered. To test the association between current anxiety with alcohol versus cannabis abuse disorders. Cross-sectional, clinician-administered, structured assessment--using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders--to evaluate anxiety, mood and substance abuse disorders among 632 adolescents recruited from primary care settings. Results show a strong association between current anxiety and alcohol [odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-11.8], but not cannabis (odds ratio = 1.4; 95% CI 0.4-4.7) abuse. This association in adolescents reflects the importance for increased awareness of anxiety symptoms and alcohol use patterns in primary care. The lack of association of anxiety with cannabis abuse in this group may reflect differences in cannabis' anxiolytic properties or that this young group has had less exposure thus far. Given adolescence is a time of especially rapid psychosocial, hormonal and brain development, primary care may provide an opportunity for further investigation and, potentially, early screening and intervention.

  13. Mood regulation and quality of life in social anxiety disorder: An examination of generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sharon C.; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Marks, Elizabeth H.; Marques, Luana M.; Otto, Michael W.; Pollack, Mark H.; Simon, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined negative mood regulation expectancies, anxiety symptom severity, and quality of life in a sample of 167 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 165 healthy controls with no DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Participants completed the Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMR), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. SAD symptom severity was assessed using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Individuals with SAD scored significantly lower than controls on the NMR. Among SAD participants, NMR scores were negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms and SAD severity, and positively correlated with quality of life. NMR expectancies positively predicted quality of life even after controlling for demographic variables, comorbid diagnoses, anxiety symptoms, and SAD severity. Individuals with SAD may be less likely to engage in emotion regulating strategies due to negative beliefs regarding their effectiveness, thereby contributing to poorer quality of life. PMID:22343166

  14. FAMILY EDUCATION IN MANAGEMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIC AND MOOD DISORDER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH GHASEMI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The role of family as a preventive, promotive, and curative agent is well documented in mental health studies. However, few attempts have been made to engineer the positive family mechanisms in enhancing psychiatric patients' role performance. Methods. This study is an endeavor to demarcate the effect of family education on social functioning of 170 schizophrenics and 174 patients with mood disorders. Solomon's four group design allowed patients from each category to be assigned into four groups. Key family members from experimental groups participated in a one day monthly programmer over a period of six months. Attitude towards mental illness, family environment and skills in management of patient's verbal and non-verbal behaviors as well as patient's adjustment ability within the family, community and work place constituted the focus of this study. While applying batteries of test, data pertaining to the aforementioned characteristics were obtained from the subjects 6 and 18 months after intervention which were subsequently compared with the baseline data. Findings. Comparing the baseline data with the data pertaining to other phases of intervention, one could observe a regressively progressive change in the families' attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral aspects, allowed by the patients' desirable social adjustment. Conclusion. These observations are congruent with earlier findings in the west, reinforcing the promising role of education in bringing about desirable changes in the family dynamic which can ensure better outcome for the psychiatric patients' illness.

  15. The mindful brain and emotion regulation in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Norman A S; Anderson, Adam K; Segal, Zindel V

    2012-02-01

    Mindfulness involves nonjudgmental attention to present-moment experience. In its therapeutic forms, mindfulness interventions promote increased tolerance of negative affect and improved well-being. However, the neural mechanisms underlying mindful mood regulation are poorly understood. Mindfulness training appears to enhance focused attention, supported by the anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In emotion regulation, these PFC changes promote the stable recruitment of a nonconceptual sensory pathway, an alternative to conventional attempts to cognitively reappraise negative emotion. In neural terms, the transition to nonconceptual awareness involves reducing evaluative processing, supported by midline structures of the PFC. Instead, attentional resources are directed toward a limbic pathway for present-moment sensory awareness, involving the thalamus, insula, and primary sensory regions. In patients with affective disorders, mindfulness training provides an alternative to cognitive efforts to control negative emotion, instead directing attention toward the transitory nature of momentary experience. Limiting cognitive elaboration in favour of momentary awareness appears to reduce automatic negative self-evaluation, increase tolerance for negative affect and pain, and help to engender self-compassion and empathy in people with chronic dysphoria.

  16. [Internet dependency as a symptom of depressive mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wildt, Bert T; Putzig, Inken; Zedler, Markus; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2007-09-01

    In psychiatric contexts, the quick distribution of virtual techniques in private and professional everyday life gives rise to the question, if these can evoke a psychological addiction. Yet, the diagnostic assessment of internet or computer game dependency remains problematic. Within a study with 23 internet-dependent patients with significant psychological strain, 18 (77.8%) were diagnosed with a depressive mood disorder by thorough clinical examination and structured interviews. The presented work compares psychometric test results of the depressed subpopulation with healthy controls matched for age, sex and school education. In the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale patients with internet dependency scored significantly higher than the control group (p Internet Addiction Scale. Becks Depression Inventory and the Symptom-Checklist subscale for depression revealed significantly higher scores within the patient group as compared to controls (p internet dependent subjects showed significantly more pathological scores than the healthy subjects (p internet dependency can be understood as a novel psychopathology of well known psychiatric conditions, every psychiatrist should be able to detect and treat it adequately, as long as there is a willingness to deal with the contents and impacts of cyberspace. Especially with depressed patients, it seems to be crucial to include questions about media usage in psychiatric examination taking.

  17. Associations between sexual abuse and family conflict/violence, self-injurious behavior, and substance use: the mediating role of depressed mood and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-03-01

    To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of sexual abuse, family conflict/violence, self-injurious behavior, substance use, depressed mood, and anger. Sexual abuse and family conflict/violence had direct effects on self-injurious behavior and substance use among both genders, when controlling for age, family structure, parental education, anger, and depressed mood. More importantly, the indirect effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior among both males and females were twice as strong through depressed mood as through anger, while the indirect effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on substance use were only significant through anger. These results indicate that in cases of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence, substance use is similar to externalizing behavior, where anger seems to be a key mediating variable, opposed to internalizing behavior such as self-injurious behavior, where depressed mood is a more critical mediator. Practical implications highlight the importance of focusing on a range of emotions, including depressed mood and anger, when working with stressed adolescents in prevention and treatment programs for self-injurious behavior and substance use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Health inequities in mood disorders based on material and social deprivation in dwelling sectors ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Lesage, Alain; Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Bergeron, Claude

    2012-12-01

    To compare mood disorder (MD) prevalence in Quebec in 2006, and compare health services and medication use, mortality and morbidity in patients with MD based on sex and the dwelling sector level of material and social deprivation. The objective was also to identify subgroups of individuals using health services in a larger proportion and having a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec medico-administrative data. The cohort is composed of adults diagnosed with MD and living in Quebec in 2006. Variables include: physician consultation, medication demand, consultation for substance or alcohol abuse, emergency visit, hospitalization for a mental disorder, and death. Dwelling sector types are defined by crossing Pampalon material and social deprivation quintiles. MD prevalence in 2006 was 3.06% (177 850 patients), with prevalence in women 1.7-fold with respect to men. Findings show a higher MD prevalence as well as a higher mortality and morbidity rate in materially and socially deprived dwelling sectors. Young men also represent a specifically vulnerable subgroup for many study variables. Public policies aimed at improving material conditions (income, education, employment) and breaking out social isolation would have an important impact on the population mental health. Public health program development should pay close attention to young men population.

  19. Do mood disorders play a role in pig welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work examines the hypothesis that the behavioural disorders found in pigs under conditions of stress may also be attributable to inherent conditions of alteration in mood. In light of new evidence that links the biochemical characterization of human depression to a particular profile of fatty acids in platelets, in particular the Palmitic Acid, Linoleic and Arachidonic, the decision was made to investigate platelet fatty acids of different animal species (pig, cattle, cat, sheep, together with the same data found in literature for rats and guinea pigs. The results obtained from normal and depressed human subjects have made it possible to achieve a particular Artificial Neural Network called the Self Organizing Map (SOM. This network, which is also used in the classification of some species (pigs, cattle, cats and sheep, has been utilised to distribute and classify all the animals studied, in agreement with the fatty acid markers of depressive disorder and the degree of saturation of membrane lipids. In agreement with this approach, the pig is comparable to humans that present a clinical diagnosis of depression. A critical analysis of specific references indicates the existence of a wide range of similarities between human beings suffering from depression and pigs. All the results we obtained on platelets, together with bibliographic evidence make plausible, in our view, the hypothesis that the pig is an animal intrinsically prone to depression. This tendency, which is probably genetically predetermined, must be taken into account in studies on the welfare of this animal and could also serve as a good model for the study of antidepressant molecules for humans.

  20. Managing mood disorders in patients attending pulmonary rehabilitation clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarajah S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1–3 David Dunt,2 David Ames,1 Suganya Selvarajah11National Ageing Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital Royal Park Campus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 3Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: There is good evidence for the positive benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in the prevention of hospital admissions, lower mortality, and improved health-related quality of life. There is also increasing evidence about the impact of PR on mental health and, in particular, mood disorders. We aimed to identify how depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Victoria, Australia, is being managed in PR, to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms among COPD patients who attend PR, and to determine whether patients with depressive symptoms or anxiety symptoms dropped out of PR early.Method: Of 61 PR clinics, 44 were invited and 22 agreed to participate. Telephone interviews were conducted to see how depression and anxiety in COPD patients were being recognized and managed in these clinics. A total of 294 questionnaires were distributed to patients by clinic coordinators to determine the prevalence of anxiety/depression, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Coordinators were contacted to provide information on whether respondents dropped out of rehabilitation early or continued with their treatment at 2–4 months post program.Results: Seven clinics were not aware of local guidelines on assessment/treatment/management of mood. Four clinics did not use any screening tools or other aids in the recognition and management of depression and/or anxiety. Overall, eight clinics participating in this study requested advice on suitable screening tools. The patient survey indicated that the mean depression score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression

  1. Critical exploration of co-occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, mood disorder and Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnart, Judith; Truter, Ilse; Meyer, Anneke

    2017-06-01

    Co-occurring disorders (CODs) describe a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) accompanied by a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mood disorders are common CODs with high prevalence rates in SUD populations. It is proposed that literature on a tri-condition presentation of ADHD, mood disorder and SUD is limited. Areas covered: A literature search was conducted using a keyword search on EBSCOhost. Initially 2 799 records were identified, however, only two articles included all three conditions occurring concurrently in individuals. CODs constitute a major concern due to their overarching burden on society as a whole. Diagnosis and treatment of such patients is challenging. There is evidence that dysfunction of dopamine in the brain reward circuitry impacts the development or symptomology of all three disorders. Disparity exists regarding whether ADHD or mood disorders are greater modifiers for increased SUD severity. However, it has been reported that poor functional capacity may have a greater influence than comorbidities on SUD development. Expert commentary: Challenges exist which confound the clear distinction of CODs, however, with greater emergence of adult ADHD its screening in SUD populations should become standard practice to establish data on multi-condition presentations with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes.

  2. Microbiota abnormalities and the therapeutic potential of probiotics in the treatment of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Adiel C; Maurya, Pawan Kumar; Pedrini, Mariana; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Asevedo, Elson; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Wieck, Andrea; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; McIntyre, Roger S; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-10-26

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are among the leading causes of burden and disability worldwide. Despite intensified research efforts to improve the treatment options and remission rates in mood disorders, no disease modifying treatment exists for these disorders. Accumulating evidence implicates the involvement of the gut microbiota in processes relevant to etiopathology of central nervous system-based disorders. The objective of this article was to critically evaluate the evidence supporting the link between gastrointestinal microbiota and mood disorders and to discuss the potential benefits of using probiotics in the treatment of MDD and BD. The concept of psychobiotics, which is bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is emerging in the field. On the other hand, while probiotics might potentially represent a significant advance, specific roles of microbiota in the pathophysiology of mood disorders still need further investigation along with intervention studies.

  3. High familial risk for mood disorder is associated with low dorsolateral prefrontal cortex serotonin transporter binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David

    2009-01-01

    Mood disorders are elicited through a combination of genetic and environmental stress factors, and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ameliorates depressive symptoms. Changes in the serotonin transporter (SERT) binding may therefore occur in depressive patients and in subjects.......4+/-5.0 years) for developing mood disorder were included. The subjects were healthy twins with or without a co-twin history of mood disorder identified by linking information from the Danish Twin Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Regional in vivo brain serotonin transporter binding...... at risk for developing depression. The aim of this study was to explore whether abnormalities in SERT might be present in healthy individuals with familial predisposition to mood disorder. Nine individuals at high familial risk (mean age 32.2+/-4.2 years) and 11 individuals at low risk (mean age 32...

  4. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A number of social, familial, and psychological factors have been identified to explain the onset of mood and anxiety disorders among adolescent and young adult populations. The purpose of this study is to identify the shared and unique predictors of anxiety and mood disorders by simulta......Purpose: A number of social, familial, and psychological factors have been identified to explain the onset of mood and anxiety disorders among adolescent and young adult populations. The purpose of this study is to identify the shared and unique predictors of anxiety and mood disorders...... by simultaneously testing a range of established psychosocial risk factors. Method: A national birth cohort of the Danish population born in 1984 and tracked over the course of the first 21 years of their life was used in the current study (n = 54,458). Psychosocial risk factors including paternal and maternal...

  5. Is binge eating a cognitive disorder? Results from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yena; Carmona, Nicole E; Shekotikhina, Margarita; Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Mansur, Rodrigo B; Cha, Danielle S; Lee, Jae-Hon; Lee, JungGoo; Zhou, Aileen J; Dale, Roman M; Muzina, David J; Kennedy, Sidney H; McIntyre, Roger S

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) are differentially affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, and substance use disorder. We have investigated to what extent cognitive deficits are relevant to binge eating behavior (BEB). Data from the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project were retrospectively and cross-sectionally analyzed to compare individuals with and without BEB on measures of anhedonia and general cognitive functions (n = 566). BEB was assessed using items from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus 5.0.0 for DSM-IV-TR that correspond with DSM-5-defined diagnostic criteria for BED. Individuals currently prescribed benzodiazepines were excluded from analyses. Individuals with BEB were more likely to exhibit anhedonia (P = .044) and general cognitive (P = .005) symptoms, when compared to those without BEB. We also observed that individuals with BEB were more likely to have specific psychiatric (eg, ADHD) and medical (eg, obesity) disorders (P cause and treatment of BEB in adults.

  6. Liraglutide promotes improvements in objective measures of cognitive dysfunction in individuals with mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Ahmed, Juhie; Cha, Danielle S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of treatments that are capable of reliably and robustly improving cognitive function in adults with mood disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is synthesized centrally and its receptors are abundantly expressed in neural circuits subserving cognitive function. We aimed....... There was a significant increase in lipase (psize, open-label design, lack of a placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Liraglutide was safe and well tolerated by a sample of non-diabetic individuals with mood disorders and had...

  7. Lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt in adults with full major depressive disorder versus sustained depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a well-known risk factor for suicidality, but depressed mood has been used non-specifically to describe the emotional state. We sought to compare influence of MDD versus sustained depressed mood on suicidality. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through the one-person-per-household method, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) and a questionnaire for lifetime suicidal ideation (LSI) and lifetime suicidal attempt (LSA). Of 12,361 adults, 565 were assessed as 'sustained depressed mood group' having depressed mood for more than two weeks without MDD (4.6%), and 810 adults were assessed as having full MDD (6.55%) which consisted of 'MDD with depressed mood group' (6.0%) and 'MDD without depressed mood group' (0.5%). The MDD with depressed mood group showed higher odds ratios for LSI and LSA than the sustained depressed mood group. Contrarily, no significant differences were found in LSI and LSA between the MDD group with and without depressed mood. MDD showed significant associations with LSI (AOR=2.83, 95%CI 2.12-3.78) and LSA (AOR=2.17, 95%CI 1.34-3.52), whereas sustained depressed mood showed significant associations with neither LSI nor LSA after adjusting for MDD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Interaction effect of sustained depressed mood with MDD was significant for LSI but not for LSA. Sustained depressed mood was not related to LSI and LSA after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, whereas MDD was significantly associated with both LSI and LSA regardless of the presence of sustained depressed mood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Recognizing ADHD in adults with comorbid mood disorders: implications for identification and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, David W; Thase, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assist those in psychiatric clinical practice in the identification and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, with an emphasis on ADHD in the presence of comorbid mood disorders in adults. PubMed was searched to identify relevant studies and critical reviews published in English between 1988 and 2008 on the prevalence, persistence, and consequences of ADHD in adults. Additionally, relevant studies and critical reviews pertaining to the treatment of adults with ADHD and the relationships between ADHD and mood disorders with regard to overlapping symptom profiles, comorbidity, and treatment options were identified. The symptoms of ADHD persist into adulthood for a high proportion of children with this disorder. Among adults, the estimated prevalence of clinician-assessed ADHD in the general population is 4% to 5%. Untreated ADHD can adversely affect school and work achievements, diminish self-esteem, damage interpersonal relationships, and significantly reduce quality of life for adults. A significant proportion of adults with mood disorders have comorbid ADHD, and a significant proportion of adults with ADHD have comorbid mood disorders. Few reports have described the outcome of treatment of individuals with ADHD and concurrent mood disorders and no controlled trials were identified. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults can be identified despite resembling, or coexisting with, other psychiatric disorders. The complexities of comorbid psychiatric conditions require careful diagnostic prioritization when developing a comprehensive sequential treatment plan. The current research literature offers little clinical guidance for constructing treatment algorithms.

  9. The relationship between schizoaffective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, D M; Khasakhala, L; Meneghini, L; Aillon, J L

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and the relationship between schizophrenia (SCZ), SAD and mood disorders (MD) in non-Western countries is unknown. To determine the prevalence of SAD and the relationship between SCZ, SAD and MD in relation to socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables in 691 patients admitted at Mathari Psychiatric Hospital, Kenya. A cross-sectional comparative study using both clinician and SCID-1 for DSM-IV diagnoses. Approximately twenty three percent (n=160) met DSM-IV criteria for SAD using SCID-1. There were significant differences between SCZ, SAD and MD regarding: affective and core symptoms of schizophrenia (with the exception of core symptoms of schizophrenia between SCZ and SAD); presence of past trauma; a past suicide attempt; and comorbidity with alcohol and drug abuse disorders. SAD and MD patients took significantly more mood stabilizers than SCZ patients. There were no significant differences between the three groups regarding socio-demographic variables, brief psychiatric rating scale scores, cognitive performance, anxiety and depressive symptoms, presence of obsessions, and usage of both antipsychotics and antidepressants. There is no distinct demarcation between the three disorders. This lends support to recent evidence suggesting that SAD might constitute a heterogeneous group composed of both SCZ and MD patients or a middle point of a continuum between SCZ and MD.

  10. Impaired sensory processing measured by functional MRI in Bipolar disorder manic and depressed mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Joseph J; Johnson, Casey P; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Christensen, Gary E; Wemmie, John A; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2017-07-03

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurring episodes of depression and mania. Defining differences in brain function during these states is an important goal of bipolar disorder research. However, few imaging studies have directly compared brain activity between bipolar mood states. Herein, we compare functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses during a flashing checkerboard stimulus between bipolar participants across mood states (euthymia, depression, and mania) in order to identify functional differences between these states. 40 participants with bipolar I disorder and 33 healthy controls underwent fMRI during the presentation of the stimulus. A total of 23 euthymic-state, 16 manic-state, 15 depressed-state, and 32 healthy control imaging sessions were analyzed in order to compare functional activation during the stimulus between mood states and with healthy controls. A reduced response was identified in the visual cortex in both the depressed and manic groups compared to euthymic and healthy participants. Functional differences between bipolar mood states were also observed in the cerebellum, thalamus, striatum, and hippocampus. Functional differences between mood states occurred in several brain regions involved in visual and other sensory processing. These differences suggest that altered visual processing may be a feature of mood states in bipolar disorder. The key limitations of this study are modest mood-state group size and the limited temporal resolution of fMRI which prevents the segregation of primary visual activity from regulatory feedback mechanisms.

  11. Highs and lows, ups and downs: Meteorology and mood in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ben; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms is a controversial topic in bipolar disorder research. Several studies report seasonal patterns of hospital admissions for depression and mania and variation in symptoms that appear to follow a seasonal pattern, whereas others fail to report such patterns. Differences in research methodologies, data analysis strategies, and temporal resolution of data may partly explain the variation in findings between studies. The current study adds a novel perspective to the literature by investigating specific meteorological factors such as atmospheric pressure, hours of sunshine, relative humidity, and daily maximum and minimum temperatures as more proximal predictors of self-reported daily mood change in people diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The results showed that daily maximum temperature was the only meteorological variable to predict clinically-relevant mood change, with increases in temperature associated with greater odds of a transition into manic mood states. The mediating effects of sleep and activity were also investigated and suggest at least partial influence on the prospective relationship between maximum temperature and mood. Limitations include the small sample size and the fact that the number and valence of social interactions and exposure to natural light were not investigated as potentially important mediators of relationships between meteorological factors and mood. The current data make an important contribution to the literature, serving to clarify the specific meteorological factors that influence mood change in bipolar disorder. From a clinical perspective, greater understanding of seasonal patterns of symptoms in bipolar disorder will help mood episode prophylaxis in vulnerable individuals.

  12. Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa FORTES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood, and disordered eating in female adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventy one adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years of age participated in this research. The Body Shape Questionnaire, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Brunel Mood Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 were used to assess, respectively, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, mood state, and disordered eating. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare the Eating Attitudes Test subscale scores according to body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, and mood state classifications. Results The findings showed that body dissatisfaction (p=0.001, perfectionism (p=0.04, and mood state (p=0.05 were associated with disordered eating in the female adolescents evaluated. Despite the statistically significant results obtained for all independent variables, it is worth mentioning that body dissatisfaction was the main determinant of disordered eating in the multiple regression model. Conclusion It can be concluded that body dissatisfaction explains the variance in disordered eating; however, it is also important to note that perfectionism and mood state are also associated to the disordered eating in female adolescents, although to a lesser extent.

  13. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety

  14. Personality disorders and suicide attempts in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka; Rosenström, Tom; Mantere, Outi; Suominen, Kirsi; Melartin, Tarja; Vuorilehto, Maria; Holma, Mikael; Riihimäki, Kirsi; Oquendo, Maria A; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2016-01-15

    Comorbid personality disorders may predispose patients with mood disorders to suicide attempts (SAs), but factors mediating this effect are not well known. Altogether 597 patients from three prospective cohort studies (Vantaa Depression Study, Jorvi Bipolar Study, and Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study) were interviewed at baseline, at 18 months, and in VDS and PC-VDS at 5 years. Personality disorders (PDs) at baseline, number of previous SAs, life-charted time spent in major depressive episodes (MDEs), and precise timing of SAs during follow-up were determined and investigated. Overall, 219 (36.7%) patients had a total of 718 lifetime SAs; 88 (14.7%) patients had 242 SAs during the prospective follow-up. Having any PD diagnosis increased the SA rate, both lifetime and prospectively evaluated, by 90% and 102%, respectively. All PD clusters increased the rate of new SAs, although cluster C PDs more than the others. After adjusting for time spent in MDEs, only cluster C further increased the SA rate (by 52%). Mediation analyses of PD effects on prospectively ascertained SAs indicated significant mediated effects through time at risk in MDEs, but also some direct effects. Findings generalizable only to patients with mood disorders. Among mood disorder patients, comorbid PDs increase the risk of SAs to approximately two-fold. The excess risk is mostly due to patients with comorbid PDs spending more time in depressive episodes than those without. Consequently, risk appears highest for PDs that most predispose to chronicity and recurrences. However, also direct risk-modifying effects of PDs exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of Biomarkers in Mood and Psychotic Disorders: A Dissection of Clinical vs. Preclinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sarel J.; Möller, Marisa; Harvey, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant research efforts aimed at understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of mood (depression, bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders, the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment of these disorders are still based solely on relatively subjective assessment of symptoms as well as psychometric evaluations. Therefore, biological markers aimed at improving the current classification of psychotic and mood-related disorders, and that will enable patients to be stratified on a biological basis into more homogeneous clinically distinct subgroups, are urgently needed. The attainment of this goal can be facilitated by identifying biomarkers that accurately reflect pathophysiologic processes in these disorders. This review postulates that the field of psychotic and mood disorder research has advanced sufficiently to develop biochemical hypotheses of the etiopathology of the particular illness and to target the same for more effective disease modifying therapy. This implies that a “one-size fits all” paradigm in the treatment of psychotic and mood disorders is not a viable approach, but that a customized regime based on individual biological abnormalities would pave the way forward to more effective treatment. In reviewing the clinical and preclinical literature, this paper discusses the most highly regarded pathophysiologic processes in mood and psychotic disorders, thereby providing a scaffold for the selection of suitable biomarkers for future studies in this field, to develope biomarker panels, as well as to improve diagnosis and to customize treatment regimens for better therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26411964

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorg Pierre

    2007-05-01

    greater risk of mood disorder, as well as a therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in depressed or bipolar patients. Other works are necessary in order to establish a causal relation between n-3 PUFA deficiency and depression, and to further explore their preventive or therapeutic use.

  17. The relation between anger management style, mood and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Kim, Dong Kee; Kim, Shin Young; Park, Joong Kyu; Han, Mooyoung

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between anger management style, depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder patients. The subjects comprised 71 patients with anxiety disorders and 47 with somatoform disorders. The level of anger expression or anger suppression was assessed by the Anger Expression Scale, the severity of anxiety and depression by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) anxiety and depression subscales, and the severity of somatic symptoms by the Somatization Rating Scale and the SCL-90-R somatization subscale. The results of path analyses showed that anger suppression had only an indirect effect on somatic symptoms through depression and anxiety in each of the disorders. In addition, only anxiety had a direct effect on somatic symptoms in anxiety disorder patients, whereas both anxiety and depression had direct effects on somatic symptoms in somatoform disorder patients. However, the anxiety disorder group showed a significant negative correlation between anger expression and anger suppression in the path from anger-out to anger-in to depression to anxiety to somatic symptoms, unlike the somatoform disorder group. The results suggest that anger suppression, but not anger expression, is associated with mood, i.e. depression and anxiety, and somatic symptoms characterize anxiety disorder and somatoform disorder patients. Anxiety is likely to be an important source of somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders, whereas both anxiety and depression are likely to be important sources of somatic symptoms in somatoform disorders. In addition, anger suppression preceded by inhibited anger expression is associated with anxiety and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders.

  18. Current evidence regarding the management of mood and anxiety disorders using complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzan, Anthony J; Zabrecky, George; Monti, Daniel A; Newberg, Andrew B

    2014-04-01

    This article is an updated review on the potential uses of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches for the management of patients with mood and anxiety disorders. We have focused this current paper on the different types of disorders and the CAM intervention which might be useful. This is in distinction to the prior paper which focused on the CAM interventions. In addition, we have provided a discussion of more recent studies that help to further inform practitioners about CAM interventions in these disorders. Mood and anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental health issues affecting people today and there are many approaches towards their management. CAM interventions can include supplements, botanical remedies, meditation and spiritual practices, acupuncture, and dietary practices. There are a growing number of research studies on the effectiveness of CAM interventions in mood and anxiety disorders, and this review evaluates and critiques such data.

  19. Analysis of Chosen Variables Psychological Determining the Occurrence of Mood Disorders After Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Marzena; Gierszewska, Małgorzata; Mieczkowska, Estera; Gebuza, Grażyna; Banaszkiewicz, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    Psychological factors are one of many that contribute to the increased risk of a psychiatric disorder's occurrence after childbirth. The aim of this work was to determine the relation between psychological variables, such as sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism, and the risk of mood disorder's occurrence in women after childbirth. Two hundred eighty five women, who gave birth in the University Hospital no. 2 in Bydgoszcz, took part in the study. To measure the risk occurrence of mood disorder symptoms after childbirth the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) was used. Obtaining a score of 12 or more points out of 30 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was an indicator of mood disorders. To study psychological variables the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) were used. Twenty three point two percent of women obtained 12 or more points in the EDPS scale. The average result in GSES scale for all women who took part in the study was 30.80 and indicated a high estimation of women's own capabilities in dealing with new situations. Obtained results indicated a surprisingly small group of women with low estimation of their own capabilities (n = 15). However, negative correlation between EDPS and GSES parameters, on a statistically significant level (p childbirth, one-fourth of women are in danger of the occurrence of mood disorders. There is a negative correlation between the sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism and risk of occurrence of mood disorders after childbirth.

  20. Social Welfare Centers Protect Outpatients with Mood Disorders from Risk of Hospital Admission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Tae Han

    Full Text Available South Korea faces difficulties in the management of mental disorders, and those difficulties are expected to gradually worsen. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between social welfare centers and hospital admission after outpatient treatment for mood disorders.We used data from the National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort 2002-2013, which included all medical claims filed for the 50,160 patients who were newly diagnosed with a mood disorder among the 1,025,340 individuals in a nationally representative sample. We performed a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation (GEE models to examine the relationship between social welfare centers and hospital admission after outpatient treatment for mood disorders (ICD-10: F3.There was a 3.9% admission rate among a total of 99,533 person-years. Outpatients who lived in regions with more social welfare centers were less likely to be admitted to a hospital (per increase of five social welfare centers per 100,000 people; OR: 0.958; 95% CI: 0.919-0.999. Social welfare centers had an especially strong protective effect on patients with relatively mild mood disorders and those who were vulnerable to medical expenditures.Considering the protective role of social welfare centers in managing patients with mood disorders, health-policy makers need to consider strategies for activating mental healthcare.

  1. Does cannabis use predict the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the adult population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Margriet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Monshouwer, Karin; de Graaf, Ron

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether cannabis use predicted the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in adults during a 3-year follow-up period. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a prospective study in the adult population of 18-64 years. The analysis was carried out on 3881 people who had no life-time mood disorders and on 3854 people who had no life-time anxiety disorders at baseline. Life-time cannabis use and DSM-III-R mood and anxiety disorders, assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). After adjustment for strong confounders, any use of cannabis at baseline predicted a modest increase in the risk of a first major depression (odds ratio 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.48) and a stronger increase in the risk of a first bipolar disorder (odds ratio 4.98; 95% confidence interval 1.80-13.81). The risk of 'any mood disorder' was elevated for weekly and almost daily users but not for less frequent use patterns. However, dose-response relationships were less clear for major depression and bipolar disorder separately. None of the associations between cannabis use and anxiety disorders remained significant after adjustment for confounders. The associations between cannabis use and the first incidence of depression and bipolar disorder, which remained significant after adjustment for strong confounders, warrant research into the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment in bipolar disorders and risk of suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, Ana Garcia; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. METHODS: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide w...... similar reduction in the rate of suicide, the results suggest that treatment with lithium may have some superiority in relation to prevention of suicide.......OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. METHODS: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide...... was investigated among all patients discharged nationwide from hospital psychiatry as an in- or outpatient in a period from 1995 to 2000 in Denmark with a diagnosis of BD. RESULTS: A total of 5,926 patients were included in the study and among these 51 patients committed suicide eventually during the study period...

  3. Mood-stabilizing pharmacological treatment in bipolar disorders and risk of suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars; Lopez, A.G.; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. Methods: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide w...... similar reduction in the rate of suicide, the results suggest that treatment with lithium may have some superiority in relation to prevention of suicide Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Objectives: This study investigated the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment (lithium and anticonvulsants) in bipolar disorder (BD) and the risk of suicide. Methods: Using linkage of national registers, the association between continued mood-stabilizing treatment and suicide...... was investigated among all patients discharged nationwide from hospital psychiatry as an in- or outpatient in a period from 1995 to 2000 in Denmark with a diagnosis of BD. Results: A total of 5,926 patients were included in the study and among these 51 patients committed suicide eventually during the study period...

  4. Sexual dysfunction, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan F

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatih Kayhan,1 Adem Küçük,2 Yılmaz Satan,3 Erdem İlgün,4 Şevket Arslan,5 Faik İlik6 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Selçuk University, 2Department of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Konya Numune State Hospital, 4Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 6Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Başkent University, Konya, Turkey Background: We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM.  Methods: This case–control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders.  Results: Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1% suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5% and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%. Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9% had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5% had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%, generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%, and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%.  Conclusion: SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM. Keywords: anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia, sexual dysfunction

  5. Creativity and mood disorders: The enigmatic case of Isaak Il'ich Levitan (1860-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Vladimir; Margolin, Jacob; Witztum, Eliezer

    2017-05-01

    Isaak Levitan (1860-1900) was one of Russia's most influential landscape artists. He lived a very short life, only 40 years, but left more than 1000 paintings. He suffered from mood fluctuations, and died as a result of serious heart disease. After an introduction related to the issue of creativity and mental disorders, a short biography of Levitan's life is outlined, followed by some examples of his mood and behavior. A section on the mood's reflection in Levitan's professional work is followed by a description of his romantic loves and disappointments and his relationship with his contemporary Russian, the writer Anton Chekhov.

  6. High potential but limited evidence: Using voice data from smartphones to monitor and diagnose mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Flora; Torous, John; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2017-09-01

    This article evaluates the potential of smartphone audio data to monitor individuals recovering from mood disorders. A comprehensive literature review was conducted based on searches in 9 bibliographic databases. Seven articles were identified that used smartphone audio data to monitor participants with bipolar disorder from 4 to 14 weeks. The studies captured audio data in various contexts (e.g., in-person daily conversations, phone calls) and used common audio features (e.g., pitch and volume) to ascertain clinically relevant outcomes, including mood and social rhythm. Findings suggest that the utility of audio data in clinical and research contexts remains relatively unexplored and presents some challenges. For example, information on adherence and engagement among individuals recovering from bipolar disorder were often insufficient to gauge the generalizability of findings. Despite growing interest, additional research is required to confirm clinical utility of smartphone audio data for mood disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Increased Anxiety, Akathisia, and Suicidal Thoughts in Patients with Mood Disorder on Aripiprazole and Lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Pereira Pondé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Akathisia affects around 18% of patients with bipolar disorder treated with aripiprazole and may worsen when aripiprazole is combined with lamotrigine and antidepressants. Case. This paper reports on two clinical cases involving patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder who developed severe akathisia, anxiety, and suicidal ideation while using a combination of aripiprazole, antidepressants, and lamotrigine. Discussion. We recommend that patients with a mood disorder taking multiple drugs should begin aripiprazole therapy with low doses and be monitored for the development of akathisia, increased anxiety, or suicidal thoughts. The appearance of these limiting side effects requires discontinuation of the drug.

  8. Mood and anxiety disorders across the adult lifespan: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R D; Ryan, A; Bunting, B P; O'Neill, S M; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; de Graaf, R; Florescu, S; Vilagut, G; de Almeida, J M C; de Girolamo, G; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Tomov, T

    2014-03-01

    The World Mental Health Survey Initiative (WMHSI) has advanced our understanding of mental disorders by providing data suitable for analysis across many countries. However, these data have not yet been fully explored from a cross-national lifespan perspective. In particular, there is a shortage of research on the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and age across countries. In this study we used multigroup methods to model the distribution of 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI mood and anxiety disorders across the adult lifespan in relation to determinants of mental health in 10 European Union (EU) countries. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of any mood or any anxiety disorder as a function of age, gender, marital status, urbanicity and employment using a multigroup approach (n = 35500). This allowed for the testing of specific lifespan hypotheses across participating countries. No simple geographical pattern exists with which to describe the relationship between 12-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and age. Of the adults sampled, very few aged ≥ 80 years met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for these disorders. The associations between these disorders and key sociodemographic variables were relatively homogeneous across countries after adjusting for age. Further research is required to confirm that there are indeed stages in the lifespan where the reported prevalence of mental disorders is low, such as among younger adults in the East and older adults in the West. This project illustrates the difficulties in conducting research among different age groups simultaneously.

  9. Mood, Anxiety, and Substance-Use Disorders and Suicide Risk in a Military Population Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R.; McCarthy, Michael D.; Bajorska, Alina; Caine, Eric D.; Tu, Xin M.; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    There are meager prospective data from nonclinical samples on the link between anxiety disorders and suicide or the extent to which the association varies over time. We examined these issues in a cohort of 309,861 U.S. Air Force service members, with 227 suicides over follow-up. Mental disorder diagnoses including anxiety, mood, and substance-use…

  10. The Mindful Brain and Emotion Regulation in Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Farb, Norman A. S.; Anderson, Adam K.; Segal, Zindel V.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness involves nonjudgmental attention to present-moment experience. In its therapeutic forms, mindfulness interventions promote increased tolerance of negative affect and improved well being. However, the neural mechanisms underlying mindful mood regulation are poorly understood. Mindfulness training appears to enhance attentional monitoring systems in the brain, supported by the anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices. In emotion regulation, this prefrontal training seems t...

  11. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and chronic irritability in youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Garrett M; Axelson, David A; Yu, Haifeng; Ha, Wonho; Ballester, Javier; Diler, Rasim S; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Hickey, Mary Beth; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Monk, Kelly; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris

    2014-04-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a new diagnosis in the DSM-5. Youth with a family history of bipolar disorder (BD) are at increased risk for BD and non-bipolar psychopathology. No studies to date have examined rates of DMDD among offspring of parents with BD. This study examines the risk for DMDD in offspring of parents with BD compared to community controls and considers rates of chronic irritability (independent of a DMDD diagnosis) across diagnoses in youth with parents with BD. Modified DMDD criteria were applied post hoc to 375 offspring of parents with BD and 241 offspring, aged 6 to 17 years, of community control parents. We calculated odds ratios using generalized linear mixed models. In addition, we explored associations with a severe chronic irritability phenotype and various diagnoses in the high-risk cohort. Offspring of parents with BD were more likely to meet criteria for DMDD than were the offspring of community control parents (Odds ratio [OR] = 8.3, 6.7% vs. 0.8%), even when controlling for demographic variables and comorbid parental diagnoses (OR = 5.4). They also had higher rates of chronic irritability compared to community controls (12.5% vs. 2.5%, χ(2) = 18.8, p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and disruptive behavior disorders. Like other non-BD diagnoses, family history of BD increases the risk for DMDD. Severe chronic irritability and temper tantrums are the core features of DMDD, and are associated with mood and behavioral disorders in youth at risk for BD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Different attachment styles correlate with mood disorders in adults with epilepsy or migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco; Danquah-Boateng, Davies; Cock, Hannah R; Khan, Usman; Lozsadi, Dora A; Nirmalananthan, Niranjanan

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal relationships are viewed as important contexts within which psychopathology emerges and persists or desists. Attachment theory describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans especially in families and lifelong friendships. The present study was aimed at investigating attachment styles in adult patients with epilepsy as compared to subjects with migraine and their potential correlates with a history of mood disorders. A consecutive sample of 219 adult outpatients with epilepsy (117) or migraine (102) was assessed with the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Patients with epilepsy and a lifetime history of mood disorders presented elevated scores for Need for approval (pmigraine and a lifetime history of mood disorders presented lower scores in Confidence (p=0.002) and higher scores in Discomfort with closeness (p=0.026). An anxious-preoccupied attachment correlated with mood disorders in epilepsy while it was an avoidant pattern in migraine. Our results bring further data on the role of psychological variables in mood disorders in epilepsy. Further studies will allow early identification of patients at risk and the development of preventive strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of lithium on thyroid function in adolescents with mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, Rati Ranjan; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine thyroid gland volume and the frequency of thyroid dysfunction by using ultrasonography and laboratory parameters (TSH, T3, and T4) in long term lithium treated adolescent patients with mood disorder. In a cross-sectional study, we performed ultrasonography and thyroid function test in 30 adolescent patients on long-term lithium treatment for mood disorder. Patients with adequate serum lithium levels for one year or more were taken for the study. Ultrasonography examinations of thyroid gland and thyroid function test were performed in these patients. Patients who were on other mood stabilizers were taken up as controls. The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and ultrasonographically measured thyroid volume were significantly higher in patients receiving lithium in comparison to patients with other mood stabilizers. A significant positive correlation was found between total thyroid volume and TSH levels. Adolescent mood disorder patients on long term lithium therapy have increased thyroid volume and isolated increases in serum TSH levels compared to those on other mood stabilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Local cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRGlc) in mood disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Baxter, L.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    PET studies (LCMRGlc units of μ moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P<0.001) supratentorial CMRGlc (16.7 +- 3.7) than normals (23.6 +- 1.9), hypomanic bipolars (24.7 + 44.6) or unipolars (24.5 +- 3.0). Bipolar mixed (16.4 +- 4.8) were not different from bipolar depressed but were different from all other states (P<0.02). Bipolar depressed and mixed showed increased (30%) supratentorial CMRGlc (P<0.05) with elevated mood (euthymic or hypomanic). Three rapid cycling bipolar patients (2 studies depressed and 1 hypomanic) also showed consistent increases (35%) in supratentorial CMRGlc from depressed to elevated mood state. Unipolar depressed patients had a low LCMRGlc ratio of caudate to hemispheric (c/Hem) (1.18 +- 0.09) compared to bipolar depression (1.30 +- 0.13) or normals (1.32 +- 0.07). Four unipolar patients studied after drug induced recovery showed corresponding return of Cd/Hem ratio to normal. Results of these studies show; delineation of bipolar depressed from unpolar depressed and normals. Separation of mixed biopolar from unipolar and correspondence of the former with bipolar rather than unipolar depression (controversial characterization by other diagnostic criteria), separation of unipolar from normal and bipolar by reduced LCMRGlc of caudate, and direct correspondence of changes in mood state with changes in LCMRGlc independent of whether changes in mood were drug induced or spontaneous

  15. Neuropsychological and Behavioral Profiles in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children of Parents with a History of Mood Disorders: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Hong, Kang-E M; Yang, Young Hui; Kang, Jewook; Park, Eun Jin; Ha, Kyooseob; Park, Mira; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the neurocognitive and behavioral endophenotypes of premorbid mood disorder. We compared intelligence, neuropsychological functioning, and behavioral problems among three groups: 1) a high-risk group [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children of parents with a history of a mood disorder], 2) a low-risk group (ADHD children of parents without a history of a mood disorder), and 3) normal comparison subjects. Methods We used the Korean Educational...

  16. Polymorphisms in wolframin (WFS1) gene are possibly related to increased risk for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koido, Kati; Kõks, Sulev; Nikopensius, Tiit; Maron, Eduard; Altmäe, Signe; Heinaste, Evelin; Vabrit, Kristel; Tammekivi, Veronika; Hallast, Pille; Kurg, Ants; Shlik, Jakov; Vasar, Veiko; Metspalu, Andres; Vasar, Eero

    2005-06-01

    Wolfram syndrome gene (WFS1) has been suggested to have a role in the susceptibility for mood disorders. A 26-fold increased risk for psychiatric disorders in WFS1 mutation carriers has been suggested. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the WFS1 gene is related to the risk for mood disorders. We analysed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the WFS1 gene in 224 unrelated patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder and in 160 healthy control subjects. Patients were further stratified according to their comorbidity with anxiety disorders. We applied arrayed primer extension (APEX)-based genotyping technology followed by association and haplotype analysis. Five SNPs in the WFS1 gene were associated with major depressive disorder, and three SNPs with bipolar disorder. Haplotype analysis revealed a common GTA haplotype, formed by SNPs 684C/G, 1185C/T and 1832G/A, conferring risk for affective disorders. Specifically, for major depression the GTA haplotype has an OR of 1.59 (p = 0.01) and for bipolar disorder an OR of 1.89 (p = 0.03). These results support the hypothesis that the WFS1 gene is involved in the genetic predisposition for mood disorders.

  17. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Bassett, Darryl; Boyce, Philip; Bryant, Richard; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Fritz, Kristina; Hopwood, Malcolm; Lyndon, Bill; Mulder, Roger; Murray, Greg; Porter, Richard; Singh, Ajeet B

    2015-12-01

    To provide guidance for the management of mood disorders, based on scientific evidence supplemented by expert clinical consensus and formulate recommendations to maximise clinical salience and utility. Articles and information sourced from search engines including PubMed and EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google Scholar were supplemented by literature known to the mood disorders committee (MDC) (e.g., books, book chapters and government reports) and from published depression and bipolar disorder guidelines. Information was reviewed and discussed by members of the MDC and findings were then formulated into consensus-based recommendations and clinical guidance. The guidelines were subjected to rigorous successive consultation and external review involving: expert and clinical advisors, the public, key stakeholders, professional bodies and specialist groups with interest in mood disorders. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders (Mood Disorders CPG) provide up-to-date guidance and advice regarding the management of mood disorders that is informed by evidence and clinical experience. The Mood Disorders CPG is intended for clinical use by psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians and others with an interest in mental health care. The Mood Disorder CPG is the first Clinical Practice Guideline to address both depressive and bipolar disorders. It provides up-to-date recommendations and guidance within an evidence-based framework, supplemented by expert clinical consensus. Professor Gin Malhi (Chair), Professor Darryl Bassett, Professor Philip Boyce, Professor Richard Bryant, Professor Paul Fitzgerald, Dr Kristina Fritz, Professor Malcolm Hopwood, Dr Bill Lyndon, Professor Roger Mulder, Professor Greg Murray, Professor Richard Porter and Associate Professor Ajeet Singh. Professor Carlo Altamura, Dr Francesco Colom, Professor Mark George, Professor Guy Goodwin, Professor Roger McIntyre, Dr Roger Ng

  18. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  19. Use of medication and psychological counselling among Canadians with mood and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Siobhan; Syoufi, Maria; Jones, Wayne; Bennett, Kathryn; Pelletier, Louise

    2017-05-01

    This study describes the use of prescription medications and psychological counselling in the past 12 months among Canadian adults with a self-reported mood and/or anxiety disorder diagnosis; the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with their use; and reasons for not using them. We used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada-Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. The study sample (n = 2916) was divided into four treatment subgroups: (1) taking medication only; (2) having received counselling only; (3) both; or (4) neither. We combined the first three subgroups and carried out descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses comparing those who are taking medication and/or have received counselling in the past 12 months, versus those doing neither. Estimates were weighted to represent the Canadian adult household population living in the 10 provinces with diagnosed mood and/or anxiety disorders. The majority (81.8%) of Canadians with a mood and/or an anxiety disorder diagnosis reported they are taking medications and/or have received counselling (47.6% taking medications only; 6.9% received counselling only; and 27.3% taking/having received both). Upon controlling for individual characteristics, taking medications and/or having received counselling was significantly associated with older age; higher household income; living in the Atlantic region or Quebec versus Ontario; and having concurrent disorders or mood disorders only. Symptoms controlled without medication was the most common reason for not taking medications, while preferring to manage on their own and taking medications were among the common reasons for not having received counselling. The majority of Canadian adults with a mood and/or an anxiety disorder diagnosis are taking medications, while few have received counselling. Insights gained regarding the factors associated with these treatments, and reasons for not using them, emphasize the

  20. Mobile technology for medication adherence in people with mood disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootes-Murdy, Kelly; Glazer, Kara L; Van Wert, Michael J; Mondimore, Francis M; Zandi, Peter P

    2018-02-01

    Medication non-adherence is a critical challenge for many patients diagnosed with mood disorders (Goodwin and Jamison, 1990). There is a need for alternative strategies that improve adherence among patients with mood disorders that are cost-effective, able to reach large patient populations, easy to implement, and that allow for communication with patients outside of in-person visits. Technology-based approaches to promote medication adherence are increasingly being explored to address this need. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the use of mobile technologies to improve medication adherence in patients with mood disorders. A total of nine articles were identified as describing mobile technology targeting medication adherence in mood disorder populations. Results showed overall satisfaction and feasibility of mobile technology, and reduction in mood symptoms; however, few examined effectiveness of mobile technology improving medication adherence through randomized control trials. Given the limited number of studies, further research is needed to determine long term effectiveness. Mobile technologies has the potential to improve medication adherence and can be further utilized for symptom tracking, side effects tracking, direct links to prescription refills, and provide patients with greater ownership over their treatment progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trajectories of Return to Work Among People on Sick Leave with Mood or Anxiety Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lone; Madsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    predicted trajectory membership. Methods We used data from the randomized IPS-MA trial (n = 283), evaluating a supported employment intervention for participants with recently diagnosed mood or anxiety disorders. Information on "weeks in employment in the past 6 months" was measured after 1/2, 1, 1 ½ and 2......Purpose The return to work (RTW) of people with mood and anxiety disorders is a heterogeneous process. We aimed to identify prototypical trajectories of RTW over a two-year period in people on sick leave with mood and anxiety disorders, and investigate if socio-demographic or clinical factors......-RTW [70% (196/283)] (practically no return to work); delayed-RTW [19% (56/283)] (6 months delay before full RTW); rapid-unstable-RTW [7% (19/283)] (members rapidly returned to work, but only worked half the time); and the smallest class, rapid-RTW [4% (12/283)] (members rapidly reached full employment...

  2. Classification of mood disorders in DSM-V and DSM-VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R

    2008-10-01

    For any diagnostic system to be clinically useful, and go beyond description, it must provide an understanding that informs about aetiology and/or outcome. DSM-III and DSM-IV have provided reliability; the challenge for DSM-V and DSM-VI will be to provide validity. For DSM-V this will not be achieved. Believers in DSM-III and DSM-IV have impeded progress towards a valid classification system, so DSM-V needs to retain continuity with its predecessors to retain reliability and enhance research, but position itself to inform a valid diagnostic system by DSM-VI. This review examines the features of a diagnostic system and summarizes what is really known about mood disorders. The review also questions whether what are called mood disorders are primarily disorders of mood. Finally, it provides suggestions for DSM-VI.

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

  4. Attention deficit disorder, alcoholism, and drug abuse: MMPI correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, J M; Horton, A M; Ahadpour, M

    1992-03-01

    Earlier research had demonstrated that alcoholics with attention deficit disorder residual type (ADDRT) differ from other alcoholics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of drug abuse on the relationship of ADDRT and alcoholism as reflected on the MMPI. Groups of 48 male alcoholics, 28 ADDRT alcoholics, 25 ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers and 18 alcohol and drug abusers were all administered the MMPI. Significant differences were found between the alcoholic and ADDRT alcoholic groups on scales Pd, Sc, Si, F, and K. For the ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers versus the alcohol and drug abuser groups, they differed on scales K, Hs, D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, F, K, and L.

  5. Comorbidity of personality disorders in mood disorders: a meta-analytic review of 122 studies from 1988 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Martinsen, Egil W; Martinussen, Monica; Kaiser, Sabine; Overgård, Karl Tore; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the proportions of comorbid personality disorders (PD) in mood disorders. We found 122 empirical papers published in the period 1980-2010 on participants having mood disorders in addition to a comorbid PD. Mood disorders were classified as bipolar disorders (BD), major depressive disorders (MDD) and dysthymic disorders (DYS). Several moderators were coded as well. The risk of having at least one comorbid PD (any PD) was high across all three mood disorders (BD=.42, MDD=.45), but highest in DYS (.60). Cluster B and C PDs were most frequent in BD, while cluster C PDs dominated in MDD and DYS. Among the specific PDs, the paranoid (.11 versus .07/.05), borderline (.16 versus .14/.13), histrionic (.10 versus .06/.06) and obsessive-compulsive (.18 versus .09/.12) PDs occurred more frequently in BD versus MDD/DYS, whereas the avoidant PD (.22 versus .12/.16) was most frequent in DYS versus BD/MDD. Moderator analyses showed higher comorbidity when diagnoses were based on questionnaires versus clinical interviews, DSM-III-R versus DSM-IV, more women were included or the duration of the disorder was longer. Age of onset yielded mixed results. Blind rating of diagnoses was recorded, but was employed in too few studies to be usable as an indication of diagnostic validity. Personality disorders are common in mood disorders. Implications of the identified moderators as well as the new DSM-5 diagnostic system are considered. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mood and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic low back and neck pain caused by disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Albayrak Gezer, İlknur; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Kitiş, Serkan; Gölen, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic low back and neck pain caused by disc herniation and the relationships between pain and mood, and anxiety disorders. In total, 149 patients with disc herniation and 60 healthy subjects were included. Disc herniation was diagnosed based on a physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition/Clinical Version. The mean age of the study subjects (n = 209) was 45.96 ± 11.45 years. Seventy (46.6%) patients with disc herniation met the criteria for at least one mood or anxiety disorder. The prevalence rates of mood and anxiety disorders were 16.6% and 35.8%, respectively. The most common specific diagnoses were major depression (n = 25, 16.9%) and generalised anxiety disorder (n = 19, 12.8%). Mood and anxiety disorders were more commonly seen in patients with lumbar or cervical disc herniation than in those without herniation. No relationship was detected between pain severity and mood or anxiety disorders. However, mood and anxiety disorders were associated with neurological deficits.

  7. Genealogy Study of Three Generations of Patients with Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Khoz, Sara; Sadeghi, Bahman; Amanat, Manouchehr; Salehi, Mona

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is genealogy examination of three generation of bipolar mood disorder Type I patients. Patients selected using Poisson sampling method from 100 patients with bipolar mood disorder Type I, referring to a psychiatric center of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran. Examine issues such as physical ailments, psychological review of living and deceased family members of each patient, drawn family pedigree using pedigree chart, check the relationship of the different pattern of the autosomal dominant and recessive disease, sex-linked dominant and recessive and linked to Y chromosome have been performed on patients. Different methods used in this study are pedigree chart and young mania rating scale and SPSS and Pearson's correlation test for analyzing the data collected. Among the studied inheritance patterns, the most common inheritance pattern was autosomal recessive. There was a significant relationship between age, number of generation, and inheritance patterns with physical ailments in families of patients with bipolar mood disorder ( P 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between generation and skin, gastrointestinal, ovarian, lung, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), hyperlipidemia, cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease in patients with bipolar affective disorder Type I ( P generation and some physical disorders in patients with bipolar mood disorder Type I.

  8. Irritable mood and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terms 'irritable mood' and 'irritability' have been applied to describe and define a variety of different categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. More precise diagnostic terms and concepts are needed. Methods A concise critical historical review of DSM categories characterized by irritability, anger, and aggression is presented followed by recommendations. Results This analysis describes the broad ranging and imprecise use of the term irritability since the first DSM in 1952. A more age-appropriate and functional realignment of psychiatric categories linked to dysfunctional anger is suggested. Among other recommendations, this realignment would remove irritability as a problematic definer in the present DSM mood categories: expand oppositional defiant disorder to include adults; link the callous unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in adolescents to antisocial personality disorder; move intermittent explosive disorder to an appropriate category: and expand the term 'mood' to apply also to dysfunctional anger and anxiety. Conclusion The non-specific term 'irritability' commonly used in the DSM has had an adverse effect on diagnostic specificity and thereby on treatment. Dysfunctional anger is a major mood disorder which merits a more prominent and better defined representation in psychiatric nomenclature.

  9. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Among Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel H B; Timmins, Vanessa; Collins, Jordan; Scavone, Antonette; Iskric, Adam; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder phenotype (DMDDP) in a clinical population of adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). DMDD criteria were modified and applied to a sample of 116 adolescents with BD-I (n = 30), BD-II (n = 46) or BD-not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 40) from a tertiary teaching hospital. Diagnoses were determined via the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) DMDD Criteria A-G were derived from the KSADS oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) screening interview and supplement, as well as narrative summaries. Chi-square analyses or t tests (p associated with BD subtype or with family history of BD. In univariate analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and race, DMDDP was associated with lower functioning, increased family conflict, assault history, and attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (FDR adjusted p values: disorder and medication use approached significance (adjusted p = 0.05). In logistic regression, DMDDP was independently associated with greater parent-reported family conflict (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; confidence interval [CI- 1.06-1.30; p = 0.001) and greater functional impairment (OR 0.89; CI 0.82-0.97; p = 0.006). DMDDP was also associated with a threefold increase in ADHD, although ADHD was only marginally significant (OR 3.3; CI 0.98-10.94; p = 0.05). Despite the positioning of DMDD as phenotypically and biologically distinct from BD, these phenotypes commonly overlap in clinical settings. This overlap is not explained by BD-NOS or by nonfamilial BD. The association of ADHD with DMDDP in this sample draws into question whether arousal symptoms should have been retained as originally elaborated in the severe mood dysregulation phenotype. Strategies to mitigate the

  11. Oral manifestations of drug abuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursyamsi Nursyamsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Narcotics is a highly addictive drug that acts as a stimulant or depresant for the central nervous system. The prevalence of various diseases found to be higher in the group of drug users then those who not use drugs such as endocarditis, hepatitis and HIV. Further evidence that the drug effects the oral health which includes the effect of the hard tissues by increased incidence of caries and periodontitis and the effect of the soft tissues in the form of leukoplakia and oral mucosal fibrosis, reduced production, especially the parotid salivary glands in amphetamine and cannabis users. In addition to the drug is a predisposing of oral infections such as candidiasis and gingivitis. Reduced volume of saliva on abusers may result in reduced immune function of saliva in maintaining oral health. Consequently the drug abusers increased number of bacteria and fungi in the oral cavity, including anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans, especially in cases of abuse of cannabis. Gingival plaque formation and the growing colonies of anaerobic bacteria may increase the occurrence of gingivitis in the drug abusers. Lack of awareness of drug abusers in oral hygiene causing the gingivitis develops into periodontitis followed by alveolar bone loss.

  12. History of childhood abuse in panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A; Gershuny, Beth S; Marzol, Patricia; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H

    2002-07-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of self-reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in a sample of adult patients presenting for treatment of panic disorder, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder. Regardless of the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid depression, patients with panic disorder had significantly higher rates of past childhood physical or sexual abuse than patients with social phobia. Patients with generalized anxiety disorder had intermediate rates of past physical or sexual abuse that were not significantly different from the other two diagnostic groups. Anxiety disorder patients with a history of childhood abuse were also more likely to have comorbid major depression than those without. These findings are discussed in terms of biological and behavioral factors that may influence the development of anxiety disorders after the experience of a traumatic event.

  13. A model of suicidal behavior in war veterans with posttraumatic mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2009-08-01

    Many wars have been fought during the history of civilization. About 30 armed conflicts are occurring now around the globe involving more than 25 countries. Many war veterans have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) including suicidal ideation and behavior. PTSD is frequently comorbid with MDD. I have previously proposed that some or all individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and MDD have a separate psychobiological condition that can be termed "posttraumatic mood disorder" (PTMD). This idea was based on the fact that a significant number of studies suggested that patients suffering from comorbid PTSD and MDD differed clinically and biologically from individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and MDD are characterized by greater severity of symptoms, increased suicidality and the higher level of impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Neurobiological evidence supporting the concept of PTMD includes the findings from neuroendocrine challenge, cerebrospinal fluid, neuroimaging, sleep and other studies. In this paper, I propose a model of suicidal behavior in war veterans with PTMD. The model consists of the following components: (1) genetic factors; (2) prenatal development; (3) biological and psychosocial influences from birth to mobilization/deployment; (4) mobilization/pre-deployment stress; (5) combat stress, traumatic brain injury, and physical injury; (6) post-deployment stress; (7) biological and psychosocial influences after the deployment; (8) trigger (precipitant) of a suicidal act; and (9) suicidal act. The first four components determine vulnerability to combat stress. The first seven components determine predisposition to suicidal behavior, a key element that differentiates PTMD patients who are at high risk from those at lower risk. Suicidal behavior in PTMD can be attributed to the coincidence of a trigger

  14. Cognitive Styles in Mood Disorders: Discriminative Ability of Unipolar and Bipolar Cognitive Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Goldstein, Kim E; Black, Chelsea L; Molz, Ashleigh R; Hamlat, Elissa J; Black, Shimrit K; Boccia, Angelo S; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-01

    Although previous research has identified cognitive styles that distinguish individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), and individuals without mood disorders from one another, findings have been inconsistent. The current study included 381 participants classified into a BD group, a MDD group, and a no mood disorder group. To differentiate between these groups, this study evaluated cognitive styles with a battery of traditional and more recently-developed measures. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to determine the discriminate ability of variables with significant between group differences. Results supported that BD and MDD may be characterized by distinct cognitive styles. Given work showing that interventions for MDD may not be effective at treating BD, it is important to directly compare individuals with these disorders. By clarifying the overlapping and divergent cognitive styles characterizing BD and MDD, research can not only improve diagnostic validity, but also provide more efficacious and effective interventions.

  15. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC). Results Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS). Conclusions Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. PMID:23443034

  16. Mindfulness in mood and anxiety disorders: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele F. Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature covering the use of different mindfulness-based therapy approaches in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, including mindfulness skills and mindfulness linked to emotional regulation and fear of negative appraisal. Methods A review was conducted of literature identified by searching the scientific databases PubMed and PsycINFO with the following keywords: mindfulness, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. The search covered the past 10 years. The search returned 532 articles, 24 were selected, their full texts were read, and 16 were included in this review. Results Six articles about mindfulness-based stress reduction, four about mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and three about fear of negative appraisal and emotional regulation were reviewed. All of the articles covered mindfulness in relation to mood and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The literature in this field suggests that mindfulness is an effective strategy for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders and is effective in therapy protocols with different structures including virtual modalities. Use of mindfulness in scientific models continues to expand.

  17. Dimensions of Sexual Orientation and the Prevalence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We used data from a nationally representative sample to examine the associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior), lifetime and past-year mood and anxiety disorders, and sex. Methods. We analyzed data from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results. Mental health outcomes differed by sex, dimension of sexual orientation, and sexual minority group. Whereas a lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity was associated with higher odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both men and women, women reporting only same-sex sexual partners in their lifetime had the lowest rates of most disorders. Higher odds of any lifetime mood or anxiety disorder were more consistent and pronounced among sexual minority men than among sexual minority women. Finally, bisexual behavior conferred the highest odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both males and females. Conclusions. Findings point to mental health disparities among some, but not all, sexual minority groups and emphasize the importance of including multiple measures of sexual orientation in population-based health studies. PMID:19696380

  18. Mindfulness in mood and anxiety disorders: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michele F; Nardi, Antonio E; Levitan, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature covering the use of different mindfulness-based therapy approaches in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, including mindfulness skills and mindfulness linked to emotional regulation and fear of negative appraisal. A review was conducted of literature identified by searching the scientific databases PubMed and PsycINFO with the following keywords: mindfulness, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. The search covered the past 10 years. The search returned 532 articles, 24 were selected, their full texts were read, and 16 were included in this review. Six articles about mindfulness-based stress reduction, four about mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and three about fear of negative appraisal and emotional regulation were reviewed. All of the articles covered mindfulness in relation to mood and anxiety disorders. The literature in this field suggests that mindfulness is an effective strategy for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders and is effective in therapy protocols with different structures including virtual modalities. Use of mindfulness in scientific models continues to expand.

  19. Physical and sexual abuse and early-onset bipolar disorder in youths receiving outpatient services: frequent, but not specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina; Youngstrom, Eric A; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N = 829, M = 10.9 years old ± 3.4 SD, 60% male, 69% African American, and 18% with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21%, sexual abuse in 20%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11% of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16%, sexual abuse in 15%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5% of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment.

  20. Independent associations and effect modification between lifetime substance use and recent mood disorder diagnosis with household food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen M; Holloway, Cliff; Gondara, Lovedeep; Hatcher, Anne S

    2018-01-01

    Poor mental health and substance use are associated with food insecurity, however, their potential combined effects have not been studied. This study explored independent associations and effect modification between lifetime substance use and mood disorder in relation to food insecurity. Poisson regression analysis of data from British Columbia respondents (n = 13,450; 12 years+) in the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey was conducted. Measures included The Household Food Security Survey Module (7.3% food insecure), recent diagnosis of a mood disorder (self-reported; 9.5%), lifetime use of cannabis, cocaine/crack, ecstasy, hallucinogens, and speed, any lifetime substance use, sociodemographic covariates, and the interaction terms of mood disorder by substance. For those with recent diagnosis of a mood disorder the prevalence of lifetime substance use ranged between 1.2 to 5.7% and were significantly higher than those without recent mood disorder diagnosis or lifetime use of substances (p's mood disorder diagnosis or who used cannabis, food insecurity prevalence was higher compared to the general sample (p mood disorder with cannabis, ecstasy, hallucinogen and any substance use over the lifetime (PRs 0.51 to 0.64, p's 0.022 to 0.001). Independent associations were found for cocaine/crack and speed use (PRs 1.68, p's mood disorder (PRs 2.02, p's food insecurity may lead to the development of relevant interventions aimed at mental well-being and food security.

  1. Psychotropic medication use mediates the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and obesity Findings from a nationally representative sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Rosenfield, D.; Mather, A.A.; Tart, C.D.; Henriksen, C.; Sareen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence points to a relationship between obesity and both mood and anxiety disorders but the question of what accounts for this association remains unanswered The present study examined the use of psychotropic medications as a mediator of the mood/anxiety disorder-obesity relationship Data

  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder: results from the international mood disorders collaborative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Kennedy, Sidney H; Soczynska, Joanna K; Nguyen, Ha T T; Bilkey, Timothy S; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Nathanson, Jay A; Joshi, Shikha; Cheng, Jenny S H; Benson, Kathleen M; Muzina, David J

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few studies have evaluated the clinical implications of lifetime attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, we sought to determine the prevalence as well as the demographic and clinical correlates of lifetime ADHD in persons with a mood disorder. The first 399 patients enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) were evaluated for lifetime ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) as the primary instrument to derive current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses. All analyses of variables of interest were conducted utilizing the MINI-Plus, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1, and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form. The effect of ADHD on clinical presentation, course of illness variables, comorbidity, anamnesis, treatment, and outcome are reported. The IMDCP is a joint initiative of the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit at the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic Center for Mood Disorders Treatment and Research at Lutheran Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio. All data for this study were procured between January 2008 and January 2009. The percentages of subjects with MDD or bipolar disorder meeting the DSM-IV criteria for lifetime adult ADHD were 5.4% and 17.6% (P disorder populations was associated with earlier age at illness onset (MDD, P = .049; bipolar disorder, P = .005), a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities (eg, MDD and current panic disorder with agoraphobia [P = .002]; bipolar disorder and social phobia [P = .012]), and decreased quality of life (MDD, P = .018). The overarching findings herein are that the adult ADHD phenotype is commonly reported by individuals with MDD or bipolar disorder and is associated with a greater illness burden and complexity.

  3. Anxiety, mood, and behavioral disorders among pediatric patients with juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Parkins, Irina S; Graham, Thomas Brent; Lynch, Anne M; Passo, Murray; Johnston, Megan; Schikler, Kenneth N; Hashkes, Philip J; Banez, Gerard; Richards, Margaret M

    2008-09-01

    Mood and anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions among adult patients with fibromyalgia syndrome, but little is known about whether psychiatric disorders are prevalent among pediatric patients with fibromyalgia. The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and behavioral disorders in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) and assess the relationship between psychiatric disorders and JPFS symptom severity. Standardized psychiatric interviews were conducted with children and their parents/primary caregivers, and measures of symptom severity including pain intensity and physician global ratings were obtained for 76 children and adolescents diagnosed with JPFS (ages 11 to 18 y) in pediatric rheumatology clinics at 4 hospitals in the Midwest. A total of 67.1% of patients had at least 1 current and 71.5% had at least 1 lifetime DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition) psychiatric diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric diagnosis was anxiety disorder (57.5% of JPFS patients). Although mood difficulties were also common, the presence of major depression was lower than has been reported for adults with fibromyalgia syndrome. Physicians' global assessment of functioning was significantly lower for patients with a current anxiety disorder. There were no significant differences in pain severity among patients with and without anxiety, mood, or behavioral disorders. There seems to be a high prevalence of anxiety disorders in patients with JPFS, and presence of anxiety disorder is associated with poorer physician-rated functioning. Future research should explore whether early anxiety symptoms are predictive of long-term functioning.

  4. Subjective experience of thought overactivation in mood disorders: beyond racing and crowded thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Ineke; Piguet, Camille; Favre, Sophie; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Dayer, Alexandre; Gervasoni, Nicola; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Bertschy, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Racing thoughts, crowded thoughts and flight of ideas are frequent symptoms in mood disorders, but the underlying subjective experience of overactivation of thought processes remains poorly documented. Qualitative analysis of audiotaped interviews explored subjective experience of thought overactivation in patients with mood disorders (sample 1, n = 45). Quantitative analysis considered the properties of a newly developed rating scale in sample 1, in an additional sample of patients with mood disorders (sample 2, n = 37) and in healthy subjects (sample 3, n = 38). Qualitative analysis of individual interviews revealed that 5 conceptual categories characterized thought overactivation: sequential thought flow, overstimulation, competition for resource allocation, unexpected/unexplained onset, and association with mood and emotions. A principal component analysis of the initial 16-item rating scale indicated that a single component explained 55.9% of the variance, with major and exclusive contributions from 9 items, which were retained in the final 9-item Subjective Thought Overactivation Questionnaire (STOQ; Cronbach's α = 0.95). Total score correlated significantly with activation, depression and perceived conflict subscales of the Internal State Scale (ISS; rs = 0.57-0.66, p well-being (ISS; rs = -0.48, p = 0.001) and increased state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; rs = 0.60, p subjects. It allowed distinguishing between ISS mood states, with the highest median score in mixed states. Sample size, representativeness, possible bias in qualitative analysis, and quality of expert consensus. Qualitative analysis of clinical interviews, together with a new short rating scale, contributed to a documentation of subjective thought overactivation, an important but often undetected feature in mood disorders. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Self-management of mood and/or anxiety disorders through physical activity/exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Pelletier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity/exercise is regarded as an important self-management strategy for individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to describe individuals with mood and/or anxiety disorders who were exercising or engaging in physical activity to help manage their disorders versus those who were not, and the facilitators for and barriers to engaging in physical activity/exercise. Methods: For this study, we used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada-Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. Selected respondents (n = 2678 were classified according to the frequency with which they exercised: (1 did not exercise; (2 exercised 1 to 3 times a week; or (3 exercised 4 or more times a week. We performed descriptive and multinomial multiple logistic regression analyses. Estimates were weighted to represent the Canadian adult household population living in the 10 provinces with diagnosed mood and/or anxiety disorders. Results: While 51.0% of the Canadians affected were not exercising to help manage their mood and/or anxiety disorders, 23.8% were exercising from 1 to 3 times a week, and 25.3% were exercising 4 or more times a week. Increasing age and decreasing levels of education and household income adequacy were associated with increasing prevalence of physical inactivity. Individuals with a mood disorder (with or without anxiety and those with physical comorbidities were less likely to exercise regularly. The most important factor associated with engaging in physical activity/exercise was to have received advice to do so by a physician or other health professional. The most frequently cited barriers for not exercising at least once a week were as follows: prevented by physical condition (27.3%, time constraints/too busy (24.1% and lack of will power/self-discipline (15.8%. Conclusion: Even though physical activity/exercise has been shown beneficial for depression and anxiety symptoms, a large

  6. Self-management of mood and/or anxiety disorders through physical activity/exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Louise; Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Patten, Scott B; Demers, Alain

    2017-05-01

    Physical activity/exercise is regarded as an important self-management strategy for individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to describe individuals with mood and/or anxiety disorders who were exercising or engaging in physical activity to help manage their disorders versus those who were not, and the facilitators for and barriers to engaging in physical activity/exercise. For this study, we used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada-Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. Selected respondents (n = 2678) were classified according to the frequency with which they exercised: (1) did not exercise; (2) exercised 1 to 3 times a week; or (3) exercised 4 or more times a week. We performed descriptive and multinomial multiple logistic regression analyses. Estimates were weighted to represent the Canadian adult household population living in the 10 provinces with diagnosed mood and/or anxiety disorders. While 51.0% of the Canadians affected were not exercising to help manage their mood and/or anxiety disorders, 23.8% were exercising from 1 to 3 times a week, and 25.3% were exercising 4 or more times a week. Increasing age and decreasing levels of education and household income adequacy were associated with increasing prevalence of physical inactivity. Individuals with a mood disorder (with or without anxiety) and those with physical comorbidities were less likely to exercise regularly. The most important factor associated with engaging in physical activity/exercise was to have received advice to do so by a physician or other health professional. The most frequently cited barriers for not exercising at least once a week were as follows: prevented by physical condition (27.3%), time constraints/too busy (24.1%) and lack of will power/self-discipline (15.8%). Even though physical activity/exercise has been shown beneficial for depression and anxiety symptoms, a large proportion of those with mood and/or anxiety disorders did

  7. Separation anxiety disorder from the perspective of DSM-5: clinical investigation among subjects with panic disorder and associations with mood disorders spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesi, Camilla; Abelli, Marianna; Cardini, Alessandra; Lari, Lisa; Di Paolo, Luca; Silove, Derrick; Pini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    High levels of comorbidity between separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) and panic disorder (PD) have been found in clinical settings. In addition, there is some evidence for a relationship involving bipolar disorder (BD) and combined PD and SEPAD. We aim to investigate the prevalence and correlates of SEPAD among patients with PD and whether the presence of SEPAD is associated with frank diagnoses of mood disorders or with mood spectrum symptoms. Adult outpatients (235) with PD were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS), and the Mood Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (MOODS-SR, lifetime version). Of ther 235 subjects, 125 (53.2%) were categorized as having SEPAD and 110 (46.8%) as not. Groups did not differ regarding onset of PD, lifetime prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, simple phobia, BD I and II, or major depressive disorder (MDD). SEPAD subjects were more likely to be female and younger; they showed higher rates of childhood SEPAD, higher PDSS scores, and higher MOODS-SR total and manic component scores than subjects without SEPAD. Discussion SEPAD is highly prevalent among PD subjects. Patients with both PD and SEPAD show higher lifetime mood spectrum symptoms than patients with PD alone. Specifically, SEPAD is correlated with the manic/hypomanic spectrum component. Our data confirm the high prevalence of SEPAD in clinical settings. Moreover, our findings corroborate a relationship between mood disorders and SEPAD, highlighting a relationship between lifetime mood spectrum symptoms and SEPAD.

  8. Expectations, mood, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder. Beware of the bright side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Martijn, Carolien; van Furth, Eric F; Jansen, Anita T M

    2009-10-01

    Sad people may indulge in fattening snacks because they believe that eating will repair their mood. To test whether (1) changes in expectations and mood had an effect on caloric intake and (2) depressive symptoms moderated caloric intake, 73 women with binge eating disorder were randomly assigned to a condition in which expectations about food and emotion were either confirmed or disconfirmed. Subsequently they were shown either an upsetting or an amusing movie clip followed by a taste task. Contrary to our expectations, there were no differences in the four conditions: participants in all four conditions ate comparable amounts of calories. Manipulation of expectations or mood had no effect on caloric intake. However, higher baseline expectations that food is pleasurable and useful as a reward resulted in a higher caloric intake after positive mood induction. Non-depressed individuals ate less after a negative mood induction than did depressed individuals. Interestingly, they also ate less than the group of individuals, depressed and not, whose mood was positively induced. Non-depressed individuals seem to use healthier coping strategies: negative affect signals that the environment poses a problem. Positive affect on the other hand signals that the environment is benign, and thus makes people less vigilant about food intake.

  9. Childhood anxiety: an early predictor of mood disorders in offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Horrocks, Julie; Doucette, Sarah; Keown-Stoneman, Charles; McCloskey, Shannon; Grof, Paul

    2013-09-05

    Anxiety disorders are common among the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated the nature of the association between anxiety disorders and mood disorders in a prospectively studied high-risk cohort. High-risk offspring were identified from families in which one parent had confirmed BD based on SADS-L interviews and best estimate diagnostic procedures. All agreeable offspring aged 8-25 years were enrolled in a longitudinal study involving repeated KSADS-PL format clinical assessments. Control (C) offspring from families in which neither parent met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder were similarly assessed. All DSM-IV diagnoses in the offspring were confirmed on blind consensus review. Cumulative incidence and adjusted Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to calculate the risk of anxiety disorders and the predictive association with mood disorders. The cumulative incidence of anxiety disorders was higher (23.40% vs. 10.42%; HR=2.136; p=.0382) and occurred earlier (9.79 vs. 14.84 years; p=.0125) in high-risk compared to C offspring. In high-risk offspring generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) followed by social phobia were the most incident anxiety subtypes; while high emotionality (HR 1.111; p=.0096) and shyness (HR 1.144; p=.0053) increased the risk of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders increased the adjusted risk of mood disorders (HR 2.166; p=.0004), on average 8.49 years later (SD 5.97). The cumulative incidence of BD is relatively low, as the cohort is still in the period of risk. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal surveillance of symptomatic high-risk children and suggest anxiety disorders are an important early intervention target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early childhood sleep and eating problems as predictors of adolescent and adult mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Wickramaratne, Priya; Tang, Min; Weissman, Myrna M

    2006-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that eating and sleep problems during early childhood may pose as risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in later life. We aim to study the associations between early childhood sleep and eating problems, specifically high motor activity during sleep and irregularities in sleep/eating schedules, and lifetime history of mood and anxiety disorders. We followed up 164 offspring, who were at high and low risk for major depression by virtue of their parental history (at least one parent had Major Depressive Disorder). Target sleep and eating problems were measured using Dimensions of Temperament Survey (DOTS). The offspring were blindly assessed at 3 times over 20 years using a structured diagnostic interview. Irregularities in sleeping and eating schedules in childhood (low rhythmicity) was associated with adolescent-onset major depression and anxiety disorder, as well as childhood-onset anxiety disorder. High motor activity level during sleep was associated with both childhood-onset and adolescent-onset dysthymic disorder. Neither childhood sleep nor eating irregularities were associated with adult onset psychopathology. Retrospective reports of childhood sleep and eating patterns were derived from parent-reports. Reported problems may overlap with clinical diagnoses. Clinicians should be alerted to parental reports of children's sleep and eating problems suggesting low rhythmicity, as well as high motor activity levels during sleep. These early behaviors may be predictive of subsequent mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  11. Abnormal retinoid and TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex in mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Xin-Rui; Zhao, Juan; Liu, Ji; Fang, Hui; Swaab, Dick F; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    The prefrontal cortex shows structural and functional alterations in mood disorders. Retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its receptor TrkB are reported to be involved in depression. Here, we found that mRNA levels of key elements of retinoid signaling were significantly

  12. Anxiety in Children with Mood Disorders: A Treatment Help or Hindrance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Colleen M.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid anxiety in treatment outcome for children with mood disorders (N = 165; age 8-11) participating in Multi-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (MF-PEP). Assessments occurred at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months for two randomly assigned groups: immediate treatment and 1-year wait-list. Most children (69%) had…

  13. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder versus Severe Mood Dysregulation: Risk for Manic Episodes on Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Argyris; Baroni, Argelinda; Haimm, Caroline; Brotman, Melissa; Lowe, Catherine H.; Myers, Frances; Rustgi, Eileen; Wheeler, Wanda; Kayser, Reilly; Towbin, Kenneth; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An important question in pediatric bipolar research is whether marked nonepisodic irritability is a manifestation of bipolar disorder in youth. This study tests the hypothesis that youth with severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a category created for the purpose of studying children presenting with severe nonepisodic irritability, will be…

  14. Neural Correlates of Reversal Learning in Severe Mood Dysregulation and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel; Blair, R. James R.; Pine, Daniel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Outcome and family history data differentiate children with severe mood dysregulation (SMD), a syndrome characterized by chronic irritability, from children with "classic" episodic bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, the presence of cognitive inflexibility in SMD and BD highlights the need to delineate neurophysiologic similarities and…

  15. The impact of sleep and mood disorders on quality of life in Parkinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, E.; van Dijk, J.P.; Nagyova, I.; Rosenberger, J.; Middel, B.; Dubayova, T.; Gdovinová, Zuzana; Groothoff, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common and often severe in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and their symptoms can be present at any time of day. The purpose of our study was to examine how excessive daytime sleepiness or poor nocturnal sleep quality and mood disorders influence the quality of life

  16. Mood self-assessment in bipolar disorder: a comparison between patients in mania, depression, and euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that mood self-assessment is more severely impaired in patients with bipolar disorder in a manic episode than in depression. OBJECTIVES: To investigate variations in mood self-assessment in relation to current affective state in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder. METHODS: A total of 165 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I or type II had their affective state assessed using the Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. In addition, participants completed a self-report visual analog mood scale (VAMS. Patients were divided into three groups (euthymia, mania, and depression and compared with regard to VAMS results. RESULTS: Manic patients rated their mood similarly to patients in euthymia in 14 out of 16 items in the VAMS. By contrast, depressed patients rated only two items similarly to euthymic patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with bipolar disorder in mania, but not those in depression, poorly evaluate their affective state, reinforcing the occurrence of insight impairment in the manic syndrome.

  17. [Menstruation disorders more frequent in women with a history of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, C.W.; Labots-Vogelesang, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between menstruation disorders and prior sexual abuse. DESIGN: Questionnaire investigation. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 50 questions about menstruation disorders, premenstrual syndrome and sexual abuse. The questionnaire was mailed to

  18. Comparison of characteristics of suicide attempters with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and those with mood disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Makiko; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Yamada, Tomoki; Sugiura, Kanna; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sato, Ryoko; Morita, Satoshi; Odawara, Toshinari; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2011-06-30

    Suicidality in patients with schizophrenia is high. To clarify the characteristics of suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia, we investigated suicide attempters with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in comparison with patients with mood disorders. One hundred patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 155 patients with mood disorders admitted to an emergency department after a suicide attempt were interviewed in detail on items concerning 1) demographic characteristics, 2) previous suicidal behavior, and 3) index suicidal behavior. Differences between the two groups were subsequently analyzed. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders showed a lower incidence of previous deliberate self-harm, and a higher incidence of a subsequent suicide attempt more than 1 year after the previous suicide attempt as well as a higher lethality of index suicide attempt compared to patients with mood disorders. Furthermore, the most common motive for making a suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was having a mental problem. This study revealed the factors associated with suicide attempts among Japanese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and the nature of these factors makes it difficult to predict future attempts. This makes clear the importance of continuous long-term follow-up with careful attention to the mental symptoms and psychological burden for such patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep disorders and risk of hospitalization in patients with mood disorders: Analysis of the National Sample Cohort over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Woorim; Kim, Seung Ju; Jang, Suk-Yong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Chun, Sung Youn; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-11-30

    Medical utilization due to organic sleep disorders has increased remarkably in South Korea, which may contribute to the deterioration of mental health in the population. We analyzed the relationship between organic sleep disorders and risk of hospitalization due to mood disorder. We used data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) National Sample Cohort 2002-2013, which included medical claims filed for the 15,537 patients who were newly diagnosed with a mood disorder in a metropolitan region, and employed Poisson regression analysis using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. By the results, there was a 0.53% hospital admission rate among 244,257 patients with outpatient care visits. Patients previously diagnosed with an organic sleep disorder before specific outpatient care had a higher risk for hospitalization. Such associations were significant in females, patients with a longer duration of disease, or those who lived in the largest cities. In conclusion, considering that experiencing a sleep disorder by a patient with an existing mood disorder was associated with deterioration of their status, health policy makers need to consider insurance coverage for all types of sleep disorders in patients with psychological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, E A; Bonsall, M B; Hales, S A; Mitchell, H; Renner, F; Blackwell, S E; Watson, P; Goodwin, G M; Di Simplicio, M

    2016-01-01

    Treatment innovation for bipolar disorder has been hampered by a lack of techniques to capture a hallmark symptom: ongoing mood instability. Mood swings persist during remission from acute mood episodes and impair daily functioning. The last significant treatment advance remains Lithium (in the 1970s), which aids only the minority of patients. There is no accepted way to establish proof of concept for a new mood-stabilizing treatment. We suggest that combining insights from mood measurement with applied mathematics may provide a step change: repeated daily mood measurement (depression) over a short time frame (1 month) can create individual bipolar mood instability profiles. A time-series approach allows comparison of mood instability pre- and post-treatment. We test a new imagery-focused cognitive therapy treatment approach (MAPP; Mood Action Psychology Programme) targeting a driver of mood instability, and apply these measurement methods in a non-concurrent multiple baseline design case series of 14 patients with bipolar disorder. Weekly mood monitoring and treatment target data improved for the whole sample combined. Time-series analyses of daily mood data, sampled remotely (mobile phone/Internet) for 28 days pre- and post-treatment, demonstrated improvements in individuals' mood stability for 11 of 14 patients. Thus the findings offer preliminary support for a new imagery-focused treatment approach. They also indicate a step in treatment innovation without the requirement for trials in illness episodes or relapse prevention. Importantly, daily measurement offers a description of mood instability at the individual patient level in a clinically meaningful time frame. This costly, chronic and disabling mental illness demands innovation in both treatment approaches (whether pharmacological or psychological) and measurement tool: this work indicates that daily measurements can be used to detect improvement in individual mood stability for treatment innovation (MAPP

  1. Systematic review of the neural basis of social cognition in patients with mood disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Andrée M.; Nazarov, Anthony; Holshausen, Katherine; MacQueen, Glenda M.; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Background This review integrates neuroimaging studies of 2 domains of social cognition — emotion comprehension and theory of mind (ToM) — in patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The influence of key clinical and method variables on patterns of neural activation during social cognitive processing is also examined. Methods Studies were identified using PsycINFO and PubMed (January 1967 to May 2011). The search terms were “fMRI,” “emotion comprehension,” “emotion perception,” “affect comprehension,” “affect perception,” “facial expression,” “prosody,” “theory of mind,” “mentalizing” and “empathy” in combination with “major depressive disorder,” “bipolar disorder,” “major depression,” “unipolar depression,” “clinical depression” and “mania.” Results Taken together, neuroimaging studies of social cognition in patients with mood disorders reveal enhanced activation in limbic and emotion-related structures and attenuated activity within frontal regions associated with emotion regulation and higher cognitive functions. These results reveal an overall lack of inhibition by higher-order cognitive structures on limbic and emotion-related structures during social cognitive processing in patients with mood disorders. Critically, key variables, including illness burden, symptom severity, comorbidity, medication status and cognitive load may moderate this pattern of neural activation. Limitations Studies that did not include control tasks or a comparator group were included in this review. Conclusion Further work is needed to examine the contribution of key moderator variables and to further elucidate the neural networks underlying altered social cognition in patients with mood disorders. The neural networks underlying higher-order social cognitive processes, including empathy, remain unexplored in patients with mood disorders. PMID:22297065

  2. Does perfectionism in bipolar disorder pedigrees mediate associations between anxiety/stress and mood symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Fullerton, Janice M.; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and the anxiety disorders are highly comorbid. The present study sought to examine perfectionism and goal attainment values as potential mechanisms of known associations between anxiety, stress and BD symptomatology. Measures of perfectionism and goal attainment values were administered to 269 members of BD pedigrees, alongside measures of anxiety and stress, and BD mood symptoms. Regression analyses were used to determine whether perfectionism and goal attain...

  3. Therapygenetics: Using genetic markers to predict response to psychological treatment for mood and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Kathryn J; Eley, Thalia C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Considerable variation is evident in response to psychological therapies for mood and anxiety disorders. Genetic factors alongside environmental variables and gene-environment interactions are implicated in the etiology of these disorders and it is plausible that these same factors may also be important in predicting individual differences in response to psychological treatment. In this article, we review the evidence that genetic variation influences psychological treatment outcomes...

  4. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the ...

  5. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are severe—making it hard for you to sleep, stay focused or go to work—it may be a sign of bipolar disorder. Not only can bipolar disorder damage relationships, affect your grades and make it hard to keep a job; ...

  6. Associations between Sexual Abuse and Family Conflict/Violence, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Substance Use: The Mediating Role of Depressed Mood and Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…

  7. Ongoing or previous mental disorders predispose to adverse mood reporting during combined oral contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsdotter, Hanna; Lundin, Cecilia; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Bixo, Marie; Baumgart, Juliane; Marions, Lena; Brynhildsen, Jan; Malmborg, Agota; Lindh, Ingela; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasised that women with pre-existing mood disorders are more inclined to discontinue hormonal contraceptive use. However, few studies have examined the effects of combined oral contraceptives (COC) on mood in women with previous or ongoing mental disorders. This is a supplementary analysis of an investigator-initiated, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial during which 202 women were treated with either a COC (1.5 mg estradiol and 2.5 mg nomegestrolacetate) or placebo during three treatment cycles. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to collect information on previous or ongoing mental disorders. The primary outcome measure was the total change score in five mood symptoms on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) scale in the intermenstrual phase of the treatment cycle. Women with ongoing or previous mood, anxiety or eating disorders allocated to COC had higher total DRSP Δ-scores during the intermenstrual phase of the treatment cycle in comparison with corresponding women randomised to placebo, mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 0.3-2.3). In contrast, among women without mental health problems, no difference in total DRSP Δ-scores between COC- and placebo users was noted. Women with a risk use of alcohol who were randomised to the COC had higher total DRSP Δ-scores than women randomised to placebo, mean difference 2.1 (CI 95% 1.0-3.2). Women with ongoing or previous mental disorders or risk use of alcohol have greater risk of COC-induced mood symptoms. This may be worth noting during family planning and contraceptive counselling.

  8. Impact of Mood and Behavioral Disorders on Quality of Life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Isabelle; Houeto, Jean Luc; Pereira, Bruno; De Chazeron, Ingrid; Bichon, Amélie; Chéreau, Isabelle; Ulla, Miguel; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Dujardin, Kathy; Tison, François; Krack, Paul; Durif, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Mood symptoms negatively affect quality of life of Parkinson's disease (PD); however little is known about the impact of behavioral disorders such as impulse control disorders, and non-motor fluctuations on quality of life. To assess the impact of mood and behavioral disorders on quality of life in PD. 136 (84% male) PD were included (mean age: 61 ± 8y; mean duration of disease: 8.8 ± 5.4y). Mood symptoms, behavioral disorders and non-motor fluctuations were detected and quantified using the recently validated "Ardouin Scale of Behavior in Parkinson's Disease". Motor symptoms were assessed using UPDRS and quality of life with the "39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire". Both motor and non-motor factors significantly affected the quality of life of PD patients. Multivariate regression of the relationship between items of the quality of life questionnaire and the Ardouin Scale showed that alteration of patients' quality of life was strongly correlated with the presence of mood symptoms (such as depression, anxiety ...) and with non-motor fluctuations (especially in the OFF period). A significant correlation was also found between the number of symptoms and their severity, and the quality of life deterioration. Some behavioral disorders (compulsive buying / eating behavior) also negatively affected patient's quality of life to a lesser extent. Alternatively, excess in motivation and hobbyism behaviors had a positive impact on mobility and emotional well-being dimensions respectively of quality of life. This study shows the main impact of mood symptoms and non-motor fluctuations on worsening quality of life in PD.

  9. Mood and motor activity in euthymic bipolar disorder with sleep disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane-Gartiser, Karoline; Steinan, Mette Kvisten; Langsrud, Knut; Vestvik, Vegard; Sand, Trond; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Kallestad, Håvard; Morken, Gunnar

    2016-09-15

    The aims of this observational study of patients with euthymic bipolar disorder and sleep disturbance were to 1) compare characteristics related to mood and sleep between two groups with stable and unstable rest-activity cycles and 2) detect between-group differences in motor activity patterns. 43 patients wore an actigraph for 6-8 days while reporting daily mood and sleep. Patients were defined as having an unstable rest-activity cycle if their diurnal active period duration presented variation above 2h from the mean during one week: 22 patients had stable and 21 unstable rest-activity cycles. Mood variability was defined as at least moderate symptoms and a change across two levels on a 7-point mood scale during one week. Patients with unstable rest-activity cycles were younger (37 vs. 48 years, p=0.01) and displayed more mood variability (p=0.02). Ten of 11 patients diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder were in the unstable group (p<0.01), and the unstable group had later and more variable get-up-times and bedtimes. In actigraphy recordings, the mean activity counts per minute did not differ between groups, but the minute-to-minute variability was elevated (p=0.04) and increased relative to the overall variability (p=0.03). A relatively small study sample and a 1-week study period prevent exploration of long-term clinical implications of results. A subgroup of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder displayed unstable rest-activity cycles combined with mood variability and motor activity patterns that resemble findings in affective episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual Abuse Allegations by Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…

  11. Psychotic disorder, khat abuse and aggressive behavior in Somalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychotic exacerbation prior to this incident was accompanied by an increase of khat intake. Co-morbid khat abuse can lead to the deterioration of psychotic disorders, can facilitate aggressive acts and complicates treatment. The medical and legal system of the countries where khat use reaches highest levels are not ...

  12. Blonanserin-induced Mood Alteration in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Aran; Kim, Daeho

    2013-12-01

    We report two outpatients, one with schizophrenia and one with schizoaffective disorder, who developed manic or hypomanic episodes following the initiation of blonanserin during the course of treatment. Blonanserin is a novel antipsychotic that acts as a 5-HT and D2 receptor antagonist. Both patients developed hypomanic episodes within 2 weeks of receiving a small dose (6-8 mg) of blonanserin, and one patient later developed full-blown mania; both episodes ended within 1 month of discontinuing blonanserin. The mood alteration observed in these cases suggests a possible antidepressant effect of blonanserin; thus, clinicians should monitor mood changes when administering this antipsychotic.

  13. Selfish brain and selfish immune system interplay: A theoretical framework for metabolic comorbidities of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Ana Sayuri; Mansur, Rodrigo Barbachan; Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Rosenstock, Tatiana; McIntyre, Roger S; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    According to the "selfish brain" theory, the brain regulates its own energy supply influencing the peripheral metabolism and food intake according to its needs. The immune system has been likewise "selfish" due to independent energy consumption; and it may compete with the brain (another high energy-consumer) for glucose. In mood disorders, stress in mood episodes or physiological stress activate homeostasis mechanisms from the brain and the immune system to solve the imbalance. The interaction between the selfish brain and the selfish immune system may explain various conditions of medical impairment in mood disorders, such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and immune dysregulation. The objective of this study is to comprehensively review the literature regarding the competition between the brain and the immune system for energy substrate. Targeting the energetic regulation of the brain and the immune system and their cross-talk open alternative treatments and a different approach in the study of general medical comorbidities in mood disorders, although more investigation is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders.Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states.Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week.Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time.

  15. Food intake and blood cholesterol levels of community-based adults with mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Karen M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature links nutrition to mood, especially in epidemiological surveys, but there is little information characterizing food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. Methods Food intake obtained from 3-day food records was evaluated in 97 adults with mood disorders, whose diagnoses were confirmed in structured interviews. Information from a population nutrition survey, national guidelines for nutritional intakes (Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide and North American dietary guidelines (Dietary Reference Intakes was utilized to evaluate the quality of their food intake. Results Compared to the regional nutrition survey data and national guidelines, a greater proportion of study participants consumed fewer of the recommended servings of grains (p p p p p p 5.2 and ≤ 6.2 mmol/L and 21% had hypercholesterolemia (> 6.2 mmol/L. Conclusions Much research has proposed multiple ways in which healthier diets may exert protective effects on mental health. The results of this study suggest that adults with mood disorders could benefit from nutritional interventions to improve diet quality.

  16. Functional impairment in adolescents and young adults with emerging mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jan; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; Guastella, Adam J; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Lagopoulos, Jim; Hickie, Ian B

    2014-11-01

    Between 30 and 60% of adults with unipolar or bipolar disorders exhibit impairments across multiple domains. However, little is known about impaired functioning in youth with mood disorders. To examine the prevalence of objective, subjective and observer-rated disability in a large, representative sample of young people with a primary mood disorder. Individuals aged 16-25 years presenting to youth mental health services for the first time with a primary mood disorder participated in a systematic diagnostic and clinical assessment. Impairment was assessed using objective (unemployment or disability payments), observer- (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale; SOFAS) and self-rated measures (role functioning according to the Brief Disability Questionnaire). Of 1241 participants (83% unipolar; 56% female), at least 30% were functionally impaired on the objective, self-rated and/or observer-rated measures, with 16% impaired according to all three criteria. Even when current distress levels were taken into account, daily use of cannabis and/or nicotine were significantly associated with impairment, with odds ratios (OR) ranging from about 1.5 to 3.0. Comorbid anxiety disorders were related to lower SOFAS scores (OR = 2-5). Levels of disability were significant, even in those presenting for mental healthcare for the first time. Functional impairment did not differ between unipolar and bipolar cases, but some evidence suggested that females with bipolar disorder were particularly disabled. The prevalence of comorbid disorders (50%) and polysubstance use (28%) and their association with disability indicate that more meaningful indicators of mood episode outcomes should focus on functional rather than symptom-specific measures. The association between functioning and nicotine use requires further exploration. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  17. The association between social skills deficits and family history of mood disorder in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francy B F; Rocca, Cristiana C; Gigante, Alexandre D; Dottori-Silva, Paola R; Gerchmann, Luciana; Rossini, Danielle; Sato, Rodrigo; Lafer, Beny; Nery, Fabiano G

    2018-03-26

    To compare social skills and related executive functions among bipolar disorder (BD) patients with a family history of mood disorders (FHMD), BD patients with no FHMD and healthy control (HCs). We evaluated 20 euthymic patients with FHMD, 17 euthymic patients without FHMD, and 31 HCs using the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) and a neuropsychological battery evaluating executive function, inhibitory control, verbal fluency and estimated intelligence. Both BD groups had lower SSI scores than controls. Scores for one subfactor of the social skills questionnaire, conversational skills and social performance, were significantly lower among patients with FHMD than among patients without FHMD (p = 0.019). Both groups of BD patients exhibited significant deficits in initiation/inhibition, but only BD patients with FHMD had deficits in verbal fluency, both compared to HC. There were no associations between social skills questionnaire scores and measures of cognitive function. Euthymic BD patients have lower social skills and executive function performance than HC. The presence of FHMD among BD patients is specifically associated with deficits in conversational and social performance skills, in addition to deficits in verbal fluency. Both characteristics might be associated with a common genetically determined pathophysiological substrate.

  18. Bipolar (spectrum) disorder and mood stabilization: standing at the crossroads?

    OpenAIRE

    De Fruyt, Jurgen; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research. When compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar research still remains limited and more expert based than evidence based. In bipolar diagnosis the focus is shifting from classic mania to bipolar depression and hypomania. There is a search for bipolar signatures in symptoms and course of major depressive episodes. The criteria for hypomania are softened,...

  19. Diagnosis and management of mood disorders during the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lee S; Soares, Claudio N; Joffe, Hadine

    2005-12-19

    Recent census data indicate that, in the United States, an increasing number of women--almost 1.5 million each year--are reaching menopause. The menopausal transition is marked by intense hormonal fluctuations, and may be accompanied by vasomotor complaints, sleep disturbances, changes in sexual function, and increased risk for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. In addition, there is evidence of increased risk for developing depression, even among women who never experienced depressive symptoms before. Thus depression during the perimenopause may have a substantial impact on personal, family, and professional spheres of life. A challenge to clinicians and health professionals lies in the identification of the most tolerable treatments to manage depression and improve quality of life in an aging population. Any treatment strategy should take into account not only the spectrum of side effects that may complicate treatment but also other menopause-related factors (e.g., vasomotor symptoms, psychosocial stressors) that may modulate risk for the development of mood disturbance. This article reviews the current literature on the prevalence and risk factors associated with depression during the menopausal transition. The benefits and risks of using hormonal and nonhormonal strategies for the management of depression and other menopause-related somatic symptoms are critically reviewed.

  20. Issues on the diagnosis and etiopathogenesis of mood disorders: reconsidering DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Yukako; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Aleksic, Branko; Ozaki, Norio

    2018-02-01

    The authors present a narrative review from the diagnostic and nosologic viewpoints of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive ones) by revisiting the revision from the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision to DSM-5, including the following: the separation of the bipolar and depressive sections; the addition of increased energy and continuation of symptoms to the hypo/manic criteria; the elimination of mixed episodes; the creation of new categories and specifiers ("other specified bipolar and related disorder", "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder", "with anxious distress", "with mixed features", "with peripartum onset"); the categorization of hypo/manic episodes during antidepressant treatment into bipolar disorder; the elimination of the "bereavement exclusion"; the ambiguous separation between bipolar I and II; the insufficient distinction between "other specified bipolar and related disorders" and major depressive disorder; the differentiation regarding borderline personality disorder; agitation; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; and society and psychiatry. Through this analysis, we point out both the achievements and limitations of DSM-5. In addition, to examine the future direction of psychiatry, we introduce our cohort study regarding maternal depression and an outline of the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria project in the US. Finally, we advocate the importance of elucidating etiopathogeneses by starting from or going beyond the DSM operational diagnostic system, which has shown great efficacy.

  1. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G

    2014-12-30

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n=5363) and second-generation (n=4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n=24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mood, anxiety, and personality disorders among first and second-generation immigrants to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kagotho, Njeri; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    A careful examination of the multigenerational relationship between immigrant status and mental disorders can provide important information about the robustness and nature of the immigrant-mental health link. We examine immigrant status as a protective factor against mental illness, assess intergenerational effects, examine differences across race/ethnicity, and report the prevalence of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders of immigrants across major world regions. We employ data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare first (n = 5,363) and second-generation (n = 4826) immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (n = 24,461) with respect to mental disorders. First-generation immigrants are significantly less likely than native-born Americans to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or personality disorder, though the prevalence of mental health diagnoses increases among second generation immigrants. Similar results were observed for immigrants from major world regions as the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among immigrants from Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Asia compared to native-born Americans. Findings provide evidence in support of the notion that the immigrant paradox may be extended to include mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in the United States. PMID:25223256

  3. Psychotropic Medication Use Mediates the Relationship Between Mood and Anxiety Disorders and Obesity: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rosenfield, David; Mather, Amber A.; Tart, Candyce D.; Henriksen, Christine; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence points to a relationship between obesity and both mood and anxiety disorders, but the question of what accounts for this association remains unanswered. The present study examined the use of psychotropic medications as a mediator of the mood/anxiety disorder-obesity relationship. Data came from the public use dataset of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (age 15 years and older, N=36,984). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition psych...

  4. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between conversion disorder and childhood traumatization has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relation and investigated whether hypnotic susceptibility

  5. Prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder among psychiatric outpatients with mood, anxiety or somatoform disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Job; van Rood, Yanda R; van der Wee, Nic J; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; Zitman, Frans G

    2012-09-01

    To describe the prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) compared with other psychiatric outpatients with a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Outpatients referred for treatment of a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder were routinely assessed at intake. A structured interview (MINI-Plus), observer-based and self-rating instruments were administered by an independent assessor. Among our sample of 3798 referred patients, 2947 patients were diagnosed with at least one DSM-IV mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Of these patients 1.8% (n = 54) met the diagnostic criteria for BDD. In comparison with other outpatients, patients with BDD were on average younger, less often married and were more often living alone. Highly prevalent comorbid diagnoses were major depression (in 46.3% of cases), social anxiety disorder (in 35.2% of cases) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (in 16.7% of cases). Furthermore, patients with BDD had higher scores on the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) as well as lower scores on the Short Form 36 social role functioning. BDD is frequently associated with depression, social phobia and OCD. Patients with BDD have more distress and more impaired interpersonal functioning.

  6. Co-occurring Mental Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment: the Current Health Care Situation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauber, Hanna; Braun, Barbara; Pfeiffer-Gerschel, Tim; Kraus, Ludwig; Pogarell, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the current health care situation for patients with co-occurring mental disorders in addiction treatment. Therefore, data from the German Substance Abuse Treatment System ( N  = 194,406) was analysed with regard to the prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, treatment characteristics and outcomes of patients with comorbid psychiatric diagnosis. In outpatient setting, the prevalence of comorbid diagnoses was considerably lower (4.6%) than in inpatient setting (50.7%), but mood and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent additional diagnoses in both settings. In the treatment of patients with these comorbid disorders, we found higher rates of complementary internal and external (psychiatric) treatment, more co-operations and referrals after treatment, and positive treatment process outcomes. Findings indicate that the knowledge of an additional diagnosis influences the health care provision of affected patients and can therefore be seen as the essential precondition for providing adequate and comprehensive treatment. This highlights the importance of a sufficient consideration and diagnostic assessment of mental disorders in addiction treatment to further improve the health care situation of comorbid patients.

  7. [A case of Neuro-Behçet's disease with early onset of bipolar mood disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yuko; Hatanaka, Yuki; Ikebuchi, Emi; Shimizu, Teruo; Nanko, Shinichiro; Utsumii, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of Neuro-Behçet's disease with early onset of bipolar mood disorder. A 53-year-old man with neuropathy including dysphasia and dyslalia developed bipolar mood disorder with anxiety, agitation, depressive mood, talkativeness, hyperkinesias, and appetite rise, and soon exhibited severe personality deterioration. Oral aphthae, cell proliferation and elevated IL-6 levels in spinal fluid, and the patient's clinical downhill course with remission and relapse in spite of good reaction to steroid preparation indicated the possibility of Neuro-Behçet's disease. Brain MRI showed clear swelling of the brain stem area, especially in the pons, in the active phase with low signal in T1-weighted images contrasting with clear high signal in T2-weighted images and FLAIR. At the time of remission, atrophy of the brain stem was shown. These findings were consistent with the view reported in recent years concerning the brain image of Neuro-Behçet's disease, which seemed to be useful for the differential diagnosis. This case manifested two outstanding clinical features. First, it showed bipolar mood swing or mixed state distinguishable from disinhibition or euphoria in deteriorated personality, which is common in this condition. A clear bipolar mood disorder has not been described until now in Neuro-Behçet's disease. Second, subclinical dysthymia or hypomanic phase occurred before clear onset of the disease. In Neuro-Behçet's disease, it is currently considered that psychiatric symptoms may appear in the early stage, but there is controversy as to whether they can precede the other symptoms. Our case indicated very early onset of psychiatric symptoms in this condition.

  8. The Impact of Mood and Anxiety Disorders on Incident Hypertension at One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L. Bacon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies assessing the association between psychological factors and hypertension have been equivocal, which may reflect limitations in the assessment of psychological factors. Purpose. To assess the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders, measured using a psychiatric interview, and 1-year incident hypertension. Methods. 197 nonhypertensive individuals undergoing exercise stress testing at baseline provided follow-up data at 1 year. Baseline assessments included a structure psychiatric interview (PRIME-MD, physician diagnosis of hypertension, and measured blood pressure. At follow-up, hypertension status was assessed via self-reported physician diagnosis. Results. Having an anxiety disorder was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of developing hypertension (adjusted OR = 4.14, 95% CIs = 1.18–14.56. In contrast, having a mood disorder was not associated with incident hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CIs = 0.24–5.86. Conclusions. There are potential mechanisms which could explain our differential mood and anxiety findings. The impact of screening and treatment of anxiety disorders on hypertension needs to be explored.

  9. Lithium's role in neural plasticity and its implications for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J D; McEwen, B S

    2013-11-01

    Lithium (Li) is often an effective treatment for mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder (BPD), and can mitigate the effects of stress on the brain by modulating several pathways to facilitate neural plasticity. This review seeks to summarize what is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying Li's actions in the brain in response to stress, particularly how Li is able to facilitate plasticity through regulation of the glutamate system and cytoskeletal components. The authors conducted an extensive search of the published literature using several search terms, including Li, plasticity, and stress. Relevant articles were retrieved, and their bibliographies consulted to expand the number of articles reviewed. The most relevant articles from both the clinical and preclinical literature were examined in detail. Chronic stress results in morphological and functional remodeling in specific brain regions where structural differences have been associated with mood disorders, such as BPD. Li has been shown to block stress-induced changes and facilitate neural plasticity. The onset of mood disorders may reflect an inability of the brain to properly respond after stress, where changes in certain regions may become 'locked in' when plasticity is lost. Li can enhance plasticity through several molecular mechanisms, which have been characterized in animal models. Further, the expanding number of clinical imaging studies has provided evidence that these mechanisms may be at work in the human brain. This work supports the hypothesis that Li is able to improve clinical symptoms by facilitating neural plasticity and thereby helps to 'unlock' the brain from its maladaptive state in patients with mood disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Interparental violence and maternal mood disorders as predictors of adolescent physical aggression within the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P; Gold, Philip W; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-05-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 41:253-266, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Relationships Between Mood Symptoms, Body Mass Index, and Serum Adipokines in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David J; Andreazza, Ana C; Hughes, John; Dhanoa, Taj; Torres, Ivan J; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Young, L Trevor; Lam, Raymond W; Yatham, Lakshmi N

    2017-04-01

    There is a bidirectional relationship between obesity and mood disorders, with each increasing the risk of developing the other. This relationship suggests that they have overlapping pathophysiologic mechanisms. Adipose tissue-derived hormones, or adipokines, regulate appetite and metabolism and have activity in limbic brain regions, making them potential shared etiologic factors between elevated body mass index (BMI) and mood disorders. However, the precise relationships between BMI, mood, and adipokines are unknown. We measured the serum levels of adiponectin, lipocalin-2, resistin, adipsin, and leptin in 53 people with early-stage DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorder, diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Participants were followed at the University of British Columbia Mood Disorders Centre between June 2004 and June 2012. We were primarily interested in determining, in patients, (1) whether BMI and recent mood episodes predicted adipokine levels and (2) whether adipokine levels in turn predicted subsequent mood relapses and change in BMI. Using linear regression, we found that (1) past-6-month mood episodes predicted lower adiponectin (β = -0.385, P = .04) and adipsin (β = -0.376, P = .03) levels and higher lipocalin-2 levels (β = 0.411, P = .03), (2) BMI did not predict adipokine levels, and (3) treatment with second-generation antipsychotics was associated with higher resistin levels (β = 0.482, P mood episodes and medication treatment contribute to adipokine abnormalities in bipolar disorder and that adipokines influence psychiatric illness course and BMI change. Adipokines may represent a novel pathophysiologic mechanism linking elevated BMI and mood disorders and deserve further study as potential mood-regulating molecules. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. The multiple dimensions of the social anxiety spectrum in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jay C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B; Frank, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Major depressive disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders are debilitating conditions associated with severe impairment. The presence of co-occurring social phobia can make the clinical course of these disorders even more challenging. To better understand the nature of social anxiety in the context of ongoing mood disorders, we report the results of exploratory factor analyses of the Social Phobia Spectrum Self-Report Instrument (SHY), a 162-item measure designed to capture the full spectrum of manifestations and features associated with social anxiety experienced across the lifespan. We examined data from 359 adult outpatients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 403 outpatients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. The measure was divided into its two components: the SHY-General (SHY-G), reflecting general social anxiety features, and the SHY-Specific (SHY-S), reflecting anxiety in specific situations. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted for each using tetrachoric correlation matrices and an unweighted least squares estimator. Item invariance was evaluated for important patient subgroups. Five factors were identified for the SHY-G, representing general features of social anxiety: Fear of Social Disapproval, Childhood Social Anxiety, Somatic Social Anxiety, Excessive Agreeableness, and Behavioral Submission. Seven specific-situation factors were identified from the SHY-S: Writing in Public, Dating, Public Speaking, Eating in Public, Shopping Fears, Using Public Restrooms, and Unstructured Social Interactions. The identified dimensions provide clinically valuable information about the nature of the social fears experienced by individuals diagnosed with mood disorders and could help guide the development of tailored treatment strategies for individuals with co-occurring mood disorders and social anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mood Disorders, Circadian Rhythms, Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Quera Salva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the understanding of circadian rhythms have led to an interest in the treatment of major depressive disorder with chronobiotic agents. Many tissues have autonomous circadian rhythms, which are orchestrated by the master clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine is secreted from the pineal gland during darkness. Melatonin acts mainly on MT1 and MT2 receptors, which are present in the SNC, regulating physiological and neuroendocrine functions, including circadian entrainment, referred to as the chronobiotic effet. Circadian rhythms has been shown to be either misaligned or phase shifted or decreased in amplitude in both acute episodes and relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar disorder. Manipulation of circadian rhythms either using physical treatments (such as high intensity light or behavioral therapy has shown promise in improving symptoms. Pharmacotherapy using melatonin and pure melatonin receptor agonists, while improving sleep, has not been shown to improve symptoms of depression. A novel antidepressant, agomelatine, combines 5HT2c antagonist and melatonin agonist action, and has shown promise in both acute treatment of MDD and in preventing relapse.

  14. Stigma and Discrimination in People Suffering with a Mood Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lazowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Much research is done on the stigma of mental illness, but little research has been done to characterize these phenomena from the perspective of people with mood disorders. Objective. To characterize the extent to which individuals with bipolar disorder and depression are stigmatized, determine factors related to higher levels of stigmatization, and assess the reliability of the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences in a population of people with a mood disorder. Methods. Two hundred and fourteen individuals with depression and bipolar disorder were recruited from a tertiary care psychiatric hospital and surveyed using the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences. Results. Participants reported high levels of stigma experiences and this did not differ by diagnosis (P=0.578. However, people with bipolar disorder reported greater psychosocial impact of stigma on themselves and their family members compared to people with depression (P=0.019. The two subscales produced internally consistent results with both populations. Conclusion. Stigma negatively affects those with both depression and bipolar disorder but appears to have a greater psychosocial impact on those with bipolar disorder.

  15. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tatari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.

  16. Self-reported symptoms of schizotypal and borderline personality disorder in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, I; Suvisaari, J; Aaltonen, K; Koivisto, M; Näätänen, P; Karpov, B; Melartin, T; Oksanen, J; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Paunio, T; Joffe, G; Isometsä, E

    2016-03-01

    Distinguishing between symptoms of schizotypal (SPD) and borderline personality disorders (BPD) is often difficult due to their partial overlap and frequent co-occurrence. We investigated correlations in self-reported symptoms of SPD and BPD in questionnaires at the levels of both total scores and individual items, examining overlapping dimensions. Two questionnaires, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI) for BPD and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief (SPQ-B) for SPD, were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) from specialized psychiatric care in a study of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium. Correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of the MSI and SPQ-B were estimated. Multivariate regression analysis (MRA) was conducted to examine the relationships between SPQ-B and MSI. The Spearman's correlation between total scores of the MSI and SPQ-B was strong (rho=0.616, P<0.005). Items of MSI reflecting disrupted relatedness and affective dysregulation correlated moderately (rφ varied between 0.2 and 0.4, P<0.005) with items of SPQ. Items of MSI reflecting behavioural dysregulation correlated only weakly with items of SPQ. In MRA, depressive symptoms, sex and MSI were significant predictors of SPQ-B score, whereas symptoms of anxiety, age and SPQ-B were significant predictors of MSI score. Items reflecting cognitive-perceptual distortions and affective symptoms of BPD appear to overlap with disorganized and cognitive-perceptual symptoms of SPD. Symptoms of depression may aggravate self-reported features of SPQ-B, and symptoms of anxiety features of MSI. Symptoms of behavioural dysregulation of BPD and interpersonal deficits of SPQ appear to be non-overlapping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits in the effects of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour among mood disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, K I; Rosenström, T; Baryshnikov, I; Karpov, B; Melartin, T; Suominen, K; Heikkinen, M; Näätänen, P; Koivisto, M; Joffe, G; Isometsä, E

    2017-07-01

    Substantial evidence supports an association between childhood maltreatment and suicidal behaviour. However, few studies have examined factors mediating this relationship among patients with unipolar or bipolar mood disorders. Depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (ICD-10-DCR) patients (n=287) from the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study were surveyed on self-reported childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms, borderline personality disorder traits, and lifetime suicidal behaviour. Psychiatric records served to complement the information on suicide attempts. We examined by formal mediation analyses whether (1) the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal behaviour is mediated through borderline personality disorder traits and (2) the mediation effect differs between lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts. The impact of childhood maltreatment in multivariate models on either lifetime suicidal ideation or lifetime suicide attempts showed comparable total effects. In formal mediation analyses, borderline personality disorder traits mediated all of the total effect of childhood maltreatment on lifetime suicide attempts, but only one fifth of the total effect on lifetime suicidal ideation. The mediation effect was stronger for lifetime suicide attempts than for lifetime suicidal ideation (P=0.002) and independent of current depressive symptoms. The mechanisms of the effect of childhood maltreatment on suicidal ideation versus suicide attempts may diverge among psychiatric patients with mood disorders. Borderline personality disorder traits may contribute to these mechanisms, although the influence appears considerably stronger for suicide attempts than for suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Food insecurity in adults with mood disorders: prevalence estimates and associations with nutritional and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Karen M; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2015-01-01

    Because little is known about food insecurity in people with mental health conditions, we investigated relationships among food insecurity, nutrient intakes, and psychological functioning in adults with mood disorders. Data from a study of adults randomly selected from the membership list of the Mood Disorder Association of British Columbia (n = 97), Canada, were analyzed. Food insecurity status was based on validated screening questions asking if in the past 12 months did the participant, due to a lack of money, worry about or not have enough food to eat. Nutrient intakes were derived from 3-day food records and compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Psychological functioning measures included Global Assessment of Functioning, Hamilton Depression scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale. Using binomial tests of two proportions, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Poisson regression we examined: (1) food insecurity prevalence between the study respondents and a general population sample from the British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS; n = 1,823); (2) differences in nutrient intakes based on food insecurity status; and (3) associations of food insecurity and psychological functioning using bivariate and Poisson regression statistics. In comparison to the general population (BCNS), food insecurity was significantly more prevalent in the adults with mood disorders (7.3% in BCNS vs 36.1%; p food-insecure had lower median intakes of carbohydrates and vitamin C (p food insecurity had protein, folate, and zinc intakes below the DRI benchmark of potential inadequacy (p food insecurity and mania symptoms (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.37, 95% CI 1.49-3.75, p Food insecurity is associated with both nutritional and psychological health in adults with mood disorders. Investigation of interventions aimed at food security and income can help establish its role in enhancing mental health.

  19. Pharmacogenomics in the treatment of mood disorders: Strategies and Opportunities for personalized psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Amare, Azmeraw T.; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine (personalized psychiatry in a specific setting) is a new model towards individualized care, in which knowledge from genomics and other omic pillars (microbiome, epigenomes, proteome, and metabolome) will be combined with clinical data to guide efforts to new drug development and targeted prescription of the existing treatment options. In this review, we summarize pharmacogenomic studies in mood disorders that may lay the foundation towards personalized psychiatry. In add...

  20. Ultrasonographically measured change in thyroid status in lithium treated adult patients with mood disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sekh Afrar Alam; Vinod Kumar Sinha; Haque Nizamie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lithium, which is frequently used in the treatment of mood disorder, can lead to various types of thyroid dysfunctions. Although clinical examination and biochemical assessment are fundamental to any thyroid work-up of lithium-treated patients, assessment findings vary widely depending on the investigator. Ultrasonographic measurement of thyroid volume has, therefore, been performed in lithium treatment populations and found to be a sensitive tool. Aim: We aimed to determine and c...

  1. Biological basis for the co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is still the major preventable cause of death in the developed world, and has strong comorbity with mood disorders including major depression. Depressed patients are more likely to smoke cigarettes, and quitting can precipitate an episode of depression in some subjects. Interestingly, antidepressants, particularly the atypical antidepressant buproprion, are therapeutics that can help smokers quit. Despite these observations, the underlying biological factors of the relatio...

  2. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.

  3. Mood and anxiety disorders as early manifestations of medical illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    Affective disturbances involving alterations of mood, anxiety and irritability may be early symptoms of medical illnesses. The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature with qualitative data synthesis. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched from inception to February 2014. Search terms were 'prodrome/early symptom', combined using the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'anxiety/depression/mania/hypomania/irritability/irritable mood/hostility', combined with the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'medical illness/medical disorder'. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Depression was found to be the most common affective prodrome of medical disorders and was consistently reported in Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, Wilson's disease, and AIDS. Mania, anxiety and irritability were less frequent. Physicians may not pursue medical workup of cases that appear to be psychiatric in nature. They should be alerted that disturbances in mood, anxiety and irritability may antedate the appearance of a medical disorder.

  4. Tardive dyskinesia from atypical antipsychotic agents in patients with mood disorders in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Jeremy; Gugger, James J; Tasleem, Hina

    2013-09-25

    There is a paucity of information on the risks and clinical characteristics of tardive dyskinesia with atypical antipsychotic agents in patients with mood and anxiety disorders in clinical practice. The authors retrospectively screened the charts of 268 patients with a mood or anxiety disorder treated with atypical antipsychotic agents from a psychiatric practice. Fifteen patients who developed tardive dyskinesia were identified and further data was collected on these patients. Tardive dyskinesia occurred in 5.9% of patients after exposure to an atypical antipsychotic agent for a mean of 28.7 months (range: 1-83). The average dosage of the offending agent in chlorpromazine equivalents was 350 mg/day (range: 67-969). All patients experienced oral-buccal-lingual stereotypy, which was frequently severe in nature, but completely resolved in all but one patient. Most patients (90.9%) who consented to a second trial of an atypical antipsychotic did not experience a relapse of TD. All patients were treated in a clinical practice setting by a single psychiatrist, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. The observed rate of TD represents a real world estimate of the risk of TD with atypical antipsychotic agents in patients with mood disorders. Fortunately, with early recognition symptoms appear to be reversible and further treatment with another atypical antipsychotic does not necessarily lead to relapse. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders in a Community Sample of Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…

  6. Maternal Exposure to Intimate Partner Abuse before Birth Is Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…

  7. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders: A Test of a Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Margaret M.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2001-01-01

    Tested a model that hypothesized an indirect relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders, with the effects of sexual abuse being mediated through bodily shame and body disparagement. Surveys of female undergraduate students indicated that 60 percent had been sexually abused, 8 percent had diagnosable eating disorders, and 72.7 percent…

  8. Effect on return to work or education of individual placement and support modified for people with mood and anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lone; Bech, Per; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The effect of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) on return to work or education among people with mood or anxiety disorders is unclear, while IPS increases return to work for people with severe mental illness. We examined the effect of IPS modified for people with mood and anxiety...... disorders (IPS-MA) on return to work and education compared with services as usual (SAU). Methods: In a randomised clinical superiority trial, 326 participants with mood and anxiety disorders were centrally randomised to IPS-MA, consisting of individual mentor support and career counselling (n=162) or SAU.......6 points vs SAU 48.5 points, p=0.83) at 24 months. Conclusion: The modified version of IPS, IPS-MA, was not superior to SAU in supporting people with mood or anxiety disorders in return to work at 24 months....

  9. Targeting Treatments to Improve Cognitive Function in Mood Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Rush, A. John; Gerds, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    reassessed the data from our 2 EPO trials conducted between September 2009 and October 2012 to determine whether objective performance-based memory impairment or subjective self-rated cognitive impairment at baseline was related to the effect of EPO on cognitive function as assessed by Rey Auditory Verbal...... randomized placebo-controlled trials that 8 weeks of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment has beneficial effects on verbal memory across unipolar and bipolar disorder, with 58% of EPO-treated patients displaying a clinically relevant memory improvement as compared to 15% of those treated with placebo. METHODS: We......-treated patients with objective memory dysfunction at baseline (n = 16) (defined as RAVLT total recall ≤ 43), the odds of a clinically relevant memory improvement were increased by a factor of 290.6 (95% CI, 2.7-31,316.4; P = .02) compared to patients with no baseline impairment (n = 23). Subjective cognitive...

  10. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms and Association with Oppositional Defiant and Other Disorders in a General Population Child Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan D; Waxmonsky, James D; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O

    2016-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), has generated appreciable controversy since its inception, primarily in regard to its validity as a distinct disorder from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The goal of our study was to determine if the two DSM-5 DMDD symptoms (persistently irritable or angry mood and severe recurrent temper outbursts) occurred independently of other disorders, particularly ODD. Other DSM-5 DMDD criteria were not assessed. Maternal ratings of the two DMDD symptoms, clinical diagnosis of ODD using DSM-5 symptom criteria, and psychological problem scores (anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were analyzed in a population sample, 6-12 years of age (n = 665). The prevalence of DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts both rated by mothers as often or very often a problem) was 9%. In all, 92% of children with DMDD symptoms had ODD, and 66% of children with ODD had DMDD symptoms, indicating that it is very unlikely to have DMDD symptoms without ODD, but that ODD can occur without DMDD symptoms. Comorbid psychological problems (anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and ADHD) in addition to ODD did not increase the risk of having DMDD symptoms beyond that for ODD alone. Only 3% of children with psychological problems other than ODD had DMDD symptoms. Our general population findings are similar to those for a psychiatric sample, suggesting that DMDD cannot be differentiated from ODD based on symptomatology. Therefore, it is important to assess all DSM criteria and to examine for comorbid psychopathology when considering a diagnosis of DMDD. Our results support the recommendation made by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11) panel of experts that DMDD symptoms may be

  11. Treating insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning in bipolar disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Soehner, Adriane M; Kaplan, Kate A; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Li, Descartes; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Ketter, Terence A; Neylan, Thomas C; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder-specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder-specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Freire Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP, but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL, mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II, before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT and detectability (CPT II and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls.

  13. Comorbidity of Drug Abuse in Adolescents: Screening for Depression, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents. Among different disorders, 3 disorders of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder, and depression were studied in a sample of Iranian adolescents.   Materials & Methods: A total of 33 substance abusers, 35 criminal substance abusers, 34 non-substance abusers were selected from Tehran correctional and rehabilitation center for adolescents and 33 normal subjects (girl and boy were studied from schools of Tehran south using Achenbach youth self-report questionnaire (YSR (Achenbach, 1991, demographic and history of drug abuse questionnaire (designed by researchers. Results: There was a significant different regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder between two groups of substance abuser and non-substance abuser, but the difference was not significant between boys and girls. Regarding conduct disorder, there was a significant difference between two sexes. In boys, there was a significant difference between substance abusers and normal groups. In depression disorder, the difference between two sexes was significant regarding boys differences were observed between three groups selected from correctional and rehabilitation center and normal group regarding girls, there was a significant difference between substance abusers with criminals and normal group. Conclusion: Apparently, these 3 disorders have shown significant difference between two sexes. ADHD pattern was the same in two sexes. There was a significant difference between two sexes with regard to depression and conduct disorder. In both sexes, ADHD was not correlated with substance abuse. The conduct disorder was not related to substance abuse in both sexes and depression disorder was only related to substance abuse in girls. Considering the youth self-report test (YSR, there is a special mental profile for substance abusers, which separates them from non-substance abusers.

  14. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  15. Delineating the psychic structure of substance abuse and addictions: should anxiety, mood and impulse-control dysregulation be included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Maremmani, Icro; Trogu, Emanuela; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Ruiz, Pedro; Akiskal, Hagop Souren

    2010-05-01

    Current "official" nosology (e.g. DSM IV) is largely limited to physical manifestations of addiction that can be objectively observed and are suited to the maintaining of an "atheoretical" perspective. However, addicted subjects display additional psychiatric symptoms that affect their well-being and social functioning and, in accordance with DSM IV, are typically relegated to the domain of psychiatric "comorbidity." We contend that the relationship of these psychiatric symptoms with addiction is very close, as demonstrated by the high frequency of association observed. We further assert that substance use may modify pre-existing psychic structures such as temperament and related subthreshold conditions and lead to addiction as a specific mental disorder, inclusive also of symptoms pertaining to mood/anxiety, or impulse-control dimensions. The present contribution addresses the weaknesses of the current DSM-based nosology of addiction-related mental comorbidity. We highlight the overlap of the biological substrates and the neurophysiology of addictive processes and psychiatric symptoms associated with addiction, and propose the inclusion of specific mood, anxiety, and impulse-control dimensions in the psychopathology of addictive processes. We postulate that addiction reaches beyond the mere result of drug-elicited effects on the brain and cannot be peremptorily equated only with the use of drugs despite the adverse consequences produced. We infer that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation is at the very core of both the origins and clinical manifestations of addiction and should be incorporated into the nosology of the same, emphasising how addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric manifestations play a crucial role. To conclude, addictionology cannot be severed from its psychopathological connotations, in view of the undeniable presence of symptoms, of their manifest contribution to the way addicted patients feel and behave, and to

  16. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  17. Temporal Relationships between Overweight and Obesity and DSM-IV Substance Use, Mood, and Anxiety Disorders: Results from a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Roger P.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Blanco, Carlos; Smith, Sharon M.; Huang, Boji; Pulay, Attila J.; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Associations between overweight and obesity and medical conditions have been extensively studied, but little is known about their relationships to psychiatric disorders. Objective To present nationally representative findings on the prospective relationships between overweight and obesity and DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders. Design, Setting and Participants Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of 34,653 U.S. adults. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders and changes in BMI status during the 3-year follow-up. Results Regression analyses that controlled for a wide array of covariates showed that overweight and obese women were at increased risk for incident major depressive disorder (MDD) during the follow-up period. Overweight men and obese men were at decreased risk of incident drug abuse and alcohol dependence, respectively. Obese women had a decreased risk of incident alcohol abuse and drug dependence. Men with drug dependence and women with specific phobia had a decreased risk of becoming overweight or obese during the follow-up. Limitations The NESARC excluded adolescents and the homeless and weight was self-reported, but highly correlated with external validating data. Conclusions Increased risk of MDD among overweight and obese women could be attributed to stigma and greater body dissatisfaction among women in Western cultures. Overweight and obesity may serve as protective factors against developing incident substance use disorders possibly due to shared neural functions in the brain underlying addictions to numerous substances. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical implications including the need to update treatment guidelines for the management of overweight, obesity and MDD. PMID:21457678

  18. Attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and association to depressive symptoms in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhr, Kristina; Reitenbach, Ivanina; Kraemer, Jan; Hautzinger, Martin; Meyer, Thomas D

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive factors might be the link between early attachment experiences and later depression. Similar cognitive vulnerability factors are discussed as relevant for both unipolar and bipolar disorders. The goals of the study were to test if there are any differences concerning attachment style and cognitive factors between remitted unipolar and bipolar patients compared to controls, and to test if the association between attachment style and depressive symptoms is mediated by cognitive factors. A path model was tested in 182 participants (61 with remitted unipolar and 61 with remitted bipolar disorder, and 60 healthy subjects) in which adult attachment insecurity was hypothesized to affect subsyndromal depressive symptoms through the partial mediation of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. No differences between patients with remitted unipolar and bipolar disorders concerning attachment style, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and subsyndromal depressive symptoms were found, but both groups reported a more dysfunctional pattern than healthy controls. The path models confirmed that the relationship between attachment style and depressive symptoms was mediated by the cognitive variables 'dysfunctional attitudes' and 'self-esteem'. With the cross-sectional nature of the study, results cannot explain causal development over time. The results emphasize the relevance of a more elaborate understanding of cognitive and interpersonal factors in mood disorders. It is important to address cognitive biases and interpersonal experiences in treatment of mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Song Writing versus Recreational Music on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Abuse Attribution in Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)

  20. Experimental evidence for the involvement of PDLIM5 in mood disorders in hetero knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Horiuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reports indicate that PDLIM5 is involved in mood disorders. The PDLIM5 (PDZ and LIM domain 5 gene has been genetically associated with mood disorders; it's expression is upregulated in the postmortem brains of patients with bipolar disorder and downregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients with major depression. Acute and chronic methamphetamine (METH administration may model mania and the evolution of mania into psychotic mania or schizophrenia-like behavioral changes, respectively. METHODS: To address whether the downregulation of PDLIM5 protects against manic symptoms and cause susceptibility to depressive symptoms, we evaluated the effects of reduced Pdlim5 levels on acute and chronic METH-induced locomotor hyperactivity, prepulse inhibition, and forced swimming by using Pdlim5 hetero knockout (KO mice. RESULTS: The homozygous KO of Pdlim5 is embryonic lethal. The effects of METH administration on locomotor hyperactivity and the impairment of prepulse inhibition were lower in Pdlim5 hetero KO mice than in wild-type mice. The transient inhibition of PDLIM5 (achieved by blocking the translocation of protein kinase C epsilon before the METH challenge had a similar effect on behavior. Pdlim5 hetero KO mice showed increased immobility time in the forced swimming test, which was diminished after the chronic administration of imipramine. Chronic METH treatment increased, whereas chronic haloperidol treatment decreased, Pdlim5 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex. Imipramine increased Pdlim5 mRNA levels in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: These findings are partially compatible with reported observations in humans, indicating that PDLIM5 is involved in psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders.

  1. Lifetime mental disorders and suicidal behaviour in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DSM-IV disorders.18 These DSM-IV disorders included anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder), mood disorders (major depressive disorder), substance use disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence), and disorders associated ...

  2. Common variants at 2q11.2, 8q21.3, and 11q13.2 are associated with major mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, X. (Xiao); Wang, L. (Lu); Wang, C. (Chuang); Yuan, T.-F. (Ti-Fei); Zhou, D. (Dongsheng); Zheng, F. (Fanfan); Li, L. (Lingyi); Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, M. (Maria); Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Iwata, N. (Nakao); Takahashi, A. (Atsushi); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); Kubo, M. (Michiaki); M. Preisig (Martin); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); Castelao, E. (Enrique); G. Pistis (Giorgio); Amin, N. (Najaf); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); J. Strohmaier; Hecker, J. (Julian); T.G. Schulze (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); A. Reif (Andreas); Mitchell, P.B. (Philip B.); Martin, N.G. (Nicholas G.); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); S. Cichon (Sven); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); Chang, H. (Hong); X.-J. Luo (X.); Fang, Y. (Yiru); Yao, Y.-G. (Yong-Gang); Zhang, C. (Chen); M. Rietschel (Marcella); Li, M. (Ming)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are primary major mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that they share certain psychopathological features and common risk genes, but unraveling the full genetic architecture underlying the risk of major mood disorders remains

  3. The relationship of community activities with cognitive impairment and depressive mood independent of mobility disorder in Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Ogita, Mihoko; Yamamoto, Miki; Nakai, Toshimi; Numata, Tomoko; Arai, Hidenori

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of participating in community activities (CA) with cognitive impairment and depressive mood independent of mobility disorder (MD) among older Japanese people. Elderly residents in institutions or those requiring long-term care insurance services were excluded; questionnaires were mailed to 5401 older adults in 2013. The response rate was 94.3% (n=5094). We used multiple imputation to manage missing data. The questionnaire addressed physical fitness, memory, mood, and CA. Participants were divided into two groups (good and bad) based on the median scores for physical fitness, memory, and mood. We identified items related to periodically performed CA, cognitive impairment, and depressive mood, and examined correlations between scores on these sets of items. The mean age was 75.9 years; 58.4% of participants were women. The following CA significantly predicted reduced cognitive impairment and depressive mood independent of MD: volunteer activity, community activity, visiting friends at home, pursuing hobbies, paid work, farm work, and daily shopping. These results were corrected for age, sex, and response method (mail or home-visit). Higher CA scores were associated with lower cognitive impairment and lower depressive mood independent of MD. CA is negatively associated with cognitive impairment and depressive mood among community-dwelling elderly independent of MD; promoting CA may protect against cognitive impairment and depressive mood in this population. However, MD, cognitive impairment, and depressive mood may lead to reduced CA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Set-shifting abilities, mood and loss of control over eating in binge eating disorder: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F

    2015-12-15

    Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders.

  6. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...

  7. Adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma Transtornos do humor no adulto e trauma psicológico na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucrécia Scherer Zavaschi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. METHOD: Adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. RESULTS: In two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found a higher odds ratio for frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = .037 and for physical abuse by parents or caregivers during childhood/adolescence (p = .012 in the group with mood disorders than in the control group. In secondary analyses splitting the mood disorder group in two subgroups (manic episode, and major depressive episodes/ dysthymia, only manic patients showed significantly higher rates of frequent exposure to violence in the community (p = 0.01 and physical abuse during childhood (p = 0.02 than did patients in the control group. In addition, maniac patients had significantly higher rates of sexual abuse than did controls (p = .03. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings document an association between violence during childhood and adult mood disorders, especially for manic patients, in a developing country.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre transtornos de humor no adulto e trauma psicológico na infância em um país em desenvolvimento. MÉTODO: Adultos com e sem transtorno de humor foram avaliados em um estudo de caso-controle utilizando a Mini Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional. A avaliação de trauma infantil incluiu abuso físico e sexual, exposição freqüente à violência e perda dos pais. RESULTADOS: Em duas análises multivariadas independentes, após o ajuste para fatores potenciais de confusão, encontramos uma razão de chance mais alta de exposição freqüente à violência na comunidade (p = 0,037 e de abuso f

  8. Offspring of depressed and anxious patients: Help-seeking after first onset of a mood and/or anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Petra J; Hartman, Catharina A; Visser, Ellen; Nauta, Maaike H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A

    2018-02-01

    Offspring of patients with depressive and/or anxiety disorders are at high risk of developing a similar disorder themselves. Early recognition and treatment may have substantial effects on prognosis. The main aim of this study was to examine the time to initial help-seeking and its determinants in offspring after the first onset of a mood and/or anxiety disorder. Data are presented of 215 offspring with a mood and/or anxiety disorder participating in a cohort study with 10 year follow-up. We determined age of disorder onset and age of initial help-seeking. Offspring characteristics (gender, IQ, age of onset, disorder type, suicidal ideation) and family characteristics (socioeconomic status, family functioning) were investigated as potential predictors of the time to initial help-seeking. The estimated overall proportion of offspring of depressed/anxious patients who eventually seek help after onset of a mood and/or anxiety disorder was 91.9%. The time to initial help-seeking was more than two years in 39.6% of the offspring. Being female, having a mood disorder or comorbid mood and anxiety disorder (relative to anxiety) and a disorder onset in adolescence or adulthood (relative to childhood) predicted a shorter time to initial help-seeking. Baseline information relied on retrospective reports. Age of onsets and age of initial help-seeking may therefore be subject to recall bias. Although most offspring eventually seek help after onset of a mood/anxiety disorder, delays in help-seeking were common, especially in specific subgroups of patients. This information may help to develop targeted strategies to reduce help-seeking delays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-neuropeptide Y plasma immunoglobulins in relation to mood and appetite in depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico D; Coquerel, Quentin; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Cravezic, Aurore; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Kiive, Evelyn; Déchelotte, Pierre; Harro, Jaanus; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2012-09-01

    Depression and eating disorders are frequently associated, but the molecular pathways responsible for co-occurrence of altered mood, appetite and body weight are not yet fully understood. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has potent antidepressant and orexigenic properties and low central NPY levels have been reported in major depression. In the present study, we hypothesized that in patients with major depression alteration of mood, appetite and body weight may be related to NPY-reactive autoantibodies (autoAbs). To test this hypothesis, we compared plasma levels and affinities of NPY-reactive autoAbs between patients with major depression and healthy controls. Then, to evaluate if changes of NPY autoAb properties can be causally related to altered mood and appetite, we developed central and peripheral passive transfer models of human autoAbs in mice and studied depressive-like behavior in forced-swim test and food intake. We found that plasma levels of NPY IgG autoAbs were lower in patients with moderate but not with mild depression correlating negatively with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores and with immobility time of the forced-swim test in mice after peripheral injection of autoAbs. No significant differences in NPY IgG autoAb affinities between patients with depression and controls were found, but higher affinity of IgG autoAbs for NPY was associated with lower body mass index and prevented NPY-induced orexigenic response in mice after their central injection. These data suggest that changes of plasma levels of anti-NPY autoAbs are relevant to altered mood, while changes of their affinity may participate in altered appetite and body weight in patients with depressive disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal development of monoaminergic neurons is implicated in mood fluctuations and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic, Marin M; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Bar, Michal; Becker, Gal; Jovanovic, Vukasin M; Zega, Ksenija; Binder, Elisabeth B; Brodski, Claude

    2015-03-01

    Subtle mood fluctuations are normal emotional experiences, whereas drastic mood swings can be a manifestation of bipolar disorder (BPD). Despite their importance for normal and pathological behavior, the mechanisms underlying endogenous mood instability are largely unknown. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor Otx2 orchestrates the genetic networks directing the specification of dopaminergic (DA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. Here we behaviorally phenotyped mouse mutants overexpressing Otx2 in the hindbrain, resulting in an increased number of DA neurons and a decreased number of 5-HT neurons in both developing and mature animals. Over the course of 1 month, control animals exhibited stable locomotor activity in their home cages, whereas mutants showed extended periods of elevated or decreased activity relative to their individual average. Additional behavioral paradigms, testing for manic- and depressive-like behavior, demonstrated that mutants showed an increase in intra-individual fluctuations in locomotor activity, habituation, risk-taking behavioral parameters, social interaction, and hedonic-like behavior. Olanzapine, lithium, and carbamazepine ameliorated the behavioral alterations of the mutants, as did the mixed serotonin receptor agonist quipazine and the specific 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809101. Testing the relevance of the genetic networks specifying monoaminergic neurons for BPD in humans, we applied an interval-based enrichment analysis tool for genome-wide association studies. We observed that the genes specifying DA and 5-HT neurons exhibit a significant level of aggregated association with BPD but not with schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The results of our translational study suggest that aberrant development of monoaminergic neurons leads to mood fluctuations and may be associated with BPD.

  11. Rapid Relief of Catatonia in Mood Disorder by Lorazepam and Diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Huang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Catatonia has risks of severe morbidity and mortality and needs early treatment. In this study, we investigated more patients to discuss the efficacy of this treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD or bipolar I disorder (BPI. Methods: During a period of 9 years, we identified 12 catatonic patients with mood disorder, with MDD (n = 10 and BPI (n = 2 in the emergency department, inpatient and outpatient units of a general hospital. The patients received intramuscular injection (IMI of 2 mg lorazepam once or twice during the first 2 h. If intramuscular lorazepam failed, intravenous dripping (IVD of 10 mg diazepam in 500 mL normal saline every 8 h for 1 day was prescribed. Results: Eight patients had full remission of catatonia after receiving one dose of 2 mg lorazepam IMI. Two patients needed two doses of 2 mg lorazepam IMI. Two patients with BPI recovered from catatonia using one dose of 10 mg diazepam IVD over 8 h after they failed to respond to two doses of 2 mg lorazepam IMI. The response rate to lorazepam IMI was 83.3%. All catatonic features remitted in 24 h with 100% response rate. Conclusions: The lorazepam-diazepam treatment strategy is a safe and effective method to relieve catatonia in mood disorder within 1 day. Psychiatrist consultation is helpful for final diagnosis and rapid treatment of catatonia.

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for a 9-Year-Old Girl With Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E; Ibrahim, Karim; Bertschinger, Emilie; Piasecka, Justyna; Sukhodolsky, Denis G

    2016-12-01

    Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a relatively new diagnosis in the field of childhood onset disorders. Characterized by both behavior and mood disruption, DMDD is a purportedly unique clinical presentation with few relevant treatment studies to date. The current case study presents the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anger and aggression in a 9-year-old girl with DMDD, co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a history of unspecified anxiety disorder. At the time of intake evaluation, she demonstrated three to four temper outbursts and two to three episodes of aggressive behavior per week, in addition to prolonged displays of non-episodic irritability lasting hours or days at a time. A total of 12 CBT sessions were conducted over 12 weeks and 5 follow-up booster sessions were completed over a subsequent 3-month period. Irritability-related material was specially designed to target the DMDD clinical presentation. Post-treatment and 3-month follow-up assessments, including independent evaluation, demonstrated significant decreases in the target symptoms of anger, aggression, and irritability. Although the complexities of diagnosing and treating DMDD warrant extensive research inquiry, the current case study suggests CBT for anger and aggression as a viable treatment for affected youth.

  13. Migraine headaches and mood/anxiety disorders in the ELSA Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Brunoni, André R; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Passos, Valéria M; Griep, Rosane H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2014-09-01

    To describe the relationship between mood/anxiety disorders and migraine headaches emphasizing the frequency of episodes based in a cross-sectional analysis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. It has been suggested that frequency of migraine headaches can be directly associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders. Migraine headaches (International Headache Society criteria) was classified as migraine and 10,531 without migraine headaches (reference). Our main result was an increase in the strength of association between migraine and MDD as frequency of migraine increased for all sample: odds ratio of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-3.43) for migraine/month to 6.94 (95% CI 4.20-11.49) for daily headaches for all sample. Significant associations with migraine were also found for GAD, OCD, MADD, and CMD for total sample: MDD, GAD, OCD, MADD, and CMD for women, and MADD and CMD for men. Among men with daily migraine complaint, we found a significant association between migraine and OCD after correction for multiple comparisons (odds ratio 29.86 [95% CI 4.66-191.43]). Analyzing probable and definite migraine cases together, we replicated the findings in a lower magnitude. The increase in migraine frequency was associated with progressively higher frequencies of having mood/anxiety disorders in all samples suggesting for some psychiatric disorders a likely dose-response effect especially for women. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  14. Is cannabis treatment for anxiety, mood, and related disorders ready for prime time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turna, Jasmine; Patterson, Beth; Van Ameringen, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Anxiety and related disorders are the most common mental conditions affecting the North American population. Despite their established efficacy, first-line antidepressant treatments are associated with significant side effects, leading many afflicted individuals to seek alternative treatments. Cannabis is commonly viewed as a natural alternative for a variety of medical and mental health conditions. Currently, anxiety ranks among the top five medical symptoms for which North Americans report using medical marijuana. However, upon careful review of the extant treatment literature, the anxiolytic effects of cannabis in clinical populations are surprisingly not well-documented. The effects of cannabis on anxiety and mood symptoms have been examined in healthy populations and in several small studies of synthetic cannabinoid agents but there are currently no studies which have examined the effects of the cannabis plant on anxiety and related disorders. In light of the rapidly shifting landscape regarding the legalization of cannabis for medical and recreational purposes, it is important to highlight the significant disconnect between the scientific literature, public opinion, and related policies. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current cannabis treatment literature, and to identify the potential for cannabis to be used as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety, mood, and related disorders. Searches of five electronic databases were conducted (PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar), with the most recent in February 2017. The effects of cannabis on healthy populations and clinical psychiatric samples will be discussed, focusing primarily on anxiety and mood disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of personality dimensions on functional outcomes in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, Jessica; Soczynska, Joanna K; Gallaugher, Laura Ashley; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Cha, Danielle S; Dale, Roman M; Muzina, David J; Kennedy, Sidney H; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-07-01

    Functional impairment associated with mood disorders may be related to a characteristic "profile" of normative personality dimensions. Individuals (age ≥ 18 years) with MDD (n = 400) or BD (n = 317), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), were enrolled in the IMDCP. Personality was evaluated with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and functionality with the Sheehan Disability Scale and Endicott Work Productivity Scale. Path analysis using linear multiple regressions was performed to identify direct and indirect effects of personality on functional impairment. Lower conscientiousness exerted a significant direct effect on global (p = 0.017) and family life dysfunction in individuals with MDD (p = 0.002), as well as lower work productivity in both MDD (p = 0.020) and BD (p = 0.018). Lower extraversion exerted a significant direct effect on social impairment in individuals with BD (p = 0.017). Higher neuroticism and agreeableness as well as lower extraversion exerted indirect effects on global and social dysfunction in individuals with MDD via their effects on depression severity. In BD, higher neuroticism and openness indirectly affected global dysfunction. Family dysfunction was indirectly affected by higher neuroticism and openness as well as lower extraversion in MDD and BD. The results suggest that discrete personality dimensions may exert direct and indirect effects on functional outcomes in individuals with mood disorders. Personalizing disease management approaches in mood disorders with emphasis on vocational rehabilitation may benefit from measurement and intervention targeting personality.

  16. Sexual abuse allegations by children with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-03-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric experts were engaged in only two cases. When experts were involved, the courts focused on credibility issues. When the courts applied neuropsychiatric arguments in the absence of an expert, they used developmental arguments. When the authors found that significant neuropsychiatric issues were not discussed by the court it concerned interpretations of symptoms and developmental standpoints. The results illustrate the complexity and pitfalls of drawing conclusions about associations between symptoms and personality characteristics on one side and accuracy of sexual abuse allegations on the other. Moreover, the results highlight the importance of a high quality system for providing courts with adequate neuropsychiatric knowledge.

  17. Treatment outcomes for substance abuse among adolescents with learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jennifer W; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McCormick, Marie C

    2006-07-01

    This paper assesses whether chemically dependent adolescents with comorbid learning disorders (LDs) derived less effective treatment results when compared to chemically dependent adolescents without LD and examines the moderating effects of prior treatments, treatment length, and treatment completion. Two hundred one adolescents were recruited between 1992 and 1993 from Massachusetts residential treatment centers and subsequently followed up 6 months after enrollment. Compared to chemically dependent teenagers without LD, those with LD were twice as likely to re-use substances at least once by follow-up. LD teenagers were more likely to attend Alcoholics/Narcotics Anonymous if they had prior admissions to treatment programs and longer treatment length. LD teenagers who completed treatment also experienced a greater decrease in current depression compared to LD teenagers not completing the treatment. This study is the first to consider outcomes of substance abuse treatment for adolescents with LD and contributes to the growing literature on comorbidity and substance abuse treatment.

  18. Childhood sexual abuse increases risk of auditory hallucinations in psychotic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Julia M.; Williams, Lisa E.; Blackford, Jennifer U.; Heckers, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Previous studies point to an association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and auditory hallucinations (AH). However, methodological issues limit the strength of these results. Here we compared childhood abuse between psychotic disorder patients and healthy control subjects using a reliable measure of abuse, and assessed the relationship between CSA and AH. Methods 114 psychotic disorder patients and 81 healthy control subjects were administered the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We compared the severity of abuse between groups, and tested the relationship between different types of childhood abuse and specific psychotic symptoms. Results Psychotic patients reported more childhood abuse than controls (phallucination other than AH or of any form of delusion. Conclusions These results suggest that childhood abuse, especially childhood sexual abuse, shapes the phenotype of psychotic disorders by conferring a specific risk for AH. PMID:23815887

  19. Internet-based motivation program for women with eating disorders: eating disorder pathology and depressive mood predict dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brachel, Ruth; Hötzel, Katrin; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja

    2014-03-31

    One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants' age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment.

  20. Treatment in a specialised out-patient mood disorder clinic v. standard out-patient treatment in the early course of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Hvenegaard, Anne

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether treatment in a specialised out-patient mood disorder clinic improves long-term prognosis for patients discharged from initial psychiatric hospital admissions for bipolar disorder. AIMS: To assess the effect of treatment in a specialised out-patient mood...... disorder clinic v. standard decentralised psychiatric treatment among patients discharged from one of their first three psychiatric hospital admissions for bipolar disorder. METHOD: Patients discharged from their first, second or third hospital admission with a single manic episode or bipolar disorder were...... randomised to treatment in a specialised out-patient mood disorder clinic or standard care (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00253071). The primary outcome measure was readmission to hospital, which was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar disorder...

  1. Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and reduces absenteeism. Findings from the Treatment of Adolescent Depression Study (TADS) ( http://www.nimh.nih.gov/trials/ ... in two decades, with a goal of relieving depression in hours, rather than ... the rate of suicide, the most severe consequence of mental illness, which ...

  2. Prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.

  3. Sleep-wake cycle in young and older persons with a lifetime history of mood disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rébecca Robillard

    Full Text Available Considering the marked changes in sleep and circadian rhythms across the lifespan, age may contribute to the heterogeneity in sleep-wake profiles linked to mood disorders. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of age and depression severity to sleep-wake disturbances. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS was administered to assess current symptoms severity in 238 persons with a history of a mood disorder between 12 and 90 years of age (y.o.. Actigraphy was recorded over five to 22 days. Regression analyses and analyses of variance [age (12-19 y.o., 20-39 y.o., 40-59 y.o., and ≥ 60 y.o. by depression severity (HDRS< and ≥ 8] were conducted. The 12-19 y.o. and 20-39 y.o. groups had a delayed sleep schedule and acrophase compared to all other groups. The ≥ 60 y.o. group had a lower rhythmicity and amplitude (p ≤ .006 than the 12-19 y.o. group (p ≤ .046. Participants with a HDRS ≥ 8 spent longer time in bed, had later sleep offset times and had lower circadian rhythmicity than those with a HDRS<8 (p ≤ .036. Younger age and higher HDRS score correlated with later sleep onset and offset times, longer time in bed, higher WASO, lower sleep efficiency and later acrophase (p ≤ .023. Age was a significant predictor of delayed sleep and activity schedules (p ≤ .001. The profile of sleep-wake cycle disturbances associated with mood disorders changes with age, with prominent sleep phase delay during youth and reduced circadian strength in older persons. Conversely, disruptions in sleep consolidation seem more stable across age.

  4. Risk profiles of personality traits for suicidality among mood disorder patients and community controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M-H; Chen, H-C; Lu, M-L; Feng, J; Chen, I-M; Wu, C-S; Chang, S-W; Kuo, P-H

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between personality traits and suicidal ideation (SI) and attempt (SA) in mood disorder patients and community controls. We recruited 365 bipolar, 296 major depressive disorder patients, and 315 community controls to assess their lifetime suicidality. Participants filled out self-reported personality questionnaires to collect data of personality traits, including novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), extraversion (E), and neuroticism (N). We used logistic regression models adjusted for diagnoses to analyze combinational effects of personality traits on the risk of suicide. Additionally, radar charts display personality profiles for suicidal behaviours by groups. All personality traits were associated with the risk of suicidality with various effect size, except for E that showed protective effect. High N or HA had prominent and independent risk effects on SI and SA. Combinations of high N and low E, or high HA and NS were the risk personality profiles for suicidality. Higher N scores further distinguished SA from SI in mood disorder patients. Introvert personality traits showed independent risk effects on suicidality regardless of diagnosis status. Among high-risk individuals with suicidal thoughts, higher neuroticism tendency is further associated with increased risk of suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. DSM-5 proposals for mood disorders: a cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 revision is underway. The review examines draft proposals for changes in mood disorders (posted February 2010 on DSM-5 web site), explains their rationale, and considers relative costs vs. benefits. Proposals covered include recommendation for a comorbid anxiety dimension; addition of a new disorder, mixed anxiety depression; replacement of mixed manic episodes with a 'mixed features' specifier applicable to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes; addition of severity dimensions for manic and major depressive episodes; and removal of the bereavement exclusion in major depressive episode. Although some proposals (particularly the anxiety dimension and the use of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as depression severity dimension) may improve clinical and research utility, others have a high potential for false positives (e.g., addition of mixed anxiety depression, removal of bereavement exclusion), unclear clinical utility (e.g., mixed features specifier for depressive episodes), or problematic implementation (e.g., use of Clinical Global Impression (CGI), which requires prior experience of treating bipolar patients, for rating manic episode severity). A cost-benefit analysis of mood proposals yields mixed results, with some having significant benefits and others carrying the risk of significant problems. Only proposals in which benefits outweigh costs should be included in the final DSM-5.

  6. [The guideline for the treatment of mood disorders in USA and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, T

    2001-08-01

    Recently, the number of available antidepressants has increased dramatically and psychopharmacological treatment is becoming complex. It is important to present some guideline for supporting clinical decision making. Three different kinds of guideline for the treatment of mood disorders, that is, the APA style guideline, the algorithm and the consensus guideline, have been developed in our country. The APA style guideline and the algorithm are basically evidence based and the consensus guideline is developed through the consensus panel format. These guidelines should be used as 'a starting point' for specifying decisions that will be modified occasionally.

  7. Effects of erythropoietin on memory-relevant neurocircuitry activity and recall in mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M

    2016-01-01

    cohort. The effects of EPO were not correlated with change in mood, red blood cells, blood pressure, or medication. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight enhanced encoding-related dlPFC and temporo-parietal activity as key neuronal underpinnings of EPO-associated memory improvement.......OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) improves verbal memory and reverses subfield hippocampal volume loss across depression and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether these effects were accompanied by functional changes in memory...

  8. Quality of life and family functioning in caregivers of relatives with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru, Alison M; Ryan, Christine E; Vlastos, Kim

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the quality of life of caregivers of hospitalized relatives with mood disorders. Caregivers reported poor social, physical and emotional functioning. Family functioning was poor in the areas of roles, communication and affective involvement. It is significant that problem-solving, affective responsiveness and behavior control are within the normal range, indicating that these families do have strengths. Subjective burden but not objective burden was correlated with a poorer quality of life. Less than 30% of caregivers received help from other relatives and less than 5% sought help from outside organizations like NAMI, MDDA or VNA.

  9. Mood disorders and biological rhythms in young adults: A large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Jansen, Karen; da Silva Magalhães, Pedro Vieira; Kapczinski, Flávio; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2017-01-01

    It is known that sleep disturbance has been considered a trait-marker of mood disorders. However, the role of disruptions in biological rhythms, such as eating, activity, and social patterns, needs to be better understood. To assess the differences in biological rhythms in subjects with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls. We also tested the association between disruptions of biological rhythms and circadian preferences. A cross-sectional, population-based study with a representative sample of 1023 young adults. Bipolar disorder and depression were diagnosed using The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - PLUS and DSM Structured Clinical Interview. Self-reported biological rhythms and circadian preference were assessed using the Biological Rhythm Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN). Bipolar disorders and depression subjects presented higher rates of disruption in biological rhythms when compared to healthy controls even after adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, tobacco, illicit drug use, anxiety disorder and psychotropic medication use. Euthymic subjects showed higher biological rhythm disruption when compared to controls. Higher disruption in biological rhythms was observed in subjects with evening preferences. Higher disruption in biological rhythms occurs in individuals with depression and bipolar disorder even on periods of euthymia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Storm in My Brain: Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not a bad person. You did not cause this illness. It is not your fault. “Am I Normal?” ... stress at school. • Remember that you did not cause your child’s ... sleep, or if you develop anxiety or mood symptoms (many parents do). • Help your ...

  11. Progressing MoodSwings. The upgrade and evaluation of MoodSwings 2.0: An online intervention for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, S; Cosgrove, V E; Gliddon, E; Grimm, D; Dodd, S; Berk, L; Castle, D; Suppes, T S; Berk, M

    2017-05-01

    MoodSwings 2.0 is a self-guided online intervention for bipolar disorder. The intervention incorporates technological improvements on an earlier validated version of the intervention (MoodSwings 1.0). The previous MoodSwings trial provides this study with a unique opportunity to progress previous work, whilst being able to take into consideration lesson learnt, and technological enhancements. The structure and technology of MoodSwings 2.0 are described and the relevance to other online health interventions is highlighted. An international team from Australia and the US updated and improved the programs content pursuant to changes in DSM-5, added multimedia components and included larger numbers of participants in the group discussion boards. Greater methodological rigour in this trial includes an attention control condition, quarterly telephone assessments, and red flag alerts for significant clinical change. This paper outlines these improvements, including additional security and safety measures. A 3 arm RCT is currently evaluating the enhanced program to assess the efficacy of MS 2.0; the primary outcome is change in depressive and manic symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first randomized controlled online bipolar study with a discussion board attention control and meets the key methodological criteria for online interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Diagnosis at the first episode to differentiate antidepressant treatment responses in patients with mood and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kemp, ECM; Moleman, P; Hoogduin, CAL; Broekman, TG; Schaap, CPDR; van den Berg, PC

    Rationale: Co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is often ignored in pharmacotreatment outcome studies and this complicates the interpretation of treatment response. The clinical trials are usually based on single categories from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

  13. Diagnosis at the first episode to differentiate antidepressant treatment responses in patients with mood and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, E.C.M. de; Moleman, P.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Broekman, T.G.; Goedhart, A.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.; Berg, P.C. van den

    2002-01-01

    Rationale: Co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is often ignored in pharmacotreatment outcome studies and this complicates the interpretation of treatment response. The clinical trials are usually based on single categories from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

  14. Validation of the Seven Up Seven Down Inventory in bipolar offspring : screening and prediction of mood disorders. Findings from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Youngstrom, E. A.; Juliana, N. K.; Nolen, W. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Seven Up Seven Down (7U7D), an abbreviated version of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), as screener for mood disorders and test its ability to predict mood disorders over time in individuals at risk for bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: Bipolar offspring (n=108) were

  15. Validation of the Seven Up Seven Down Inventory in bipolar offspring : screening and prediction of mood disorders. Findings from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, E; Youngstrom, E A; Juliana, N K; Nolen, W A; Hillegers, M H J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the Seven Up Seven Down (7U7D), an abbreviated version of the General Behavior Inventory (GBI), as screener for mood disorders and test its ability to predict mood disorders over time in individuals at risk for bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Bipolar offspring (n=108) were

  16. Substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was high co-morbidity of alcohol abuse/dependence with opiate, sedative and 'khat' use, as well as with mood and other psychotic disorders. Substance abuse disorders correlated significantly with other psychiatric disorders. Only 12 patients were in a drug rehabilitation unit, all of whom had a dual psychiatric ...

  17. Experiencing core symptoms of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders in late adolescence predicts disorder onset in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Dour, Halina; Zinbarg, Richard; Mineka, Susan; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Epstein, Alyssa; Bobova, Lyuba; Griffith, James; Waters, Allison; Nazarian, Maria; Rose, Raphael; Craske, Michelle G

    2014-03-01

    Identification of youth at risk for anxiety and unipolar mood disorders (UMDs) can improve public health by targeting those who may warrant early or preventive intervention. This study examined whether endorsing core features of anxiety and UMDs predicted onset of later anxiety and UMDs across the next 7-9 years, and whether having subthreshold or subclinical manifestations of these disorders similarly predicted onset. Data from this study come from the Youth Emotion Project (YEP), a two-site investigation of common and specific risk factors for emotional disorders. Endorsement of core features of a disorder and subclinical or subthreshold anxiety and UMD diagnoses were determined using data from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) at the baseline assessment. Participants completed annual SCIDs over the course of the next 7-9 years (depending on cohort). Endorsement of panic attacks, obsessions and/or compulsions, and depression and/or anhedonia predicted onset of panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder, respectively. When including all anxiety disorders in a model, only the presence of panic attacks uniquely predicted anxiety disorder onset. The presence of subclinical or subthreshold panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social phobia at baseline predicted the full onset of these disorders over the follow-up period. Experiencing some symptoms of anxiety and UMDs in the absence of meeting diagnostic criteria is indicative of risk for later onsets of clinically significant DSM manifestations of these disorders. These individuals should be identified and targeted for prevention programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. No association between wolframin gene H611R polymorphism and mood disorders: evidence from 2,570 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Wu; Wang, Juan; Zou, Yan-Feng

    2015-02-01

    In the past few decades, a number of studies have investigated the association of the wolframin (WFS1) gene H611R polymorphism with mood disorders, but the findings are not always consistent. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between WFS1 gene H611R polymorphism and mood disorders by using a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Elsevier Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted to identify relevant articles, with the last report up to April 15, 2014. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated. Seven studies including 1318 cases and 1252 controls were selected from potentially relevant articles. This meta-analysis showed that there was no significant association between WFS1 gene H611R polymorphism and mood disorders (R vs. H: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.82-1.05, P = 0.22; HR+ RR vs. HH: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.17, P = 0.80; RR vs. HH+ HR: OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.11; RR vs. HH: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.67-1.10, P = 0.24; HR vs. HH: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.78-1.36, P = 0.83). In subgroup analyses by ethnicity, we did not detect any significant association of this polymorphism with mood disorders in Caucasian and Asian populations (P > 0.05). In subgroup analyses by types of mood disorders, we also did not detect any significant association of this polymorphism with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder (P > 0.05). The results of this meta-analysis suggest that there is no association between WFS1 gene H611R polymorphism and mood disorders.

  19. Exploring the Use of Information and Communication Technology by People With Mood Disorder: A Systematic Review and Metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Hamish; McSwiggan, Linda; Kroll, Thilo; MacGillivray, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence relating to how information and communication technology (ICT) can be used to support people with physical health conditions. Less is known regarding mental health, and in particular, mood disorder. To conduct a metasynthesis of all qualitative studies exploring the use of ICTs by people with mood disorder. Searches were run in eight electronic databases using a systematic search strategy. Qualitative and mixed-method studies published in English between 2007 and 2014 were included. Thematic synthesis was used to interpret and synthesis the results of the included studies. Thirty-four studies were included in the synthesis. The methodological design of the studies was qualitative or mixed-methods. A global assessment of study quality identified 22 studies as strong and 12 weak with most having a typology of findings either at topical or thematic survey levels of data transformation. A typology of ICT use by people with mood disorder was created as a result of synthesis. The systematic review and metasynthesis clearly identified a gap in the research literature as no studies were identified, which specifically researched how people with mood disorder use mobile ICT. Further qualitative research is recommended to understand the meaning this type of technology holds for people. Such research might provide valuable information on how people use mobile technology in their lives in general and also, more specifically, how they are being used to help with their mood disorders.

  20. Independent associations and effect modification between lifetime substance use and recent mood disorder diagnosis with household food insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Cliff; Gondara, Lovedeep

    2018-01-01

    Poor mental health and substance use are associated with food insecurity, however, their potential combined effects have not been studied. This study explored independent associations and effect modification between lifetime substance use and mood disorder in relation to food insecurity. Poisson regression analysis of data from British Columbia respondents (n = 13,450; 12 years+) in the 2007/08 Canadian Community Health Survey was conducted. Measures included The Household Food Security Survey Module (7.3% food insecure), recent diagnosis of a mood disorder (self-reported; 9.5%), lifetime use of cannabis, cocaine/crack, ecstasy, hallucinogens, and speed, any lifetime substance use, sociodemographic covariates, and the interaction terms of mood disorder by substance. For those with recent diagnosis of a mood disorder the prevalence of lifetime substance use ranged between 1.2 to 5.7% and were significantly higher than those without recent mood disorder diagnosis or lifetime use of substances (p’s food insecurity prevalence was higher compared to the general sample (p food insecurity may lead to the development of relevant interventions aimed at mental well-being and food security. PMID:29360862

  1. Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire Thai version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleeprakhon P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Punjaporn Waleeprakhon,1 Pichai Ittasakul,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Pattarabhorn Wisajun,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Terence A Ketter2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ has been translated to many languages and has been used in many countries as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder. The main objective of this study was to evaluate validity of the Thai version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric outpatient sample, and to determine its optimum question #1 item threshold value for bipolar disorder.Methods: The English language Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the prefinal version, as well as final adjustments. Two hundred and fifty major depressive disorder outpatients were further assessed by the Thai version of the MDQ and the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. During the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis were performed.Results: The Thai version of the MDQ screening had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =0.791, omega total =0.68, and omega hierarchical =0.69. The optimal question #1 item threshold value was at least five positive items, which yielded adequate sensitivity (76.5%, specificity (72.7%, positive predictive value (74.3%, and negative predictive value (75.0%. The ROC area under the curve (AUC for this study was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.90.Conclusion: The Thai version of the MDQ had some useful psychometric properties for screening for bipolar disorder in a mood disorder clinic setting, with a recommended question #1 item

  2. [Clinical and psychological disorders of pregnant women induced by abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R

    2008-06-01

    This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.

  3. Mind and mood in modern art, II: Depressive disorders, spirituality, and early deaths in the abstract expressionist artists of the New York School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkraut, J J; Hirshfeld, A J; Murphy, J M

    1994-04-01

    This article documents the high prevalence of mood disorders in a group of 15 of the mid-twentieth-century Abstract Expressionist artists of the New York School. These artists, using the technique of psychic automatism (based on free association) in order to reveal unconscious material, created a psychologically and spiritually significant art that addressed the mythic themes of creation, birth, life, and death. Over 50% of the 15 artists in this group had some form of psychopathology, predominantly mood disorders and preoccupation with death, often compounded by alcohol abuse. At least 40% sought treatment and 20% were hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Two committed suicide; two died in single-vehicle accidents while driving; and two others had fathers who killed themselves. Many of these artists died early deaths, and close to 50% of the group (seven of 15) were dead before the age of 60. The material presented in this article suggests the following formulation and hypothesis. Depression inevitably leads to a turning inward and to the painful reexamination of the purpose of living and the possibility of dying. Thus, by bringing the artist into direct and lonely confrontation with the ultimate existential question, whether to live or to die, depression may have put these artists in touch with the inexplicable mystery that lies at the heart of the "tragic and timeless" art that the Abstract Expressionists aspired to produce.

  4. Inflammation, Glutamate, and Glia: A Trio of Trouble in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Ebrahim; Miller, Andrew H; Sanacora, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Increasing data indicate that inflammation and alterations in glutamate neurotransmission are two novel pathways to pathophysiology in mood disorders. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate how these two pathways may converge at the level of the glia to contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. We propose that a combination of failed clearance and exaggerated release of glutamate by glial cells during immune activation leads to glutamate increases and promotes aberrant extrasynaptic signaling through ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, ultimately resulting in synaptic dysfunction and loss. Furthermore, glutamate diffusion outside the synapse can lead to the loss of synaptic fidelity and specificity of neurotransmission, contributing to circuit dysfunction and behavioral pathology. This review examines the fundamental role of glia in the regulation of glutamate, followed by a description of the impact of inflammation on glial glutamate regulation at the cellular, molecular, and metabolic level. In addition, the role of these effects of inflammation on glia and glutamate in mood disorders will be discussed along with their translational implications.

  5. Challenges in measuring and valuing productivity costs, and their relevance in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lensberg BR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Benedikte R Lensberg,1 Michael F Drummond,2 Natalya Danchenko,3 Nicolas Despiégel,4 Clément François3 1OptumInsight, Uxbridge, 2Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK; 3Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, 4OptumInsight, Nanterre, France Abstract: Lost productivity is often excluded from economic evaluations, which may lead to an underestimation of the societal benefits of treatment. However, there are multiple challenges in reliably estimating and reporting productivity losses. This article explores the main challenges, ie, selecting an appropriate valuation method (ie, human capital, friction cost, or multiplier, avoiding double counting, and accounting for equity. It also discusses the use of presenteeism instruments and their application in clinical trials, with a specific focus on their relevance in individuals with mood disorders. Further research and discussion is required on the development of reliable techniques for measuring and valuing productivity changes due to presenteeism. Keywords: mood disorders, cost-benefit analysis, technology assessment, biomedical, presenteeism, absenteeism, productivity loss

  6. Inflammation, Glutamate, and Glia: A Trio of Trouble in Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Ebrahim; Miller, Andrew H; Sanacora, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Increasing data indicate that inflammation and alterations in glutamate neurotransmission are two novel pathways to pathophysiology in mood disorders. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate how these two pathways may converge at the level of the glia to contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. We propose that a combination of failed clearance and exaggerated release of glutamate by glial cells during immune activation leads to glutamate increases and promotes aberrant extrasynaptic signaling through ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, ultimately resulting in synaptic dysfunction and loss. Furthermore, glutamate diffusion outside the synapse can lead to the loss of synaptic fidelity and specificity of neurotransmission, contributing to circuit dysfunction and behavioral pathology. This review examines the fundamental role of glia in the regulation of glutamate, followed by a description of the impact of inflammation on glial glutamate regulation at the cellular, molecular, and metabolic level. In addition, the role of these effects of inflammation on glia and glutamate in mood disorders will be discussed along with their translational implications. PMID:27629368

  7. Feeling and Time: The Phenomenology of Mood Disorders, Depressive Realism, and Existential Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    2007-01-01

    Phenomenological research suggests that pure manic and depressive states are less common than mixtures of the two and that the two poles of mood are characterized by opposite ways of experiencing time. In mania, the subjective experience of time is sped up and in depression it is slowed down, perhaps reflecting differences in circadian pathophysiology. The two classic mood states are also quite different in their effect on subjective awareness: manic patients lack insight into their excitation, while depressed patients are quite insightful into their unhappiness. Consequently, insight plays a major role in overdiagnosis of unipolar depression and misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder. The phenomenology of depression also is relevant to types of psychotherapies used to treat it. The depressive realism (DR) model, in contrast to the cognitive distortion model, appears to better apply to many persons with mild to moderate depressive syndromes. I suggest that existential psychotherapy is the necessary corollary of the DR model in those cases. Further, some depressive morbidities may in fact prove, after phenomenological study, to involve other mental states instead of depression. The chronic subsyndromal depression that is often the long-term consequence of treated bipolar disorder may in fact represent existential despair, rather than depression proper, again suggesting intervention with existential psychotherapeutic methods. PMID:17122410

  8. Unequal depression for equal work? How the wage gap explains gendered disparities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jonathan; Prins, Seth; Bates, Lisa; Keyes, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are more prevalent among women than men. This disparity may be partially due to the effects of structural gender discrimination in the work force, which acts to perpetuate gender differences in opportunities and resources and may manifest as the gender wage gap. We sought to quantify and operationalize the wage gap in order to explain the gender disparity in depression and anxiety disorders, using data from a 2001-2002 US nationally representative survey of 22,581 working adults ages 30-65. Using established Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods to account for gender differences in individual-level productivity, our models reduced the wage gap in our sample by 13.5%, from 54% of men's pay to 67.5% of men's pay. We created a propensity-score matched sample of productivity indicators to test if the direction of the wage gap moderated the effects of gender on depression or anxiety. Where female income was less than the matched male counterpart, odds of both disorders were significantly higher among women versus men (major depressive disorder OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.95-3.04; generalized anxiety disorder OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 2.80-6.02). Where female income was greater than the matched male, the higher odds ratios for women for both disorders were significantly attenuated (Major Depressive Disorder OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) (Generalized Anxiety Disorder OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.04-2.29). The test for effect modification by sex and wage gap direction was statistically significant for both disorders. Structural forms of discrimination may explain mental health disparities at the population level. Beyond prohibiting overt gender discrimination, policies must be created to address embedded inequalities in procedures surrounding labor markets and compensation in the workplace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders--linking the sea and the soul. 'Food for Thought' I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, B D; Parker, G B

    2011-07-01

    While there has long been interest in any nutritional contribution to the onset and treatment of mood disorders, there has been increasing scientific evaluation of several candidate nutritional and dietary factors in recent years. In this inaugural study of our 'Food for Thought' series, we will overview the evidence for any role of omega-3 fatty acids (FA) in regulating mood. Relevant literature was identified through online database searches and cross-referencing. Plausible mechanisms exist by which omega-3 FA may influence neuronal function and mood. Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and both depressive and bipolar disorders. Studies investigating the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for mood disorders have however provided inconsistent results. The proportion of treatment studies showing a significant advantage of omega-3 supplementation has dropped over the last 5 years. However, the vast heterogeneity of the trials in terms of constituent omega-3 FAs, dose and length of treatment makes comparisons of these studies difficult. More research is required before omega-3 supplementation can be firmly recommended as an effective treatment for mood disorders. Whereas increased omega-3 FA intake may alleviate depressive symptoms, there is little evidence of any benefit for mania. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Bipolar disorder and related mood states are not associated with endothelial function of small arteries in adults without heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Brian; Abosi, Oluchi; Schmitz, Samantha; Myers, Janie; Pierce, Gary L; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    Individuals with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. This study aimed to assess endothelial function and wave reflection, a risk factor for CVD, as measured by finger plethysmography in bipolar disorder to investigate whether CVD risk was higher in bipolar disorder and altered during acute mood episodes. We hypothesized that EndoPAT would detect a lower reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and higher augmentation index (AIX) in individuals with bipolar disorder compared with controls. Second, we predicted lower RHI and higher AIX during acute mood episodes. Reactive hyperemia index and augmentation index, measures of microvascular endothelial function and arterial pressure wave reflection respectively, were assessed using the EndoPAT 2000 device in a sample of 56 participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder with 82 measures spanning different mood states (mania, depression, euthymia) and cross-sectionally in 26 healthy controls. RHI and AIX were not different between adults with and without bipolar disorder (mean age 40.3 vs. 41.2years; RHI: 2.04±0.67 vs. 2.05±0.51; AIX@75 (AIX adjusted for heart rate of 75): 1.4±19.7 vs. 0.8±22.4). When modeled in linear mixed models with a random intercept (to account for repeated observations of persons with bipolar disorder) and adjusting for age and sex, there were no significant differences between those with bipolar disorder and controls (p=0.89 for RHI; p=0.85 for AIX@75). Microvascular endothelial function and wave reflection estimated by finger plethysmography were unable to detect differences between adults with and without bipolar disorder or changes with mood states. Future research is necessary to identify more proximal and sensitive, yet relevant, biomarkers of abnormal mood-related influences on CVD risk or must target higher risk samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  12. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Residents' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N = 9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish…

  13. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.

  14. Perceived relational evaluation as a predictor of self-esteem and mood in people with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence that social support predicts self-esteem and related moods for people with psychotic disorders. However, there has been little investigation of relative importance of specific components of social support. Evidence from social psychology suggests that perceived relational evaluation (PRE) or the extent to which people see others as valuing them, is a particularly important determinant of self-esteem and mood. Our study compared the importance of PRE and other types of social support, in predicting self-esteem and depressive mood, anxiety, and anger-hostility in a sample of patients in an early intervention program for psychotic disorders. One hundred and two patients of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, completed measures of PRE, appraisal, tangible and general emotional social support, self-esteem, and mood. In addition, ratings of positive and negative symptoms were completed for all participants. In general, perceived relational value was the most important predictor of self-esteem and mood. These relations were not a result of confounding with positive or negative symptoms. PRE appears to be a particularly important aspect of social support in predicting self-esteem and mood states. Possible implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  15. Lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence and novelty seeking in eating disorders: comparison study of eating disorder subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Isabel; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Bulik, Cynthia; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Masuet, Cristina; Agüera, Zaida; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    To assess lifetime substance abuse, family history of alcohol abuse/dependence, and novelty seeking in three different eating disorder groups (anorexia nervosa-restrictive; anorexia nervosa-binge eating/purging; anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa). A total sample of 371 eating disorder patients participated in the current study. Assessment measures included the prevalence of substance abuse and family history of alcohol abuse/dependence as well as the novelty-seeking subscale of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Significant differences across groups were detected for lifetime substance abuse, with anorexia nervosa-restrictive individuals exhibiting a significant lower prevalence than the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa-binge eating/ purging patients (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence the same pattern was observed (P = 0.04). Novelty seeking was associated with substance abuse (P = 0.002), with the anorexia nervosa to bulimia nervosa group exhibiting significantly higher scores on the novelty-seeking scale than the other two groups (P family history of alcohol abuse/dependence was not related to novelty seeking (P = 0.092). Lifetime substance abuse appears to be more prevalent in anorexia nervosa patients with bulimic features. Higher novelty-seeking scores may be associated with diagnosis cross-over.

  16. Mood disorders and physical functioning difficulties as predictors of complex activity limitations in young U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Bruce S; Loeb, Mitchell

    2010-07-01

    There is established research that shows associations between basic physical functional difficulties and complex activity limitations. In addition, there is some research that shows associations between mood disorders and complex activity limitations. However, there is limited research looking at the joint association between mood disorders and physical functioning and complex activity limitations. Furthermore, because mood disorders and physical functioning limitations increase with age, there is a lack of information available on younger adults. We assess the impact of mood disorders and physical function difficulties as predictors of complex activity limitations in young U.S. adults, using data from a national survey. We use data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) among young U.S. adults 17 to 39 years of age. Selected basic actions difficulties include physical functioning difficulties (motor, visual, or hearing difficulties) and mood disorders (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, or bipolar disorder). Selected complex activity limitations include limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) (walking inside the home, standing from a chair, getting into and out of bed, eating, and dressing), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (doing chores around the house, preparing meals, and managing money), and/or specific major life activities (limitations in the kind or amount of work or housework they could perform, or being limited in any way because of an impairment or health problem). The prevalence of basic actions difficulty (physical functioning and/or mood disorder difficulties) among young adults is 34%. Among the young adults with basic actions difficulty, nearly 39% have mood disorders. The prevalence rates for ADL/IADL, major life activities, and any complex activity limitation are 8.6%, 8.1%, and 13.6%, respectively. Compared with young adults with no basic actions difficulties, the results showed

  17. Addressing access barriers to services for mothers at risk for perinatal mood disorders: A social work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert H; Brownstein-Evans, Carol; Rouland Polmanteer, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies variables at the micro/individual, mezzo/partner/spouse and family, and macro/health care-system levels that inhibit mothers at risk for perinatal mood disorders from accessing health and mental health care services. Specific recommendations are made for conducting thorough biopsychosocial assessments that address the mothers' micro-, mezzo-, and macro-level contexts. Finally, the authors provide suggestions for how to intervene at the various levels to remove access barriers for mothers living with perinatal mood disorders as well as their families.

  18. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood: a birth cohort study using the Danish Registry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Christoffersen, Mogens; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-03-01

    A number of social, familial, and psychological factors have been identified to explain the onset of mood and anxiety disorders among adolescent and young adult populations. The purpose of this study is to identify the shared and unique predictors of anxiety and mood disorders by simultaneously testing a range of established psychosocial risk factors. A national birth cohort of the Danish population born in 1984 and tracked over the course of the first 21 years of their life was used in the current study (n = 54,458). Psychosocial risk factors including paternal and maternal history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors of anxiety disorders but not mood disorders. Between the ages of 10 and 21 years, anxiety and mood disorders share many common risk factors. However, urban dwelling and childhood adversity appear to be unique predictors of anxiety disorders. Results suggest there is no dominant factor in the prediction of either disorder, rather the accumulation of different risk factors is most deleterious.

  19. Dissociative Spectrum Disorders in the Primary Care Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Elmore, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization disorder, substance abuse, trance and possession trance, Ganser's syndrome, and dissociative identity disorder, as well as in mood disorders, psychoses, and personality disorders. Dissociative symptoms and disorders are observed frequently among patients attending our rural South Carolina community mental health center. Given the...

  20. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  1. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2010-08-05

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  2. Mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders and later cause-specific sick leave in young adult employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Fartein Ask; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Gjerde, Line C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Tambs, Kristian; Røysamb, Espen; Østby, Kristian; Ørstavik, Ragnhild

    2016-08-03

    Mental disorders strongly influence work capability in young adults, but it is not clear which disorders that are most strongly associated with sick leave, and which diagnoses that are stated on the sick leave certificates. Better knowledge of the impairments associated with different mental disorders is needed for optimal planning of interventions and prioritization of health services. In the current study, we investigate the prospective associations between eight mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders, and later sick leave granted for mental, somatic, or any disorder. Lifetime mental disorders were assessed by structured diagnostic interviews in 2,178 young adults followed for eight years with registry data on sick leave. Relative risk ratios were estimated for the associations between each mental disorder and the different forms of sick leave. All included diagnoses were associated with later sick leave. In adjusted analyses, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas social anxiety disorder and specific phobia were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for somatic disorders. Specific phobia and major depressive disorder had the highest attributable fractions for all-cause sick leave. Mood and anxiety disorders constituted independent risk factors for all cause sick leave, whereas alcohol use disorders seemed to be of less importance in young adulthood. Disorders characterised by distress were most strongly associated with sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas disorders characterised by fear primarily predicted sick leave granted for somatic conditions. A large part of all sick leave is related to specific phobia, due to the high prevalence of this disorder. The impairment associated with this common disorder may be under-acknowledged, and it could decrease work capacity among individuals with somatic disorders. This disorder has good treatment

  3. Mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders and later cause-specific sick leave in young adult employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fartein Ask Torvik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders strongly influence work capability in young adults, but it is not clear which disorders that are most strongly associated with sick leave, and which diagnoses that are stated on the sick leave certificates. Better knowledge of the impairments associated with different mental disorders is needed for optimal planning of interventions and prioritization of health services. In the current study, we investigate the prospective associations between eight mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders, and later sick leave granted for mental, somatic, or any disorder. Methods Lifetime mental disorders were assessed by structured diagnostic interviews in 2,178 young adults followed for eight years with registry data on sick leave. Relative risk ratios were estimated for the associations between each mental disorder and the different forms of sick leave. Results All included diagnoses were associated with later sick leave. In adjusted analyses, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas social anxiety disorder and specific phobia were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for somatic disorders. Specific phobia and major depressive disorder had the highest attributable fractions for all-cause sick leave. Conclusions Mood and anxiety disorders constituted independent risk factors for all cause sick leave, whereas alcohol use disorders seemed to be of less importance in young adulthood. Disorders characterised by distress were most strongly associated with sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas disorders characterised by fear primarily predicted sick leave granted for somatic conditions. A large part of all sick leave is related to specific phobia, due to the high prevalence of this disorder. The impairment associated with this common disorder may be under-acknowledged, and it could decrease work capacity among

  4. Sleep-wake cycle phenotypes in young people with familial and non-familial mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jan; Naismith, Sharon; Grierson, Ashlee; Carpenter, Joanne; Hermens, Daniel; Scott, Elizabeth; Hickie, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Converging evidence identifies that the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals at clinical high risk of BD, and young people with recent onset BD may differ from other clinical cases or healthy controls in terms of sleep-wake profiles. However, it is possible that these differences may reflect current mental state, subtype of mood disorder, or familial traits. This study aimed to determine objective and subjective sleep-wake profiles in individuals aged 15-25 years with a current major depressive episode, in relation to familial traits. Frequency matching was employed to ensure that each individual with a confirmed family history of BD (FH+) could be compared to four controls who did not have a familial mood disorder (FH-). Pre-selected objective actigraphy and subjective Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) ratings were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and applying the Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) correction for false discoveries. The sample comprised 60 individuals with a mean age of 19 years. The FH+ (n=12) and FH- groups (n=48) differed on three key sleep parameters: mean sleep duration on week nights (P=.049), variability in waking after sleep onset (P=.038), and daily disturbances (PSQI dimension of sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction; P=.01). The sleep profiles we identified in this study, especially the daily disturbances phenotype, provide support for research into endophenotypes for BD. Also, the findings may offer the opportunity for more tailored, personalized interventions that target specific components of the sleep-wake cycle in individuals with a family history of BD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Alterations of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in bipolar disorder mood states detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Mani, Merry; Shaffer, Joseph J; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2018-01-07

    Quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique sensitive to pH and other cellular and microstructural factors, and is a potentially valuable tool for identifying brain alterations in bipolar disorder. Recently, this technique identified differences in the cerebellum and cerebral white matter of euthymic patients vs healthy controls that were consistent with reduced pH in these regions, suggesting an underlying metabolic abnormality. The current study built upon this prior work to investigate brain T1ρ differences across euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states of bipolar disorder. Forty participants with bipolar I disorder and 29 healthy control participants matched for age and gender were enrolled. Participants with bipolar disorder were imaged in one or more mood states, yielding 27, 12, and 13 imaging sessions in euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states, respectively. Three-dimensional, whole-brain anatomical images and T1ρ maps were acquired for all participants, enabling voxel-wise evaluation of T1ρ differences between bipolar mood state and healthy control groups. All three mood state groups had increased T1ρ relaxation times in the cerebellum compared to the healthy control group. Additionally, the depressed and manic groups had reduced T1ρ relaxation times in and around the basal ganglia compared to the control and euthymic groups. The study implicated the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and its mood states, the roles of which are relatively unexplored. These findings motivate further investigation of the underlying cause of the abnormalities, and the potential role of altered metabolic activity in these regions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Joint Effects: A Pilot Investigation of the Impact of Bipolar Disorder and Marijuana Use on Cognitive Function and Mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Sagar

    Full Text Available Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in those diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether marijuana may alleviate or exacerbate mood symptomatology. As bipolar disorder and marijuana use are individually associated with cognitive impairment, it also remains unclear whether there is an additive effect on cognition when bipolar patients use marijuana. The current study aimed to determine the impact of marijuana on mood in bipolar patients and to examine whether marijuana confers an additional negative impact on cognitive function. Twelve patients with bipolar disorder who smoke marijuana (MJBP, 18 bipolar patients who do not smoke (BP, 23 marijuana smokers without other Axis 1 pathology (MJ, and 21 healthy controls (HC completed a neuropsychological battery. Further, using ecological momentary assessment, participants rated their mood three times daily as well as after each instance of marijuana use over a four-week period. Results revealed that although the MJ, BP, and MJBP groups each exhibited some degree of cognitive impairment relative to HCs, no significant differences between the BP and MJBP groups were apparent, providing no evidence of an additive negative impact of BPD and MJ use on cognition. Additionally, ecological momentary assessment analyses indicated alleviation of mood symptoms in the MJBP group after marijuana use; MJBP participants experienced a substantial decrease in a composite measure of mood symptoms. Findings suggest that for some bipolar patients, marijuana may result in partial alleviation of clinical symptoms. Moreover, this improvement is not at the expense of additional cognitive impairment.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44% reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354, recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177, and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177 were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001 were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients.

  8. Predicting outcomes of mood, anxiety and somatoform disorders: the Leiden routine outcome monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, Martijn S; van Fenema, Esther M; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Rood, Yanda R; Carlier, Ingrid V E; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2012-12-15

    Mood, anxiety and somatoform (MAS) disorders are highly prevalent disorders with substantial mutual comorbidity and a large disease burden. Early identification of patients at risk for poor outcome in routine clinical practice is of clinical importance. The purpose of this study was to predict outcomes in outpatients with MAS disorders using routine outcome monitoring (ROM) data. We conducted a cohort study of 892 adult MAS patients in a naturalistic outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting and validated our results in a replication cohort of 1392 patients. Poor outcome was defined as a <50% reduction (compared to baseline) on the self-report brief symptom inventory (BSI) or a score of ≥3 on the observer-rated clinical global impression severity scale (CGI-S). During a follow-up of up to 2 years, Cox regression models were used to analyze the independent baseline predictors for poor outcome. In multivariable Cox regression models, independent and replicated predictors for poor outcome were higher age (overall p<0.001 for combined cohorts in multivariable Cox regression model), having comorbid MAS disorders or a somatoform disorder (<0.001), dysfunctional personality traits (i.e., tendency to self-harm [p<0.001], intimacy problems [p<0.001] and affective lability [p<0.001]), and a low reported general health status (p<0.001). Detailed treatment information was not available. MAS patients meeting the profile of being elderly, suffering from comorbid MAS disorders or a somatoform disorder, with cluster B personality traits, and a poor reported general health may need special preventive measures to minimise the risk of poor outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep-wake profiles predict longitudinal changes in manic symptoms and memory in young people with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Hermens, Daniel F; Lee, Rico S C; Jones, Andrew; Carpenter, Joanne S; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; Southan, James; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2016-10-01

    Mood disorders are characterized by disabling symptoms and cognitive difficulties which may vary in intensity throughout the course of the illness. Sleep-wake cycles and circadian rhythms influence emotional regulation and cognitive functions. However, the relationships between the sleep-wake disturbances experienced commonly by people with mood disorders and the longitudinal changes in their clinical and cognitive profile are not well characterized. This study investigated associations between initial sleep-wake patterns and longitudinal changes in mood symptoms and cognitive functions in 50 young people (aged 13-33 years) with depression or bipolar disorder. Data were based on actigraphy monitoring conducted over approximately 2 weeks and clinical and neuropsychological assessment. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, these assessments were repeated after a mean follow-up interval of 18.9 months. No significant differences in longitudinal clinical changes were found between the participants with depression and those with bipolar disorder. Lower sleep efficiency was predictive of longitudinal worsening in manic symptoms (P = 0.007). Shorter total sleep time (P = 0.043) and poorer circadian rhythmicity (P = 0.045) were predictive of worsening in verbal memory. These findings suggest that some sleep-wake and circadian disturbances in young people with mood disorders may be associated with less favourable longitudinal outcomes, notably for subsequent manic symptoms and memory difficulties. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Do thyroid hormones mediate the effects of starvation on mood in adolescent girls with eating disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar; Rosling, Agneta

    2010-11-01

    In the eating disorders (ED) comorbid depression is common and clinical experience suggests that it is partly related to starvation. Starvation affects thyroid hormone status and thyroid hypofunction is in turn associated with depressed mood. We have therefore investigated the possibility that thyroid hormones and starvation are associated with mood in ED. Two-hundred and thirty-nine adolescent girls were examined at presentation of an ED. Analyses of thyroid hormones, documentation of weight and weight changes, self-reports of depressive symptomatology and clinical diagnoses of ED and depression were used in the analyses. Of the 239 girls 100 were diagnosed with depression. The girls with and without depression did not differ in age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), weight loss or duration of disease. Plasma free thyroxine concentrations were lower in depressed girls (11.9±1.7 versus 12.8±1.9 pmol/L; pdepression. Low circulating thyroxine concentrations may provide a link between starvation and depression in adolescent girls with ED. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress, Glucocorticoid Hormones and Hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells: Implications to Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoshige eKino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation and fate of these cells. This review offers an overview of the current understanding on the interactions between the HPA axis/glucocorticoid stress-responsive system and hippocampal neural progenitor cells by focusing on the actions of glucocorticoids. Also addressed is a further discussion on the implications of such interactions to the pathophysiology of mood disorders.

  12. Structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex mediate the relationship between Internet gaming disorder and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Jin-Young; Jung, Dong Jin; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kang, Hang-Bong; Choi, Jung-Seok; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-04-28

    Adaptive gaming use has positive effects, whereas depression has been reported to be prevalent in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural correlates underlying the association between depression and Internet gaming remain unclear. Moreover, the neuroanatomical profile of the striatum in IGD is relatively less clear despite its important role in addiction. We found lower gray matter (GM) density in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the IGD group than in the Internet gaming control (IGC) group and non-gaming control (NGC) group, and the GM density was associated with lifetime usage of Internet gaming, depressed mood, craving, and impulsivity in the gaming users. Striatal volumetric analysis detected a significant reduction in the right nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the IGD group and its association with lifetime usage of gaming and depression. These findings suggest that alterations in the brain structures involved in the reward system are associated with IGD-related behavioral characteristics. Furthermore, the DLPFC, involved in cognitive control, was observed to serve as a mediator in the association between prolonged gaming and depressed mood. This finding may provide insight into an intervention strategy for treating IGD with comorbid depression.

  13. Personality disorder symptom severity predicts onset of mood episodes and conversion to bipolar I disorder in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tommy H; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Walshaw, Patricia D; Weiss, Rachel B; Urosevic, Snezana; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-04-01

    Although personality disorders (PDs) are highly comorbid with bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs), little longitudinal research has been conducted to examine the prospective impact of PD symptoms on the course of BSDs. The aim of this study is to examine whether PD symptom severity predicts shorter time to onset of bipolar mood episodes and conversion to bipolar I disorder over time among individuals with less severe BSDs. Participants (n = 166) with bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia, or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified completed diagnostic interview assessments of PD symptoms and self-report measures of mood symptoms at baseline. They were followed prospectively with diagnostic interviews every 4 months for an average of 3.02 years. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses indicated that overall PD symptom severity significantly predicted shorter time to onset of hypomanic (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; p conversion to bipolar I disorder (HR = 2.51; p conversion to bipolar I disorder (HR = 2.77; p < .001), whereas cluster C severity (HR = 1.56; p < .001) predicted shorter time to onset of major depressive episodes. These results support predisposition models in suggesting that PD symptoms may act as a risk factor for a more severe course of BSDs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  15. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in long-standing eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Karianne R; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Oyvind; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2010-08-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current 5-year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (a) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (b) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long-standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. A mixed model was used to examine the predictors. Avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse interacted in predicting high levels of eating disorder over a long-term course. These results suggest that eating disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and sequelae after child sexual abuse are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Substance abuse, conduct disorder and crime: assessment in a juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Mazlum; Turkcan, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Meral

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the rate of substance abuse in the juvenile detention house and to determine the relationship between crime and substance abuse and conduct disorder. Two hundred and thirty cases in the biggest juvenile detention house in Istanbul, Turkey were assessed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria. Law files and data of crime were examined. A total of 80 out of 230 juvenile detainees (34.8%) were found to have substance abuse excluding nicotine and alcohol. The substances abused in preferential order were cannabis (72.5%), volatile substances (21.3% bally and 3.7% thinner; 25%) and sedative hypnotic drugs and biperidents (2.5%). The rate of conduct disorder was 46.3% in substance abusers and 25.3% in the others (odds ratio: 2.536). The rate of substance abuse was 48.5% in the juveniles who had committed multiple crimes and 14.1% in the others (odds ratio: 5.735). The study shows that conduct disorder was very high in juvenile detainees. Conduct disorder was higher in substance-abusing than in non-abusing juvenile detainees. Substance-abusing juvenile detainees were found to have a higher detention rate than non-abusing juvenile detainees. There was a close relation between conduct disorder and substance abuse and multiple crimes. In the light of these results, diagnosis and treatment for conduct disorder in juvenile detainees are of great importance.

  17. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  18. Familial risk for mood disorder and the personality risk factor, neuroticism, interact in their association with frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Vibe Gedsø; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    Life stress is a robust risk factor for later development of mood disorders, particularly for individuals at familial risk. Likewise, scoring high on the personality trait neuroticism is associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. Neuroticism partly reflects stress vulnerability...... binding. These findings point at a plausible neurobiological link between genetic and personality risk factors and vulnerability to developing mood disorders. It contributes to our understanding of why some people at high risk develop mood disorders while others do not. We speculate that an increased......-twin history of mood disorder were included. They answered self-report personality questionnaires and underwent [(18)F]altanserin positron emission tomography. We found a significant interaction between neuroticism and familial risk in predicting the frontolimbic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding (p=0...

  19. Negative mood induction and unbalanced nutrition style as possible triggers of binges in binge eating disorder (BED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, S; Michael, T; Biedert, E; Meyer, A H; Margraf, J

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether negative mood and unbalanced nutrition style (fat rich/carbohydrate low) synergistically trigger binge eating in overweight and obese binge eating disorder (BED) patients. Subsequently to following an unbalanced or a balanced nutrition plan for three days, participants' food intake in a taste test was measured. During the taste test, participants were either in a negative or a neutral mood that was induced through a guided imagery task. Sixty-nine overweight and obese women with BED (mean age: 36.7 years, mean body mass index: 32.8 kg/m2). Eating behavior was assessed by measuring the amount of eaten food during the taste test. Visual analog scales were used to assess negative affect, tension, urge to eat, and hunger before and after the mood induction and after the taste test. Negative mood and unbalanced nutrition had neither a combined synergistic effect nor separate additive effects on the amount of food intake. Negative affect and tension decreased after the taste test in the negative mood group. Negative mood does not invariably enhance the risk of binge-eating behavior. Fat-rich, carbohydrate-low nutrition style did not influence food intake during a taste test. This finding questions the role of this specific nutrition style as a crucial factor in promoting binge eating. If replicated, these findings are important, since they could guide development of treatment protocols.

  20. Relationships between self-reported childhood traumatic experiences, attachment style, neuroticism and features of borderline personality disorders in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, Ilya; Joffe, Grigori; Koivisto, Maaria; Melartin, Tarja; Aaltonen, Kari; Suominen, Kirsi; Rosenström, Tom; Näätänen, Petri; Karpov, Boris; Heikkinen, Martti; Isometsä, Erkki

    2017-03-01

    Co-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have a marked impact on treatment of patients with mood disorders. Overall, high neuroticism, childhood traumatic experiences (TEs) and insecure attachment are plausible aetiological factors for BPD. However, their relationship with BPD features specifically among patients with mood disorders remains unclear. We investigated these relationships among unipolar and bipolar mood disorder patients. As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), the Short Five (S5) and the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, and multivariate regression (MRA) and mediation analyses were conducted. Spearman's correlations were strong (rho=0.58; p<0.001) between total scores of MSI and S5 Neuroticism and moderate (rho=0.42; p<0.001) between MSI and TADS as well as between MSI and ECR-R Attachment Anxiety. In MRA, young age, S5 Neuroticism and TADS predicted scores of MSI (p<0.001). ECR-R Attachment Anxiety mediated 33% (CI=17-53%) of the relationships between TADS and MSI. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. We found moderately strong correlations between self-reported BPD features and concurrent high neuroticism, reported childhood traumatic experiences and Attachment Anxiety also among patients with mood disorders. Independent predictors for BPD features include young age, frequency of childhood traumatic experiences and high neuroticism. Insecure attachment may partially mediate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and borderline features among mood disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mood disorder as a manifestation of primary hypoparathyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Regis G; Barros, Alcina J S; de Lima, Antonio R B; Lorenzi, William; Da Rosa, Rafael R; Zambonato, Karine D; Alves, Gustavo V

    2014-10-03

    Primary hypoparathyroidism is a rare condition caused by parathyroid hormone deficiency and characterized by hypocalcemia. The clinical manifestations of primary hypoparathyroidism include tetany, seizures, paresthesias, dementia, and parkinsonism. Psychiatric manifestations such as mood disorders are unusual and may constitute a major diagnostic challenge, especially if the typical manifestations caused by hypocalcemia are absent. The patient was a 22-year-old Caucasian man with a history of chronic omeprazole use and periodic seizures, who presented to the emergency department of a secondary hospital in Southern Brazil with symptoms of major depression (sadness, anhedonia, loss of appetite, insomnia, and fatigue) associated with paresthesias affecting his toes. The initial electrocardiogram revealed a prolonged QTc interval. A computed tomography scan of his brain revealed bilateral, nonenhancing hyperdense calcifications involving the putamen and caudate nucleus. An electroencephalogram showed generalized bursts of slow spikes. Blood laboratory study results indicated serum hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperphosphatemia associated with a low parathyroid hormone level. His serum levels of albumin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, thyroid-stimulating hormone, T3 and T4 thyroid hormones, as well as the results of kidney function tests, were normal. The definitive diagnosis was primary hypoparathyroidism with psychiatric manifestations due to chronic hypomagnesemia induced by proton pump inhibitor use. In some cases, to differentiate between a primary psychiatric disorder and primary hypoparathyroidism with neuropsychiatric symptoms may represent a challenge given that the classical manifestations of hypocalcemia, especially tetany, may be absent in the setting of chronic hypoparathyroidism. Clinicians and psychiatrists should consider primary hypoparathyroidism part of the differential diagnosis during the evaluation of patients with mood symptoms, especially in the

  2. Efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mood States of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Abdollah; Mohammadi, Abolfazl; Zargar, Fatemeh; Akbari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Mood and negative emotional states and their regulation in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder have family, social and employment problems. Practices that could be helpful in this area are highly important. The current study aimed to investigate the influence of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in improving mood state of combat veterans. In this randomized clinical trial study, participants were selected from the patients referring to the counseling center of the veterans. The participants had post-traumatic stress disorder according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text review (DSM-IV-TR). Sixty- two patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups: (31 for MBSR and 31 for the control group). Analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the groups at baseline (P mindfulness-based stress reduction is a useful method to regulate the mood state in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have difficulties in mood and emotions in Kashan.

  3. Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The role of Depressed Mood, Rumination, Working Memory and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memory difficulties have been widely reported in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of the current study was to explore the potential correlates of autobiographical memory performance (including depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind) in adults with ASD, relative to a group of typical adults…

  4. Medication Discrepancies at Outpatient Departments for Mood and Anxiety Disorders in the Netherlands : Risks and Clinical Relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoons, Mirjam; Mulder, Hans; Risselada, Arne J; Wilmink, Frederik W; Schoevers, Robert; Ruhé, Henricus G; van Roon, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify discrepancies between actual drug use by outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders and medication overviews from health care providers as well as to investigate the clinical relevance of those discrepancies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in adults visiting 1 of 4

  5. Self-Care Practices of Female Peer Support Specialists with Co-Occurring Mood and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlert, Beverly A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the self-care practices of female peer support specialists (PSS) with co-occurring mood and substance use disorders. The researcher took a qualitative grounded theory approach conducting in-depth semi-structured interviews with ten women employed at peer-run agencies in Maricopa County, Arizona.…

  6. STEVENS JOHNSON SYNDROME DURING TREATMENT WITH LITHIUM AND VALPROATE IN MOOD DISORDER: A REPORT OF TWO CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, B.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Roy, D.

    2002-01-01

    Very rarely Stevens Johnson Syndrome develops following drug therapy particularly Lithium and Valproate. Worldwide, the reports regarding Lithium and Valproate induced Stevens Johnson Syndrome are very few. Here, we present two cases of Stevens Johnson Syndrome following treatment with Lithium and Valproate for Mood Disorder.

  7. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

  8. The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yoseph Dehghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to study the The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers. Materials and Methods: In this study which was a quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test with control group, the sample group was selected by clustering sampling method from the men who referred to Bushehr addiction treatment clinics that among them a total of 30 patients randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 15 individuals. The instrument included short version of the Marital Adjustment Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and Garnefski Emotional Regulation Scale that was completed by the participants in the pre-test and post-test stages.The experimental group was treated based on group life quality in eight sessions but the control group did not receive any treatment. Multi-variate covariance analysis is used for statistical analysis of data. Results: The results revealed that after intervention there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation variables (P<0/001.The rate of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation in experimental group compare with control group and it was significantly higher in post-test.  Conclusion: treatment based on quality of life which have formed from combination of positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach can increase marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of abusers.

  9. The association between mood state and chronobiological characteristics in bipolar I disorder: a naturalistic, variable cluster analysis-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Robert; Suppes, Trisha; Zeitzer, Jamie; McClung, Colleen; Tamminga, Carol; Tohen, Mauricio; Forero, Angelica; Dwivedi, Alok; Alvarado, Andres

    2018-02-19

    Multiple types of chronobiological disturbances have been reported in bipolar disorder, including characteristics associated with general activity levels, sleep, and rhythmicity. Previous studies have focused on examining the individual relationships between affective state and chronobiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to conduct a variable cluster analysis in order to ascertain how mood states are associated with chronobiological traits in bipolar I disorder (BDI). We hypothesized that manic symptomatology would be associated with disturbances of rhythm. Variable cluster analysis identified five chronobiological clusters in 105 BDI subjects. Cluster 1, comprising subjective sleep quality was associated with both mania and depression. Cluster 2, which comprised variables describing the degree of rhythmicity, was associated with mania. Significant associations between mood state and cluster analysis-identified chronobiological variables were noted. Disturbances of mood were associated with subjectively assessed sleep disturbances as opposed to objectively determined, actigraphy-based sleep variables. No associations with general activity variables were noted. Relationships between gender and medication classes in use and cluster analysis-identified chronobiological characteristics were noted. Exploratory analyses noted that medication class had a larger impact on these relationships than the number of psychiatric medications in use. In a BDI sample, variable cluster analysis was able to group related chronobiological variables. The results support our primary hypothesis that mood state, particularly mania, is associated with chronobiological disturbances. Further research is required in order to define these relationships and to determine the directionality of the associations between mood state and chronobiological characteristics.

  10. The role of temperament and character in the outcome of depressive mood in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2014-07-01

    The aims were to see which temperament and character dimensions were associated with depression, mainly with its outcome at two-year follow up in eating disorders (EDs). Participants (N=151) were 44 Anorexia nervosa (AN), 55 Bulimia nervosa (BN) and 52 Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) patients. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Rosenberg Self Esteem Questionnaire (RSE), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were administered. Depression at the beginning (t0) was severe in 22% of the cases. Harm Avoidance and Novelty Seeking had an effect on depressed mood at t0, mediated by Ineffectiveness. Responsibility (SD1) was associated with scores on the BDI at two-year follow up (β=-0.37, 95% CI -2.6, -0.6, p<0.01). The evaluation of personality dimension in EDs has therapeutic and prognostic implications: To enhance self-efficacy and self-directness is crucial for good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Illness history: Not associated with remission during treatment of major depression in 515 mood disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldessarini, Ross J; Tondo, Leonardo; Visioli, Caterina; Vázquez, Gustavo H

    2016-02-01

    There is suggestive evidence that prior illness history may have little association with response to long-term treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) or recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), but relationships of illness-history to treatment-response in acute episodes of depression require further testing. We tested for associations of selected measures of illness history with remission during treatment of an acute index episode of major depression in 515 mood-disorder patients (327 MDD, 188 BD), using bivariate and multivariate methods. Remission of depression was more likely with lesser initial symptom-severity and bipolar diagnosis, but not related to years since illness-onset, previous depressions or episodes (based on counts, yearly rates, or %-of months ill), or other indices of illness-severity (hospitalization, co-morbidity, suicide attempt). Likelihood of response to standard treatments for acute major depressive episodes in MDD or BD appeared to be largely independent of prior illness-history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Petra J; Boschloo, Lynn; Bloemen, Annelene J P; Nauta, Maaike H; de Vries, Sybolt O; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Schoevers, Robert A; Hartman, Catharina A

    2017-01-01

    Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics. From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk. Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. French antecedents of "contemporary" concepts in the American Psychiatric Association's classification of bipolar (mood) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustgen, Thierry; Akiskal, Hagop

    2006-12-01

    Although first detailed descriptions of what we today term "bipolar disorders" are generally attributed to E. Kraepelin [Kraepelin, E., 1899 (1976 tr). Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. (reprint of English translation). Arno, New York], a review of French psychiatric literature from Esquirol to the middle of 20th century reveals major clinical contributions to the development of the concept of cyclic mood disorders, their phenomenology and classification as embodied in DSM-IV. The main treatise was published by the Paris psychiatric schools of Salpêtrière, Bicêtre, Charenton, Sainte-Anne and Vanves. Already much before Kraepelin, French authors had described most symptoms and the course of future DSM-IV bipolar, manic, major depressive [Falret, J.-P., 1854. De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par l'alternative régulière de la manie et de la mélancolie, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 382-400.; Baillarger, J., 1854. Note sur un genre de folie dont les accès sont caractérisés par deux périodes régulières, l'une de dépression, l'autre d'excitation, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 340 et Ann. Méd. Psychol. XII, 369], hypomanic and mixed episodes [Falret, J., 1861. Principes à suivre dans la classification des maladies mentales, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XIX, 145.; Falret, J., 1866, 1867. La folie raisonnante ou folie morale, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XXIV, 382, XXV, 68], as well as - under other names - the characteristics of bipolar II disorder, various specifiers describing mood episode and course of recurrent episodes [Ritti, A., 1883. Traité clinique de la folie à double forme (folie, circulaire, délire à formes alternes). Doin, Paris]. The synthesis of these clinical observations led to Magnan's "intermittent madness" (1893), a precursor of Kraepelin's "manic-depressive psychosis". After 1899, French authors generally adhered to their classification of autonomous depressive disorder (melancholia), as distinct from manic-depressive insanity

  14. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

  15. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.

    ObjectivesPhysical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. MethodsWe examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult

  16. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.L.; Kupka, R.W.; McElroy, S.L.; Frye, M.A.; Rowe, M.; Leverich, G.S.; Grunze, H.; Suppes, T.; Keck, P.E.; Nolen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. Methods: We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US

  17. Application of machine learning classification for structural brain MRI in mood disorders: Critical review from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Na, Kyoung-Sae

    2018-01-03

    Mood disorders are a highly prevalent group of mental disorders causing substantial socioeconomic burden. There are various methodological approaches for identifying the underlying mechanisms of the etiology, symptomatology, and therapeutics of mood disorders; however, neuroimaging studies have provided the most direct evidence for mood disorder neural substrates by visualizing the brains of living individuals. The prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, ventral striatum, and corpus callosum are associated with depression and bipolar disorder. Identifying the distinct and common contributions of these anatomical regions to depression and bipolar disorder have broadened and deepened our understanding of mood disorders. However, the extent to which neuroimaging research findings contribute to clinical practice in the real-world setting is unclear. As traditional or non-machine learning MRI studies have analyzed group-level differences, it is not possible to directly translate findings from research to clinical practice; the knowledge gained pertains to the disorder, but not to individuals. On the other hand, a machine learning approach makes it possible to provide individual-level classifications. For the past two decades, many studies have reported on the classification accuracy of machine learning-based neuroimaging studies from the perspective of diagnosis and treatment response. However, for the application of a machine learning-based brain MRI approach in real world clinical settings, several major issues should be considered. Secondary changes due to illness duration and medication, clinical subtypes and heterogeneity, comorbidities, and cost-effectiveness restrict the generalization of the current machine learning findings. Sophisticated classification of clinical and diagnostic subtypes is needed. Additionally, as the approach is inevitably limited by sample size, multi-site participation and data-sharing are needed in the future. Copyright

  18. Difficulties in emotion regulation in treatment-seeking alcoholics with and without co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradizza, Clara M; Brown, Whitney C; Ruszczyk, Melanie U; Dermen, Kurt H; Lucke, Joseph F; Stasiewicz, Paul R

    2018-05-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties (ERD) are known to underlie mental health conditions including anxiety and depressive disorders and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Although AUD, mood, and anxiety disorders commonly co-occur, no study has examined the association between these disorders and ERD among AUD outpatients. In the current study, emotion regulation (ER) scores of AUD individuals with no co-occurring mental health condition were compared to the ER scores of individuals who met diagnostic criteria for co-occurring mood and/or anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking AUD individuals (N=77) completed measures of emotion regulation, alcohol use and psychological functioning prior to beginning a 12-week outpatient cognitive-behaviorally oriented alcohol treatment program. Individuals were classified as having no co-occurring mood or anxiety disorder (AUD-0, n=24), one co-occurring disorder (AUD-1, n=34), or two or more co-occurring disorders (AUD-2, n=19). Between-group differences in emotion regulation, quantity/frequency of alcohol consumption, positive and negative affect, affective drinking situations, negative mood regulation expectancies, distress tolerance, alexithymia, trait mindfulness, and psychological symptom severity were examined. Compared with the AUD-0 group, the AUD-2 group reported significantly greater ERD, psychiatric distress and alcohol consumption, more frequent drinking in response to negative affect situations, greater interference from negative emotions, and less use of mindfulness skills. The AUD-1 group differed from AUD-0 group only on the DERS lack of emotional awareness (Aware) subscale. Emotion regulation scores in the AUD-0 group were comparable to those previously reported for general community samples, whereas levels of ERD in the AUD-1 and AUD-2 were similar to those found in other clinical samples. Implications for the inclusion of ER interventions among AUD patients who might most benefit from such an intervention are discussed

  19. Impact of obesity and mood disorders on physical comorbidities, psychological well-being, health behaviours and use of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Marleau, Jacques; Baillot, Aurélie

    2018-01-01

    Albeit obesity and mood disorders frequently co-occur, few studies examined the impacts of this co-occurrence. The aim was to compare individuals with obesity and mood disorders (ObMD) to those with obesity without mood disorder in terms of physical comorbidities, psychological well-being, health behaviours and use of health services. Cross-sectional study using the Canadian Community Health Survey including a weighted sample of individuals with obesity (n = 1298) representing inhabitants from the province of Quebec (Canada). Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions indicated that ObMD reported more physical conditions with odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95%CI: 1.1 - 2.8] (hypertension) to 2.8 [95%CI: 1.3 - 6.0] (stomach ulcer). Also, ObMD reported poorer psychological well-being with OR ranging from 2.1 [95%CI: 1.4 - 3.3] (stress) to 25.6 [95%CI: 14.7 - 45.0] (poor perceived mental health). ObMD also reported more consultations with health professionals with OR ranging from 1.9 [95%CI: 1.0 - 3.5] (physicians) to 7.7 [95%CI: 4.2 - 14.3] (psychologists), and less healthy behaviours with OR ranging from 1.7 [95%CI: 1.1 - 2.6] (fruits and vegetables intake) to 2.1 [95%CI: 1.3 - 3.3] (tobacco). Self-reported data so we cannot discard the possibility of a bias in reporting. Also, given the cross-sectional design, no directional conclusion or causality about our results is possible. The co-occurrence of mood disorder and obesity seems to be an aggravating factor of obesity-related factors because it is associated with poorer health in several areas. Interventions to prevent or manage obesity in mood disorders are necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased waist circumference is associated with an increased prevalence of mood disorders and depressive symptoms in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, R O; Marca, K F; Appolinario, J C; Coutinho, W F

    2007-03-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that obese patients may be more prone to develop certain psychiatric diseases, especially mood disorders. However, no studies have already determined which indicator of fat distribution best explains these comorbidities. The aim of this study is to investigate which anthropometric indicator of overweight (i.e. body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] or waist/hip ratio [WHR]) best correlates with the presence of current mood disorders and the severity of depressive symptoms in obese women. Two hundred seventeen (217) obese women (BMI> or =30 kg/m2) between 18 and 75 years old were selected to participate in the study. All participants had anthropometrical data registered. The diagnosis of current mood disorders was assessed according to the Portuguese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [SCID]. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A statistically significant association was found between BDI scores and BMI (r=0.16; p=0.018) and WC (r=0.20; p=0.004), but not WHR (r=0.10; p=0.15) or any socio-demographic variable. An increased prevalence of mood disorders was observed in the fourth quartile of WC, but not BMI or WHR, in comparison with the first and the second ones (pdepressive symptoms and the prevalence of current mood disorders in obese women. Waist circumference, and not BMI or WHR, seems to be the anthropometric indicator of overweight and fat distribution that best explains these findings.

  1. Comparison of Child Abuse between Normal Children and Children with Learning Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Keshavarz-Valiyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare child abuse between normal children and children with learning disorder, aged 7-12 in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross sectional study is a research in causative-comparative method. 120 normal children of primary school from districts 3.7 and 15 of Tehran education and 120 children with learning disorder from three center of primary school students with learning disorder (1.2 and 3 were selected by multistage cluster sampaling method and evaluated by Reliable Child Abuse Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient Friedman rank test and Paired T and independent T tests. Results: In children view, there were signifivant differences in mean scores of affective abuse (p<0.001 and total score of child abuse (p=0.002 between two groups. Likewise in parent's view. there were significant differences in mean scores of affective abuse (p<0.001, physical abuse (p<0.011 and total score of child abuse (p<0.001 between two groups. Also, there were significant differences between the ideas of children and their parents about physical abuse (p<0.002, sexual abuse (p<0.001 and ignorance (p<0.001 Conclusion: The tindings reveal that there is a difference between normal chidren and children with learning disorder in the extent of child abuse regarding it's type and in comparison with previous researches, affective abuse is more than other abuse types. So. it is necessary for mental health professionals to provide programs for training parents in future.

  2. Common skin and bleeding disorders that can potentially masquerade as child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavita; Butterfield, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Child abuse and neglect remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Over the last few decades, there has been growing research in the field of Child Abuse Pediatrics with greater recognition and research into potential diagnostic mimics of inflicted injury. This paper reviews some common skin findings and bleeding disorders that have features in common with child abuse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessment of Sexual Fantasies in Psychiatric Inpatients With Mood and Psychotic Disorders and Comorbid Personality Disorder Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón Vilar, Giancarlo; Concepción, Erika; Galynker, Igor; Tanis, Thachell; Ardalan, Firouz; Yaseen, Zimri; Cohen, Lisa J

    2016-02-01

    Sexuality is an important aspect of quality of life and sexual fantasies comprise a normal part of human sexuality. However, the nature of sexuality and sexual fantasies of patients with mental illness remains an understudied area. To investigate the nature and frequency of sexual fantasies in psychiatric patients, the present study compared the frequency of four types of sexual fantasies across four different mood and psychotic diagnoses and three personality disorder clusters. Study participants included 133 psychiatric inpatients recruited from an urban hospital. Sexual fantasies were compared across patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, major depressive disorder and three nonclinical samples from the literature and then correlated with personality cluster scores. Subjects were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I and for Axis II Disorders. Sexual fantasies were assessed by the Wilson Sexual Fantasies Questionnaire, which measures four types of sexual fantasies (exploratory, intimate, impersonal, and sadomasochistic). Within the entire sample, there were significant differences across sexual fantasy types, with subjects scoring highest on intimate sexual fantasies and then exploratory, impersonal, and sadomasochistic. There were no significant differences across mood and psychotic diagnostic groups for any of the sexual fantasy scales and the scores were within the normative range of nonclinical samples. Patients with high cluster B scores scored significantly higher on all four fantasy scales than those without. Patients with high cluster A scores scored lower on intimate fantasies, but there was no association between cluster C scores and sexual fantasies. The association between cluster B and sexual fantasies remained consistent across Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I diagnoses (no interaction effect). Patients with severe mental illness report sexual fantasies that are

  4. Long-Term Health Outcome of Adolescent  Mood Disorders : Focus on Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Päären, Aivar

    2015-01-01

    There has recently been an intense debate about the increased rate of bipolar disorders (BPD) in children and adolescents observed in clinical settings. Thus, there is great interest in child and adolescent symptoms of hypomania and whether these symptoms subsequently will develop into BPD. More knowledge about early signs could give insight into the development of the disorder. There are also concerns that hypomanic symptoms in adolescence indicate excess risk of other health conditions. It ...

  5. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  6. Cigarette smoking and its relationship to mood disorder symptoms and co-occurring alcohol and cannabis use disorders following first hospitalization for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; DelBello, Melissa P; Anthenelli, Robert M; Fleck, David E; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2012-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and may adversely affect symptoms of the disorder, as well as the co-occurrence of other substance use disorders. However, anecdotal reports suggesting that smoking cessation caused a worsening of mood in smokers with BD have raised concerns about quitting. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the course of BD, alcohol use disorders, and cannabis use disorders in relation to smoking and examined the relationship between smoking abstinence and changes in mood. Participants (N = 161) were adolescents (n=80) and adults (n = 81) with bipolar I disorder who were hospitalized for their initial mixed or manic episode. Participants were followed up to eight years post-hospitalization (median follow-up = 122 weeks) as part of a naturalistic, observational study of the longitudinal course of BD and substance use. The course of BD symptoms in the 12 months following index hospitalization did not differ by smoking status in either the adolescent or the adult subsample. Among adolescents, smoking was associated with an increased risk of having a cannabis or alcohol use disorder, almost all of which were new-onset disorders, in the year following first hospitalization. Neither adolescents nor adults who were abstinent from smoking for at least two months experienced significant increases in depressive or manic symptoms. Although cigarette smoking did not predict a worse course of BD, smoking was associated with an increased risk of developing alcohol and cannabis use disorders in adolescents with BD. Importantly, these data provide no evidence to suggest that abstinence from smoking is associated with worsening symptoms of depression or mania in the short term. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  7. The 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada on Mood and Anxiety Disorders: a methodological overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O’Donnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of information about the impact of mood and anxiety disorders on Canadians and the approaches used to manage them. To address this gap, the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada–Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component (SLCDC-MA was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology of the 2014 SLCDC-MA and examine the sociodemographic characteristics of the final sample. Methods: The 2014 SLCDC-MA is a cross-sectional follow-up survey that includes Canadians from the 10 provinces aged 18 years and older with mood and/or anxiety disorders diagnosed by a health professional that are expected to last, or have already lasted, six months or more. The survey was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC through an iterative, consultative process with Statistics Canada and external experts. Statistics Canada performed content testing, designed the sampling frame and strategies and collected and processed the data. PHAC used descriptive analyses to describe the respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics, produced nationally representative estimates using survey weights provided by Statistics Canada, and generated variance estimates using bootstrap methodology. Results: The final 2014 SLCDC-MA sample consists of a total of 3361 respondents (68.9% response rate. Among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, close to two-thirds (64% were female, over half (56% were married/in a common-law relationship and 60% obtained a post-secondary education. Most were young or middle-aged (85%, Canadian born (88%, of non-Aboriginal status (95%, and resided in an urban setting (82%. Household income was fairly evenly distributed between the adequacy quintiles; however, individuals were more likely to report a household income adequacy within the lowest (23% versus highest (17% quintile. Forty-five percent reported having a mood disorder only, 24% an anxiety disorder only and 31

  8. Diagnosis at the first episode to differentiate antidepressant treatment responses in patients with mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kemp, E C M; Moleman, P; Hoogduin, C A L; Broekman, T G; Goedhart, A; Schaap, C P D R; van den Berg, P C

    2002-02-01

    Co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is often ignored in pharmacotreatment outcome studies and this complicates the interpretation of treatment response. The clinical trials are usually based on single categories from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The present study is a first attempt to differentiate the responses to antidepressants using a design that differs from that used in previous clinical trials. To avoid bias due to co-morbidity, we included patients with any DSM-III-R diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder for which antidepressant treatment was indicated. We also explored the role of the diagnosis at the first episode in the efficacy of the different antidepressants. A total of 92 outpatients with a mood and/or anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to treatment with imipramine or fluvoxamine in a 6-week study. The diagnosis at the first episode--or primary diagnosis--was available for 78 patients, 40 with a primary depression and 38 with a primary anxiety disorder. Analyses using the MIXED procedure for repeated measures showed no general differences between treatment with imipramine and treatment with fluvoxamine. When the primary diagnoses were taken into consideration, differentiation occurred. Patients with primary depression showed better responses to imipramine than to fluvoxamine. The assumption that patients with primary anxiety disorder would respond better to fluvoxamine than imipramine was observed for only the Clinical Global Impression. The results suggest that the nature of the first illness episode may be more valuable than the DSM categories of mood or anxiety disorders, which may lend support to the concept of primary versus secondary depression for purposes of differentiating treatment responses. Given the exploratory nature of the study, however, replication of our finding is needed.

  9. Screening for Bipolar Disorder Symptoms in Depressed Primary Care Attenders: Comparison between Mood Disorder Questionnaire and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sasdelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the prevalence of patients who screen positive for bipolar disorder (BD symptoms in primary care comparing two screening instruments: Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32. Participants. Adult patients presenting to their primary care practitioners for any cause and reporting current depression symptoms or a depressive episode in the last 6 months. Methods. Subjects completed MDQ and HCL-32, and clinical diagnosis was assessed by a psychiatrist following DSM-IV criteria. Depressive symptoms were evaluated in a subgroup with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results. A total of 94 patients were approached to participate and 93 completed the survey. Among these, 8.9% screened positive with MDQ and 43.0% with HCL-32. MDQ positive had more likely features associated with BD: panic disorder and smoking habit (. The best test accuracy was performed by cut-off 5 for MDQ (sensitivity = .91; specificity = .67 and 15 for HCL-32 (sensitivity = .64; specificity = .57. Higher total score of PHQ-9 was related to higher total scores at the screening tests (. Conclusion. There is a significant prevalence of bipolar symptoms in primary care depressed patients. MDQ seems to have better accuracy and feasibility than HCL-32, features that fit well in the busy setting of primary care.

  10. Individualized differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and mood disorders using neuroanatomical biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M; Borgwardt, Stefan; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Frodl, Thomas; Kambeitz, Joseph; Köhler, Yanis; Falkai, Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-based markers of schizophrenia have been repeatedly shown to separate patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, but it remains unclear whether these markers reliably distinguish schizophrenia from mood disorders across the life span and generalize to new patients as well as to early stages of these illnesses. The current study used structural MRI-based multivariate pattern classification to (i) identify and cross-validate a differential diagnostic signature separating patients with first-episode and recurrent stages of schizophrenia (n = 158) from patients with major depression (n = 104); and (ii) quantify the impact of major clinical variables, including disease stage, age of disease onset and accelerated brain ageing on the signature's classification performance. This diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging signature was then evaluated in an independent patient cohort from two different centres to test its generalizability to individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 35), first-episode psychosis (n = 23) and clinically defined at-risk mental states for psychosis (n = 89). Neuroanatomical diagnosis was correct in 80% and 72% of patients with major depression and schizophrenia, respectively, and involved a pattern of prefronto-temporo-limbic volume reductions and premotor, somatosensory and subcortical increments in schizophrenia versus major depression. Diagnostic performance was not influenced by the presence of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia or psychotic symptoms in major depression, but earlier disease onset and accelerated brain ageing promoted misclassification in major depression due to an increased neuroanatomical schizophrenia likeness of these patients. Furthermore, disease stage significantly moderated neuroanatomical diagnosis as recurrently-ill patients had higher misclassification rates (major depression: 23%; schizophrenia: 29%) than first-episode patients (major depression: 15%; schizophrenia: 12

  11. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  12. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

  13. Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with Co-Occurring Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs), developed by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), part of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders. CSAT draws on the experience…

  14. Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression : The quest for a common underlying mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse rognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse,

  15. Rates of Detection of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care: A Descriptive, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Monica; Marcus, Madalyn; Katzman, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and to assess their detection rates in the Canadian primary care setting. Method: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 primary care clinics in 3 Canadian provinces, Ontario, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia, from December 6, 2005, to May 5, 2006. Patients in clinic waiting rooms who consented to participate in the study were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) (N = 840). These patients' medical charts were then reviewed for evidence of previous diagnosis of a mood or anxiety disorder. Misdiagnosis was defined as cases for which a diagnosis was reached on the MINI but not in the patient's chart. Results: Of the 840 primary care patients assessed, 27.2%, 11.4%, 12.6%, 31.2%, and 16.5% of patients met criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder, respectively. Misdiagnosis rates reached 65.9% for major depressive disorder, 92.7% for bipolar disorder, 85.8% for panic disorder, 71.0% for generalized anxiety disorder, and 97.8% for social anxiety disorder. Conclusions: With high prevalence rates and poor detection, there is an obvious need to enhance diagnostic screening in the primary care setting. PMID:21977354

  16. Cytokine variations and mood disorders: influence of social stressors and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude eAudet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressful events have been implicated in the evolution of mood disorders. In addition to brain neurotransmitters and growth factors, the view has been offered that these disorders might be provoked by the activation of the inflammatory immune system as well as by de novo changes of inflammatory cytokines within the brain. The present review describes the impact of social stressors in animals and in humans on behavioral changes reminiscent of depressive states as well as on cytokine functioning. Social stressors increase pro-inflammatory cytokines in circulation as well as in brain regions that have been associated with depression, varying with the animal’s social status and/or behavioral methods used to contend with social challenges. Likewise, in humans, social stressors that favor the development of depression are accompanied by elevated circulating cytokine levels and conversely, conditions that limit the cytokine elevations correlated with symptoms attenuation or reversal. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potentially powerful effects of social support, social identity, and connectedness in maintaining well-being and in diminishing symptoms of depression.

  17. Biological basis for the co-morbidity between smoking and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is still the major preventable cause of death in the developed world, and has strong comorbity with mood disorders including major depression. Depressed patients are more likely to smoke cigarettes, and quitting can precipitate an episode of depression in some subjects. Interestingly, antidepressants, particularly the atypical antidepressant buproprion, are therapeutics that can help smokers quit. Despite these observations, the underlying biological factors of the relationship between smoking and depression remain unclear. Results from clinical and pre-clinical studies have seemed somewhat paradoxical because heightened cholinergic activity can induce depression while both nicotine and nicotinic antagonists can be antidepressant-like. These observations can be reconciled by considering that high affinity nicotinic receptors in the brain can be desensitized by chronic nicotine use, leading to blunted cholinergic activity. Based on this hypothesis, nicotinic antagonists have recently been tested as treatments for depression in human subjects, particularly as adjunct therapy along with classical antidepressants. These data suggest that the relationship between smoking and depression may be partially explained by the fact that depressed patients smoke in an effort to self-medicate depressive symptoms by desensitizing their nicotinic receptors. This possibility suggests new avenues for treatment of both nicotine dependence and depressive disorders.

  18. Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

  19. [Review of the new treatment guideline for major depressive disorder by the Japanese Society of Mood Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-10-01

    The Japanese Society of Mood Disorders (JSMD) published the "Treatment Guideline II: Major Depressive Disorder, 2012 Ver. 1" on July 26, 2012. This guideline (GL) is the first one published by an academic society in Japan. Presently in Japan, many people have depressive symptoms, and the socioeconomic loss (suicide, absence from work, etc.) induced by this condition cannot be overlooked. Although the Japanese society, including mass media and psychiatrists, has attempted to solve this public problem, a solution has not been found. JSMD regarded diagnosis and psychiatric management of depression, among other factors, as the key to solving this problem. For example, patients who meet the DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) criteria still have numerous subtypes, and they often have other psychiatric comorbidities that a diagnosis of MDD alone cannot detect. Although the process for differential diagnosis and treatment planning is indispensable, its methodology has not been necessarily shared even among psychiatrists until today. In this GL, considering the research evidence and its limitations, JSMD suggests necessary steps for appropriate information intake, diagnosis, therapeutic alliance formation, psychoeducation, and treatment modality choice in every phase (acute and continuation/maintenance). This GL also considers pharmaco-, psycho-, and electroconvulsive therapy for major depressive subtypes (mild, moderate/severe, and psychotic). Simultaneously, psychiatrists are required to be alert to the risk from diffuse and multiple prescription of benzodiazepine receptor agonists (dependence, deterioration of sleep apnea, cognitive decline, paradoxical reaction, etc.), especially barbiturates. This GL will be revised on the basis of public comments, including criticism. In the future, treatment GLs for comorbid patients, return-to-work cases, primary care physicians, psychiatric residents, and patients with depressions other than MDD (subthreshold depression

  20. Mood and anxiety disorders in Australia and New Zealand's indigenous populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma; Kisely, Steve; Alichniewicz, Karolina; Toombs, Maree

    2017-09-01

    The Indigenous populations of Australia and New Zealand are considered at higher risk of mood and anxiety disorders but many studies do not include direct comparisons with similar non-Indigenous controls. We conducted a systematic search of relevant electronic databases, as well as snowballing and targeted searches of the grey literature. Studies were included for meta-analysis if they compared rates of mood and anxiety disorders between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians or Maori. Seven Australian and 10 NZ studies were included. Overall, Indigenous people in both countries did not have significantly higher rates of disorder. However, in terms of specific disorders, there were differences in risk by gender, country (Australia or NZ), disorder type, and prevalence (current, 12-month or lifetime). For instance, Indigenous Australians and Maori both had significantly lower rates of simple phobias (current prevalence) and Maori participants had significantly lower rates of both lifetime simple phobia and generalised anxiety disorders. By contrast, Indigenous Australians had significantly higher rates of bipolar affective disorder and social phobia (current prevalence). Generalisations regarding the risk of psychiatric disorders in Indigenous people cannot therefore be made as this varies by several factors. These include disorder type, sociodemographic factors, Indigenous origin and study method. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Features of borderline personality disorder as a mediator of the relation between childhood traumatic experiences and psychosis-like experiences in patients with mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, Ilya; Aaltonen, Kari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Koivisto, Maaria; Heikkinen, Martti; Joffe, Grigori; Isometsä, Erkki

    2018-03-01

    Psychosis-like experiences (PEs) are common in patients with non-psychotic disorders. Several factors predict reporting of PEs in mood disorders, including mood-associated cognitive biases, anxiety and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Childhood traumatic experiences (CEs), often reported by patients with BPD, are an important risk factor for mental disorders. We hypothesized that features of BPD may mediate the relationship between CEs and PEs. In this study, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PEs, CEs and features of BPD in patients with mood disorders. As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42) and Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n = 282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted. Total scores of MSI correlated strongly with scores of the CAPE-42 dimension "frequency of positive symptoms" (rho = 0.56; p ≤ 0.001) and moderately with scores of TADS (rho = 0.4; p ≤ 0.001). Total score of MSI and its dimension "cognitive symptoms", including identity disturbance, distrustfulness and dissociative symptoms, fully mediated the relation between TADS and CAPE-42. Each cognitive symptom showed a partial mediating role (dissociative symptoms 43% (CI = 25-74%); identity disturbance 40% (CI = 30-73%); distrustfulness 18% (CI = 12-50%)). Self-reported cognitive-perceptual symptoms of BPD fully mediate, while affective, behavioural and interpersonal symptoms only partially mediate the relationships between CEs and PEs. Recognition of co-morbid features of BPD in patients with mood disorders reporting PEs is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Pilot study on nutritional and eating disorders in children and mood disorders: comorbidity or prodromal traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimbolli, Paola; Quiñones, Álvaro; Ugarte, Carla; De Pascale, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Both children affected by nutritional and eating disorders (ED) and adults with bipolar disorder (BD) display symptoms of deficient emotional self-regulation, which can present in different forms. If we observe the clinical and developmental histories of individuals affected by EDs and BD, based on a cognitive systemic post-rationalist approach, we can hypothesise a continuum between the two disorders. The aim of this pilot study is to support the hypothesis - from an explanatory rather than a non-descriptive approach - that EDs and BD are the possible result of issues tied to biological and psychological self-regulation. When such an issue manifests during an individual's early stages through an eating disorder, it is more likely to result in an actual affective disorder, such as BD, during an individual's adult years. The study examined a total of 51 patients affected by an ED between the ages of 8 and 18. At least one of the parents had been diagnosed with a mental disorder. All of the subjects completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) II. Each of the patients underwent a pediatric assessment using their BMI to establish the type of ED. The parents were divided into two groups: subjects with BD and subjects affected by other psychopathologies. Although the comparison between patients with EDs and parents with or without BD did not demonstrate a significant difference in any scale, it highlighted specific common characteristics between the disorder presented by the parent and the cognitive-emotional expressions of his or her child. In fact, the results indicate that the CBCL "problems of thought" scale explains much of the Impulsivity variance obtained by the EDI and that the CBCL "high withdrawal/depression" dependent factor highlighted a statistical significance for the EDI's "low interoceptive awareness" scale. The study presented limitations, especially with respect to the sample size examined, but it suggests a

  3. Eating Disorders in Adult Women: The Sexual Abuse Connection. A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Catherine; Butler, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Literature review examines several areas repeatedly addressed concerning prevalence of eating disorders and child sexual abuse (CSA): psychological profiles of eating-disordered adult women who may have experienced CSA; psychosocial aftereffects of CSA; familial dynamics of survivors of CSA; studies connecting eating disorders and CSA; and studies…

  4. Dissociative Experiences and Disorders among Women Who Identify Themselves as Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Geri; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)

  5. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...

  6. Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, S

    1994-10-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion.

  7. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Apriliani Saniti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic experiences may happen anytime in our life. The more terrible the situation, the bigger chance for a person to have post traumatic psychological problem, that is the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Sexual abuse is a kind of traumatic event that caused psychological trauma/stress for the victim. In order to be able to manage patient with PTSD, physician should comprehend properties regarding PTSD, including proper treatment and management. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. Comorbidity between lifetime eating problems and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl

    2015-03-01

    This study was to examine profiles of eating problems (EPs), mood and anxiety disorders and their comorbidities; explore risk patterns for these disorders; and document differences in health service utilization in a national population. Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. The lifetime prevalence of EPs was 1.70% among Canadians, compared with 13.25% for mood disorder, 11.27% for anxiety disorder and 20.16% for any mood or anxiety disorder. Almost half of those with EPs also suffered with mood or anxiety disorders. A similar pattern in depressive symptoms was found among individuals with major depression and EPs, but individuals with EPs reported fewer symptoms. Factors associated with the comorbidity of EPs and mood and anxiety disorders were identified. Individuals with EPs reported more unmet needs. Patients with EPs should be concomitantly investigated for mood and anxiety disorders, as similar interventions may be effective for both. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Tatari; Sayyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Elahe Khoshbakht

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD). The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between agg...

  10. Internet addiction disorder and problematic use of Google Glass™ in patient treated at a residential substance abuse treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kathryn; Eickhoff, Erin; Davis, Diane L; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-02-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is characterized by the problematic use of online video games, computer use, and mobile handheld devices. While not officially a clinical diagnosis according to the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), individuals with IAD manifest severe emotional, social, and mental dysfunction in multiple areas of daily activities due to their problematic use of technology and the internet. We report a 31year-old man who exhibited problematic use of Google Glass™. The patient has a history of a mood disorder most consistent with a substance induced hypomania overlaying a depressive disorder, anxiety disorder with characteristics of social phobia and obsessive compulsive disorder, and severe alcohol and tobacco use disorders. During his residential treatment program at the Navy's Substance Abuse and Recovery Program (SARP) for alcohol use disorder, it was noted that the patient exhibited significant frustration and irritability related to not being able to use his Google Glass™. The patient exhibited a notable, nearly involuntary movement of the right hand up to his temple area and tapping it with his forefinger. He reported that if he had been prevented from wearing the device while at work, he would become extremely irritable and argumentative. Over the course of his 35-day residential treatment, the patient noted a reduction in irritability, reduction in motor movements to his temple to turn on the device, and improvements in his short-term memory and clarity of thought processes. He continued to intermittently experience dreams as if looking through the device. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IAD involving problematic use of Google Glass™. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Endocannabinoid system and mood disorders: priming a target for new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, Vincenzo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Sulcova, Alexandra; Wotjak, Carsten T; Drago, Filippo

    2013-04-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS), comprising two G protein-coupled receptors (the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 [CB1 and CB2] for marijuana's psychoactive principle ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [∆(9)-THC]), their endogenous small lipid ligands (namely anandamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG], also known as endocannabinoids), and the proteins for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and degradation, has been suggested as a pro-homeostatic and pleiotropic signaling system activated in a time- and tissue-specific way during physiopathological conditions. In the brain activation of this system modulates the release of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and of cytokines from glial cells. As such, the ECS is strongly involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly in affective disturbances such as anxiety and depression. It has been proposed that synthetic molecules that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation can exploit the selectivity of endocannabinoid action, thus activating cannabinoid receptors only in those tissues where there is perturbed endocannabinoid turnover due to the disorder, and avoiding the potential side effects of direct CB1 and CB2 activation. However, the realization that endocannabinoids, and AEA in particular, also act at other molecular targets, and that these mediators can be deactivated by redundant pathways, has recently led to question the efficacy of such approach, thus opening the way to new multi-target therapeutic strategies, and to the use of non-psychotropic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), which act via several parallel mechanisms, including indirect interactions with the ECS. The state of the art of the possible therapeutic use of endocannabinoid deactivation inhibitors and phytocannabinoids in mood disorders is discussed in this review article. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between cannabis use and mood disorders: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-02-01

    The association between cannabis use and mood disorders is well documented, yet evidence regarding causality is conflicting. This study explored the association between cannabis use, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) in a 3-year prospective study. Data was drawn from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). MDD and BPD were controlled at baseline and defined as meeting full criteria in the 12 months prior to the follow-up. Initiation of cannabis use was defined as any cannabis used by former lifetime abstainers in the time period between baseline and follow-up. Cannabis use was not significantly associated with increased incidence of MDD (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) for daily use=0.58(0.22-1.51)). Weekly to almost daily cannabis use was associated with increased incidence of BPD ((AOR for weekly to daily use=2.47(1.03-5.92)); daily use was not (AOR=0.52(0.17-1.55)). Baseline MDD was associated with initiation of cannabis use (AOR=1.72(1.1-2.69)). A crude association between baseline BPD and incidence of cannabis use was not maintained in adjusted models (AOR=0.61(0.36-1.04)). Lack of information regarding frequency of cannabis use at follow-up and limitations regarding generalization of the results. Our findings do not support a longitudinal association between cannabis use and incidence of MDD. Results regarding the association between cannabis use and incidence of BPD are conflicting and require further investigation. Baseline MDD, but not BPD, may be associated with future initiation of cannabis use. This may have implications for clinical, social and legislative aspects of cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and depression scale in the mood disorder. A study using 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toru; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Okazaki, Atsushi; Maehara, Tadayuki; Shiraishi, Hiroyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was assessed on 26 mood disorder patients using 123 I-iodoamphetamine and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and their correlations to depression scores of Hamilton's Rating Scale for Depression were studied. Region of interest (ROI) was established on coronary images and used as an indicator. As a result, left hemisphere was suspected of a primary lesion in mood disorder, however, the relationship between clinical symptoms and various lesion areas were not clarified. Further studies with neuropsychological loading or pharmaceutical loading such as antidepressant are thus expected to clarify the etiology of mood disorders. (S.Y.)

  14. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-04

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  15. Geographic variation of clinically diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders in Christchurch after the 2010/11 earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Daniel; Kingham, Simon; Wilson, Thomas M; Griffin, Edward; Ardagh, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The 22nd February 2011 Christchurch earthquake killed 185 people, injured over 8000, damaged over 100,000 buildings and on-going aftershocks maintained high anxiety levels. This paper examines the dose of exposure effect of earthquake damage assessments, earthquake intensity measures, liquefaction and lateral spreading on mood and anxiety disorders in Christchurch after this event. We hypothesise that such disorders are more likely to develop in people who have experienced greater exposure to these impacts within their neighborhood than others who have been less exposed, but also live in the city. For this purpose, almost all clinically diagnosed incident and relapsed cases in Christchurch in a 12 months period after the 2011 earthquake were analysed. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis shows that people living in the widely affected central and eastern parts after the 2010/11 earthquakes have a 23% higher risk of developing a mood or anxiety disorder than people living in other parts of the city. Generally, mood and anxiety-related disorders increase with closer proximity to damage from liquefaction and moderate to major lateral spreading, as well as areas that are more likely to suffer from damage in future earthquakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Porto Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferases are associated with anxiety and mood disorders in nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, Sandra; Pizzo de Castro, Márcia Regina; Ehara Watanabe, Maria Angelica; Losi Guembarovski, Roberta; Odebrecht Vargas, Heber; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Kaminami Morimoto, Helena; Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine dependence is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders and suicide. The primary hypothesis of this study was to identify whether the polymorphisms of two glutathione-S-transferase enzymes (GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes) predict an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders in smokers with nicotine dependence. Smokers were recruited at the Centre of Treatment for Smokers. The instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, diagnoses of mood disorder and nicotine dependence according to DSM-IV (SCID-IV), and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Anxiety disorder was assessed based on the treatment report. Laboratory assessment included glutathione-S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1), which were detected by a multiplex-PCR protocol. Compared with individuals who had both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, a higher frequency of at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was identified in anxious smokers [odds ratio (OR)=2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-4.65, P=0.034], but there was no association with bipolar and unipolar depression (P=0.943). Compared with nonanxious smokers, anxious smokers had a greater risk for mood disorders (OR=4.67; 95% CI=2.24-9.92, P<0.001), lung disease (OR=6.78, 95% CI=1.95-23.58, P<0.003), and suicide attempts (OR=17.01, 95% CI=2.23-129.91, P<0.006). This study suggests that at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes represents a risk factor for anxious smokers. These two genes may modify the capacity for the detoxification potential against oxidative stress.

  18. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Varese, Filippo; Smith, Angela; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Turnbull, Oliver H; Emsley, Richard; Bentall, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48) reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally) instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction) was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on subsequent mood but some of these effects are modulated by

  19. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pavlickova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48 reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on

  20. Childhood trauma in schizophrenia spectrum disorders as compared to substance abuse disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkved, Nina; Winje, Dagfinn; Dovran, Anders; Arefjord, Kjersti; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Anda-Ågotnes, Liss-Gøril; Thimm, Jens C; Sinkeviciute, Igne; Rettenbacher, Maria; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of childhood trauma (CT) in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and substance abuse disorders (SUDs) is high. Direct comparisons of CT in these disorders are lacking, and it is not known whether there are differences in self-reported CT in SSDs as compared to SUDs. We aimed to compare the frequency, severity and types of CT in SDDs and SUDs. Patients with SSDs (n = 57) and SUDs (n = 57) were matched for age and gender. Overall levels of CT and CT subtypes were measured retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short-Form (CTQ-SF), and grouped into none/low and moderate/severe levels of CT. Group differences in CTQ-SF sum score and subscale scores, as well as differences in the severity of overall CT and CT subtypes were all non-significant. In both groups, 64.9% reported ≥ 1 subtypes of CT above cut-off. Of those who reported CT above the cut-off, 13.5% in the psychosis group reported ≥ 4 subtypes, as compared to 2.7% in the substance abuse group. We did not find statistically significant differences between SSDs and SUDs in terms of exposure to CT frequency or severity, all effect sizes were small (r < 0.15). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  2. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunfang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Approximately 5.1% of the cohort (n=68 reported having a physician-diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder before interview. Compared with women without a psychiatric diagnosis, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI for short sleep duration in early pregnancy (≤6 hours were 1.95 (1.03-3.69. The corresponding OR (95%CI for long sleep duration (≥9 hours during early pregnancy was 1.13 (0.63-2.03. Women with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR=2.41; 95%CI 1.46-4.00 and elevated perceived stress (OR=3.33; 95%CI 1.89-5.88. Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight/obese women. Conclusions Women with a psychiatric disorder were more likely to report short sleep durations, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent mood/anxiety-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women.

  3. The effects of optimism, religion, and hope on mood and anxiety disorders in women with the FMR1 premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, E P; Tonnsen, B L; Bailey, D B; Roberts, J E

    2017-10-01

    The FMR1 premutation, caused by a CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion on the FMR1 gene, has been identified as a genetic risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders. Building on recent studies identifying increased risk for mood and affective disorders in this population, we examined effects of potential protective factors (optimism, religion, hope) on depression and anxiety diagnoses in a prospective, longitudinal cohort. Eighty-three women with the FMR1 premutation participated in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Disorders at two-time points, 3 years apart. Participants also completed measures of optimism, religion, personal faith, hope, and child and family characteristics. We used logistic regression to examine correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders at the initial assessment, as well as predictors of the diagnostic course over time. Lower optimism and higher religious participation relevant to fragile X syndrome at the initial assessment were associated with a lifetime history of MDD. Lower optimism also predicted the occurrence and reoccurrence of an anxiety disorder 3 years later. In women with the FMR1 premutation, elevated optimism may reduce the occurrence or severity of MDD and anxiety disorders. These findings underscore the importance of supporting mental health across the FMR1 spectrum of involvement. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Association of restless legs syndrome, pain, and mood disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Rahman, Labiba; Jesudasan, Ajantha; Hafez, Kevin K; Rana, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the association between Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, and to explore the relationship between mood disorder comorbidity (anxiety and depression), pain, and restless legs syndrome. This study included 123 Parkinson's disease patients and 123 non-Parkinson's disease patients matched for age and gender, and evaluated for anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence. This was performed using semi-structured interviews and a neurological examination through the restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria and the following inventories; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Pain Disability Index. Parkinson's disease patients had significantly greater anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence in comparison to controls. In addition, Parkinson's disease patients' comorbid for anxiety and depression had significantly greater pain severity, pain interference, and pain disability, but not RLS prevalence, in comparison to Parkinson's disease only, Parkinson's disease anxiety, and Parkinson's disease depression patients. Pain interference, pain severity, and pain disability is greater among Parkinson's disease patients with anxiety and depression, in comparison to Parkinson's disease patients without anxiety and depression. On the contrary, the prevalence of restless legs syndrome was not found to be relevant.

  5. Unveiling new dimensions: a hermeneutic exploration of perinatal mood disorder and infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joan Margaret; McDonald, Carol

    2012-06-01

    In this hermeneutic study, six women from the local Perinatal Mental Health Program were interviewed about their experiences with infant feeding. None of the women in the study were breastfeeding their infants. The research question centered on their experience of formula feeding with a view to gaining better insight about the issues that women face when feeding practices do not conform to best-practice (i.e., breastfeeding) promotional standards. We also considered the needs of nurses working in the mental health setting, who may face conflicting recommendations concerning the treatment of a mental health crisis in the presence of current infant feeding best-practice guidelines. Our findings support concerns that current guidelines overlook the special needs of women who live with perinatal mood disorder. We speculate that breastfeeding challenges may present a risk for postpartum depression in women who are biologically vulnerable. The need for ongoing assessment for emerging depression among women who are experiencing breastfeeding challenges is identified. The importance of deepened understanding among mental health nurses is highlighted.

  6. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED.

  7. Disentangling Working Memory Functioning in Mood States of Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia H. Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD. However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive. This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016. Twenty-three papers were selected, completely read, and analyzed using PICOS strategy. The mood episodes predicted deficits in different components of WM in BD patients (the phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad and were associated with different WM processes (updating and serial recall. Lower cognitive scores persist even in remission of symptoms. This result suggests that WM deficit apparently is stage-independent in BD patients. Furthermore, findings suggest that the neutral point on Hedonic Detector component of WM could be maladjusted by BD.

  8. The relationship between mood disorder and insomnia depends on race in US veterans with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ima M; Lopez, Maria R; Kanner, Andres M; Wallace, Douglas M

    2017-05-01

    Few data exist on race, medical/psychiatric comorbidities, and insomnia symptoms in US veterans with epilepsy. Our aims were to examine 1) whether insomnia symptom prevalence was different between Black and White veterans and 2) whether predictors of insomnia symptoms varied by race. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included veterans evaluated in an epilepsy clinic over the course of 1.5years. Individuals completed standardized assessments for epilepsy and sleep complaints. Insomnia criteria were met by 1) report of difficulty with sleep initiation, maintenance, or premature awakenings accompanied by daytime impairment or 2) sedative-hypnotic use on most days of the month. Demographics, medical/psychiatric comorbidities, and medications were determined per electronic medical record review. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if race, medical/mental health comorbidities, and the potential interaction of race with each comorbid condition were associated with insomnia. Our sample consisted of 165 veterans (32% Black). The unadjusted prevalence of insomnia was not different between Black and White veterans (42% vs 39%, p=0.68). In adjusted analyses, the association between mood disorder and insomnia varied by race. Depressed White veterans had over 11-times higher predicted odds of insomnia (OR 11.4, pepilepsy. Future studies are needed to explore mental health symptoms and psychosocial determinants of insomnia with larger samples of minority individuals with epilepsy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G. Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10, and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8, to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90, negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92, and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94. Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation.

  10. Neurocognition and social skill in older persons with schizophrenia and major mood disorders: An analysis of gender and diagnosis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J; Forester, Brent; Wolfe, Rosemarie; Cather, Corinne

    2010-05-01

    Effective social interactions necessary for getting affiliative and instrumental needs met require the smooth integration of social skills, including verbal, non-verbal, and paralinguistic behaviors. Schizophrenia is characterized by prominent impairments in social and role functioning, and research on younger individuals with the illness has shown that social skills deficits are both common and distinguish the disease from other psychiatric disorders. However, less research has focused on diagnostic differences and correlates of social skills in older persons with schizophrenia. To address this question, we examined diagnostic and gender differences in social skills in a community-dwelling sample of 183 people older than age 50 with severe mental illness, and the relationships between social skills and neurocognitive functioning, symptoms, and social contact.Individuals with schizophrenia had worse social skills than those with bipolar disorder or major depression, with people with schizoaffective disorder in between. Social contact and cognitive functioning, especially executive functions and verbal fluency, were strongly predictive of social skills in people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but not those with mood disorder. Other than blunted affect, symptoms were not predictive of social skills in either the schizophrenia spectrum or the mood disorder group. Older age was associated with worse social skills in both groups, whereas female gender was related to better skills in the mood disorder group, but not the schizophrenia group. The findings suggest that poor social skills, which are related to the cognitive impairment associated with the illness, are a fundamental feature of schizophrenia that persists from the onset of the illness into older age.

  11. Child maltreatment and eating disorders among men and women in adulthood: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    OpenAIRE

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Sareen, Jitender; Fortier, Janique; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Cheung, Kristene; Henriksen, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Child maltreatment is associated with an increased likelihood of having mood disorders, anxiety disorders, post‐traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and personality disorders, but far less is known about eating disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between child maltreatment, including harsh physical punishment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and exposure to intimate ...

  12. Paradoxical Reaction to Alprazolam in an Elderly Woman with a History of Anxiety, Mood Disorders, and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Daniel; Smith, Tyler; Kerfeld, Mitchell; Ramsdell, Taylor; Sadiq, Hasnain; Sharma, Arun

    2016-01-01

    With less than 1% of patients who use benzodiazepines being affected, paradoxical responses to benzodiazepines are rare. In this case report, we outline the course of an 80-year-old female who developed a paradoxical response to benzodiazepines. Significant medical and psychiatric history includes anxiety, mood disorder, hypothyroidism, bilateral mastectomy, goiter removal, and triple bypass. The patient presented with mental status changes, anxiety, motor restlessness, and paranoia. Over tim...

  13. CSF 5-HIAA and DST non-suppression--orthogonal biologic risk factors for suicide in male mood disorder inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2009-01-30

    Two biomarkers of suicide risk; non-suppression in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and low 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to be predictors of suicide in mood disorders. The interrelation of the two systems seems to be different in suicide attempters compared with depressed inpatients who have not made a suicide attempt, indicating that the two biomarkers may be seen as independent. This investigation examined the interrelation of low CSF 5-HIAA and DST non-suppression in suicide victims with mood disorder. Fifty-eight mood disorder inpatients not receiving any treatment with antidepressants underwent lumbar puncture and the DST. Plasma cortisol levels at 8:00 a.m., 4:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. were analysed in relation to CSF 5-HIAA. All patients were followed up for causes of death and suicides were verified with death certificates. During follow-up (mean 21 years), 11 (19%) patients had committed suicide. In male suicide victims (n=6), the serum cortisol level at 4:00 p.m. showed a significant positive correlation with CSF 5-HIAA. Low CSF 5-HIAA predicted all early suicides (within 1 year), whereas all males who committed suicide after 1 year were DST non-suppressors. In female suicide victims (n=5), the post-DST serum cortisol did not correlate with CSF 5-HIAA. Low CSF 5-HIAA and DST non-suppression are orthogonal biologic risk factors for suicide in male mood disorder inpatients. CSF 5-HIAA is associated with short-term suicide risk; dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis seems to be a long-term suicide predictor.

  14. Effects of Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy on Pain and Mood Disorders in Patients With High-Frequency Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Mariagrazia; Tramontano, Marco; Buzzi, Maria Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The substantial functional impairment associated with migraine has both physical and emotional ramifications. Mood disorders are often comorbid in patients with migraine and are known to adversely affect migraine activity. To explore the effects of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) on pain and mood disorders in patients with high-frequency migraine. Retrospective review of the medical records of patients with high-frequency migraine who were treated with OMTh at the Headache Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Fondazione Santa Lucia from 2011 to 2015. Clinical assessments were made using the Headache Disability Inventory (HDI), the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) forms X-1 and X-2. Medical records of 11 patients (6 women; mean age, 47.5 [7.8] years) with a diagnosis of high-frequency migraine who participated in an OMTh program met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. When the questionnaire scores obtained at the first visit (T0) and after 4 OMTh sessions (T1) were compared, significant improvement in scores were observed on STAI X-2 (T0: 43.18 [2.47]; T1: 39.45 [2.52]; P<.05), HIT-6 (T0: 63 [2.20]; T1: 56.27 [2.24]; P<.05), and HDI (T0: 58.72 [6.75]; T1: 45.09 [7.01]; P<.05). This preliminary study revealed that patients with high-frequency migraine and comorbid mood disorders showed significant improvement after four 45-minute OMTh sessions. Further investigation into the effects of OMTh on pain and mood disorders in patients with high-frequency migraine is needed.

  15. Examining the Proposed Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Diagnosis in Children in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David; Findling, Robert L.; Fristad, Mary A.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Arnold, L. Eugene; Frazier, Thomas W.; Ryan, Neal; Demeter, Christine; Gill, Mary Kay; Hauser-Harrington, Jessica C.; Depew, Judith; Kennedy, Shawn M.; Gron, Brittany A.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Birmaher, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the proposed disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnosis in a child psychiatric outpatient population. Evaluation of DMDD included 4 domains: clinical phenomenology, delimitation from other diagnoses, longitudinal stability, and association with parental psychiatric disorders. Method Data were obtained from 706 children aged 6–12 years who participated in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study (sample was accrued from November 2005 to November 2008). DSM-IV criteria were used, and assessments, which included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures, were performed at intake and at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. For the current post hoc analyses, a retrospective diagnosis of DMDD was constructed using items from the K-SADS-PL-W, a version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, which resulted in criteria closely matching the proposed DSM-5 criteria for DMDD. Results At intake, 26% of participants met the operational DMDD criteria. DMDD+ vs DMDD– participants had higher rates of oppositional defiant disorder (relative risk [RR] = 3.9, P conduct disorder (RR = 4.5, P oppositional defiant disorder (rate and symptom severity P values conduct disorder (rate, P disorders or in severity of inattentive, hyperactive, manic, depressive, or anxiety symptoms. Most of the participants with oppositional defiant disorder (58%) or conduct disorder (61%) met DMDD criteria, but those who were DMDD+ vs DMDD– did not differ in diagnostic comorbidity, symptom severity, or functional impairment. Over 2-year follow-up, 40% of the LAMS sample met DMDD criteria at least once, but 52% of these participants met criteria at only 1 assessment. DMDD was not associated with new onset of mood or anxiety disorders or with parental psychiatric history. Conclusions In this clinical sample, DMDD could not be delimited from oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, had limited

  16. Web-based interventions for prevention and treatment of perinatal mood disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eleanor W; Denison, Fiona C; Hor, Kahyee; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2016-02-29

    Perinatal depression is strikingly common with a prevalence of 10-15%. The adverse effects of perinatal depression on maternal and child health are profound with considerable costs. Despite this, few women seek medical attention. E-health, providing healthcare via the Internet is an accessible and effective solution for the treatment of depression in the general population. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of web-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period, defined as the start of pregnancy to 1 year post-partum. Six databases were searched until 26(th) March 2015. Two researchers independently screened articles for eligibility. Of the 547 screened articles, four met the inclusion criteria. These included three randomised-controlled trials and one feasibility trial, with total data from 1274 participants. MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines were adhered to for the conduct and reporting of the systematic review. All studies were conducted in the post-partum period. All reported an improvement in maternal mood following intervention. A significant improvement in depressive symptoms was measured using validated rating scales, such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), either at post-treatment or follow-up which ranged from 3 to 12 months post study completion. For the two RCTs utilising the EPDS, the EPDS score reductions were (mean ± SEM) 8.52 ± 0.22 (Range 19.46 to10.94) and 9.19 ± 0.63 (Range, 20.24 to 11.05) for treatment groups and 5.16 ± 0.25 (Range 19.44 to 14.28) and 6.81 ± 0.71 (Range 21.07 to 14.26) for comparator groups. However attrition within studies ranged from 13 to 61%. One study was rated as 'good' quality. Preliminary data suggests web-based therapies for perinatal depression delivered in the post-partum period may play a role in improving maternalmood but more studies are needed, particularly with interventions delivered antenatally. Further research is needed

  17. The Melatonergic System in Mood and Anxiety Disorders and the Role of Agomelatine: Implications for Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Berardis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin exerts its actions through membrane MT1/MT2 melatonin receptors, which belong to the super family of G-protein-coupled receptors consisting of the typical seven transmembrane domains. MT1 and MT2 receptors are expressed in various tissues of the body either as single ones or together. A growing literature suggests that the melatonergic system may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. In fact, some core symptoms of depression show disturbance of the circadian rhythm in their clinical expression, such as diurnal mood and other symptomatic variation, or are closely linked to circadian system functioning, such as sleep-wake cycle alterations. In addition, alterations have been described in the circadian rhythms of several biological markers in depressed patients. Therefore, there is interest in developing antidepressants that have a chronobiotic effect (i.e., treatment of circadian rhythm disorders. As melatonin produces chronobiotic effects, efforts have been aimed at developing agomelatine, an antidepressant with melatonin agonist activity. The present paper reviews the role of the melatonergic system in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders and the clinical characteristics of agomelatine. Implications of agomelatine in “real world” clinical practice will be also discussed.

  18. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  19. Health status, activity limitations, work-related restrictions and level of disability among Canadians with mood and/or anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loukine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study provides the first overview of the perceived general and mental health, activity limitations, work-related restrictions and level of disability, as well as factors associated with disability severity, among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, using a population-based household sample. Methods: We used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada–Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. The sample consists of Canadians aged 18 years and older with self-reported mood and/or anxiety disorders from the 10 provinces (n = 3361; response rate 68.9%. We conducted descriptive and multinomial multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, over one-quarter reported “fair/poor” general (25.3% and mental (26.1% health; more than one-third (36.4% reported one or more activity limitations; half (50.3% stated a job modification was required to continue working; and more than one-third (36.5% had severe disability. Those with concurrent mood and anxiety disorders reported poorer outcomes: 56.4% had one or more activity limitations; 65.8% required a job modification and 49.6% were severely disabled. Upon adjusting for individual characteristics, those with mood and/or anxiety disorders who were older, who had a household income in the lowest or lower-middle adequacy quintile or who had concurrent disorders were more likely to have severe disability. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm that mood and/or anxiety disorders, especially concurrent disorders, are associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. Results support the role of public health policy and programs aimed at improving the lives of people living with these disorders, in particular those with concurrent disorders.

  20. Strategies for Developing Treatment Programs for People with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Increasingly, people receiving public-supported health care are seeking help for and/or presenting with both substance abuse and mental disorders. People with these co-occurring disorders often require help from many different care systems. Consequently, no single system of care is adequately prepared to help people with both mental and substance…

  1. Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women With and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744

  2. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Difficulties to differentiate mood disorders co-occurring with compulsive gambling. Discussion based on a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilszyk, Anna; Silczuk, Andrzej; Habrat, Bogusław; Heitzman, Janusz

    2018-02-28

    Contemporary literature does not take a clear position on the issue of determining civil and criminal liability of persons diagnosed with pathological gambling, and all the more so in case of possible comorbidity of or interference with other mental disorders. Diagnostic difficulties are demonstrated by a clinical picture of a patient with problem gambling who underwent forensic and psychiatric assessments to evaluate the process of making informed (and independent) decisions in view of numerous concluded civil law (mainly financial) agreements. The patient had been examined 5 times by expert psychiatrists who, in 4 opinions, diagnosed her with bipolar affective disorder, including 1 diagnosis of rapid cycling of episodes. Based on the current state of scientific knowledge about the relationship between problem gambling and mood disorders, bipolar affective disorder was not confirmed. Diagnostic difficulties, resulting both from diagnostic haziness and unreliable information obtained during patient interview, that emerged in the course of case study point to the need for multi-dimensional clinical diagnosis of persons with suspected mood disorders and behavioral addictions.

  4. National Institute on Drug Abuse symposium report: drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders/HIV-associated dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Frankenheim, Jerry; Avila, Albert; Sorensen, Roger; Rutter, Joni

    2013-04-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse organized a symposium on drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in Rockville, Maryland, October 4, 2011. The purpose of this symposium was to evaluate the potential role of dopamine in the potentiation of HAND/HAD by drugs of abuse. A summary of the symposium has been presented in this report.

  5. Relationship between uncertainty in illness, mood state and coping style in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-ye Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Both uncertainty in illness and mood state were related to coping style. These data suggest that nurses should be trained to offer appropriate guidance to help decrease patients' uncertainty in illness and relieve their negative emotions.

  6. Dissecting the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders on the basis of familial-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Victor; Fañanás, Lourdes; Martín-Reyes, Migdyrai; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2017-09-14

    This study examines the familial aggregation (familiality) of different phenotypic definitions of catatonia in a sample of multiplex families with psychotic and mood disorders. Participants were probands with a lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV functional psychotic disorder, their parents and at least one first-degree relative with a psychotic disorder. The study sample included 441 families comprising 2703 subjects, of whom 1094 were affected and 1609 unaffected. Familiality (h 2 ) was estimated by linear mixed models using family membership as a random effect, with h 2 indicating the portion of phenotypic variance accounted for by family membership. Familiality estimates highly varied for individual catatonia signs (h 2 =0.17-0.65), principal component analysis-derived factors (h 2 =0.29-0.49), number of catatonia signs present (h 2 =0.03-0.43) and severity of the catatonia syndrome (h 2 =0.25-0.59). Phenotypes maximizing familiality estimates included individual signs (mutism and rigidity, both h 2 =0.65), presence of ≥5 catatonia signs (h 2 =0.43), a classical catatonia factor (h 2 =0.49), a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome at a severity level of moderate or higher (h 2 =0.59) and the diagnostic construct of psychosis with prominent catatonia features (h 2 =0.56). Familiality estimates of a DSM-IV catatonia syndrome did not significantly differ across the diagnostic categories of psychotic and mood disorders (h 2 =0.40-0.47). The way in which catatonia is defined has a strong impact on familiality estimates with some catatonia phenotypes exhibiting substantial familial aggregation, which may inform about the most adequate phenotypes for molecular studies. From a familial-genetic perspective, the catatonia phenotype in psychotic and mood disorders has a transdiagnostic character. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM TH