WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse liability assessment

  1. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessment of electronic cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, and nicotine gum: implications for abuse liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Mitchell F; Campbell, Leanne R; Graff, Donald W; Jones, Bobbette A; Fant, Reginald V; Henningfield, Jack E

    2017-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC. Use of Vuse Solo resulted in subjective measures and nicotine uptake that were between those of combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, although generally closer to nicotine gum. Compared to combustible cigarettes, use of Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower scores in measures of product liking, positive effects, and intent to use again. These pharmacodynamic findings were consistent with the pharmacokinetic data, showing that cigarettes produced substantially faster and higher levels of nicotine uptake as compared to Vuse Solo and nicotine gum. Vuse Solo resulted in more rapid initial uptake of nicotine compared to nicotine gum, but peak concentration and long-term extent of uptake were not different or were lower with Vuse. Collectively, these findings suggest that Vuse Solo likely has an abuse liability that is somewhat greater than nicotine gum but lower than cigarettes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02269514.

  2. Assessment of Tapentadol API Abuse Liability With the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K; Severtson, S Geoffrey; Dart, Richard C; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Parrino, Mark W; Green, Jody L

    2018-04-01

    Tapentadol, a Schedule II opioid with a combination of µ-opioid activity and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, is used for the management of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. Its dual mechanism of action is thought to reduce opioid-related side effects that can complicate pain management. Since approval, tapentadol has been tracked across multiple outcomes suggesting abuse liability, and a pattern of relatively low, although not absent, abuse liability has been found. This retrospective cohort study further details the abuse liability of tapentadol as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) when immediate-release as well as extended-release formulations were on the market together (fourth quarter of 2011 to second quarter of 2016). Tapentadol (API) was compared with tramadol, hydrocodone, morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone across Poison Center, Drug Diversion, and Treatment Center Programs Combined data streams from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance system. Findings suggest the public health burden related to tapentadol to date is low, but present. Event rates of abuse per population-level denominators were significantly lower than all other opioids examined. However, when adjusted for drug availability, event rates of abuse were lower than most Schedule II opioids studied, but were not the lowest. Disentangling these 2 sets of findings further by examining various opioid formulations, such as extended-release and the role of abuse-deterrent formulations, is warranted. This article presents the results from an examination of tapentadol API across the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance System: a broad and carefully designed postmarketing mosaic. Data to date from Poison Center, Drug Diversion, and Treatment Centers combined suggest a low, but present public health burden related to tapentadol. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Assessment of the abuse liability of three menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes relative to combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Mitchell F; Campbell, Leanne R; Jin, Tao; Graff, Donald W; Fant, Reginald V; Henningfield, Jack E

    2018-05-03

    We previously reported that following a short-term product use period, use of non-menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted in product effect-related subjective responses and nicotine uptake between those of combustible cigarettes (high-abuse liability comparator) and nicotine gum (low-abuse liability comparator); the results were generally closer to those of nicotine gum. Using a similar design to the previous study, we evaluated the abuse liability of three menthol-flavored Vuse Solo ECs with the same nicotine contents (14, 29, and 36 mg) in a group of EC-naïve, menthol cigarette smokers, relative to comparator products. Six-hour nicotine uptake and ratings of subjective effects were used to determine abuse liability and pharmacokinetics. Use of menthol Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower responses to subjective measurements (product liking, intent to use product again, and liking of positive product effects), higher urge to smoke responses, and a lower peak (C max ) and overall extent (AUC 0-360 ) of nicotine uptake compared to smoking the usual brand menthol cigarette. When compared with use of nicotine gum, subjective responses to use of menthol Vuse ECs were in the same direction as those resulting from smoking cigarettes but were more similar to nicotine gum use in magnitude than they were to cigarettes. These findings are concordant with our previous results and provide evidence that menthol Vuse Solo ECs have abuse liability that is lower than menthol cigarettes and potentially greater than that of nicotine gum. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02664012.

  4. The evaluation of the abuse liability of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, C E

    1990-01-01

    In order to place appropriate restrictions upon the availability of certain therapeutic agents to limit their abuse, it is important to assess abuse liability, an important aspect of drug safety evaluation. However, the negative consequences of restriction must also be considered. Drugs most likely to be tested are psychoactive compounds with therapeutic indications similar to known drugs of abuse. Methods include assays of pharmacological profile, drug discrimination procedures, self-administration procedures, and measures of drug-induced toxicity including evaluations of tolerance and physical dependence. Furthermore, the evaluation of toxicity using behavioural end-points is an important component of the assessment, and it is generally believed that the most valid procedure in this evaluation is the measurement of drug self-administration. However, even this method rarely predicts the extent of abuse of a specific drug. Although methods are available which appear to measure relative abuse liability, these procedures are not validated for all drug classes. Thus, additional strategies, including abuse liability studies in humans, modelled after those used with animals, must be used in order to make a more informed prediction. Although there is pressure to place restrictions on new drugs at the time of marketing, in light of the difficulty of predicting relative abuse potential, a better strategy might be to market a drug without restrictions, but require postmarketing surveillance in order to obtain more accurate information on which to base a final decision.

  5. Preclinical Assessment of a Strategy to Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    plans (3). In fact, Bray and colleagues found that pain medication is the most highly abused of all prescribed drugs in the military (4). Prescription...the drug gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG) prior to morphine treatment effectively eliminates the highly addictive nature of this opiate . In these studies, we...widespread risk of opiate addiction in this population. Preclinical imaging studies aim to build a foundation for effective clinical drug development, and the

  6. Counselor Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Samuel

    1983-01-01

    Describes the laws regarding counselor liability for failure to report child abuse and state laws designating mandated reporters of suspected child abuse. Notes how the law protects mandated reporters. Discusses criminal penalties for those who fail to report suspected abuse. (RC)

  7. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects' previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of 'real-world' use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects.

  9. Assessment of the abuse liability of a dual orexin receptor antagonist: a crossover study of almorexant and zolpidem in recreational drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Hans G; Hoever, Petra; Chakraborty, Bijan; Schoedel, Kerri; Sellers, Edward M; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-04-01

    Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) enable initiation and maintenance of sleep in patients with primary insomnia. Blockade of the orexin system has shown reduction of drug-seeking behavior in animal studies, supporting the role of orexin antagonism as a novel approach for treating substance abuse. Since hypnotics are traditionally associated with misuse, a lack of abuse liability of DORAs would offer significant benefits over current therapies for sleep disorders. In this randomized, crossover, proof-of-concept study, single oral doses of the DORA almorexant (200, 400, and 1,000 mg) were administered to healthy subjects with previous non-therapeutic experience with central nervous system depressants and were compared with placebo and single oral doses of zolpidem (20 and 40 mg), a benzodiazepine-like drug. Subjective measures of abuse potential (visual analog scales [VAS], Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Subjective Drug Value) and objective measures (divided attention [DA]) were evaluated over 24 h post-dose in 33 evaluable subjects. Drug Liking VAS peak effect (E max; primary endpoint) was significantly higher for all doses of almorexant and zolpidem compared with placebo (p<0.001). Almorexant 200 mg showed significantly less 'Drug Liking' than both zolpidem doses (p<0.01), and almorexant 400 mg had smaller effects than zolpidem 20 mg (p<0.05), while almorexant 1,000 mg was not different from either zolpidem dose. Results were similar for other subjective measures, although almorexant generally showed smaller negative and perceptual effects compared with zolpidem. Almorexant also showed less cognitive impairment compared with zolpidem on most DA endpoints. This study in humans investigating single doses of almorexant is the first to explore and show abuse liability of a DORA, a class of compounds that is not only promising for the treatment of sleep disorders, but also of addiction.

  10. Impact of co-administration of oxycodone and smoked cannabis on analgesia and abuse liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Ramesh, Divya; Balter, Rebecca; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2018-02-05

    Cannabinoids combined with opioids produce synergistic antinociceptive effects, decreasing the lowest effective antinociceptive opioid dose (i.e., opioid-sparing effects) in laboratory animals. Although pain patients report greater analgesia when cannabis is used with opioids, no placebo-controlled studies have assessed the direct effects of opioids combined with cannabis in humans or the impact of the combination on abuse liability. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study determined if cannabis enhances the analgesic effects of low dose oxycodone using a validated experimental model of pain and its effects on abuse liability. Healthy cannabis smokers (N = 18) were administered oxycodone (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg, PO) with smoked cannabis (0.0, 5.6% Δ 9 tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) and analgesia was assessed using the Cold-Pressor Test (CPT). Participants immersed their hand in cold water (4 °C); times to report pain (pain threshold) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Abuse-related effects were measured and effects of oxycodone on cannabis self-administration were determined. Alone, 5.0 mg oxycodone increased pain threshold and tolerance (p ≤ 0.05). Although active cannabis and 2.5 mg oxycodone alone failed to elicit analgesia, combined they increased pain threshold and tolerance (p ≤ 0.05). Oxycodone did not increase subjective ratings associated with cannabis abuse, nor did it increase cannabis self-administration. However, the combination of 2.5 mg oxycodone and active cannabis produced small, yet significant, increases in oxycodone abuse liability (p ≤ 0.05). Cannabis enhances the analgesic effects of sub-threshold oxycodone, suggesting synergy, without increases in cannabis's abuse liability. These findings support future research into the therapeutic use of opioid-cannabinoid combinations for pain.

  11. LEGAL LIABILITY CONDITIONS FOR THE ABUSE OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowing that in more and more cases, the only defence of the party whose law or interest has been injured is to invoke the abuse of law, the express interdiction of the abuse of law becomes a need as an answer to the social demand for legality and equality in all legal relationships. The issues of current legislation related to the abuse of law may be analysed in the light of the social role law has, especially from the viewpoint of its function of harmonization of the individual interests with the general ones. The concrete way to express the abuse of law is represented by the exercise of the subjective law beyond its legal limits as well as the pursuit of a goal in bad faith, but other goal than the one for which the law was consecrated. The role of legal liability for the abuse of law is represented by the legal relationship of constraint whose content consists in a plurality of rights and obligations of substantive or procedural law appearing as a result of commitment of some deeds non-compliant with the model prefigured by the legal norm by which the state is entitled to hold liable the one who exercised a subjective law in bad faith cumulated with the violation of the goal for which such law was consecrated and the guilty party is going to answer for their deed and to obey the sanctions provided under the law. This paper focuses on the conditions that must be met cumulatively, in the current legislation, so that the holder of a subjective law exercised abusively may become the subject of civil, contraventional, criminal, and administrative legal liability, etc.

  12. Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningfield, Jack E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness ("abuse liability") or by enticing product designs ("product appeal") alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence "product appeal". A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer product marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abuse liability of novel 'legal high' designer stimulants: evidence from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Lucas R; Watterson, Elizabeth; Olive, Michael Foster

    2013-09-01

    In the last few years, the variety and recreational use of 'legal high' designer stimulants has increased to unprecedented levels. Since their rapid emergence in drug markets, numerous adverse physical and psychological effects have been extensively reported. However, less is understood about the potential for compulsive use of and addiction to these drugs. Recently, a small collection of scientific studies assessing the abuse liability of these drugs has emerged. This new knowledge has been derived primarily from animal studies using behaviorally based procedures which include intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference, intracranial self-stimulation, and drug discrimination. In this review we present a brief history of the recent rise in designer stimulant use followed by a short methodological description of the aforementioned procedures. We then review neurochemical and abuse liability studies on designer stimulants that have been examined to date. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of these collective findings, our current understanding of the abuse liability of these drugs in relation to each other and the illicit drugs they are designed to mimic, and recommend future research directions.

  14. Conference on Abuse Liability and Appeal of Tobacco Products: Conclusions and Recommendations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness (“abuse liability”) or by enticing product designs (“product appeal”) alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence “product appeal”. A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer products marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. PMID:21376479

  15. The Liability of Colleges and Universities for Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federally Funded Grants and Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews legal and practical aspects of a university's potential liability for fraud, waste, and abuse. Discusses the array of criminal, civil, and administrative sanctions that may be imposed on grantees who engage in fraudulent practices. (84 references) (MLF)

  16. THE FAIR VALUE OF AUTHENTIC AND TRUE METHOD OF ASSESSING THE LIABILITIES OF THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Travinska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the nature of the category “assessment” in the scientific literature and normative documents; considered the types of assessments in the domestic and international practice; the methodology to assess the fair value of liabilities in accordance with IFRS; recommended methods for assessment of certain types of current liabilities accounting. Also the author describes the case for the use of different systems assessments of reflection of economic operations of the company. Defined the essence and necessity of application of the fair value in respect of the liabilities that would provide a true assessment of the financial condition of the enterprise and rational management accounting.

  17. 76 FR 62419 - Science of Abuse Liability Assessment; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Federal Register.) If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact Ellen B. Geller... workshop will center on status, needs, new approaches, and paradigms regarding preclinical studies...

  18. Dopamine transporter-dependent and -independent striatal binding of the benztropine analog JHW 007, a cocaine antagonist with low abuse liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benztropine analog JHW 007 displays high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT), but unlike typical DAT ligands, has relatively low abuse liability and blocks effects of cocaine,including its self-administration. To determine sites responsible for the cocaine-antagonist effects of JHW 007, ...

  19. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for drugs with abuse liability: public interest, special interest, conflicts of interest, and the industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Curtis; Schnoll, Sidney; Bernstein, David

    2008-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) formerly known as Risk Minimization Action Plans (RiskMAPs) are a regulatory technique for dealing with anticipated risks of new medications and are especially important for new drugs with abuse potential. This paper describes the origin and history of risk-management plans for drugs that might be abused, the proper use of these plans in minimizing the risk to the public, and the special difficulties inherent in managing risks for drugs with abuse potential. Drugs with abuse liability are distinctive since the risks inherent in manufacture and distribution include not only risks to patients prescribed the medications, but also risks to the general public including subgroups in the population not intended to get the drug and who receive no medical benefit from the medication. The crafting of risk-management plans intended to protect nonpatient populations is unique for these products. The content, extent, and level of intensity of these plans affect areas of medical ethics, civil liability, and criminal prosecution. The need for risk-management plans for drugs with abuse liability can potentially act as a deterrent to investment and is a factor in decisions concerning the development of new medications for the treatments of pain, ADHD, anxiety disorders, and addictions. This paper provides a framework for moving the process of REMS development forward and criteria for evaluating the probity and adequacy of such programs.

  20. Preclinical assessment of the abuse potential of the orexin receptor antagonist, suvorexant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Stephanie; Gauvin, David V; Mukherjee, Suman; Briscoe, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Suvorexant (Belsomra ® ) is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of insomnia. Because of its pharmacology within the central nervous system, intended therapeutic indication, and first-in-class status, an assessment of suvorexant abuse liability potential was required prior to marketing approval. The nonclinical abuse liability potential studies for suvorexant included: 1) rat drug-dependence model to assess physical dependence following abrupt cessation; 2) rat drug-discrimination model to examine the potential similarity of the interoceptive or subjective effects of suvorexant to those elicited by zolpidem and morphine; 3) self-administration model to assess the relative reinforcing efficacy of suvorexant in rhesus monkeys conditioned to self-administer methohexital. No significant signs of spontaneous drug withdrawal or 'discontinuation syndrome' were observed in rats following abrupt discontinuation of suvorexant. Suvorexant did not elicit complete cross-generalization to either a zolpidem or morphine training/reference stimuli in rats, and suvorexant was devoid of behavioral evidence of positive reinforcing efficacy in monkeys. These nonclinical findings suggested that suvorexant will have low abuse potential in humans. In the final regulatory risk assessment, suvorexant was placed into Schedule IV, likely due to its first-in-class status, its sedative properties, and the outcome of the clinical abuse potential assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. State Liability for Abuse in Primary Schools: Systemic Failure and "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Conor

    2009-01-01

    Due to the historical arrangement between Church and State, the Irish State has always discharged its duty to provide for free primary education exclusively through the provision of funding to privately owned and managed schools. Consequently, in "O'Keeffe" v. "Hickey," where a woman sued the State in respect of sex abuse she…

  2. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [de

  3. Evidence of clonazepam abuse liability: results of the tools developed by the French Centers for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Pauly, Vanessa; Pradel, Vincent; Rouby, Frank; Arditti, Jocelyne; Thirion, Xavier; Lapeyre Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joëlle

    2011-10-01

    Recent observations suggest the existence of clonazepam abuse. To determine its importance in France, a quantitative and systematic synthesis of all clonazepam data of several epidemiological tools of the Centers for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) network has been performed in comparison with data on others benzodiazepines (BZD). Data on clonazepam and other BZD have been analysed from different epidemiological tools: OSIAP survey that identifies drugs obtained by means of falsified prescriptions, Observation of Illegal Drugs and Misuse of Psychotropic Medications (OPPIDUM) survey that describes modalities of use and data from regional French health reimbursement system. In OSIAP survey, the proportion of clonazepam falsified prescriptions among all BZD falsified prescriptions increased. During the 2006 OPPIDUM survey, the analysis of the BZD modalities of use highlights clonazepam abuse liability (for example 23% of illegal acquisition), in second rank after flunitrazepam. Studies based on data from the French health reimbursed system show that 1.5% of subjects with clonazepam dispensing had a deviant behaviour. Among BZD, clonazepam has the second most important doctor-shopping indicator (3%) after flunitrazepam. All these data provide some arguments in favour of clonazepam abuse liability in real life and the necessity to reinforce its monitoring. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  4. Quantitative determination of salvinorin A, a natural hallucinogen with abuse liability, in Internet-available Salvia divinorum and endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Xiang Lin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, recreational use of Salvia divinorum (Lamiaceae, a herbal drug that contains a hallucinogenic ingredient, salvinorin A, has become a new phenomenon among young drug users. In Taiwan, as in many other countries, dry leaves of S. divinorum and its related concentrated extract products are available via the Internet. Besides S. divinorum, there are many endemic Salvia species whose salvinorin A content is yet unknown. To understand the abuse liability of these products, the aim of this study was to assess the concentration of salvinorin A in endemic Salvia species and Internet-available salvinorin A-related products. Samples of S. divinorum were purchased via the Internet and samples of eight endemic species of Salvia were collected in Taiwan, including S. arisanensis Hayata, S. coccinea Juss. ex Murr, S. hayatana Makino ex Hayata, S. japonica Thumb. ex Murr, S. nipponica Miq. Var. formosana (Hayata Kudo, S. scapiformis Hance, S. tashiroi Hayata. Icon. PI. Formosan, and S. keitaoensis Hayata. The content of salvinorin A was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Salvinorin A was extracted from the dry leaves of S. divinorum and endemic species of Salvia with methanol and analyzed on a C-18 column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile–water. Salvinorin A was detected in S. divinorum, but not in the endemic Salvia species of Taiwan. Therefore, endemic species of Salvia in Taiwan may not possess hallucinogenic potential. However, the potential harm from S. divinorum available via the Internet should be thoroughly assessed in Taiwan, and control measures similar to those implemented in many other countries should be considered.

  5. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  6. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  7. Application of a value-based equivalency method to assess environmental damage compensation under the European Environmental Liability Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Ortega, J.; Brouwer, R.; Aiking, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) establishes a framework of liability based on the 'polluter-pays' principle to prevent and remedy environmental damage. The ELD requires the testing of appropriate equivalency methods to assess the scale of compensatory measures needed to offset damage.

  8. Protocols for the Assessment of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Wetle, Terrie

    The fact that many states have passed elder abuse reporting laws has left care providers with a dilemma. If suspected abuse is reported, the relationship between caregiver and patient may change and the family's difficulties may increase. Indicators of abuse are not easy to differentiate from health problems, especially in the frail elderly. An…

  9. Buprenorphine/naloxone as a promising therapeutic option for opioid abusing patients with chronic pain: reduction of pain, opioid withdrawal symptoms, and abuse liability of oral oxycodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Perrine; Sullivan, Maria A; Cohen, Julien; Fugon, Lionel; Jones, Jermaine D; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Cooper, Ziva D; Manubay, Jeanne M; Mogali, Shanthi; Comer, Sandra D

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have examined abuse of prescription opioids among individuals with chronic pain under buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) maintenance. The current 7-week inpatient study assessed oral oxycodone self-administration by patients with chronic pain who had a history of opioid abuse. Participants (n=25) were transitioned from their preadmission prescribed opioid to Bup/Nx. All of the participants were tested under each of the sublingual Bup/Nx maintenance doses (2/0.5, 8/2 or 16/4 mg) in random order. During each maintenance period, participants could self-administer oxycodone orally (0, 10, 20, 40 or 60 mg prescription opioids) or receive money during laboratory sessions. Drug choice (percentage) was the primary dependent variable. Subjective ratings of clinical pain and withdrawal symptoms also were measured. Mann-Whitney tests compared percentage of drug choice for each active oxycodone dose to placebo. Logistic regression analyses identified correlates of oxycodone preference, defined as 60% or greater choice of oxycodone compared to money. Pain was significantly reduced while participants were maintained on Bup/Nx compared to preadmission ratings. No differences in percentage drug choice were observed between the active oxycodone doses and placebo under each Bup/Nx maintenance dose. However, factors associated with oxycodone preference were lower Bup/Nx maintenance dose, more withdrawal symptoms and more pain. These data suggest that Bup/Nx was effective in reducing pain and supplemental oxycodone use. Importantly, adequate management of pain and withdrawal symptoms by Bup/Nx may reduce oxycodone preference in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. An Elder Abuse Assessment Team in an Acute Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Beth Israel Hospital Elder Assessment Team

    1986-01-01

    Describes a hospital-based multidisciplinary team designed to assess and respond to cases of suspected abuse or neglect of elders from both institutional and community settings. Presence of the team has increased the hospital staff's awareness of elder abuse and neglect, as well as their willingness to refer suspected cases for further assessment.…

  11. Associations of beta-endorphin with HVA and MHPG in the plasma of prepubertal boys: effects of familial drug abuse and antisocial personality disorder liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, H B; Yao, J K

    1996-06-01

    It is well-established that the secretion of the opioid neuropeptide beta-endorphin is perturbed by the administration of various drugs of abuse. Several investigators have speculated that variations in beta-endorphin secretory regulation may precede the development of a substance use disorder, and thus be a component of the liability for substance abuse. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined fasting, morning plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin and two catecholamine metabolites in prepubertal boys naive to drugs of abuse and at elevated familial risk for a substance use disorder (SA+), and in controls (SA-). Specifically, the dopaminergic metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA), and the noradrenergic metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (pMHPG) were measured. Between-group differences were not found for beta-endorphin, pHVA, or pMHPG. Similarly, such differences did not differentiate sons of fathers with Antisocial Personality Disorder and controls. However, regression analysis revealed that although both pHVA and pMHPG predicted beta-endorphin concentrations to similar degrees, the directions of influence were the opposite. pHVA was found to be positively associated with beta-endorphin while pMHPG was found to be negatively associated with beta-endorphin. No between-group differences in these relationships were found. The results suggest an opponent process in catecholaminergic regulation of beta-endorphin in humans, and are consistent with observations in the central nervous system of animal models.

  12. SAFETY ASSESSMENT AND LIABILITY REGULATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD IN THE BRICS COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. K. Balashanmugam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade of food products is expected to increase rapidly with the widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM food. There will be greater participation of developing countries based on investment as well as research and development. Investment in research and development and commercial production of GM crops is high in Asia, particularly in India and China, but also in Latin American countries, such as Brazil, and on the African continent, especially in South Africa. Despite the merits, the introduction of GM foods in the world market has continued to raise public concerns touching upon health, legal, social, ethical and environmental issues. Especially, the issue of contamination is considered asignificant threat at many stages of development of GM food. Transboundary aspects and certain aspects of the components of the food safety system such as safety assessment, liability and redress are still not completely addressed. The present study is the systematic review of the extent of the development of legislation and institutional mechanisms in relation to safety assessment and liability mechanisms for regulating the emerging GM foods in the developing countries of BRICS. Additionally, the comparison of the components of national food safety systems of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa reveals differences in policy and regulation in relation to GM food.

  13. Adolescent substance abuse. Assessment in the office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Philomena J

    2002-04-01

    There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusing substances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substance abuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substance abuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always.

  14. Opiate Drugs with Abuse Liability Hijack the Endogenous Opioid System to Disrupt Neuronal and Glial Maturation in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2017-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS) regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance) during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.

  15. Credibility assessment in child sexual abuse investigations: A descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkman, Eran P; Hershkowitz, Irit; Zur, Ronit

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge in cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) is determining the credibility of children's reports. Consequently cases may be misclassified as false or deemed 'no judgment possible'. Based on a large national sample of reports of CSA made in Israel in 2014, the study examines child and event characteristics contributing to the probability that reports of abuse would be judged credible. National data files of all children aged 3-14, who were referred for investigation following suspected victimization of sexual abuse, and had disclosed sexual abuse, were analyzed. Cases were classified as either 'credible' or 'no judgment possible'. The probability of reaching a 'credible' judgment was examined in relation to characteristics of the child (age, gender, cognitive delay, marital status of the parents,) and of the abusive event (abuse severity, frequency, perpetrator-victim relationship, perpetrator's use of grooming, and perpetrator's use of coercion), controlling for investigator's identity at the cluster level of the analysis. Of 1563 cases analyzed, 57.9% were assessed as credible. The most powerful predictors of a credible judgment were older age and absence of a cognitive delay. Reports of children to married parents, who experienced a single abusive event that involved perpetrator's use of grooming, were also more likely to be judged as credible. Rates of credible judgments found are lower than expected suggesting under-identification of truthful reports of CSA. In particular, those cases of severe and multiple abuse involving younger and cognitively delayed children are the ones with the lowest chances of being assessed as credible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving detection and quality of assessment of child abuse and partner abuse is achievable with a formal organisational change approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Russell; Ritchie, Miranda; Wilson, Mollie

    2008-03-01

    To improve detection and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse within a health service. A formal organisational change approach was used to implement the New Zealand Family Violence Intervention Guidelines in a mid-sized regional health service. The approach includes obtaining senior management support, community collaboration, developing resources to support practice, research, evaluation and training. Formal pre-post evaluations were conducted of the training. Barriers and enablers of practice change were assessed through 85 interviews with 60 staff. More than 6000 clinical records were audited to assess rates of questioning for partner abuse. Identifications of partner abuse and referrals made were counted through the Family Violence Accessory File. Referrals to the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services (CYFS) were recorded routinely by the CYFS. Audits assessed quality of assessment of child and partner abuse, when identified. More than 700 staff were trained in dual assessment for child and partner abuse. Evaluations demonstrate improved confidence following training, though staff still need support. Barriers and enablers to asking about partner abuse were identified. Referrals from the health service to the CYFS increased from 10 per quarter to 70 per quarter. Identification of partner abuse increased from 30 to 80 per 6-month period. Routine questioning rates for partner abuse vary between services. Achieving and sustaining improved rates of identification and quality of assessment of child and partner abuse is possible with a formal organisational change approach.

  17. Abuse potential assessment of propofol by its subjective effects after sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Ozlu, Onur; Baydar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Nurcan; Ozaslan, Nihal Gokbulut; Dilek, Kevser; Keske, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the euphoric effect of propofol and its high satisfaction ratio regarding its liability to be abused, particularly in painless procedures, such as colonoscopy. Fifty subjects aged between 18 and 65 years who fulfilled the criteria for ASA 1-2 and were prepared for colonoscopy were enrolled into this study. For intravenous sedation induction, 2 mg/kg propofol was used, and additional injections were administered according to BIS values. After colonoscopy, the subjects were taken to a recovery room and observed for 30 minutes. Patients were interviewed with the modified Brice questionnare regarding the incidence and the content of dreams. A 5-point Likert scale was used to classify their dreams, and the content of the dreams was also recorded. To assess the subjective effects of propofol, the patients were asked to use the Hall and Van der Castle emotion scale; their biological states were also assessed. The patients' feelings regarding propofol were each rated as absent or present. We used the Morphine-Benzedrine Group scale to measure the euphoric effects of propofol. At the end of the study, subjects scored their satisfaction on a five-point scale. There were no statistically significant differences in sex age, weight, propofol dose, or satisfaction ratio (p>0.05) in the groups, although male patients received a higher dose of propofol and had higher satisfaction ratio. Patients reported no residual after-effects. The incidence of dreaming was 42%. There was no statistically significant difference in dreaming between the sexes, but male patients had a higher dreaming ratio. Dreamers received higher propofol doses and had a higher satisfaction ratio (p>0.05). All dreamers reported happy dreams regarding daily life, and their mean MBG score was 10.5. There was no correlation between MBG scores and propofol doses (r= -0.044, p= 0.761). We conclude that propofol functions as a reward; that patients enjoy its acute effects; and that no

  18. Rapid Assessment of Drugs of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencek, Joesph R; Colby, Jennifer M; Nichols, James H

    Laboratory testing for drugs of abuse has become standard practice in many settings both forensic and clinical. Urine is the predominant specimen, but other specimens are possible including hair, nails, sweat, and oral fluid. Point-of-care test kits provide for rapid analysis at the site where specimens are collected allowing for immediate action on the results. POCT is based on immunochromatography where the drug in the patient's sample competes with drug and antibody conjugates in the test to develop or block the development of a colored line. Most POCTs are visually interpreted in a few minutes. The potential for false positives is possible due to drug cross-reactivity with the antibodies in the test. False negatives are also possible due to dilution of the sample and the potential for adulteration or sample substitution by the patient. POCT shows more variability than central laboratory testing because of the variety of operators involved in the testing process, but POCT has good agreement for most tests with mass spectrometry provided comparable cutoffs and cross-reactivity of drugs/metabolites are considered. Validation of the test performance with the intended operators will identify potential interferences and operational issues before implementing the test in routine practice. POCT offers faster turnaround of test results provided the limitations and challenges of the test are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Sexual Abuse/Attack Histories with Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…

  20. Opiate Drugs with Abuse Liability Hijack the Endogenous Opioid System to Disrupt Neuronal and Glial Maturation in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt F. Hauser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.

  1. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  2. Abuse potential assessment of propofol by its subjective?effects after sedation

    OpenAIRE

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Ozlu, Onur; Baydar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Nurcan; Ozaslan, Nihal Gokbulut; Dilek, Kevser; Keske, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the euphoric effect of propofol and its high satisfaction ratio regarding its liability to be abused, particularly in painless procedures, such as colonoscopy. Methods: Fifty subjects aged between 18 and 65 years who fulfilled the criteria for ASA 1-2 and were prepared for colonoscopy were enrolled into this study. For intravenous sedation induction, 2 mg/kg propofol was used, and additional injections were administered according to BIS values. After colo...

  3. Lessons learned from the EG ampersand G consolidated hazardous waste subcontract and ESH ampersand Q liability assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N.J.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and disposal contracts were first consolidated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1992 by EG and G Idaho, Inc. At that time, disposition of Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste, Toxic Substance Control Act waste, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act hazardous substances and contaminated media, and recyclable hazardous materials was consolidated under five subcontracts. The wastes were generated by five different INEL M and O contractors, under the direction of three different Department of Energy field offices. The consolidated contract reduced the number of facilities handling INEL waste from 27 to 8 qualified treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, with brokers specifically prohibited. This reduced associated transportation costs, amount and cost of contractual paperwork, and environmental liability exposure. EG and G reviewed this approach and proposed a consolidated hazardous waste subcontract be formed for the major EG and G managed DOE sites: INEL, Mound, Rocky Flats, Nevada Test Site, and 10 satellite facilities. After obtaining concurrence from DOE Headquarters, this effort began in March 1992 and was completed with the award of two master task subcontracts in October and November 1993. In addition, the effort included a team to evaluate the apparent awardee's facilities for environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH and Q) and financial liability status. This report documents the evaluation of the process used to prepare, bid, and award the EG and G consolidated hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and/or disposal subcontracts and associated ESH and Q and financial liability assessments; document the strengths and weaknesses of the process; and propose improvements that would expedite and enhance the process for other DOE installations that used the process and for the re-bid of the consolidated subcontract

  4. Lessons learned from the EG&G consolidated hazardous waste subcontract and ESH&Q liability assessment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N.J.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and disposal contracts were first consolidated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1992 by EG&G Idaho, Inc. At that time, disposition of Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste, Toxic Substance Control Act waste, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act hazardous substances and contaminated media, and recyclable hazardous materials was consolidated under five subcontracts. The wastes were generated by five different INEL M&O contractors, under the direction of three different Department of Energy field offices. The consolidated contract reduced the number of facilities handling INEL waste from 27 to 8 qualified treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, with brokers specifically prohibited. This reduced associated transportation costs, amount and cost of contractual paperwork, and environmental liability exposure. EG&G reviewed this approach and proposed a consolidated hazardous waste subcontract be formed for the major EG&G managed DOE sites: INEL, Mound, Rocky Flats, Nevada Test Site, and 10 satellite facilities. After obtaining concurrence from DOE Headquarters, this effort began in March 1992 and was completed with the award of two master task subcontracts in October and November 1993. In addition, the effort included a team to evaluate the apparent awardee`s facilities for environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH&Q) and financial liability status. This report documents the evaluation of the process used to prepare, bid, and award the EG&G consolidated hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and/or disposal subcontracts and associated ESH&Q and financial liability assessments; document the strengths and weaknesses of the process; and propose improvements that would expedite and enhance the process for other DOE installations that used the process and for the re-bid of the consolidated subcontract, scheduled for 1997.

  5. Numerical Assessment of the Influences of Gas Pressure on Coal Burst Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When coal mines exploit deep seams with high-gas content, risks are encountered due to the additional high likelihood of rock bursting potential problems. The bursts of coal pillars usually lead to severe fatalities, injuries, and destruction of property, including impeding access to active mine workings underground. The danger exists given that conditions in the already highly brittle coal material can be exacerbated by high stress and high gas pressure conditions. It is thus critical to develop methods that improve current understanding about bursting liability, and techniques to forecast or prevent coal bursting in underground coal mines. This study uses field data from a deep coal mine, and numerical modeling to investigate the effects of gas pressure and mechanical compressive stresses on coal bursting liability in high gas content coal seams. The bursting energy index is adopted to determine the coal bursting liability under high gas pressure conditions. The adopted methodology uses a two-staged approach comprising investigating the influence of gas pressure on the bursting liability of coal pillar, and the influence of the gas pressure on the resulting pillar failure mode. Based on numerical simulations of coal pillars, correlations are observed between the magnitudes of gas pressures and the bursting energy index. Irrespective of pillar size, failure time is shortest when the gas pressure achieves a threshold value between 50 kPa to 70 kPa. At 50 kPa, the value of the BEI increases by 50% going from the 4 m pillar to the 6 m pillar. The value of the BEI increases by 43% going from the 6 m high pillar to the 8 m high pillar at 50 kPa. When pillars fail there is a degree of stress relief leading to a reduction in bursting liability. The results suggest that before 50 kPa, pillar failure is largely due to mechanical loading. After 50 kPa, pillar failure is largely due to excessive gas pressures.

  6. Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of violence in youngsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,

  7. Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of Violence in youngsters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,

  8. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  9. Treating Women Drug Abusers: Action Therapy and Trauma Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhler, Ann S.; Parker, Olga V.

    2002-01-01

    The authors suggest that action therapy, a group of techniques including psychodrama, drama therapy, and role training, warrants research attention to determine whether it is well suited to the special characteristics and needs of women clients. In addition, the authors call on researchers to develop a new standardized tool for counselors to use during initial interviews to determine whether women presenting for drug abuse treatment also have significant issues related to trauma. The authors believe the use of unassisted clinical judgment for trauma assessment in first interviews may drive patients away by probing for painful information that clients are not yet ready to confront or divulge. PMID:18567963

  10. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  11. Concepts of nuclear liability revisited: a post-Chernobyl assessment of the Paris and the Vienna Conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    1988-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl caused evident damage to third parties. Nuclear third party liability law was applicable. It is thus timely to reassess the concept of the international civil nuclear liability regulations, with special reference to the accident and the proceedings which resulted from it. The first section deals with the basis of liability - the origin and development of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, various aspects of liability and international implementation of the Convention. The second part considers the limitations on the liability and the third part looks at recent developments and future prospects which include the draft of a joint protocol. (U.K.)

  12. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  13. Improving the Clinical Pharmacologic Assessment of Abuse Potential: Part 2: Optimizing the Design of Human Abuse Potential Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Edward M

    2018-04-01

    This article discusses the conduct of a human abuse potential study as outlined in the Food and Drug Administration Final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential. In addition, areas where alternative approaches should be considered are proposed. The design, end points, conduct, and interpretation of the human abuse potential study were reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk and expedite drug development. The guidance is based on regulatory needs and current scientific practices. However, the reliability and utility of such studies can be improved with better subject selection, data collection, standardization of data collection and staff training, and a better understanding of the measurement properties of the dependent measures. The guidance provides a useful framework for conduct of human abuse potential studies. However, design assumptions, poor choice of end points, failure to consider alternate approaches, and limited experience with interpretation can result in an inadequate study or one that does not fairly represent the abuse potential of a new chemical entity. Methodologic development is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework. The Food and Drug Administration or the National Institutes on Drug Abuse could take a targeted initiative to encourage this work.

  14. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Teicher

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE. However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X with

  15. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  16. Animal abuse and exposure to interparental violence in Italy: assessing the cycle of violence in youngsters

    OpenAIRE

    Baldry, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved than girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been exposed to violence by fathers against mothers or by mothers against fathers, with no gender differences. Results are...

  17. An assessment of Internet Abuse in Nigeria | Ezema | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is behavior that has been labeled Internet abuse symptomatic of other problems such as depression, sexual disorders, or loneliness in Nigeria? What are alternative explanations for this phenomenon? Is there adequate research to support Internet abuse as a distinct disorder? Key words: Internet, Packet Switching, World ...

  18. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Men Who Abuse Their Spouses: An Approach to Assessing Future Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Herbert R.

    1990-01-01

    Studied risk assessment for abuse cases by examining cases (N=20) referred to local spouse treatment center. Focused on woman's perception of mate's personality/behavioral characteristics and relationship plus other situational factors. Confirmed majority of risk factors associated with spouse abuse as reported in the literature. Presents pilot…

  20. THE LIABILITY FORMS OF THE MEDICAL PERSONNEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bărcan, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation, namely Law no. 95/2006 on healthcare reform in the medical malpractice domain stipulates that medical staff can be held accountable in the following forms: disciplinary liability, administrative liability, civil liability and criminal liability. Each form of legal liability presents its features, aspects that are found mainly in the procedural rules. However, the differences between the various legal forms of liability are not met only in the procedural rules but also in their effects and consequences. It is necessary to know what the procedure for disciplinary responsibility, administrative liability, civil liability, or criminal liability is. In addition to the differentiation determined by the consequences that may arise from the different forms of legal liability, it is important to know the competent authorities to investigate a case further and the solutions which various public institutions can take regarding the medical staff. Depending on the type of legal liability, authorities have a specialized authority. If the Disciplinary Committee is encountered at the College of Physicians, it may not intervene in cases before the monitoring and competence for malpractice cases Committee. The latter two committees cannot intervene directly in the legal assessment of civil or criminal cases, as no criminal investigation authorities cannot intervene in strictly civilian cases. Therefore, the importance of knowing the competent institutions is imperative.

  1. Nuclear Liability and Insurance Protection for Nuclear Transport Accidents Involving Non-Contracting EU States: An assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the possible complications and consequences with respect to nuclear liability and insurance protection applicable in respect of transport activities resulting in damage suffered and/or accidents occurring in EU States that are not party to the Paris Convention. It looks at the different legal aspects (jurisdiction, applicable law, liability amounts, reciprocity) should the revised Vienna and Paris Convention become applicable in comparison with the unrevised Conventions. Within Europe, a large number of States are party to the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention, providing liability and insurance protection, in general, up to a limit of 300 million SDRs (or even higher). In principle, such protection is confined to nuclear incidents occurring and nuclear damage suffered in the territory of Contracting Parties, including, as recommended, the high seas, unless the legislation of the Installation State determines otherwise (Article 2). The geographical scope of application of the Paris Convention would thus vary according to the law of the Installation State. However, some EU States never became party to the Paris Convention, and are not bound by its the liability principles (notably, channelling of liability), such as Austria, Luxembourg and Ireland. Transport accidents involving these countries might therefore result in liability claims outside the treaty liability regime against operators, suppliers, carriers or persons involved and for types of damages different from those currently covered by the Paris Convention (e.g., environmental damage). It is uncertain to what extent liability insurance of the installation operators would provide adequate protection and whether related damage claims can be enforceable. In addition, a number of newly entered EU States are party to the Vienna Convention, which, although bound by liability principles basically similar to those of the Paris Convention, will

  2. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Kewm, Do Hun

    2005-01-01

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, ρ =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 ± 0.20 vs 3.04 ± 0.27, ρ =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, ρ =0.012, r=-0.924, ρ =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers

  3. Dopamine transporter density of the basal ganglia assessed with I-123 IPT SPECT in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Ryung; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kewm, Do Hun [National Bugok Mental Hospital, Changryung (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-10-15

    Functional imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) defines integrity of the dopaminergic system, and DAT is the target site of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Functional imaging the DAT may be a sensitive and selective indicator of neurotoxic change by the drug. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical implications of qualitative/quantitative analyses of dopamine transporter imaging in methamphetamine abusers. Six detoxified methamphetamine abusers (abuser group) and 4 volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. Brain MRI was performed in all of abuser group. Abuser group underwent psychiatric and depression assessment using brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD), respectively. All of the subjects underwent I-123 IPT SPECT (IPT SPECT). IPT SPECT image was analysed with visual qualitative method and quantitative method using basal ganglia dopamine transporter (DAT) specific/non-specific binding ratio (SBR). Comparison of DAT SBR between abuser and control groups was performed. We also performed correlation tests between psychiatric and depression assessment results and DAT SBR in abuser group. All of abuser group showed normal MRI finding, but had residual psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and psychiatric and depressive symptom scores were exactly correlated (r=1.0, {rho} =0.005) each other. Five of them showed abnormal finding on qualitative visual I-123 IPT SPECT. Abuser group had lower basal ganglia DAT SBR than that of control (2.38 {+-} 0.20 vs 3.04 {+-} 0.27, {rho} =0.000). Psychiatric and depressive symptoms were negatively well correlated with basal ganglia DAT SBR (r=-0.908, {rho} =0.012, r=-0.924, {rho} =0.009) This results suggest that dopamine transporter imaging using I-123 IPT SPECT may be used to evaluate dopaminergic system of the basal ganglia and the clinical status in methamphetamine abusers.

  4. Substance Abuse Intensive Outpatient Programs: Assessing the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Braude, Lisa; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Substance abuse intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) are direct services for people with substance use disorders or co-occurring mental and substance use disorders who do not require medical detoxification or 24-hour supervision. IOPs are alternatives to inpatient and residential treatment. They are designed to establish psychosocial supports and facilitate relapse management and coping strategies. This article assesses their evidence base. Methods Authors searched major databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. They identified 12 individual studies and one review published between 1995 and 2012. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) based on benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. Results Based on the quality of trials, diversity of settings, and consistency of outcomes, the level of evidence for IOP research was considered high. Multiple randomized trials and naturalistic analyses compared IOPs with inpatient or residential care; these types of services had comparable outcomes. All studies reported substantial reductions in alcohol and drug use between baseline and follow-up. However, substantial variability in the operationalization of IOPs and outcome measures was apparent. Conclusions IOPs are an important part of the continuum of care for alcohol and drug use disorders. They are as effective as inpatient treatment for most individuals seeking care. Public and commercial health plans should consider IOP treatment as a covered health benefit. Standardization of the elements included in IOPs may improve their quality and effectiveness. PMID:24445620

  5. Intangible liabilities: beyond models of intellectual assets

    OpenAIRE

    García Parra, Mercedes; Simó Guzmán, Pep; Sallán Leyes, José María; Mundet Hiern, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Most models of intellectual capital measurment equal intellectual capital with intellectual assets. Nevertheless, companies sometimes must incur liabilities to make intellectual assets truly actionable. This fact suggests the existence of intangible liabilities. The aim of this paper is to refine the methods of assessment of intellectual capital by refining and extending the concept of intangible liabilities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper consists of a literature revi...

  6. Risk assessment for drugs of abuse in the Dutch watercycle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, M.; Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; Dijkman, E.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; van de Ven, B.M.; Hernández, F.; Versteegh, A.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    A screening campaign of drugs of abuse (DOA) and their relevant metabolites in the aqueous environment was performed in the Netherlands. The presence of DOA, together with the potential risks for the environment and the possible human exposure to these compounds through consumption of drinking water

  7. 1999 ESH&Q Liability Assessment Report of Envirocare of Utah, Inc. Clive, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, D. E. [INEEL; Vilord, C. E.

    1999-07-01

    This report contains the results of an environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH&Q) assessment of the treatment technologies and treatment-related operations that was conducted of Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (EOU). EOU is a lowlevel radioactive and mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)- regulated haz.ardous low-level radioactive waste (mixed low-level waste) treatment/disposal facility located near Clive, Utah. An ESH&Q assessment of the EOU Clive, Utah facility treatment technologies and related treatment operations was conducted in mid-April 1999. The assessment was required as part of the technical evaluation of proposals received by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) for modification of a mixed low-level radioactive waste disposal subcontract (No.K79-180572). The EOU Clive, Utah facility is proposed as a potential treatment/disposal facility for mixed low-level radioactive waste regulated under the RCRA and the Atomic Energy Act

  8. Risk based In Vitro Performance Assessment of Extended Release Abuse Deterrent Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Calderon, Silvia N.; Khan, Mansoor A.

    2016-01-01

    High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain products or solvents. One approach to deter opioid drug abuse is by providing novel abuse deterrent formulations (ADF), with properties that may be viewed as barriers to abuse of the product. However, unlike regular extended release formulations, assessment of ADF technologies are challenging, in part due to the great variety of formulation designs available to achieve deterrence of abuse by oral, parenteral, nasal and respiratory routes. With limited prior history or literature information, and lack of compendial standards, evaluation and regulatory approval of these novel drug products become increasingly difficult. The present article describes a risk-based standardized in-vitro approach that can be utilized in general evaluation of abuse deterrent features for all ADF products. PMID:26784976

  9. Statins and daptomycin: safety assessment of concurrent use and evaluation of drug interaction liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, Larry K; Barber, Gerard R; Barron, Michelle A; Page, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Acute muscle injury and potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis may occur with use of statins and certain interacting medications. This investigation assessed risk for myopathy in patients receiving treatment with a statin in combination with daptomycin, a medication also associated with muscle injury. Patients hospitalized from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2010, who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin concurrently with daptomycin were identified and their medical records were examined. Patients were judged to have treatment-related muscle injury if their records contained evidence of myalgia with or without weakness and secondarily impaired mobility together with elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels. These assessments were compared with similar data from hospitalized patients who received a statin alone. A total of 52 patients received 66 courses of concurrent treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin. Of these, no patient (0%) met evidentiary requirements for diagnosis of myopathy or related complications. No patient (0%) developed muscle pain or discomfort and none developed markedly elevated CK levels. The incidence of asymptomatic elevations of CK in these simvastatin or rosuvastatin plus daptomycin recipients (9%) was statistically indistinguishable from the incidence of CK elevations found in a cohort of 105 inpatients who received simvastatin or rosuvastatin alone (21%; p=0.135). In patients receiving treatment with simvastatin or rosuvastatin and daptomycin, no symptoms or objective evidence of muscle injury attributable to a drug interaction were identified. These findings are consistent with data indicating that the myopathic effects of statins and daptomycin are incited by disparate and perhaps unique pharmacological mechanisms. Risk of muscle injury therefore appears to be no greater when a statin is administered with daptomycin than when either medication is used alone.

  10. Trichobezoar in Vagina: Assessment for Child Sexual Abuse and Diagnostic Result of Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağ, Özlem; Acar, Buğra Han; Öztürk, Şenol; Alşen, Sevay; Ecevit, Çiğdem

    2017-03-01

    Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure. Child sexual abuse was ruled out by forensic interview at CAC and report of forensic science that reported genetic structure belonging to the child. Medicolegal assessment helped in final diagnosis to exclude child sexual abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Caco-2 Permeability Studies and In Vitro hERG Liability Assessment of Tryptanthrin and Indolinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, Evelyn A; Eigenmann, Daniela E; Moradi-Afrapoli, Fahimeh; Verjee, Sheela; Butterweck, Veronika; Hebeisen, Simon; Hettich, Timm; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Smieško, Martin; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2016-08-01

    Tryptanthrin and (E,Z)-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)indolinone (indolinone) were recently isolated from Isatis tinctoria as potent anti-inflammatory and antiallergic alkaloids, and shown to inhibit COX-2, 5-LOX catalyzed leukotriene synthesis, and mast cell degranulation at low µM to nM concentrations. To assess their suitability for oral administration, we screened the compounds in an in vitro intestinal permeability assay using human colonic adenocarcinoma cells. For exact quantification of the compounds, validated UPLC-MS/MS methods were used. Tryptanthrin displayed high permeability (apparent permeability coefficient > 32.0 × 10(-6) cm/s) across the cell monolayer. The efflux ratio below 2 ( 10 µM) and indolinone (IC50 of 24.96 µM). The analysis of compounds using various in silico methods confirmed favorable pharmacokinetic properties, as well as a slight inhibition of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channel at micromolar concentrations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Managing nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of managing liabilities in the nuclear industry and considers the main ingredients which make for successful liabilities management. It looks specifically at UKAEA's experience to date and lists its key management principles, including the use of the liabilities management ratio which is the company's current bottom-line performance measure. (Author)

  13. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  14. Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbec, Enrique; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2016-03-02

    There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options. Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court.

  15. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  16. Telemetry video-electroencephalography (EEG) in rats, dogs and non-human primates: methods in follow-up safety pharmacology seizure liability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Leanne; Troncy, Eric; Pouliot, Mylene; Paquette, Dominique; Ascah, Alexis; Authier, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Non-clinical seizure liability studies typically aim to: 1) confirm the nature of EEG activity during abnormal clinical signs, 2) identify premonitory clinical signs, 3) measure plasma levels at seizure onset, 4) demonstrate that drug-induced seizures are self-limiting, 5) confirm that conventional drugs (e.g. diazepam) can treat drug-induced seizures and 6) confirm the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) at EEG. Our aim was to originally characterize several of these items in a three species comparative study. Cynomolgus monkey, Beagle dog and Sprague-Dawley rat with EEG telemetry transmitters were used to obtain EEG using the 10-20 system. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was used to determine seizure threshold or as a positive seizurogenic agent. Clinical signs were recorded and premonitory signs were evaluated. In complement, other pharmacological agents were used to illustrate various safety testing strategies. Intravenous PTZ doses required to induce clonic convulsions were 36.1 (3.8), 56.1 (12.7) and 49.4 (11.7) mg/kg, in Beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. Premonitory clinical signs typically included decreased physical activity, enhanced physiological tremors, hypersalivation, ataxia, emesis (except in rats) and myoclonus. In Sprague-Dawley rats, amphetamine (PO) increased high (approximately 40-120Hz), and decreased low (1-14Hz) frequencies. In cynomolgus monkeys, caffeine (IM) increased power in high (14-127Hz), and attenuated power in low (1-13Hz) frequencies. In the rat PTZ infusion seizure threshold model, yohimbine (SC and IV) and phenobarbital (IP) confirmed to be reliable positive controls as pro- and anticonvulsants, respectively. Telemetry video-EEG for seizure liability investigations was characterized in three species. Rats represent a first-line model in seizure liability assessments. Beagle dogs are often associated with overt susceptibility to seizure and are typically used in seizure liability studies only if

  17. Analog assessment of frustration tolerance: association with self-reported child abuse risk and physiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Kircher, John C

    2015-08-01

    Although frustration has long been implicated in promoting aggression, the potential for poor frustration tolerance to function as a risk factor for physical child abuse risk has received minimal attention. Instead, much of the extant literature has examined the role of anger in physical abuse risk, relying on self-reports of the experience or expression of anger, despite the fact that this methodology is often acknowledged as vulnerable to bias. Therefore, the present investigation examined whether a more implicit, analog assessment of frustration tolerance specifically relevant to parenting would reveal an association with various markers of elevated physical child abuse risk in a series of samples that varied with regard to age, parenting status, and abuse risk. An analog task was designed to evoke parenting-relevant frustration: the task involved completing an unsolvable task while listening to a crying baby or a toddler's temper tantrum; time scores were generated to gauge participants' persistence in the task when encountering such frustration. Across these studies, low frustration tolerance was associated with increased physical child abuse potential, greater use of parent-child aggression in discipline encounters, dysfunctional disciplinary style, support for physical discipline use and physical discipline escalation, and increased heart rate. Future research directions that could better inform intervention and prevention programs are discussed, including working to clarify the processes underlying frustration intolerance and potential interactive influences that may exacerbate physical child abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of socioeconomic consequences of drug abuse in the Ural federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa Aleksandrovna Gurban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers issues of the assessment of the socioeconomic consequences of drug abuse in today’s conditions, which have the following features — the approaching of drug-dealers to legalize the drug market, develop the illegal drug market and their analogs and derivatives by the introduction of modern production technologies and distribution of psychoactive agents. Key tendencies observed in the contemporary world in the field of dynamics of the drug market development, which are reflected in the regions of Russia including the Ural Federal District are revealed. The procedure of assessment of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse including assessment of drug consumers’ expenses and their surrounding people; and also; maintenance costs of the state bodies supervising drug trafficking; expenses for health care and other social expenses connected to drug use; damage to individuals of drug abuse distribution; expenses of private institutions and establishments; socioeconomic impact of drug abuse distribution. The technique uses a tool allowing to carry out a calculation (a heroin equivalent, i.e. the drugs withdrawn by law enforcement agencies and the subsequent calculation of the corresponding number of consumers of each type of drug. This method is aimed at increasing the accuracy of estimates received. On the basis of results calculated according to offered technique, the shares of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse concerning the income of the cumulative consolidated budget and a gross regional product of the Ural Federal District are defined.

  19. Identifying and assessing the risk of opioid abuse in patients with cancer: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael AN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ashley-Nicole Carmichael,1 Laura Morgan,1 Egidio Del Fabbro2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Background: The misuse and abuse of opioid medications in many developed nations is a health crisis, leading to increased health-system utilization, emergency department visits, and overdose deaths. There are also increasing concerns about opioid abuse and diversion in patients with cancer, even at the end of life. Aims: To evaluate the current literature on opioid misuse and abuse, and more specifically the identification and assessment of opioid-abuse risk in patients with cancer. Our secondary aim is to offer the most current evidence of best clinical practice and suggest future directions for research. Materials and methods: Our integrative review included a literature search using the key terms “identification and assessment of opioid abuse in cancer”, “advanced cancer and opioid abuse”, “hospice and opioid abuse”, and “palliative care and opioid abuse”. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase were supplemented by a manual search. Results: We found 691 articles and eliminated 657, because they were predominantly noncancer populations or specifically excluded cancer patients. A total of 34 articles met our criteria, including case studies, case series, retrospective observational studies, and narrative reviews. The studies were categorized into screening questionnaires for opioid abuse or alcohol, urine drug screens to identify opioid misuse or abuse, prescription drug-monitoring programs, and the use of universal precautions. Conclusion: Screening questionnaires and urine drug screens indicated at least one in five patients with cancer may be at risk of opioid-use disorder. Several studies demonstrated associations between high-risk patients and clinical outcomes, such as aberrant behavior, prolonged opioid use, higher morphine-equivalent daily dose

  20. Revision of the Word Association Test for assessing associations of patients reporting satanic ritual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, F; Labott, S M

    1998-11-01

    A growing number of psychiatric patients report satanic ritual abuse, prompting research into this controversial area. In the current study, the Word Association Test (WAT) was modified to assess experience with satanic abuse. Pilot work resulted in norms for two domains: normative and satanic. Female psychiatric patients were compared on their associations in two studies. Based on a sexual history, they were grouped into those reporting sexual abuse, those reporting satanic ritual abuse (SRA), and those without a history of sexual abuse (controls). In both studies, SRA patients gave significantly more total associations, significantly fewer normative associations, and significantly more satanic associations than did the other two groups. These results suggest that an experience base is shared by individuals reporting SRA that is not found in individuals who do not report satanic abuse (even if they do report sexual abuse). The implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of arguments advanced by advocates and critics of SRA.

  1. Assessing Quality of Care and Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes via Google Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Jared; Andrei, Amanda; Le, Elizabeth; Jian, Jing; Ward, Megan

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to assess the quality of care and detect elder abuse in nursing homes, since patients may be incapable of reporting quality issues or abuse themselves, and resources for sending inspectors are limited. This study correlates Google reviews of nursing homes with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) inspection results in the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) data set, to quantify the extent to which the reviews reflect the quality of care and the presence of elder abuse. A total of 16,160 reviews were collected, spanning 7,170 nursing homes. Two approaches were tested: using the average rating as an overall estimate of the quality of care at a nursing home, and using the average scores from a maximum entropy classifier trained to recognize indications of elder abuse. The classifier achieved an F-measure of 0.81, with precision 0.74 and recall 0.89. The correlation for the classifier is weak but statistically significant: = 0.13, P nursing homes can be used to detect indications of elder abuse with high precision and to assess the quality of care, but only when a sufficient number of reviews are available.

  2. Assessment of knowledge and attitudes of dental students in regard to child abuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar Bodrumlu, E; Avşar, A; Arslan, S

    2018-02-01

    Child abuse is a serious public problem. Signs of abuse are often present in the oro-facial region and dentists are in a strategic position to recognise and report suspected cases. The aim of this study was to investigate dental students' knowledge about and attitudes towards child abuse. This study was performed at the Faculty of Dentistry of the Ondokuz Mayis University. The data were collected through a self-report questionnaire administered to dental students (137 female/111 male) in three different dental classes (third, fourth and fifth study years) and grouped by considering those students who have been training in the school year of 2013. The definition of physical and social indicators of abuse, awareness regarding legal and ethical responsibilities, students' experience and requests made by students were evaluated by the students' response to questions put in the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed to analyse the questionnaire data. The questionnaire completion rate was 100%. About 67.74% of the third year, 40.71% of the fourth year and 16.67% of the fifth year believed that they could detect child abuse cases. However, results indicated a major lack of knowledge of social indicators, signs of physical abuse and reporting procedure amongst all respondents. The assessment of the total correct answers exhibited significant differences amongst third-, fourth- and fifth-year students' answers. Fifth-year students had the highest rate of correct responses (P < 0.05). Most students wanted to receive more knowledge about this topic. Dental students in Turkey are not sufficiently prepared for their role in diagnosing suspected cases of child abuse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Residential Treatment for Sexually Abusive Youth: An Assessment of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher D.; Chancey, Roy; Lowe, Laura A.; Risler, Edwin A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research study assesses the effectiveness of participation in a multimodal/holistic residential treatment program on changing deviant sexual interests and functional impairment among sexually abusive youth. Method: A one-group pretest posttest design was utilized to examine pretest (intake) and posttest (discharge) scores for 58…

  4. Elder Abuse and Neglect: Assessment Tools, Interventions, and Recommendations for Effective Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbody, Bethany; Vandsburger, Etty

    2011-01-01

    With our communities rapidly aging, there is always a clear need for greater knowledge on how to serve elders. Professionals must be able to recognize cases of abuse and neglect and provide appropriate follow up services. Through reviewing recent literature, this paper surveys existing assessment tools and interventions, describes characteristics…

  5. Ecological Assessment of Substance-abuse Experiences (EASE): findings from a new instrument development pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C; Miller, Keith; Spera, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    A newly developed instrument that assesses a client's orientation to addiction or recovery communities using social context referents was pilot tested with a sample of 103 adults seeking treatment for substance abuse at outpatient and residential treatment facilities on the East Coast. Preliminary findings show promising subscale reliabilities, and suggest that drug- and recovery-related social identities are related to drug-use severity and drug-use concern; and drug-related attitudinal congruence between the treatment-seeker and family and treatment-seeker and other significant persons are related to intention to make behavioral changes in reducing substance abuse.

  6. Assessing the level of elder abuse knowledge preprofessionals possess: implications for the further development of university curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policastro, Christina; Payne, Brian K

    2014-01-01

    Elder abuse is a multifaceted problemthat requires interdisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies. An important question that arises is whether professionals are adequately prepared to address elder abuse in this collaborative network. Unfortunately, no studies have been conducted to assess the varying levels of knowledge that preprofessionals enrolled in university courses possess with regard to elder abuse. To fill this void, this study assesses the levels of elder abuse awareness among social work, nursing, health professions, and criminal justice students. Specific attention is given to determining whether there are differences in the amount of exposure to elder abuse literature across the disciplines. The study involves the analysis of survey data collected from 202 students enrolled in health and human sciences classes at a large university. Results show that none of the preprofessional groups, on average, reported knowing enough about elder abuse. Implications for future practice and research are provided.

  7. [The characteristics of sexual offenders abusing alcohol in view of forensic-psychiatric assessments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. Play Room as an psychological assessment method in cases of alleged child sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelskjær, Marie

    2017-01-01

    of Play Room from prevention into clinical assessment, in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Taking its starting point in the theory of Jean Laplanche, this article will discuss how psychoanalytic concepts such as seduction, translation, asymmetry, absence, and listening to listening can be used......This article presents an example of how psychoanalytic theory can be implemented in practice. The aim is to introduce and discuss the semi-projective material ‘Play Room’ which was originally developed to support prevention of sexual abuse among vulnerable children in Denmark. However, a recent...... study has shown that, when measured with a scale called Ability to Answer, children exposed to sexual abuse talked about the illustrations in Play Room in a significantly different way than did a clinical sample and a normal control group. The finding indicates the potential for expanding the scope...

  9. Nuclear Liability Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, S.

    2016-01-01

    The principles of the nuclear liability regime, including their application to the case of transport, are described in the IAEA Handbook on Nuclear Law, and will not be repeated in this paper. Rather, this paper examines some specific aspects of liability during transport, and particularly draws on some of the work of the IAEA International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX). In that regard, particular reference is made to the Explanatory Texts published in 2004

  10. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  11. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  12. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  13. Assessing abuse risk beyond self-report: analog task of acceptability of parent-child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Russa, Mary Bower; Harmon, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The present investigation reports on the development and initial validation of a new analog task, the Parent-Child Aggression Acceptability Movie Task (P-CAAM), intended to assess respondents' acceptance of parent-child aggression, including both physical discipline and physical abuse. Two independent samples were utilized to develop and evaluate the P-CAAM: an undergraduate sample to initially pilot the task and a separate sample of normative parents for additional assessment of validity. Scores from the P-CAAM were compared to related measures, including measures of self-reported disciplinary attitudes, child abuse potential, harsh parenting style, and use and escalation of physical discipline practices on another analog parenting task. Across the studies, the P-CAAM demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and construct validity, evidencing mild to moderate associations with both self-report and analog measures. Participants demonstrating increased acceptance of physical discipline and physical abuse on the P-CAAM analog task also reported greater approval of physical discipline, greater use of and escalation of physical discipline, harsher parenting styles, and higher child abuse potential on two separate measures. The P-CAAM analog appears to offer a promising alternative and/or supplement to conventional self-report measures, assessing attitudes regarding the acceptability of parent-child aggression in a way that is less likely to be influenced by social desirability. Suggestions for future evaluations with alternative samples, as well as possible implications of the data for disciplinary reactions are discussed. The development of alternatives to self-report measurement may lead to clarification of theoretical models of abuse in ways that lead to improvements in intervention programming; analogs may also provide a useful means to assess intervention programming outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Practitioner review: The victims and juvenile perpetrators of child sexual abuse--assessment and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizard, Eileen

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger children or sexually abusive adolescents. A developmental approach to assessment and treatment intervention is essential in all these cases. This review examines research on the characteristics of child victims and perpetrators of CSA. It describes evidence-based approaches to assessment and treatment of both groups of children. A selective review of MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, and other databases was undertaken. Recommendations are made for clinical practice and future research. The characteristics of CSA victims are well known and those of juvenile perpetrators of sexual abuse are becoming recognized. Assessment approaches for both groups of children should be delivered within a safeguarding context where risk to victims is minimized. Risk assessment instruments should be used only as adjuncts to a full clinical assessment. Given high levels of psychiatric comorbidity, assessment, treatment, and other interventions should be undertaken by mental health trained staff. Victims and perpetrators of CSA present challenges and opportunities for professional intervention. Their complex presentations mean that their needs should be met by highly trained staff. However, their youth and developmental immaturity also give an opportunity to nip problem symptoms and behaviors in the bud. The key is in the earliest possible intervention with both groups. Future research should focus on long-term adult outcomes for both child victims and children who perpetrate CSA. Adult outcomes of treated children could identify problems and/or strengths in parenting the next generation and also the persistence and/or desistence of sexualized or abusive

  15. Condom use assessment of persons in drug abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dana; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively and quantitatively assess individual skill level of male condom use. This study developed a reliable and face valid assessment of correct male condom use based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Participants (N= 163) were recruited from persons in treatment for cocaine addiction. Condom use was assessed on the basis of correct completion of eight discrete steps. An overall score of 40% correct condom use indicated the need for training in this sample. Assessment showed training needs especially related to steps involving reduction of ejaculate leakage and steps related to potential hazards of nonoxynol-9 use. Frequency of condom use was also assessed; there was no correlation between frequency of condom use and condom use skill. Drug addiction treatment programs are encouraged to incorporate HIV risk reduction programs that teach condom use skills and use the CUDOS as an empirical measure of condom skill acquisition.

  16. The College Professor's Professional Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Walter S.; Rubin, Harvey W.

    1977-01-01

    The growing number of professional liability suits against professors warrants a close examination of the need for and provisions of available insurance coverage. The evolution of tort liability, the question of negligence, and the professional liability policy are discussed. (LBH)

  17. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  18. Assets, liabilities and risks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Thomson

    2014-01-01

    Financial economists and actuaries do not always talk the same language. One particular difference of concern to actuaries is the method of treatment (or non-treatment) of the liabilities of an investor in the portfolio selection problem. Another difference relates to the way in which liabilities are valued. In this paper, these differences are discussed and possible way forward are suggested.

  19. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  20. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  1. Motivational versus confrontational interviewing: a comparison of substance abuse assessment practices at employee assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R J; Casey, J; Kohn, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a quasi-experimental comparison of two employee assistance program (EAP) assessment approaches with substance abusers: confrontational interviewing (CI) and motivational interviewing (MI). A total of 176 EAP clients from 14 study sites met the study criteria, and 89 (51%) agreed to participate in the study. At three and nine months postassessment, both the MI and CI groups showed similar changes in readiness for change, completion of initial treatment plans, and subsequent treatment. Most important, both the MI and CI participants showed significant and comparable improvement on all of the substance abuse baseline measures as well as measures of family-social well-being and effects of drinking/drugging on work performance. The results open the door for EAP counselors to use an empirically supported assessment style that is at least as effective as the traditional confrontational approach.

  2. Should nuclear liability limits be removed. Yes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, L.

    1985-01-01

    Arguing in favor of unlimited liability in the event of a nuclear accident, the author cites a mathematical probability of a core meltdown in the US as 45% during the next 20 years. The liability insurance carried by the nuclear industry is less than for large hotels and industrial parks, and is only a small fraction of the potential costs of damage and compensation. If nuclear technology is safe, limits are not needed. If liability is limited, it removes the incentive to improve safety and sends inaccurate price signals to utilities choosing among competing technologies. There is also the ethical aspect of shifting liability costs from ratepayers and stockholders to accident victims and general taxpayers. There are other ways to finance nuclear risks, such as a sinking fund, the removal of the nuclear exclusion in property insurance policies, and annual retrospective assessments per reactors

  3. Understanding legacy liabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.

  4. [The characteristics of offenders abusing alcohol in view of forensic-psychiatric assessments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Talarowska, Monika

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood. To attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 581 forensic-psychiatric assessments issued by experts from Psychiatric Ward of 107 Military Hospital in Walcz between 1990 and 2000. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Activity" has been used. Results. Relevant statistical dependencies were observed. (1) Alcohol consumption has a criminogenic effect and is characteristic for offences against life and health and family. (2) Alcohol abuse is a trigger mechanism for psychiatric disturbances, particularly those with underlying organic damage to CNS.

  5. Assessing Intimate Partner Abuse: Associated Factors and Health Consequences among Jordanian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Reema R; Daibes, Mayada A; Haidar, Waheda H; Al-Nawafleh, Ahmad H; Constantino, Rose E

    2018-04-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we assessed levels and types of psychological and physical intimate partner abuse (IPA), and the association of IPA with socio-demographic factors and health consequences. The Abusive Behavior Inventory was completed by 471 Jordanian women. IPA was higher among older women who were: of older age, of younger age at marriage, married to unemployed spouses, living in urban residence, and of lower educational level. IPA was associated with most of the health problems except dental injuries and burns. We recommend educational programs that raise women's awareness to their rights to education, free choices in marital age, and policies that mitigate IPA in Jordan and similar patriarchal societies.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF PAIN AND SUFFERING IN CHILD ABUSE AND HOMICIDE VICTIMS: SUGGESTIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertyn, René

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and homicide are on the increase worldwide. Often the burden falls upon social workers to argue the case of victims without being able to quantify the pain the children have suffered. A case study approach was used in which a High Court case was utilised as base to describe the proposed methodology to assess the level of pain, post-mortem, a victim could have gone through. The application was a four-step methodology constructed by using paediatric pain assessment. This study found that there is a need for the development of post-mortem pain scales to aid social workers.

  7. Assets, liabilities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thomson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial economists and actuaries do not always talk the same language. One particular difference of concern to actuaries is the method of treatment (or non-treatment of the liabilities of an investor in the portfolio selection problem. Another difference relates to the way in which liabilities are valued. In this paper, these differences are discussed and possible way forward are suggested.

  8. The Liabilities Management Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Liabilities Management Group (LMG) was initiated by DTI. It is a cooperative forum which was set up in 1995. The current participants are DTI, UKAEA, NLM (for BNFL), MOD and Magnox Electric. The LMG was initiated to produce closer cooperation between public sector liability management organizations, achieve more cost-effective management of UK nuclear liabilities and enhance development of the UK nuclear decommissioning and waste management strategy. The objectives are to compare practices between liabilities management organizations discuss the scope for collaboration identify priority areas for possible collaboration agree action plans for exploring and undertaking such collaboration.Four task forces have been formed to look at specific areas (R and D, safety, contracts, and project management) and each reports separately to the LMG. The LMG has achieved its original aim of bringing together those with public sector liability management responsibilities. All participants feel that the LMG has been useful and that it should continue. Looking to the future, there is a continuing need for the LMG to facilitate removal of barriers to the achievement of best value for money. The LMG might also consider addressing the 'business process' elements that a liability management organization must be good at in order to define best practice in these. (author)

  9. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Witte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers

  10. A Population-Based Assessment of Human Rights Abuses Committed Against Ethnic Albanian Refugees From Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopino, Vincent; Frank, Martina W.; Bauer, Heidi M.; Keller, Allen S.; Fink, Sheri L.; Ford, Doug; Pallin, Daniel J.; Waldman, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed patterns of displacement and human rights abuses among Kosovar refugees in Macedonia and Albania. Methods. Between April 19 and May 3, 1999, 1180 ethnic Albanian refugees living in 31 refugee camps and collective centers in Macedonia and Albania were interviewed. Results. The majority (68%) of participants reported that their families were directly expelled from their homes by Serb forces. Overall, 50% of participants saw Serb police or soldiers burning the houses of others, 16% saw Serb police or soldiers burn their own home, and 14% witnessed Serb police or soldiers killing someone. Large percentages of participants saw destroyed mosques, schools, or medical facilities. Thirty-one percent of respondents reported human rights abuses committed against their household members, including beatings, killings, torture, forced separation and disappearances, gunshot wounds, and sexual assault. Conclusions. The present findings confirm that Serb forces engaged in a systematic and brutal campaign to forcibly expel the ethnic Albanian population of Kosovo. In the course of these mass deportations, Serb forces committed widespread abuses of human rights against ethnic Albanians. PMID:11726386

  11. Risk management and liability for environmental harm caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This calls for the existence of a liability regime that will place some legal responsibility on the party responsible for the harm. This paper assesses the South African regulatory framework of relevance to GMOs, which is composed of a fragmented set of laws that deals with risk assessment, risk management and liability for ...

  12. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  13. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  14. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities. © 2013 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Assessment and Treatment of Abuse Risk in Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Jamison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no “gold standard” for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management.

  16. Improving the Clinical Pharmacologic Assessment of Abuse Potential: Part 1: Regulatory Context and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Edward M

    2018-02-01

    This article brings to the attention of drug developers the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent final Guidance to Industry on Assessment of Abuse Potential and provides practical suggestions about compliance with the Guidance. The Guidance areas are reviewed, analyzed, and placed in the context of current scientific knowledge and best practices to mitigate regulatory risk. The Guidance provides substantial new detail on what needs to be done at all stages of drug development for central nervous system-active drugs. However, because many psychopharmacologic agents have unique preclinical and clinical features, the plan for each agent needs to be not only carefully prepared but also reviewed and approved by the FDA. Examples are provided where assumptions about interpretation of the Guidance can delay development. If the expertise and experience needed for assessing abuse potential during drug development do not exist within a company, external preclinical and clinical expert should be involved. Consultation with the FDA is encouraged and important because the specific requirements for each drug will vary.

  17. Liability in nuclear establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockli, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives a history of safety legislation in nuclear plants. A change has been suggested to the present law which would put total liability for damage or injury on the owner of the plant. This new legislation is being introduced in Switzerland. It covers even natural disasters as well as acts of war, but excludes injuries caused through negligence or irresponsibility of employee, however, third party injured as a consequence is to be compensated. The liability stretches over 30 years after the event. (G.R.S.)

  18. Limitation of Auditors' Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...... to the fact that the insurance premiums associated with an unlimited liability must of course make the auditor’s tasks more expensive. Relevant EU recommendations and a comparative glance at other EU countries’ proposed solutions to the problem are included....

  19. 75 FR 76946 - Demurrage Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... because the warehouseman--which otherwise has no incentive to agree to liability--can avoid liability... based on an unjust enrichment theory? The court rejected such an approach in Middle Atlantic, 353 F...

  20. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse; Klinischer Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [German] Gewalt gegen Kinder hat viele Gesichter: Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlaessigung, sexueller Missbrauch und elterliche Partnerschaftsgewalt koennen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu akuten und bleibenden Schaeden fuehren und ihre Entwicklung und Lebensentwuerfe nachhaltig beeinflussen. Betroffen ist in Industrienationen fast jedes zehnte Kind. Bis zu 10% der Kindesmisshandlungen betreffen das zentrale Nervensystem. Von diesen ereignen sich ca. 80% im ersten Lebensjahr. Weltweit sterben nach Angaben der Kinderhilfsorganisation UNICEF jaehrlich ueber 50.000 Kinder an den Folgen von Gewalt, Missbrauch und Vernachlaessigung. In Deutschland ereignen sich pro Jahr ca. 120 Faelle an nichtakzidentellen Kopfverletzungen. Den oeffentlich bekannten Faellen steht eine hohe Dunkelziffer aller Formen von Gewalt

  1. Standards and producers' liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmer, F.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de

  2. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  3. Managing 'tail liability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.

  4. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  5. Threat Assessment Teams: A Model for Coordinating the Institutional Response and Reducing Legal Liability when College Students Threaten Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penven, James C.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of college students with mental health issues are enrolling in college. If these students threaten suicide they present serious legal issues for college officials. Lack of communication and coordination of a response to these students exacerbates the issue. Threat assessment teams can serve as mechanisms to coordinate the…

  6. Drug discrimination: A versatile tool for characterization of CNS safety pharmacology and potential for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2016-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit

  7. A review on liability in case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallage-Alwis, Sylvie; Faron, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    After having evoked assessments of the cost of a nuclear accident in France and of that of damages caused by the Fukushima accident, the authors propose an overview of the issue of liability of companies involved in the operation of a nuclear power plant. They outline that this regime is mainly governed by two international conventions: the Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy, and the Brussels Convention. The first one bears on the liability of nuclear installation operators, while the second one aims at ensuring an additional compensation of casualties on public funds. They also evoke the Vienna Convention which aims at defining a world regime for nuclear liability. They outline the limited scope of application of the Paris Convention, and the limitation of compensations. They discuss the liability of companies others than those operating nuclear installations

  8. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10…

  9. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Multiple protein biomarker assessment for recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST abuse in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann K J Ludwig

    Full Text Available Biomarker profiling, as a rapid screening approach for detection of hormone abuse, requires well selected candidate biomarkers and a thorough in vivo biomarker evaluation as previously done for detection of growth hormone doping in athletes. The bovine equivalent of growth hormone, called recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST is (illegally administered to enhance milk production in dairy cows. In this study, first a generic sample pre-treatment and 4-plex flow cytometric immunoassay (FCIA were developed for simultaneous measurement of four candidate biomarkers selected from literature: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, its binding protein 2 (IGFBP2, osteocalcin and endogenously produced antibodies against rbST. Next, bovine serum samples from two extensive controlled rbST animal treatment studies were used for in vivo validation and biomarker evaluation. Finally, advanced statistic tools were tested for the assessment of biomarker combination quality aiming to correctly identify rbST-treated animals. The statistical prediction tool k-nearest neighbours using a combination of the biomarkers osteocalcin and endogenously produced antibodies against rbST proved to be very reliable and correctly predicted 95% of the treated samples starting from the second rbST injection until the end of the treatment period and even thereafter. With the same biomarker combination, only 12% of untreated animals appeared false-positive. This reliability meets the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for screening methods in veterinary control. From the results of this multidisciplinary study, it is concluded that the osteocalcin - anti-rbST-antibodies combination represent fit-for-purpose biomarkers for screening of rbST abuse in dairy cattle and can be reliably measured in both the developed 4-plex FCIA as well as in a cost-effective 2-plex microsphere-based binding assay. This screening method can be incorporated in routine veterinary monitoring

  11. Virtual reality applications for diagnosis, risk assessment and therapy of child abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromberger, Peter; Jordan, Kirsten; Müller, Jürgen L

    2018-03-01

    Despite the successful application of virtual reality (VR) in a wide variety of mental disorders and the obvious potentials that VR provides, the use of VR in the context of criminology and forensic psychology is sparse. For forensic mental health professionals, VR provides some advantages that outrun general advantages of VR, e.g., ecological validity and controllability of social situations. Most important seems to be the unique possibility to expose offenders and to train coping skills in virtual situations, which are able to elicit disorder-relevant behavior-without endangering others. VR has already been used for the assessment of deviant sexual interests, for testing the ability to transfer learned coping skills communicated during treatment to behavior, and for risk assessment of child abusers. This article reviews and discusses these innovative research projects with regard to their impact on current clinical practice regarding risk assessment and treatment as well as other implementations of VR applications in forensic mental health. Finally, ethical guidelines for VR research in forensic mental health are provided. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Development and psychometric testing the Health of Body, Mind and Spirit Scale for assessing individuals who have drug abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Lu, Chu-Yun; Yu, Pei-Jane; Liao, Tzu-Chiao; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2018-03-01

    To develop the Health of Body, Mind and Spirit Scale (HBMSS), which was designed to assess drug abusers' health condition. Helping drug abusers to become healthy is important to healthcare professionals. However, no instrument exists to assess drug abusers' state of health. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was implemented to examine the validity of the HBMSS. Data were collected from 2015-2016 at one drug abuse prevention centre in Taiwan. Participants (N = 320) who had abused drugs were invited to complete a preliminary 64-item version of the HBMSS. An item analysis, criterion-related validity analysis (using the Relapse Prediction Scale [RPS] score), split-half reliability testing and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the HBMSS. The final version of the HBMSS contained 15 items that were divided into three subscales: the health of the body, mind and spirit. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability coefficients were all above .85. The factor loading of each item was between .74-.95. The HBMSS had satisfactory criterion-related validity with the RPS score (r = -.50, p < .001). A second-order CFA was conducted on the HBMSS. The fit indexes were good, χ 2  = 184.060, df = 94, χ 2 /df = 1.958 (p = .000). The entire HBMSS and the subscales had satisfactory reliability and validity. Healthcare professionals could use the HBMSS to evaluate the condition of the health of individuals with a drug abuse history. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Buss-Durkee Assessment and Validation with Violent versus Nonviolent Chronic Alcohol Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, Gisele J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abusers who had been violent while intoxicated and nonviolent alcohol abusers were administered the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Violence was documented. Violent drinkers scored significantly higher than control subjects on the inventory total hostility score and on subscales measuring assault, irritability, verbal hostility, indirect…

  14. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittar, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  15. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  16. An abuse of risk assessment: how regulatory agencies improperly adopted LNT for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2015-04-01

    The Genetics Panel of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) recommended the adoption of the linear dose-response model in 1956, abandoning the threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessments. This recommendation was quickly generalized to include somatic cells for cancer risk assessment and later was instrumental in the adoption of linearity for carcinogen risk assessment by the Environmental Protection Agency. The Genetics Panel failed to provide any scientific assessment to support this recommendation and refused to do so when later challenged by other leading scientists. Thus, the linearity model used in cancer risk assessment was based on ideology rather than science and originated with the recommendation of the NAS BEAR Committee Genetics Panel. Historical documentation in support of these conclusions is provided in the transcripts of the Panel meetings and in previously unexamined correspondence among Panel members.

  17. Information Processing and Limited Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Mackowiak; Mirko Wiederholt

    2012-01-01

    Decision-makers often face limited liability and thus know that their loss will be bounded. We study how limited liability affects the behavior of an agent who chooses how much information to acquire and process in order to take a good decision. We find that an agent facing limited liability processes less information than an agent with unlimited liability. The informational gap between the two agents is larger in bad times than in good times and when information is more costly to process.

  18. Maternal hair and neonatal meconium to assess gestational consumption and prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse and psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Laura; Almeida, Laura; Sabra, Sally; Muniesa, Marta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Gomez-Roig, Maria Dolores

    2018-04-05

    In the last two decades, the consumption of drugs of abuse among women of childbearing age has experienced a significant increase and results from analyses of surveys concerning maternal intake of psychoactive prescription drugs during pregnancy indicate that the rates of intake are increasing each year. Analyses of biological matrices such as maternal hair and neonatal meconium have recently been used for assessment of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in high-risk groups of women METHODS: Maternal hair and neonatal meconium were analyzed by validated chromatographic mass spectrometric methodologies to disclose gestational use of drugs of abuse and psychoactive prescription drugs and consequent prenatal exposure in a cohort of 513 mother-newborn dyads at the Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Hospital, Spain, during 2012- 2013. A total of 3.9% the women reported drugs of abuse or prescription psychoactive drug consumption at any time during pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, cocaine and MDMA) was 1.2% in maternal hair and 0.4% in meconium; that of psychoactive prescription drugs (e.g. venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine) was 1.7% in maternal hair and 1.2% in meconium. The prevalence of drugs of abuse and prescription psychoactive drug consumption was lower in our specific cohort of Spanish pregnant women than in other cohorts such as those from U.S. or Denmark. Analysis of materno-fetal matrices provides a viable alternative to study prenatal exposure to these substances and develop specific social and health intervention recommendations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Fukushima: liability and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck the Pacific coast of the country and was followed by a tsunami which led to considerable loss of lives. It also led to a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Soon afterwards, the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), assumed responsibility and liability for the nuclear accident. On 28 April 2011, TEPCO established a dedicated contact line to provide consulting services for financial compensation related to the damage caused

  20. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents Referred to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Psychiatric Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse has been a continuous, hidden health and social problem in all over the world. Identifying risk factors are crucial to implement protective services. In Turkey, data of the legal cases are still lacking. This study aims to assess the sociodemographic and psychiatric features of the sexually abused children who have been referred for forensic evaluation together with their identity issues. Materials and Methods: The forensic files of the sexually abused cases (tı 11: 9 boys, 32 girls who had been referred to the child psychiatry outpatient clinic were evaluated. Psychiatric diagnoses in the files were based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age children- Turkish Version. Data on age, gender, socioeconomic status and diagnoses of the victims and characteristics of the abusers were gathered and analysed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Mean age of the victims was 11.54±3.31 years. Socioeconomic levels of their families were mostly lower class with rate of 51.2%. All perpetrators were male with a mean age of 23 years (min 14; max 67. When the consanguinity of the abusers and victims were taken into consideration, it was found that they were intrafamilial (fathers and brothers rate:12.2%, close relatives (19.5%, distant relatives (22.0%, other familiar (such as neighbours, friends: 14.6% and unfamiliar (24.4% people for the victims. 19.5% of the victims had mental retardation. The most common diagnoses of the victims were posttraumatic stress disorder (46.3%, other anxiety disorders (17.1%, and major depression (24.4%. Conclusion: Identified risk factors for sexual abuse, determined as the result of this study, are being a female child, late childhood period, mental retardation, and low economic status. The abusers were males who were familiar to the child victims. Preventive measures should be implemented for the entire population, particularly involving the high- risk groups

  1. Child abuse and performance task assessments of executive functions in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, E; Kindlon, D; Earls, F

    2001-11-01

    We examined executive functions using performance tasks in 126 boys aged 6 to 16 years. who attended public schools and therapeutic schools for children with emotional and behavioral problems. Children were further grouped based on the presence or absence of substantiated abuse histories. Based on their abuse histories and schools of origin, children were classified as Therapeutic, Abused (TA, N = 25). Therapeutic, Nonabused (TN, N = 52), and Public School (PS, N = 48). Controlling IQ and medication status, we compared children in the three groups on teacher ratings of behavior, on experimenter observations of behavior during testing, and on performance tasks challenging the capacities to inhibit an act in progress, and to passively avoid responses associated with adverse consequences. We examined mean group differences in symptoms, behaviors, and task performance, as well as differential age-dependent changes in these dimensions. Independent of abuse history, therapeutic school children demonstrated comparable levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and comparable levels of redirections to task during testing-sessions, that were significantly higher than those of the public school children. Both groups of therapeutic school children also showed comparable overall performance on the capacities to inhibit an act in progress, and to passively avoid responses associated with adverse consequences that were poorer than the performance of children from the public school. Children with histories of substantiated abuse showed diminished improvement with increasing age in the capacity to passively avoid responses associated with adverse consequences when compared not only to the public school children, but also to the children from the therapeutic schools without histories of abuse. Our findings complement reports of behavioral observations of abused children, and reports associating child abuse with altered cognitive development in other areas of competence

  2. 22 CFR 13.3 - Liability for neglect of duty or for malfeasance generally; action on bond; penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of any willful malfeasance or abuse of power, or of any corrupt conduct in his or her office, he or... of any malversation or abuse of power, he or she shall be liable to any injured person for all damage... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for neglect of duty or for...

  3. Assessment of the Associations of Depression With Elder Abuse Among the Elderly in Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The study results indicate the importance and necessity of providing health care services and support for the identification of depressed elderly victims of abuse and prevention to solve this problem and improve their situation.

  4. Substance Abuse among High-Risk Sexual Offenders: Do Measures of Lifetime History of Substance Abuse Add to the Prediction of Recidivism over Actuarial Risk Assessment Instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the degree to which measures of lifetime history of substance abuse add to the prediction of risk based on actuarial measures alone among sexual offenders. This issue is of relevance in that a history of substance abuse is related to relapse to substance using behavior. Furthermore, substance use has…

  5. Liability for Diagnosing Malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Van Dell, Landon

    2017-09-01

    Malingering is a medical diagnosis, but not a psychiatric disorder. The label imputes that an evaluee has intentionally engaged in false behavior or statements. By diagnosing malingering, psychiatrists pass judgment on truthfulness. Evaluees taking exception to the label may claim that the professional has committed defamation of character (libel or slander) when the diagnosis is wrong and costs the claimant money or benefits. Clinicians may counter by claiming immunity or that the diagnosis was made in good faith. This problem has come into focus in military and veterans' contexts, where diagnoses become thresholds for benefits. Through historical and literary examples, case law, and military/veterans' claims of disability and entitlement, the authors examine the potency of the malingering label and the potential liability for professionals and institutions of making this diagnosis. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  6. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  7. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  8. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  9. Government-sponsored microfinance program: Joint liability vs. individual liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Kusum Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY is a government-sponsored microfinance program. The scheme is based on four features: group lending with joint liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. We propose a new model of SGSY having these features: group lending with individual liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. “Joint liability” clause of the existing model is replaced with individual liability in the new model. The paper shows that problem of adverse selection is removed in both models, i.e. in “SGSY with group lending and joint liability” and “SGSY with group lending and individual liability.” The problem of “moral hazard” is more severe in the existing model of SGSY compared with the proposed model of SGSY. Borrowers are also benefitted from participation in the proposed scheme of SGSY than that in the existing model of SGSY.

  10. Some considerations on disciplinary liability overlapping criminal liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania DUMITRACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action

  11. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  12. Nonoffending Guardian Assessment of Hospital-Based Sexual Abuse/Assault Services for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Smith, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    In circumstances in which child sexual abuse/assault is suspected, pediatric guidelines recommend referral to services such as multidisciplinary hospital-based violence treatment centers, for specialized medical treatment, forensic documentation, and counseling. As little is known about how such services are perceived, the objective of this case report was to measure the satisfaction of nonoffending guardians of child sexual abuse/assault victims who presented for care at Ontario's hospital-based sexual assault treatment centers. Of the 1,136 individuals who reported sexual abuse/assault and were enrolled in a province-wide service evaluation, 58 were 11 years old and younger. Thirty-three guardians completed a survey. Ratings of care were overwhelmingly positive, with 97% of respondents indicating that they would recommend these services. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate these pediatric sexual assault services frequently to ensure ongoing optimal, family-centered care.

  13. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  14. Assessment of Navy Alcohol and Drug Abuse Education and Training Curricula, Revision Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    CAAC Budgets Creditability Eating Disorders This portion of the instruction is directed toward the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa, bulimia ...command. 1 hour. 2. PARENT AWARENESS SEMINAR A seminar designed to give specific methods for preventing drug abuse among teens and pre- teens . The

  15. Multiple Protein Biomarker Assessment for Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (rbST) Abuse in Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.; Smits, N.G.E.; Veer, van der G.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Biomarker profiling, as a rapid screening approach for detection of hormone abuse, requires well selected candidate biomarkers and a thorough in vivo biomarker evaluation as previously done for detection of growth hormone doping in athletes. The bovine equivalent of growth hormone, called

  16. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  17. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  19. Assessment of exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy by hair analysis in a Mediterranean island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friguls, Bibiana; Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Serra, Joan; Gómez-Culebras, Mario; Pichini, Simona; Martinez, Susana; Vall, Oriol; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2012-08-01

      This study aims to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women living in Ibiza, using structured interviews and biomarkers in maternal hair. In addition, the potentially detrimental effects of maternal drug abuse on their newborns were investigated. Ibiza has a large international night-life resort associated with clubs, music and use of recreational drugs.   Hair samples were collected prospectively from January to March 2010 from a cohort of consecutive mothers after giving birth in the Hospital Can Misses in Ibiza.   Opiates, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, amphetamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and their metabolites were detected in a 3-cm-long proximal segment of maternal hair corresponding to the last trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (n = 107). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and on tobacco, alcohol, drugs of prescription and drugs of abuse consumption during pregnancy were collected using a structured questionnaire.   Hair analysis showed an overall 16% positivity for drugs of abuse in the third trimester of pregnancy, with a specific prevalence of cannabis, cocaine, MDMA and opiates use of 10.3, 6.4, 0.9 and 0%, respectively. In the questionnaires, only 1.9% of mothers declared using drugs of abuse during pregnancy. Gestational drug of abuse consumption was associated with active tobacco smoking, a higher number of smoked cigarettes and the mother being Spanish.   Illicit drug use is substantially under-reported among pregnant women living in Ibiza, particularly among Spanish nationals. Voluntary, routine objective biological toxicology screening should be considered as part of routine examinations in antenatal clinics on this Mediterranean island. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Can MDMA play a role in the treatment of substance abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Yazar-Klosinski, B Berra

    2013-03-01

    A wider array of treatments are needed for people with substance abuse disorders. Some psychedelic compounds have been assessed as potential substance abuse treatments with promising results. MDMA may also help treat substance abuse based on shared features with psychedelic compounds and recent reports indicating that MDMAassisted psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of PTSD. Narrative reports and data from early investigations found that some people reduced or eliminated their substance use after receiving MDMA, especially in a therapeutic setting. MDMA is a potent monoamine releaser with sympathomimetic effects that may indirectly activate 5-HT2A receptors. It increases interpersonal closeness and prosocial feelings, potentially through oxytocin release. Findings suggest that ecstasy, material represented as containing MDMA, is associated with deleterious long-term effects after heavy lifetime use, including fewer serotonin transporter sites and impaired verbal memory. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. However, subjects who received MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in two recent clinical studies were not motivated to seek out ecstasy, and tested negative in random drug tests during follow-up in one study. MDMA could either directly treat neuropharmacological abnormalities associated with addiction, or it could indirectly assist with the therapeutic process or reduce symptoms of comorbid psychiatric conditions, providing a greater opportunity to address problematic substance use. Studies directly testing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with active substance abuse disorder may be warranted.

  1. Professional liability. Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K C

    1988-03-01

    Once again, I find Mr. Cooper quote-worthy for his statement, "It is incumbent upon the trial bar not to support the status quo merely because it is in our economic interest. Change is in the wind, and our tort system will be blown away on the winds of change for change's sake unless we participate in correcting deficiencies in the tort system and civil jury trial process." I suggest that we cannot ask for change for our own economic interest, nor can we lay blame exclusively to the other etiologic elements. We must improve those elements within our purview. The prayer of serenity may serve us well: God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. In the game of professional liability litigation as played by the rules extant there are clearly winners and losers. The winners are the legal profession, both plaintiff and defense, and the insurers, who in the face of adversity simply increase premiums or withdraw from the market. The losers are the medical profession, the patients for whom they care and, in the broadest sense, our society as a whole. So as not to close on a note of gloom, one last quote. Lawrence H. Cooke, former Chief Judge of New York State, in remarks to the April 1986 National Symposium on Civil Justice Issues stated, "Our justice systems are beset with very real problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Development of short-form measures to assess four types of elder mistreatment: Findings from an evidence-based study of APS elder abuse substantiation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Scott R; Liu, Pi-Ju; DeLiema, Marguerite; Iris, Madelyn; Howe, Melissa J K; Conrad, Kendon J

    2017-01-01

    Improving the standardization and efficiency of adult protective services (APS) investigations is a top priority in APS practice. Using data from the Elder Abuse Decision Support System (EADSS), we developed short-form measures of four types of elder abuse: financial, emotional/psychological, physical, and neglect. The EADSS data set contains 948 elder abuse cases (age 60+) with yes/no abuse substantiation decisions for each abuse type following a 30-day investigation. Item sensitivity/specificity analyses were conducted on long-form items with the substantiation decision for each abuse type as the criterion. Validity was further tested using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, correlation with long forms and internal consistency. The four resulting short-form measures, containing 36 of the 82 original items, have validity similar to the original long forms. These short forms can be used to standardize and increase efficiency of APS investigations, and may also offer researchers new options for brief elder abuse assessments.

  3. Prevalence of vulvovaginitis and relation to physical findings in girls assessed for suspected child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Gisel; Ocampo, Dolores; Rubinstein, Anahí; Risso, Paula

    2015-10-01

    The presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in patients with suspected sexual abuse is uncommon in the field of pediatrics. To establish the prevalence of anogenital findings and their relation to the presence of STIs in girls referred for suspected child sexual abuse. Retrospective study conducted between January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2013. Physical findings and detection of STIs in girls with suspected child sexual abuse were analyzed. One thousand thirty-four patients were included. Their median age was 7.9 years old. Anogenital findings were classified as class I (normal):38.4%, class II (nonspecific):38.1%, class III (specific):19.9% and class IV (definitive):3.6%. STIs were observed in 42 patients (4.1%). A relation was established between STIs and the classification of physical findings: 10 (class II: 9; class III: 1) Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 17 (class I: 2; class II: 8; class III: 7) Chlamydia trachomatis, 15 (class I: 2; class II: 10; class III: 3) Trichomonas vaginalis. Statistically significant differences for Trichomonas vaginalis (p= 0.01) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (p < 0.0001) were observed, with predominance of nonspecific clinical signs. Both nonspecific and specific findings were similarly observed for Chlamydia trachomatis (p= 0.03). Most cases of girls with suspected child sexual abuse had normal or nonspecific anogenital findings. The prevalence of STIs in these girls is low. Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were related to nonspecific findings, while both nonspecific and specific findings were observed for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  4. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.

    1976-12-01

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  5. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant

  6. Liability of statutory organs in limited liability companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Janků

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Statutory organs of business companies (and similarly of co-operatives have numerous obligations imposed by generally binding provisions; relied with these is the liability for non-fulfilment of the latter. Some of the obligations are imposed directly by the laws, some are assumed on contractual basis. Their infringements may lead to the liability for the situation and consequences occurred. The regulation of the liability of persons engaged in the company’s bodies covers persons that are entrusted by the management of foreign assets. Sometimes these are in fact not entirely foreign assets because, although the assets are legally owned by the business company, persons acting as statutory organs are mostly partners (shareholders in these companies as well. As such they manage the foreign assets but the company properties were created by their contributions or through the business by themselves. The paper analyses the requirements laid down for the function of managing directors (jednatel in the limited company. Consequently it analyses the scope of the liability of managing directors firstly, in relationship to the company’s creditors (persons standing outside the company and, subsequently, in relationship to the shareholders. It also presents and characterises the recent trends in the Commercial Court’s judgement of the conditions required for the liability for damage and claims for damages put forward by action to recover damages by the managing directors. De lege ferenda the paper recommends that the legal regulation will be amended by provisions limiting the scope of persons to be appointed as executive director and/or extending the liability for damages for the partners of the company in cases where the damage in such cases can not be compensated by the executive director and the partners should bear consequences for their culpa in eligendo.

  7. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part I: diagnosis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Debate has ensued regarding the appropriate assessment and diagnosis for school-age children who display severe behavioral problems as a result of previous abuse and neglect within the primary attachment relationship. The current nomenclature recognizes reactive attachment disorder and some clinicians have suggested broader categories of attachment disorder. These attempts at classification are often criticized on empirical grounds; however, often lost in these criticisms is the fact that that these diagnostic approaches often misapply attachment theory and research. This article summarizes the original contributions of John Bowlby and other attachment researchers to our understanding of child development, examines misguided attempts to apply attachment theory to the diagnosis and assessment of maltreated children, and offers a diagnostic conceptualization and assessment recommendations consistent with the available attachment research.

  8. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F

    2013-07-01

    As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental

  9. Civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    An international Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted in Vienna on 19 May 1963 by a sixty-nation conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Convention, which is subject to ratification by the States signing it, will come into force three months after the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. The Convention is designee only to establish minimum rules regarding civil liability for nuclear damage; it may thus well be described as a framework convention, the main provisions of which represent the essential common denomination acceptable to as many States as possible. It leaves wide scope for national legislation and regional arrangements with a view to implementing these provisions The Convention does not purport to create a uniform civil law in this field, but it contains the minimal essential for protection of the public and forms the legal basis for uniform world-wide liability rules

  10. Reassessing the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havinh Phuong

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear liability regime was thoroughly reviewed by nuclear plant operators, officials of regulatory authorities, and legal and insurance experts at the Symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, held in September 1984 in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. The symposium highlighted specific areas where adjustments or improvements would be needed in order to cope with practical problems encountered or emerging issues. By focusing on questions of legitimate concern to the public, it also sought to promote confidence in a compensation system for public protection that is in many ways unique. Topics addressed included the following: greater harmonization of the compensation amounts for nuclear damage established in different countries and in territorial scope; the concept of unlimited liability; the time limitation for compensation claims; the problem of proving causation; the concept of nuclear damage; and insurance coverage

  11. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  12. Fiscal Liability of State Contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fajardo-Peña

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The State contract is one of the most important tools for public management. The formation, execution and liquidation of State contracts are also a potential cause of State patrimonial damages. Perhaps for this reason, many State contractors are prosecuted as if they were public spending managers. The question, however, is not as simple. The fiscal liability process has a qualified recipient: the fiscal manager. In this article, through a conceptual exposition and a case study, we identify the criterion for determining in which cases a State contractor acquires the function of controlling public funds and when he/she can be subjected to a fiscal liability.

  13. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...

  14. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  15. Assessing prescription drug abuse using functional principal component analysis (FPCA) of wastewater data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Stefania; Røislien, Jo; Baz-Lomba, Jose A; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The weekly pattern of each drug was extracted by fitting of generalized additive models, using trigonometric functions to model the cyclic behaviour. From the weekly component, the main temporal features were then extracted using functional principal component analysis. Results are presented through the functional principal components (FPCs) and corresponding FPC scores. Clinically, the most important weekly feature of the wastewater-based epidemiology data was the second FPC, representing the difference between average midweek level and a peak during the weekend, representing possible recreational use of a drug in the weekend. Estimated scores on this FPC indicated recreational use of methylphenidate, with a high weekend peak, but not for methadone and oxazepam. The functional principal component analysis uncovered clinically important temporal features of the weekly patterns of the use of prescription drugs detected from wastewater analysis. This may be used as a post-marketing surveillance method to monitor prescription drugs with abuse potential. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Limited Liability Company: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Wells; Gary Yoshimoto

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, businesses in many states have been given the opportunity to select a new form in which to conduct business called the limited liability company. This form provides the advantage of the personal liability protection of a corporation, while being taxed as a partnership. If most states create the limited liability company and current issues of uncertainty are favorably resolved, the limited liability company should become the most advantageous business form for most small and m...

  17. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  18. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  19. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Availability Policies § 229.21 Civil liability. (a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with any...

  20. 12 CFR 965.2 - Authorized liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized liabilities. 965.2 Section 965.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES SOURCE OF FUNDS § 965.2 Authorized liabilities. As a source of funds for business operations, each Bank is authorized to...

  1. Development and Psychometrics of Instruments to Assess School Personnel's Bystander Action in Situations of Teen Relationship Abuse and Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Sessarego, Stephanie N; Stanley, Linda R; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Eckstein, Robert P; Rodenhizer, Kara Anne E; Leyva, P Caroline; Banyard, Victoria L

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recently developed instruments that assess school personnel's bystander barriers and intentions in situations of teen relationship abuse, sexual assault, and sexual harassment, as well as perceptions of school readiness specific to relationship abuse, sexual assault, and sexual harassment prevention and response. Participants were 1,150 high school personnel from 25 schools in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Maine. Specific instruments focused on bystander intentions, bystander action, barriers to bystander action, and perceptions of school readiness. Participants were randomly divided into two groups for analysis-the exploratory sample (ES; n = 575) and the confirmatory sample (CS; n = 575). Overall, the measures demonstrated acceptable fit indices. Results suggested that most measures and subscales had adequate reliability, but a few subscales had less than ideal internal consistency, which can likely be attributed to the small number of items. More work is needed, but these measures act as a starting point by which the role of school personnel in prevention initiatives and bystander intervention can be evaluated.

  2. The Principal and Tort Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D.

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the tort liability of principals, especially their commission of unintentional torts or torts resulting from negligent conduct. A tort is defined as a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to another's person, property, or reputation and for which the injured party is…

  3. University Liability for Sports Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Robert W.; Woodruff, William B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes sports injury claims against colleges and universities in recent years to help administrators better understand and minimize liability risks for certain curricular and cocurricular activities. Reviews court cases in areas of duty of care and negligence and proximate cause, and discusses defenses. (Author/NB)

  4. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  6. A population-based Swedish Twin and Sibling Study of cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Prior studies, utilizing interview-based assessments, suggest that most of the genetic risk factors for drug abuse (DA) are non-specific with a minority acting specifically on risk for abuse of particular psychoactive substance classes. We seek to replicate these findings using objective national registry data. We examined abuse of cannabis, stimulants (including cocaine) and sedatives ascertained from national Swedish registers in male-male monozygotic (1720 pairs) and dizygotic twins (1219 pairs) combined with near-age full siblings (76,457 pairs) to provide sufficient power. Modeling was performed using Mx. A common pathway model fitted better than an independent pathway model. The latent liability to DA was highly heritable but also influenced by shared environment. Cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse all loaded strongly on the common factor. Estimates for the total heritability for the three forms of substance abuse ranged from 64 to 70%. Between 75 and 90% of that genetic risk was non-specific, coming from the common factor with the remainder deriving from substance specific genetic risk factors. By contrast, all of the shared environmental effects, which accounted for 18-20% of the variance in liability, were non-specific. In accord with prior studies based on personal interviews, the large preponderance of genetic risk factors for abuse of specific classes of psychoactive substance are non-specific. These results suggest that genetic variation in the primary sites of action of the psychoactive drugs, which differ widely across most drug classes, play a minor role in human individual differences in risk for DA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Problematic of mining environmental liabilities in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango Aramburo, Marcela; Olaya, Yris

    2012-01-01

    Mining environmental liabilities (PAM from its acronym in Spanish) are areas where there is a need for restoration, mitigation or compensation for environmental damage or unmanaged impact, produced by inactive or abandoned mining that threatens health, quality of life or public or private property. In Colombia the environmental liabilities from mining have not been regulated, but given the age and the prevalence of informality in mining, there is increasing interest in defining, regulating and managing these obligations. In this paper we approach the problem of valuing mining environmental liabilities by examining different management approaches for such liabilities around the world. We also identify key information requirements to manage mining environmental liabilities in Colombia.

  8. Issues in the assessment of personality disorder and substance abuse using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, P M; McCann, J T; Fairbank, J A

    1995-05-01

    Substance abuse treatment clients often present other severe mental health problems that affect treatment outcomes. Hence, screening and assessment for psychological distress and personality disorder are an important part of effective treatment, discharge, and aftercare planning. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) frequently is used for this purpose. In this paper, several issues of concern to MCMI-II users are addressed. These include the extent to which MCMI-II scales correspond to DSM-III-R disorders; overdiagnosis of disorders using the MCMI-II; accuracy of MCMI-II diagnostic cut-off scores; and the clinical utility of MCMI-II diagnostic algorithms. Approaches to addressing these issues are offered.

  9. The jurisprudence of product liability in Nigeria: a need to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bearing in mind that a principal rationale of tort law is to ensure that prejudiced parties are compensated for losses suffered, this article explains why it is necessary to assess and review applicable principle of liability in Nigeria to ensure that it is in line with the demands of justice, which should be in conformity with the ...

  10. Managing environmental liabilities at manufactured gas sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.S.; Ammann, P.R.; Kolbe, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many gas and electric utilities have inherited environmental liabilities from some of the more than 1,500 former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) which supplied a major source of energy in the US from the early 1800s to the mid 1900s. Common materials found at these sites include coal and oil tars, tar/water emulsions, sludges, spent oxides (including cyanide compounds), lampblack, ash, and clinker. There are several issues related to the cleanup of these former MGP sites that benefit from strategic management. First, utilities faced with near-term decisions can carefully analyze and document the value and impact of alternative strategies under various uncontrollable ''future states of the world'', expanding the analysis to review the more global, long-term impacts of near-term decisions, while at the same time creating the necessary documentation in case prudence becomes an issue in the future. Second, throughout the site assessment and remedial process, utilities can employ decision analytic tools to map out possible remediation, cost recovery, and litigation strategies as well as their potential costs, thus providing early information to focus management attention and expenditures on areas with the highest benefit. Third, in many states, utilities are and will be involved in rate hearings concerning the recovery of environmental costs, requiring attention to questions concerning who should pay--the ratepayer or the shareholder. This paper describes analytical tools and economic arguments that have been sued by several utilities to address management of these environmental liabilities

  11. Elder abuse in Europe's "most elderly" city: an assessment of the phenomenon and an analysis of the data from the Penal Court of Genoa from 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinelli, Andrea; Ventura, Francesco; Pinto, Sara Lo; Drommi, Martina; De Stefano, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    In Italy, 5% of the elderly are estimated to have suffered abuse. While the Penal Code refers to generic types of abuse, such as physical and psychological maltreatment, abandonment and financial fraud, it does not specifically protect the elderly as a category. To assess the frequency and modalities of elder abuse in Genoa and its Province, and to compare these data with those reported in the literature, in order to provide a picture of the current situation that can be used by the authorities to combat this phenomenon. We analysed the first-degree verdicts issued by the Court of Genoa regarding accusations of physical, psychological and moral abuse and maltreatment of elderly subjects (over 65 years) in the period 2010-2015. Only 85 of the 4028 court verdicts analysed involved elderly persons: 19 cases of domestic maltreatment, 3 of abuse of the means of correction or discipline, 18 of personal injury, 5 of abandonment and 40 of circumvention (deceiving someone, especially an elderly or mentally impaired person, to obtain a profit). A gap was observed between the number of crimes reported to the judicial authorities (tip of the iceberg) and the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon in the literature. There is a need both to create a network of protection for the elderly involving medical and judicial specialists and to train healthcare professionals to better recognise and report cases of maltreatment.

  12. Child Abuse: What Teachers in the '90s Know, Think, and Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Janice; Fossey, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Investigated elementary teachers' ability to recognize signs of abuse, perceptions of the reporting process, and understanding of liability. Teachers often could not recognize signs of abuse and were confused about reporting procedures. Some chose not to report because they believed child welfare agencies would not help; some were ignorant of laws…

  13. Aspects of nuclear penal liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Cruz, A.S.C. da

    1986-01-01

    Topics are treated with reference to articles of the Law 6.453 of october 17, 1977, relating to the nuclear penal liability. At the same time, the Penal Code disposes on illicits which may involve nuclear activity. With regard to the Jurisdiction, mention is made to the Federal Justice competence, due to the constitutional disposal. On the international field, the Convention on Physic Protection on Nuclear Material Transport disposes on illicit fact in which nuclear material may be involved. (Author) [pt

  14. Environmental Liability and Organizational Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Franckx; F.P. de Vries

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a multitask principal-agent model to examine how environmental liability rules for individual managers within a corporate hierarchy affect, on the one hand, the incentive schemes the organization provides and, on the other hand, the choice between a functional or a product-based organizational structure. If managers are risk neutral, a product-based organization dominates a functional organization and allows to obtain first-best effort level. If, moreover, there are no dis...

  15. The United States nuclear liability regime under the Price-Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O. F.

    2011-01-01

    The 1958 U. S. Price-Anderson Act created the worlds first national nuclear liability regime. It now provides US $12,6 Billion of nuclear liability coverage for the 104 nuclear power plants in the United States, by far the highest monetary coverage of any nuclear liability regime in the world. Each power plant operator provides nuclear hazards coverage for anyone liable through a combination of private insurance from the American nuclear insurance pool (now US$ 375 million) and a retrospective assessment (now US$111,9 million per power plant per incident plus 5 percent for claims and costs). The United States in 2008 ratified the International Atomic Energy Agency's Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC). and is promoting it as the basis for a more global nuclear liability regime uniting States that are party to the Vienna Convention or the Paris Convention, or have a domestic law consistent with the CSC Annex. The CSC Annex was written to grad father the Price-Anderson Acts economic channeling of liability to the installation operator. The omnibus feature of Price-Anderson is similar to the legal channeling of all liability to the installation operator under the international nuclear liability conventions and domestic laws of many other countries. The Price-Anderson system (like the Vienna and Paris Conventions) does not provide liability coverage for nuclear damage to or loss of use of on-site property. (Author)

  16. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  17. Management of UKAEA graphite liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.

    2001-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) is responsible for managing its liabilities for redundant research reactors and other active facilities concerned with the development of the UK nuclear technology programme since 1947. These liabilities include irradiated graphite from a variety of different sources including low irradiation temperature reactor graphite (the Windscale Piles 1 and 2, British Energy Pile O and Graphite Low Energy Experimental Pile at Harwell and the Material Testing Reactors at Harwell and Dounreay), advanced gas-cooled reactor graphite (from the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and graphite from fast reactor systems (neutron shield graphite from the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor and Dounreay Fast Reactor). The decommissioning and dismantling of these facilities will give rise to over 6,000 tonnes of graphite requiring disposal. The first graphite will be retrieved from the dismantling of Windscale Pile 1 and the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor during the next five years. UKAEA has undertaken extensive studies to consider the best practicable options for disposing of these graphite liabilities in a manner that is safe whilst minimising the associated costs and technical risks. These options include (but are not limited to), disposal as Low Level Waste, incineration, or encapsulation and disposal as Intermediate Level Waste. There are a number of technical issues associated with each of these proposed disposal options; these include Wigner energy, radionuclide inventory determination, encapsulation of graphite dust, galvanic coupling interactions enhancing the corrosion of mild steel and public acceptability. UKAEA is currently developing packaging concepts and designing packaging plants for processing these graphite wastes in consultation with other holders of graphite wastes throughout Europe. 'Letters of Comfort' have been sought from both the Low Level Waste and the Intermediate Level Waste disposal organisations to support the

  18. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L.; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J.; Snowden, Robert J.; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this

  19. Defining the role of risk assessment in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation process at the DOE-OR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.; McGinn, C.W.; Purucker, S.T.; White, R.K.

    1994-08-01

    The risk assessment strategy that will be implemented on the Oak Ridge Reservation has been standardized to ensure consistency and technical defensibility in all risk assessment activities and is presented within this document. The strategy emphasizes using existing environmental data in screening risk analyses to aid in identifying chemicals of potential concern, operable units that could pursue a no further investigation determination, and operable units that may warrant early response actions. The screening risk analyses include a comparison of measured chemical concentrations to preliminary remediation goals, performing a most likely exposure and integration point assessment, and performing a screening ecological risk assessment. This document focuses heavily on the screening risk analyses and relies on existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment guidance to provide specific details on conducting baseline risk assessments. However, the document does contain a section on the baseline risk assessment process that details the exposure pathways to be evaluated on the Oak Ridge Reservation. This document will be used in conjunction with existing Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Environmental Restoration risk assessment standards, policies, procedures, and technical memoranda. The material contained herein will be periodically updated as the strategy is tried and tested and as the risk assessment methodology is revised. The primary purpose for this document is to present the proposed strategy to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV and receive concurrence or additional comments on the material presented herein

  20. Drugs of abuse in maternal hair and paired neonatal meconium: an objective assessment of foetal exposure to gestational consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Salat-Batlle, Judith; García-Algar, Oscar; Calvaresi, Valeria; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2016-08-01

    In a prospective sample of 80 mother-infant dyads, we investigated whether drugs of abuse in maternal hair measured during the pregnancy trimesters were also present in neonatal meconium. Principal drugs of abuse were analyzed in the three consecutive maternal hair segments and meconium samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay. Of the 80 mothers, 32 (40%) presented one or more hair shafts with at least one of the analyzed drugs of abuse and/or its metabolites. The drug of abuse with a higher prevalence in our study population was methamphetamine: 19 mothers had methamphetamine in one or more hair segments (59.4%). The second most detected drug of abuse was cocaine; nine mothers presented cocaine in one or more hair segments (28.1%). Nineteen pregnant women consumed at least one drug of abuse during the first trimester, ten continued consuming drugs of abuse during the second trimester; and nine consumed until the end of pregnancy. Five of the nine newborns from mothers who consumed drugs during the whole pregnancy showed drugs of abuse in meconium samples. Newborns from the 23 remaining mothers with one or two hair shafts positive to drugs of abuse did not present drugs in their meconium. Indeed from these results, it seems that discontinuous and/or sporadic consumption during pregnancy could produce a negligible transplacental passage and hence negative results in meconium. Furthermore, the role of placenta in the metabolism and excretion of drugs of abuse is still to be precisely investigated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Comment: Legal Liability as Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman

    2007-01-01

    Several U.S. states have attempted to use of legal liability imposed on greenhouse gas emitters as a public policy instrument for climate change. This brief comment considers the desirability of this approach, focusing on three possible roles for climate change liability: as a source of compensation, as a direct influence on greenhouse gas concentrations, and as a means to facilitate the adoption of ex ante public policies to control greenhouse gases. The strongest argument for liability may ...

  2. THE BUILDER?S LIABILITY BEYOND THE DEFECTS LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson I IKPO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the obligations of a builder after the expiration of the contracted defects liability period using relevant decided cases. The common areas identified as forming the bedrock of litigation pertain to structural and dimensional stability, freedom from damp, durability, adequate drainage, good waste disposal works, and effective service installations. Particular reference is made to walls, roofs, and services, which from the pilot study account for about 46%, 23%, and 17% respectively of the total defects attributable to the builder. It is concluded that the builder is responsible for defects arising from his product till the effluxion of reasonable time, except he establishes an element of contributory negligence.

  3. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  4. Liability concerns and shared use of school recreational facilities in underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, John O; Connaughton, Daniel P; Maddock, Jason E

    2011-10-01

    In underserved communities, schools can provide the physical structure and facilities for informal and formal recreation as well as after-school, weekend, and summer programming. The importance of community access to schools is acknowledged by authoritative groups; however, fear of liability is believed to be a key barrier to community access. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of liability risk and associated issues among school administrators in underserved communities. A national survey of school administrators in underserved communities (n=360, response rate of 21%) was conducted in 2009 and analyzed in 2010. Liability perceptions in the context of community access were assessed through descriptive statistics. The majority of respondents (82.2%) indicated concern for liability should someone be injured on school property after hours while participating in a recreational activity. Among those that did not allow community access, 91% were somewhat to very concerned about liability and 86% believed that stronger legislation was needed to better protect schools from liability for after-hours recreational use. Among those who claimed familiarity with a state law that offered them limited liability protection, nearly three fourths were nevertheless concerned about liability. Liability concerns are prevalent among this group of school administrators, particularly if they had been involved in prior litigation, and even if they indicated they were aware of laws that provide liability protection where use occurs after hours. Reducing these concerns will be important if schools are to become locations for recreational programs that promote physical activity outside of regular school hours. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. International Liability Issues for Software Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    This report focuses on international law related to cybercrime, international information security standards, and software liability issues as they relate to information security for critical infrastructure applications...

  6. Report by the Nuclear Liability Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Liability Commission set up by the Ministry of Trade and Industry was to find out whether the basic principles of Finland's current nuclear liability system are appropriate and well functioning and what changes should be made to the present system, taking into account Finland's position in the European convention system (Paris and Brussels Conventions). No proposal in the form of a bill was expected of the Commission. The Finnish nuclear liability system would be further developed as part of the international convention system so that the negotiated amendments to the conventions would be enforced in Finland as soon as possible after the final adoption of the convention texts. The Nuclear Liability Act would be amended so that the principle of unlimited liability of the nuclear installation operator would be adopted instead of the principle of limited liability. The unlimited liability should be covered by an insurance limited in amount so that the installation operator must take out an insurance of at least euro 700 million to cover the injured parties. The liability of the host State would be extended to cover damages exceeding the amount subject to the liability to take out an insurance referred to above by euro 500 million. The international compensation community would cover damages exceeding euro 1.2 billion by no more than euro 300 million. In this case a total of euro 1.5 billion should be compensated from the liability insurance of the installation operator and on the basis of the liability obligation of the host State and compensation community. Later, within the limits of the insurance capacity available, the liability to take out an insurance could be increased to euro 1.2 billion by gradually raising the limit so as to finally also cover fully the share of euro 500 million of the host State referred to above. As for appeal times, the Nuclear Liability Act would be amended so that the appeal time of personal damages would be prolonged. The

  7. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA) [fr

  8. Nuclear third party liability under Polish law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewaszkiewic-Petrykowska, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the system governing liability for nuclear incidents in Poland. The Atomic Energy Act of 10 April 1986, which entered into force on 1 July 1986, covers all aspects of nuclear activities, including third party liability. Such liability is channelled onto the nuclear operator who must take out insurance to cover his liability up to an amount fixed in the contract. The Act provides that questions not settled by its provisions are governed by the Civil Code; therefore, if personal injuries exceed that amount victims may claim the difference from the State under that Code (NEA) [fr

  9. Psychometric Assessment of the Burgess-Partner Abuse Scale for Teens (B-PAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Burgess

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propósito. Evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala para adolescentes “Burgués-Partner Abuse Scale” (B-PAST, examinando la consistencia interna y validándola. Métodos. A una muestra de 239 niñas adolescentes, entre 13 y 19 años, que formaron parte de la práctica privada y que aceptaron participar, se le aplicó dos medidas de violencia interpersonal, dos de bienestar psicoló- gico y un cuestionario demográfico. La validez fue valorada por 1 un factor de análisis de conducta exploratoria con una decisión a priori para retener dos factores, y 2 medición de la correlación diferencial de la violencia interpersonal y el bienestar psicosocial usando la correlación de Pearson. Con el fin de determinar la habilidad del instrumento para discriminar entre niñas que informaron abuso de sus compañeros y aquéllas que no lo informaron, se examinaron las diferencias de la media de los grupos (abusadas vs. no abusadas. Un ANOVA de una vía se utilizó para determinar las diferencias de la violencia interpersonal y el bienestar psicosocial. Se examinó la consistencia interna del B-PAST, estableciendo un criterio para el coeficiente alfa sobre .70. Resultados. El 70.9% de la variable se explicó por medio del B-PAST. El factor de análisis demostró una escala de 22 ítemes con dos subescalas diferentes. El B-PAST correlacionado con una medida de violencia interpersonal de los compañeros (r=.39 y dos medidas de bienestar psicosocial pobre, bajo nivel de esperanza y aumento de la depresión (r=-.42, r=.46. Las diferencias en los contrastes de la media mostraron que las niñas adolescentes que habían sido abusadas por un compañero reportaron cifras más altas de violencia interpersonal. El ANOVA de una vía mostró que las niñas tenían cifras más altas para violencia interpersonal y depresión y bajas para esperanza. La consistencia interna para la escala total final fue de .97 y .95 para abuso físico/sexual y .91 para las

  10. Liability for the nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.; Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L.; Spriet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs

  11. An Assessment of the Hypothetical Impact of Drug Abuse on Combat Capability. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    25 I .4 Jill 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAt BIURIA OF gMANI£ IWOI) A LEVEL AD SAI-80-113-WA AN ASSESSMENT OF THE HYPOTHETICAL IMPACTo OF...potential loss of unit effectiveness in each of these units. The resulting measure of unit effectiveness provides a powerful analy- tic tool for comparing

  12. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  13. Study protocol for promoting respectful maternity care initiative to assess, measure and design interventions to reduce disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. Methods/design A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. Discussion This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale.

  14. Development of a Personalized Bidirectional Text Messaging Tool for HIV Adherence Assessment and Intervention among Substance Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Karen; Dillingham, Rebecca; Reynolds, George; Hettema, Jennifer; Freeman, Jason; Hosseinbor, Sharzad; Winstead-Derlega, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We describe the development of a two-way text messaging intervention tool for substance users who are non-adherent with HIV medications, and examine message flow data for feasibility and acceptability. The assessment and intervention tool, TxText, is fully automated, sending participants mood, substance use, and medication adherence queries by text message. Participants respond, the tool recognizes the category of response, and sends the personalized intervention message that participants designed in return. In 10 months, the tool sent 16,547 messages (half initial, half follow-up) to 31 participants assigned to the TxText condition, who sent 6711 messages in response to the initial messages. Response rates to substance use (n=2370), medication (n=2918) and mood (n=4639) queries were 67%, 69%, and 64%, respectively. Responses indicating medication adherence, abstinence from substances, and good moods were more common than negative responses. The TxText tool can send messages daily over a 3 month period, receive responses, and decode them to deliver personalized affirming or intervention messages. While we await the outcomes of a pilot randomized trial, the process analysis shows that TxText is acceptable and feasible for substance abusers with HIV, and may serve as a complement to HIV medical care. PMID:24029625

  15. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  16. Benzodiazepine abuse among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines belong to the hypnotic-sedative class of drugs which have anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic properties. These drugs have been in clinical use for at least half a century. The propensity for development of dependence, especially on prescription benzodiazepines, coupled with the risk of falls and cognitive impairment due to benzodiazepines makes the elderly population susceptible to adverse outcomes with the use of benzodiazepines, and hence, cautious use is desired in this population. This review discusses the various aspects pertaining to benzodiazepine abuse in the elderly including pharmacology, prevalence of abuse, adverse consequences of benzodiazepine abuse, and subsequently assessment and management of elderly patients with benzodiazepine abuse.

  17. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  18. Environmental pollution and liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boediker, T.

    1980-01-01

    By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Radiological risks and civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author)

  20. Radiological risks and civil liability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.E. (Salford Univ. (UK). Environmental Health and Housing Div.)

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author).

  1. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  2. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  3. Liability for nuclear damage and compensation therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazkova, D.

    1996-01-01

    The basic principles are outlined of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. (P.A.)

  4. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  5. Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...

  6. Children with burn injuries-assessment of trauma, neglect, violence and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Runge

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Burns are an important cause of injury to young children, being the third most frequent cause of injury resulting in death behind motor vehicle accidents and drowning. Burn injuries account for the greatest length of stay of all hospital admissions for injuries and costs associated with care are substantial. The majority of burn injuries in children are scald injuries resulting from hot liquids, occurring most commonly in children aged 0-4 years. Other types of burns include electrical, chemical and intentional injury. Mechanisms of injury are often unique to children and involve exploratory behavior without the requisite comprehension of the dangers in their environment. Assessment of the burnt child includes airway, breathing and circulation stabilization, followed by assessment of the extent of the burn and head to toe examination. The standard rule of 9s for estimating total body surface area (TBSA of the burn is inaccurate for the pediatric population and modifications include utilizing the Lund and Browder chart, or the child’s palm to represent 1% TBSA. Further monitoring may include cardiac assessment, indwelling catheter insertion and evaluation of inhalation injury with or without intubation depending on the context of the injury. Risk factors and features of intentional injury should be known and sought and vital clues can be found in the history, physical examination and common patterns of presentation. Contemporary burn management is underscored by several decades of advancing medical and surgical care however, common to all injuries, it is in the area of prevention that the greatest potential to reduce the burden of these devastating occurrences exists.

  7. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  8. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  9. Development of liability syndromes for schizophrenia: where did they come from and where are they going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S; Giuliano, Anthony J

    2013-10-01

    Three decades after Paul Meehl proposed the term "schizotaxia" to describe a conceptual framework for understanding the liability to schizophrenia, Ming Tsuang et al. at Harvard University reformulated the concept as a clinical syndrome with provisional research criteria. The reformulated view relied heavily on more recent data showing that many non-psychotic, un-medicated biological relatives of individuals with schizophrenia showed difficulties in cognitive and other clinical functions that resembled those seen in their ill relatives. The reformulation raised questions about both whether and when liability could be assessed validly in the absence of psychosis, and about the extent to which symptoms of liability are reversible. Both questions bear on the larger issue of early intervention in schizophrenia. This article reviews the efforts of Tsuang et al. to conceptualize and validate schizotaxia as one such syndrome of liability. Towards this end, liability is considered first more generally as an outcome of interactive genetic and environmental factors. Liability is then considered in the context of endophenotypes as a concept that is both broader and is potentially more specific (and predictive) than many DSM or ICD diagnostic symptoms. Liability syndromes are then considered in the context of their proximity to illness, first by reviewing prodromal syndromes (which are more proximal), and then by considering schizotaxia, which, as it is currently formulated, is pre-prodromal and, therefore, less proximal. Finally, challenges to validation and future directions for research are considered. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of the Relative Abuse of an OROS® Extended-release Hydromorphone HCI Product: Results from three Post-market Surveillance Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A; Cassidy, Theresa A

    2018-01-02

    Formulating prescription opioids to limit abuse remains a priority. OROS® extended-release (ER) hydromorphone HCl (EXALGO®) may have low abuse potential. Three post-marketing studies of the relative abuse liability of OROS hydromorphone ER were conducted. Estimates of abuse, unadjusted and adjusted for prescription volume, were generated for OROS hydromorphone ER and comparators from Q2 2010 through Q2 2014 for a high-risk, substance abuse treatment population and the general population using poison control center data. Comparators were selected for compound, market penetration, and route of administration (ROA) profile. ROA comparisons were made among the substance abuse treatment population. Internet discussion was examined to determine abusers' interest in and desire for the OROS formulation. Examination of abuse prevalence among adults within substance abuse treatment, intentional poison exposures and Internet discussion levels generally support the hypothesis that OROS hydromorphone ER may have lower abuse potential than many other opioid products. OROS hydromorphone ER also appears to be abused less often by alternate ROAs (e.g., snorting and injection). Lower levels of online discussion were observed along with relatively low endorsement for abuse. Abuse of OROS hydromorphone ER was observed in high-risk substance abuse and general population samples but at a very low relative prevalence. Evidence suggests it may be less often abused by alternate ROAs than some comparators. Online data did not find evidence of high levels of desire for OROS hydromorphone ER by recreational abusers. Continued monitoring of this product's abuse liability is warranted.

  11. Liability and Insurance for Suborbital Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.

  12. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  13. The Association Between Childhood Abuse and Elder Abuse Among Chinese Adult Children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Li, Ge; Simon, Melissa A

    2017-07-01

    The previous researchers have postulated that an abused child may abuse his or her abuser parent when the parent is getting old, also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence. However, few studies use data to support this model, and it has yet to be examined in the U.S. Chinese community. This study aims to examine the association between childhood abuse and elder abuse reported by Chinese adult children in the United States. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and older participated in this study. Childhood abuse was assessed by four-item Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) scale. Elder abuse was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Logistic regression analysis was performed. Childhood abuse was associated with caregiver abuse screen results (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.95). Being physically hurt (r = .13, p abuse screen results. This study suggests that childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of elder abuse among Chinese adult children in the United States. Longitudinal research should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which childhood abuse and its subtypes links with elder abuse. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Apportioning liability for transborder damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause-Ablass, W.-D.

    1988-01-01

    The legal situation in the case of cross border damage being caused by reactor accidents or transportation of nuclear material through more than one country is analysed. Two questions have to be asked - which country's courts have jurisdiction over the claims for damage? and which law is applicable? In considering the jurisdiction problem, the Paris and Vienna Conventions are discussed and also other rules of jurisdiction. The way the law is applicable is discussed in the second section. When the action for liability is based on the Paris or Vienna Convention the issue of reciprocity may arise and this is discussed. After a nuclear incident a potential plaintiff may have a choice amongst various jurisdictions and various available laws. Success may depend on the right choice of the forum chosen. This is illustrated by two examples. (U.K.)

  15. Financial security for nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA) [fr

  16. The Word Game: an innovative strategy for assessing implicit processes in parents at risk for child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Wells, Brett M; Shelton, Christopher R; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed. To address this need, the present study was designed to examine the utility of the Word Game, an innovative procedure designed to assess implicit changes in schema accessibility during the course of an interpersonal exchange involving aggressive response options. The game involves a series of competitive reaction time trials which are actually lexical decision making trials designed to determine the accessibility of schema throughout the game. Each parent was led to believe that they were competing against another player with whom they exchanged sound blasts of varying intensities. Participants in the present study were parents who were either low (n=50) or high (n=20) risk for CPA. Results revealed that high CPA risk parents behaved more aggressively than low CPA risk parents and that provocation augmented the aggressiveness of all participants. Among high CPA risk parents, positive schema became less accessible (whereas negative schema became more accessible) following lost rounds. At the conclusion of the game, high CPA risk parents reported more aggressive motives than low CPA risk parents. Further, aggressive motives significantly mediated the association between CPA risk status and aggressiveness (i.e., mean sound blast selections). Collectively, results support the potential utility of the Word Game as a means of advancing the study of social cognitive processes involved in parental aggression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)

  18. Improvement of nuclear third party liability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Oh, B. J.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year

  19. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...

  20. Preclinical Abuse Potential Assessment of Flibanserin: Effects on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Female and Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2016-03-01

    Flibanserin is a serotonin receptor subtype 1A agonist and 2A antagonist that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating female sexual interest and arousal disorder. Little is known about the abuse potential of flibanserin. To examine abuse-related effects of flibanserin in rats using an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure previously used to evaluate the abuse potential of other drugs. Adult female and male Sprague-Dawley rats with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained to press a lever for electrical brain stimulation under a "frequency-rate" ICSS procedure. In this procedure, increasing frequencies of brain stimulation maintain increasing rates of responding. Drugs of abuse typically increase (or "facilitate") ICSS rates and produce leftward and upward shifts in ICSS frequency-rate curves, whereas drugs that lack abuse potential typically do not alter or only decrease ICSS rates. Initial studies determined the potency and time course of effects on ICSS produced by acute flibanserin administration (1.0, 3.2 and 10.0 mg/kg). Subsequent studies determined the effects of flibanserin (3.2-18 mg/kg) before and after a regimen of repeated flibanserin administration (5.6 mg/kg/d for 5 days). Effects of the abused stimulant amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) were examined as a positive control. Flibanserin effects on ICSS frequency-rate curves in female and male rats were examined and compared with the effects of amphetamine. Baseline ICSS frequency-rate curves were similar in female and male rats. Acute and repeated administrations of flibanserin produced only decreases in ICSS rates, and rate-decreasing effects of the highest flibanserin dose (10 mg/kg) were greater in female than in male rats. In contrast to flibanserin, amphetamine produced an abuse-related increase in ICSS rates that did not differ between female and male rats. These results suggest that flibanserin has low abuse potential. In addition, this study

  1. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  2. Clinical Significance of Brain SPECT in Zipeprol Abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dai Ok; Kim, Jae Phil; Kim, Deog Yoon; Yang, Hyung In; Koh, Eun Mi; Kim, Kwang Won; Choi, Young Kil

    1993-01-01

    Drug abuse is widespread in worldwide and has been associated with neurologic complication. Zipeprol is one of drugs which been abused for psychological satisfaction in some adolescents. This agent is non-opioid antitussive agent, which is not legally considered as being capable of creating dependence or abuse liability at therapeutic serum levels. But it has been reported that acute or chronic overdose create neurologic complication such as convulsion as well as dependence. Recently we experienced six zipeprol abusers who admitted due to convulsion and variable neurologic symptoms. The aim of our study was to determine the role of Tc-99m- HMPAO brain SPECT in those patients. EEG and brain CT showed no abnormal finding, but brain SPECT showed focal or multiple perfusion abnormalities in frontal, parietal, occipital cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and especially at temporal cortex. These results suggest that brain SPECT may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate the cerebral dysfunction induced by zipeprol abuse.

  3. Electronuclear Park, Privatization and Civil Strict Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Gerard Camille

    2008-01-01

    The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park

  4. Joint liability lending and the peer selection effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangopadhyay, S; Ghatak, M; Lensink, R

    2005-01-01

    We show that the joint liability lending contracts derived in Ghatak (2000) violate an ex post incentive-compatibility constraint which says that the amount of joint liability cannot exceed the amount of individual liability. We derive and characterise optimal separating joint liability contracts

  5. Liability for oil spill damages: issues, methods, and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigalunas, T.A.; Opaluch, J.J.; Diamantides, J.; Mazzotta, M.

    1998-01-01

    Liability is an important incentive-based instrument for preventing oil spills and provides a sustainable approach for restoring coastal resources injured by spills. However, the use of liability for environmental damages raises many challenges, including quantification of money measures of damages. In this article, case studies are used to illustrate the issues, methods, and challenges associated with assessing a range of damages, from those that can be measured relatively easily using market information to more 'esoteric', and much more difficult, cases involving non-market-valued losses. Also discussed are issues raised by the new national and international regulatory focus on restoration and by the simplified, compensatory formula used by some states. (author)

  6. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult...... and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24). Women...... expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3). Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416...

  7. Including district heating pipelines in absolute liability laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, W

    1977-10-01

    On January 1, 1978 the provisions of the Act Amending the Rules of Liability Damages have entered into force. Formally this means that the provisions of the Reich Liability Act (Reichshaftpflichtgesetz, RHG) and those of the Act on Liability with Respect to Property Damage of Railways and Tramways (SHG) are now combined under the new term of Liability Act (Haftpflichtgesetz). In material terms it means that the district heat industry with its supply pipelines is subject to absolute liability. This creates a liability situation for this industry which has been existing for the electricity and gas industries since 1943 as a result of an amendment of the Reich Liability Act.

  8. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Wulani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000 abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000 was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about supervisor’s abusive behavior, and it was also assessed by experts. The results of this study indicated that abusive supervision was a 3-dimensional construct. There were anger-active abuse (6 items, humiliation-active abuse (4 items, and passive abuse (15 items. These scales have internal reliabilities of 0.947, 0.922, and 0.845, in sequence.

  9. Assessing Change in Psychosocial Functioning of Incarcerated Girls with a Substance Use Disorder: Gender Sensitive Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia L.; Jackson, Mary S.; Kirk, Raymond; Pharr, O. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the effectiveness of a female gender-specific substance abuse treatment intervention (Holistic Enrichment for At-Risk Teens, or HEART) in improving problems related to personal and social functioning. A quasi-experimental, 2-group pretest and posttest repeated measures design was used to…

  10. The "Word Game": An Innovative Strategy for Assessing Implicit Processes in Parents at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L.; Irwin, Lauren M.; Wells, Brett M.; Shelton, Christopher R.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed.…

  11. Common and specific liability to addiction: approaches to association studies of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, David A; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2012-06-01

    Opioid addiction, whether to opiates such as heroin and morphine, and/or to non-medical use of opioids, is a major problem worldwide. Although drug-induced and environmental factors are essential for the liability to develop opioid addiction, the genetic background of an individual is now known also to play a substantial role. The overall goal of this article is to address the common and specific liabilities to addiction in the context of approaches to studies of one addiction, opioid addiction. Literature on identifying genetic variants that may play a role in the development of opioid addiction was reviewed. A substantial number of genetic variants have been reported to be associated with opioid addiction. No single variant has been found in any of the reported GWAS studies with a substantial effect size on the liability to develop heroin addiction. It appears that there is a complex interaction of a large number of variants, some rare, some common, which interact with the environment and in response to specific drugs of abuse to increase the liability of developing opioid addiction. In spite of the inherent difficulties in obtaining large well-phenotyped cohorts for genetic studies, new findings have been reported that are being used to develop testable hypotheses into the biological basis of opioid addiction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Managing Athletic Liability: An Assessment Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, Philip; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive risk-management program associated with athletic activities contains the following essential components: (1) policies and procedures; (2) training; (3) supervision; (4) corrective action; (5) review and revision; (6) legal counsel and support. Action steps follow each of these major areas. (29 case references) (MLF)

  13. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  14. Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    During its April 2014 meeting, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held a policy debate on 'Progress towards a Global Nuclear Liability Regime'. The Steering Committee heard presentations from several experts on nuclear liability issues. To prepare the delegates to the Steering Committee for the policy debate, the NEA Secretariat prepared a background note on the status of the nuclear liability regimes, as well as on current issues and challenges in implementing the regimes. This article is based on the background note and is intended to provide basic information on the relevant international conventions and an overview of recent developments to enhance the understanding of the legal framework in which policy-makers and practitioners are engaging to respond to the call for broader adherence to the international liability instruments. (authors)

  15. Liability exposure for surgical robotics instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu L; Kilic, Gokhan; Phelps, John Y

    2012-01-01

    Surgical robotics instructors provide an essential service in improving the competency of novice gynecologic surgeons learning robotic surgery and advancing surgical skills on behalf of patients. However, despite best intentions, robotics instructors and the gynecologists who use their services expose themselves to liability. The fear of litigation in the event of a surgical complication may reduce the availability and utility of robotics instructors. A better understanding of the principles of duty of care and the physician-patient relationship, and their potential applicability in a court of law likely will help to dismantle some concerns and uncertainties about liability. This commentary is not meant to discourage current and future surgical instructors but to raise awareness of liability issues among robotics instructors and their students and to recommend certain preventive measures to curb potential liability risks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A Danish Twin Study of Schizophrenia Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I

    2016-01-01

    whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...

  17. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  18. Alcohol on Campus and Possible Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews laws and court cases relating to alcohol and possible civil and criminal liability. Suggests a number of risk management principles, including knowledge of the law, policies forbidding hazing, fostering alcohol awareness, and discipline. (JAC)

  19. Roadway related tort liability and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This workbook provide government employees background information related to tort liability and risk management. Past experience with lawsuits against government entities are summarized. The reasons for the lawsuits and results are analyzed. The obje...

  20. Direct liability of corporations and their personnel under CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landreth, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    The prevailing liability theory applied to those persons who have caused, through their action or inaction, the release of a hazardous substance is that CERCLA provides a statutory basis for direct personal liability This direct avenue to liability is in conflict with well-settled principles of corporate limited liability. This paper discusses the impact CERCLA has had on the common law concepts of liability for corporations and their members

  1. [The new law on strengthening the rights of victims of sexual abuse and its implications for the forensic-psychiatric assessment of sexual offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Foerster, Klaus; Dressing, Harald

    2014-07-01

    Highlighting practical implications and research aspects of forensic-psychiatric assessments in the context of the new law on strengthening the rights of victims of sexual abuse. Based on a clinical case we report implications for the forensic-psychiatric assessment. The new law now requires an expert to evaluate the necessity and the subject's motivation to receive a given treatment. Up to now, the majority of sexual offenders were assumed to be responsible for their actions and in most cases a forensic-psychiatric assessment was not required. For this reason, guidelines for forensic-psychiatric assessments are urgently needed. The number of forensic-psychiatric assessments is likely to increase substantially and a relevant-case law is still lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Optimization of the company tax liability

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Blanka

    2010-01-01

    This thesis introduces the tax system of the Czech Republic. The corporate income tax in particular is specified in bigger detail. Its basic structural elements are described with the focus on the transformation of the accountable profit to the tax base. The practical part is divided into chapters, each of which deals with the optimization of the amount of the real tax liability. The content, instruments mentioned and methods for decreasing company tax liability applied suggest this work more...

  3. Asset liability management using stochastic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Pirbhai, M; Mitra, G; Kyriakis, T

    2003-01-01

    This chapter sets out to explain an important financial planning model called asset liability management (ALM); in particular, it discusses why in practice, optimum planning models are used. The ability to build an integrated approach that combines liability models with that of asset allocation decisions has proved to be desirable and more efficient in that it can lead to better ALM decisions. The role of uncertainty and quantification of risk in these planning models is con...

  4. Nuclear liability, nuclear safety, and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage

  5. Liability for nuclear damage. An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopuski, J.

    1993-01-01

    The book deals with some of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on this experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed in Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states the engage their liability; conflict of interests between nuclear and non-nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussion no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structures of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issues, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)

  6. New Trends in European Nuclear Liability Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, H.; Steinkemper, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA) [fr

  7. BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

  8. Chernobyl: Lessons in nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwaczek, A.S.; Mooney, S.; Kerr, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Chernobyl dumped significant quantities of radioactive fallout as far as 1,300 miles away, causing severe economic loss in nations stretching from Sweden to Greece. It cost innocent sheep growers in Wales, fishermen in Switzerland, reindeer-dependent Laplanders in Norway, dairymen in Sweden and Austria, and cheese makers in Greece. European nations have calculated costs from deposition of nuclear materials in the hundreds of millions report the authors. The accident at chernobyl and the European experience with the consequences can offer several insights relevant to the US commercial nuclear industry, the authors note: (1) the aggregate effect of such an accident is extremely large and unpredictable; (2) adequate disaster planning can significantly reduce costs and ease the disruption; and (3) the experience raises questions about the adequacy of the nation's nuclear insurance and liability programs. given the number of commissioned nuclear reactors today, the present scheme would provide financial compensation of approximately $7 billion per incident. Depending on the circumstances, the authors say this may not be sufficient

  9. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  10. Third party nuclear liability regime in the Romanian legislation - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Chiripus, V.

    2004-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined by Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damages, as well as Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper aims at presenting to the audience the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the scope of Law no. 703/2001, as well as the subjects to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania (with special emphasis on the relevant responsibilities of nuclear operators), the Romanian nuclear damages compensation system, statute of limitation for claims, types of insurance and financial guarantees covering against civil liability for nuclear damages, limits of nuclear operators' liability, specific requirements regarding the insurance, responsibilities of control and supervision bodies, assessment of nuclear damage.(author)

  11. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  12. Armed guards on vessels : insurance and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišo Mudrić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.

  13. Measuring excessive pricing as an abuse of dominance – an assessment of the criteria used in the Harmony Gold/Mittal Steel complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena das Nair

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Competition Tribunal recently found Mittal Steel SA guilty of abusing its super-dominant position by charging excessive prices to the detriment of consumers of flat carbon steel products. This article assesses the economic tests to be used for excessive pricing in light of the case and reviews the lessons that can be learned from the evidence required for the different tests. It discusses issues related to using profitability as a test and points out problems and pitfalls in profitability measures.

  14. Understanding elder abuse in family practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889

  15. State and supplementary civil liability insurance: the example of swiss nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehlmann, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes State guarantee and nuclear liability insurance which has been established, in Switzerland, after the vote of the law of 18 march 1983: Civil liability of nuclear operator has no limitations for nuclear damages compensations. The coverage is given by private insurance and State guarantee. 1 tab

  16. Common Purpose Liability versus Joint Enterprise: A Practical View on the ICC's Hierarchy of Liability Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupido, M.

    2016-01-01

    On 7 March 2014, Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court (ICC) convicted Germain Katanga for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Katanga's conviction is based on the concept of common purpose liability as regulated in Article 25(3)(d) of the Rome Statute. This liability theory

  17. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  18. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  19. Assessment of abuse-related injuries: a comparative study of forensic physicians, emergency room physicians, emergency room nurses and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Udo J L; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; de Bruin, Kim H

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was made investigating whether emergency room physicians, emergency room nurses, forensic physicians, and interns are competent in describing, recognising and determining the possible cause of injuries. The injury assessment scores varied from good--adequate--fail and remained blank in various participant groups. Forensic physicians scored significantly better than emergency room staff and interns in the assessment of abuse-related injuries. There were almost no differences noted between emergency room physicians and emergency room nurses. For the functional group with more or less than 4 to 6 years of experience, no significant differences were noted for scoring good in all 5 cases. The fact that forensic physicians scored better than the emergency room staff is probably explained by the fact that almost all practicing forensic physicians have been officially qualified. Training in this field for all professionals involved in such assessment should be mandatory.

  20. Insurance Cover for Revised Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2008-01-01

    The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  2. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  3. Liability for damage to the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done

  4. Future financial liabilities of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities, in particular electricity generation. Future financial liabilities are defined as costs which an organisation or company is expected to meet beyond some five years as a consequence of its current and past activities. The study provides a comprehensive picture on policies for recognizing and funding future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities and their implementation schemes in Nea Member countries. Mechanisms for reporting and funding future financial liabilities are described, analysed and compared. The report offers some findings, conclusions and recommendations for consideration by Member countries. The nuclear activities considered in the report include nuclear research and development, nuclear industry sectors such as uranium mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, nuclear fuel fabrication, nuclear power plant operation and maintenance, and radioisotopes production. Future financial liabilities arising from these activities cover management and disposal of radioactive wastes, reprocessing of spent fuels when applicable and decommissioning of facilities at the end of their life time. 12 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Personality development after physical abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R K

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  6. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  7. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-04

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parent education: an evaluation of STEP on abusive parents' perceptions and abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.

  9. Sites sobre drogas de abuso: recursos para avaliação Sites on drugs of abuse: resources for assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Santos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os profissionais da saúde devem ser estimulados a adquirir independência própria na busca, seleção e utilização de informações para solução de problemas do dia-a-dia. Além disso, devem ser incentivados a refletir sobre os fatos vividos, visando à reconstrução da trajetória percorrida, dando-lhes um novo significado. Este texto apresenta uma experiência de aprendizagem, vivenciada por estudantes de graduação, durante o processo de avaliação de sites brasileiros sobre drogas de abuso. Mediante a identificação do grande número de informações sobre drogas de abuso e da falta de critérios para sua divulgação na internet, iniciou-se um processo de pesquisa que desencadeou a construção de um protocolo para auxiliar o processo de seleção de sites brasileiros que abordam o tema drogas de abuso.Health professionals should be encouraged to gain independence in the search for, selection, and use of information to solve daily problems. Furthermore, they should be encouraged to reflect on the events that were experienced, to pursue the reconstruction of the path that was followed, and to give them a new meaning. This article presents a learning experience graduate students had during the process of evaluating Brazilian sites on drugs of abuse. After ascertaining the great amount of information on drugs of abuse and the lack of criteria in discussing them on the Internet, a research process got underway that triggered the preparation of a protocol to assist in the process of selecting Brazilian sites that address the drugs of abuse issue.

  10. Mediator assessment, documentation, and disposition of child custody cases involving intimate partner abuse: a naturalistic evaluation of one county's practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Connie J A; Walsh, Michele E; Mechanic, Mindy B; Taylor, Caitilin S

    2010-06-01

    The contentious and costly nature of the adversarial process for resolving child custody disputes has prompted scholars, practitioners, and policy makers to advocate for the development and implementation of less divisive forms of dispute resolution, notably, mediation. Mediation has been championed for its potential to resolve disputes with less acrimony among disputants, reduced economic costs, increased satisfaction with outcomes, and fewer adverse consequences for family members. Despite the increasing popularity, arguments have cautioned against the use of mandated mediation when intimate partner abuse (IPA) is alleged. This research documents a mediation screening process and models mediators' decision-making process as instantiated, naturally, in one jurisdiction.

  11. Meeting of the High Committee - 13 December 2012: Report by the national commission of assessment of the financing of nuclear liabilities on a long term (CNEF); Elements of doctrine for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident; Interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, M.; Gallay, Florence; Aubert, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this document proposes a report made by the national commission of assessment of the financing of the nuclear liabilities on a long term (CNEF): presentation of the administrative authority, assessment of liabilities, assets, and remarks. The second part contains elements of doctrine for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident: works made by the CODIRPA, definition of three critical objectives and six key issues for post-accidental management, post-accidental zoning, first post-accidental measures for the protection of the population, future objectives for CODIRPA work groups. The third part addresses interventional radiology: definition, specificities (uses, characteristics, continuous increase, number of sessions), related risks, clinic evidence and thresholds and delays of appearance of cutaneous effects, international concern, legal and regulatory framework (radiation protection measures), incidents known by the IRSN, results of a national survey on patient radiation protection in interventional cardiology centres, perspectives and expectations, worker exposure, recommendations regarding the regulatory framework, professional training, equipment and patient monitoring, information on potential undesired effects

  12. Chernobyl and the international liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.; Schmidt, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate whether Federal German citizens would have any success in claiming compensation for damage as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in a Soviet court, and the answer is positive in terms of substantive law. Actions would have to be filed against the AES at Chernobyl to the Chernobyl county court, which would examine the claims according to Soviet (Ukrainian) civil law, and taking into account two aspects of liability, namely strict liability, and liability in tort. However, it would indeed be more realistic to expect that any such action would be dismissed by the court upon the directive of political authorities, as the Soviet Government certainly would have no interest at all to give any foreign citizen the chance to win a case in such a politically significant matter. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. The Pulse of Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Sofka, Wolfgang

    companies. Such liabilities of foreignness are persistent in nature. We investigate the causes behind these detrimental effects. We identify two major factors conceptually: a lack of legitimacy in the host country on the demand side and a lack of responsiveness on the side of the multinational corporation......Globalization has provided many companies with new opportunities for growth and efficiency. This requires them to operate successfully across cultural and social borders. These can be stumbling blocks to internationalization and have been found to cause frequent errors and delays for multinational...... that legitimacy is the dominant factor behind the effects of liability of foreignness. As customer experience increases, liability of foreignness caused by a lack of responsiveness becomes more of an issue....

  14. Liability in maritime transport of dangerous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, H.

    1985-01-01

    The first part contains a description of national liability standards for maritime transport in the French, English, US-American and West German legislation. This is followed up by a detailed review of the existing international agreements. The book is rounded off by a critical evaluation of the presently held discussion and suggested solutions on the problems of liability in the maritime transport of dangerous goods other than mineral oil. The author takes a close look at the 'Entwurf eines Internationalen Uebereinkommens ueber die Haftung und den Schadenersatz bei der Befoerderung schaedlicher und gefaehrlicher Stoffe auf See' ('draft of an international agreement on liability and compensation for damage in maritime transport of noxious and dangerous goods') in the version of May 23, 1983, which was discussed on an international diplomat's conference in London without however, yielding any concrete results. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Proposed Amendments to the Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum issued by the Swedish Ministry of Justice contains proposed amendments to the 1968 Nuclear Liability Act which can be divided into two categories. Those in the first category are required to enable Sweden to ratify the draft Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The second category of amendments propose that the nuclear operator's liability be raised from the present sum of 50 million Kroner to 500 million Kroner, to be covered by insurance; it is also proposed that a State liability be introduced over and above the compensation available, the aggregate amount being limited to 300 million Kroner. State indemnification would apply to the Nordic countries. The Annexes to the Memorandum contain the English and French texts of the draft Protocols to amend both above-mentioned Conventions (NEA) [fr

  16. The safety-incentive theory of liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.M.

    1977-11-01

    The use of liability law to improve incentives for safety is supported by certain recent theoretical results. The main ideas and the key argumants are summarized. Basic weaknesses of the theory are discussed, namely: (1) the simple model of Calabresi does not generalize; (2) the more complex systems of J.P. Brown, P. Diamond, and J. Green require that courts possess a great deal of information and use it to set appropriate standards of due care; (3) in practice safety incentives also depend upon fear of criminal penalties and the sense of social responsibility. The questions whether and when liability rules can significantly affect incentives are addressed. It is concluded that the theory in its present state can hardly serve as a basis for altering liability rules

  17. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  18. Analysis of your professional liability insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R

    1958-01-01

    The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors.

  19. The Principles Of Liability On Telemedicine Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Anwar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at analyzing and finding the principle of liability in telemedicine medical practice proportionally.This research is a legal research with the approach of statute approach, conceptual approach and comparative approach, as well as the approach to the case approach. According to Article 24 paragraph (1 of the 1945 Constitution and Article 5 (1 of Act No. 48 of 2009 on Judicial Authority, determine that the judge shall explore, and understand the legal values and sense of justice in society. Thus Article 1367 paragraph (3 BW and Article 46 of Act No. 44 of 2009 on Hospitals in the application must be in the context of the intended. The principle of liability risk in medical practice telemedicine in proportion refers to professional liability among medical practitioners telemedicine. The theoretical legitimacy is based on professional relationships in the delegation of medical action based on the code of ethics, professional standards, and service standards, and standard operating procedures. Consequences on liability does not necessarily have to be based on errors primary physician (primary care physician / PCP or primary nurse as subordinate as mean vicarious liability doctrine. Nomenclature "proportional" in a significant liability risk as the distribution of rights and obligations of professionals in proportion to each party's fault based on the values of equality (equitability, feasibility and appropriateness (fair and reasionableness. Accountability based on the viewpoint of interactive justice according to the values of professional skill, prudence or accuracy, responsibility, and colleague and the desire to do good for the sake of healing patients (doing good.

  20. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  1. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....

  2. Search Engine Liability for Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, B.; O'Brien, D.; Fitzgerald, A.

    The chapter provides a broad overview to the topic of search engine liability for copyright infringement. In doing so, the chapter examines some of the key copyright law principles and their application to search engines. The chapter also provides a discussion of some of the most important cases to be decided within the courts of the United States, Australia, China and Europe regarding the liability of search engines for copyright infringement. Finally, the chapter will conclude with some thoughts for reform, including how copyright law can be amended in order to accommodate and realise the great informative power which search engines have to offer society.

  3. DISCIPLINAIRIE LIABILITIES OF THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Work discipline is essential for the proper conduct of business within an organization with implications for productivity and efficiency. Disciplinary liability arises as a direct result of breach of service obligations and rules of behaviour. At EU level, disciplinary responsibility of community public servant is governed by the provisions of the Statute of the European Community published in the Official Journal of the European Community no. L 56 March 4, 1968 and amended on numerous occasions. This paper proposes an analysis of concrete conditions which require disciplinary liability of the European public servant, disciplinary sanctions and procedures for implementing them.

  4. Development of an in vitro cytochrome P450 cocktail inhibition assay for assessing the inhibition risk of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-10-01

    Drugs of abuse are not tested for cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition potential before distribution. Therefore, a cocktail assay should be developed for testing the inhibition potential for all relevant CYPs. The following CYP test substrates and selective inhibitors were incubated in pooled human liver microsomes: phenacetin (alpha-naphthoflavone for CYP1A2), coumarin (tranylcypromine, CYP2A6), bupropion (sertraline, CYP2B6), amodiaquine (trimethoprim, CYP2C8), diclofenac (sulfaphenazole, CYP2C9), omeprazole (fluconazole, CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (quinidine, CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (clomethiazole, CYP2E1), testosterone (verapamil, CYP3A). Samples were analyzed after protein precipitation using a Thermo Fisher Q-Exactive LC-high-resolution-MS/MS. The IC50 values were calculated by plotting the concentration of the formed metabolite, relative to the control sample, over the logarithm of the inhibitor concentration. They were determined either for single substrate or the cocktail incubation. Unfortunately, the cocktail assay had to be split because of interferences during incubation caused by substrates or metabolites, but the mixture of both incubates could be analyzed in one analytical run. The IC50 values determined in the single substrate or both cocktail incubations were comparable among themselves and with published data. In conclusion, the new inhibition cocktail assay was reproducible and applicable for testing the inhibition potential of drugs of abuse as exemplified for 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amfetamine (DOI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges. Account 426.5, Other deductions... the fair value of the derivative instrument. ...

  6. motor vehicle lessors' liability for damages to third parties: acomment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of defining the scope of application of the Ethiopian law on liability for damages ... Federal Supreme Court in a recent case has rendered a decision that allows. ♧ .... 3.1 Whether Third Party Practice Exonerates Joint and Several. Liability.

  7. On the optimal environmental liability limit for marine oil transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Jin; Kite-Powell, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in the US liability regime for oil pollution damage have intensified a policy debate about environmental liability limits. Economic theory suggests that some type of limit may be needed under certain conditions, and that such a limit should be set so that the marginal social benefit and cost are equal. However, it is unclear how a liability limit may be determined specifically for tanker shipping in US waters. We first examine conditions under which corner solutions (no liability or unlimited liability) are desirable. We then formulate a model to determine a socially optimal liability limit for oil pollution damage in US waters when a non-zero, finite liability limit is desirable. The model captures the tradeoff between less expensive energy supply and more stringent protection of the marine environment. Numerical simulations illustrate the properties of the model and major factors affecting the public policy decision regarding a liability limit. (author)

  8. The modernization of the international nuclear third party liability regime - does exclusive liability still make sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolehmainen, H.

    2000-01-01

    In order to create a perspective for the presentation, it might be useful to recall the general aims and purposes of the existing system for exclusive liability in the international nuclear liability regime. As is well-known, the compensation system is based on two conventions (The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963). The norms in these Conventions define the level at which the compensation system for nuclear accidents is based. The international co-operation which resulted in the conventions was inspired by the aim to construct a system which awards a fair and sufficient compensation for the victims of a nuclear accident. Secondly, the aim was to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The purpose was also to harmonize regulations concerning nuclear energy. The preparatory works for these conventions demand a general goal to balance the interests of the potential victims of a nuclear accident and the interest of society to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy. National legislation on nuclear third party liability is based on these conventions. There are four basic principles which guide the normative framework of these conventions. The liability of the operator of a nuclear installation is not based on fault but is strictly based on its nature. Secondly, the liability is restricted to a certain sum per accident. Thirdly, the liability of the operator ought to be covered by insurance or state guarantee. Fourthly, the liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of a nuclear plant, meaning that there are no other persons to be held liable for a possible nuclear accident. Any new orientation on third party liability for nuclear damages should be within the context of existing regulations in the field. Exceptions from established international principles in the area of nuclear liability should be openly discussed and their consequences

  9. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  10. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  11. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  12. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  13. Looking at nuclear liability and insurance in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1997-01-01

    A recent seminar in Moscow has addressed the issue of nuclear liability and insurance in the Russian nuclear industry since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The potential benefits of joining the international liability regime and adopting comprehensive nuclear liability legislation were discussed. The need to establish appropriate nuclear insurance structures and provide indemnity to cover the liability were also debated. Whether these changes can be put into action or not is less certain than the need for them. (UK)

  14. Liability-driven investment in longevity risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Aro; Teemu Pennanen

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies optimal investment from the point of view of an investor with longevity-linked liabilities. The relevant optimization problems rarely are analytically tractable, but we are able to show numerically that liability driven investment can significantly outperform common strategies that do not take the liabilities into account. In problems without liabilities the advantage disappears, which suggests that the superiority of the proposed strategies is indeed based on connections b...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.505 - Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Agency Guaranteed Loans That Back Ginnie Mae Guaranteed Securities... limited to, negligence, fraud, abuse, misrepresentation or misuse of funds, property condition, or...

  16. Focus on the future of nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2000-01-01

    The main nuclear liability principles are examined. Then, aspects newly introduced by the 1997 Convention on Supplementary Compensation and by the new austrian nuclear liability law are studied. Then general deliberations on the extent and the limits of a civil nuclear liability regime are tackled. (N.C.)

  17. 26 CFR 50.5 - Liability for the tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for the tax. 50.5 Section 50.5... TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.5 Liability for the tax. Liability for tax attaches to any person engaged at any time during the...

  18. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIABILITY FUND § 29.7 Imposition of strict liability. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law... prove that the damages were caused by an act of war or by the negligence of the United States or other... negligence of such damaged party. (c)(1) Strict liability for all claims arising out of any one incident...

  19. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted pursuant... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69...

  20. Spectral decomposition of optimal asset-liability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decamps, M.; de Schepper, A.; Goovaerts, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns optimal asset-liability management when the assets and the liabilities are modeled by means of correlated geometric Brownian motions as suggested in Gerber and Shiu [2003. Geometric Brownian motion models for assets and liabilities: from pension funding to optimal dividends.

  1. 37 CFR 10.78 - Limiting liability to client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting liability to client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.78 Limiting liability to client. A practitioner shall not attempt to exonerate himself or herself from, or limit his or her liability to, a client for his or her...

  2. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  3. [Surveillance system on drug abuse: Interest of the French national OPPIDUM program of French addictovigilance network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Pochard, Liselotte; Boucherie, Quentin; Giocanti, Adeline; Chevallier, Cécile; Daveluy, Amélie; Gibaja, Valérie; Caous, Anne-Sylvie; Eiden, Céline; Authier, Nicolas; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Guerlais, Marylène; Jouanjus, Émilie; Lepelley, Marion; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pain, Stéphanie; Richard, Nathalie; Micallef, Joëlle

    2017-09-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs. Among them, 77% received an opiate maintenance treatment: 68% methadone (half of them consumed capsule form) and 27% buprenorphine (39% consumed generic form). Brand-name buprenorphine is more often injected than generic buprenorphine (10% vs. 2%) and among methadone consumers 7% of methadone capsule consumers have illegally obtained methadone (vs. 9% for syrup form). The proportion of medications among psychoactive drugs injected is important (42%), with morphine representing 21% of the total psychoactive drugs injected and buprenorphine, 16%. OPPIDUM highlighted emergent behaviors of abuse with some analgesic opioids (like tramadol, oxycodone or fentanyl), pregabalin, or quetiapine. OPPIDUM highlighted variations of drugs use regarding geographic approaches or by drug dependence care centers (like in harm reduction centers). OPPIDUM clearly demonstrated that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible, these data have an interest at regional, national and international levels. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear liability act and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roy G.; Goyette, R.; Mathers, C.W.; Germani, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Liability Act, enacted in June 1970 and proclaimed effective October 11, 1976, is a federal law governing civil liability for nuclear damage in Canada incorporating many of the basic principles of the international conventions. Exceptions to operator liability for breach of duty imposed by the Act and duty of the operator as well as right of recourse, time limit on bringing actions, special measures for compensation and extent of territory over which the operator is liable are of particular interest. An operator must maintain $75,000,000. of insurance for each nuclear installation for which he is the operator. The Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada (NIAC) administers two ΣPoolsΣ or groups of insurance companies where each member participates for the percentage of the total limit on a net basis, one pool being for Physical Damage Insurance and the other for Liability Insurance. The Atomic Energy Control Board recommends to the Treasury Board the amount of insurance (basic) for each installation. Basic insurance required depends on the exposure and can range from $4 million for a fuel fabricator to $75 million for a power reactor. Coverage under the Operator's Policy provides for bodily injury, property damage and various other claims such as damage from certain transportation incidents as well as nuclear excursions. Workmen's Compensation will continue to be handled by the usual channels. (L.L.)

  5. 77 FR 74121 - Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... protected against personal liability for corporate obligations. Both forms of business entity may opt for treatment as an association, and consequently for corporate tax treatment, without regard to State law...''). LLPs are created under State law and share certain characteristics with both partnerships and...

  6. Liability and damages in Japanese nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP) [de

  7. 12 CFR 229.38 - Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... affect a paying bank's liability to its customer under the U.C.C. or other law. (b) Paying bank's failure... provision, but not both. (c) Comparative negligence. If a person, including a bank, fails to exercise... person under § 229.38(a) shall be diminished in proportion to the amount of negligence or bad faith...

  8. Nuclear liabilities - nuclear insurance. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, H.

    1981-01-01

    Too much emotion is involved in the topic of nuclear energy. This is often due to the fact that the persons involved lack of essential basic knowledge. This article and the following ones represent an attempt to offer a technically oriented introduction into the physical preconditions of the problems and the questions concerning matters of liability and insurance. (orig.) [de

  9. Institutional Liability for Student Activities and Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Douglas R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines higher education institutional liability in the following areas: (1) in tort, based on negligence, for physical harm to students; (2) in tort, for defamation flowing from student media; and (3) in contract, arising out of student organizations' business relationships with third parties. (222 references) (MLF)

  10. 7 CFR 1209.74 - Personal liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order...

  11. Directors’ and Officers’ Liability: Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. C. Leyens (Patrick); M.G. Faure (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper will be published as a chapter of the forthcoming volume ‘Directors & Officers Liability’ edited by Simon F. Deakin, Helmut Koziol, and Olaf Riss. It explores D&O liability from a law and economics perspective with a view to identify trade-offs of different legal settings.

  12. 42 CFR 424.555 - Payment liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by a provider or supplier if the billing... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered...

  13. Market-Consistent Valuation of Pension Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, Antoon; Salahnejhad, Ahmad; van den Akker, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Pension funds and life insurance companies have liabilities on their books with extremely long-dated maturities that are exposed to non-hedgeable actuarial risks and also to market risks. In this paper, we show that it is computationally feasible to price pensions contracts in an incomplete market

  14. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  15. Trends in nuclear third party liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avossa, G.

    1992-01-01

    For some ten years now, nuclear third-party liability has been changing at an ever-faster pace, further accelerated by the Chernobyl catastrophe. Some of these changes are discussed in this article. A joint protocol drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) mutually extends the benefit of the special third-party liability system regarding nuclear damage instituted by virtue of previous Conventions and settles the conflicts of law likely to result from the simultaneous application of the two international instruments. Within the framework of the IAEA, a review procedure of the Convention of Vienna has been underway since 1989, in which the NEA has taken an integral part. At the outcome of the process underway, not only will the Convention of Vienna be revised, but so, indirectly but very rapidly, will the Conventions of Paris and Brussels. Ultimately, the entire field of nuclear third-party liability will be recast for decades to come. The texts under discussion are as yet nowhere near their final stage but two areas of consideration have already emerged, which will be discussed. Substantial modifications are made in nuclear third-party liability law. Secondly, the indemnification process for nuclear damage will be vastly modified, due to the subsidiary nature of government intervention and new obligations on operators to become members of a Nuclear Operator Pool. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 267.147 - Liability requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.147 Liability requirements. (a) Coverage for sudden accidental... facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties...

  17. 31 CFR 210.10 - RDFI liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false RDFI liability. 210.10 Section 210.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...

  18. 31 CFR 210.11 - Limited liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited liability. 210.11 Section 210.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...

  19. [The "specific" liability regime for blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2017-10-13

    Based on the system of liability for defective products as organized by the European Directive of 25 July 1985, responsibility for blood products does not therefore constitute a genuine specific regime. However, European law leaves States a margin of discretion in the implementation of the Directive with regard to health products. This is the case in particular with the exemption for development risk.

  20. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  1. A CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVE REGARDING PRODUCT LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses a current and highly important problem because we are in front of an unrecorded growth of the production volume in parallel with its diversification. Due to the fact that the introduction in production of the new products is preceded by the subsequent execution of some manually manufactured prototypes, the products are manufactured afterwards on an industrial scale. Under these circumstances there is the possibility of small errors which affect the consumer’s behaviour towards the new products. That is why, in auditing the focus is on the careful supervision of the opinions of the consumers and especially of the shortcomings of some products indicated by consumers in order to remove these from the manufacturing line. Under these circumstances, a very tight connection is required between the producers and the consumers, and a special liability of the producers towards those products. At the same time this is also a worldwide concern for the regulation of the products responsibility which has already been adopted by some large manufacturing countries. The recent example of USA was followed by the European legislation. That is why American organisations which export to Europe have to be warned because the law of product liability has been adopted in many European countries. The insurance companies are usually paying the initial losses for the cases of product liability. The manufacturer of a product has to protect itself from the risk of being brought to trial or at least to reduce the risk to a level where he could afford a reasonable profit or a continuous growth. In order to meet this objective, we need a product liability prevention program. This study analyses the product liability prevention program and presents some of the essential common elements for such a program. Therefore, one can argue that in order to have an effective product liability prevention program, some operations are required as for example

  2. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  3. Homicide committed by psychiatric patients: Psychiatrists' liability in Italian law cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Rocca, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Interest in psychiatrists' professional liability in Italy has increased in recent years because of the number of medical malpractice claims. Professional liability for failure to prevent violent behaviour by psychiatric patients is particularly debated. This study describes three Italian cases in which health professionals - physicians and nurses - were found guilty of manslaughter for murders committed by psychiatric patients. Examination of the cases focuses on claims of malpractice, patients' characteristics, the circumstances of the homicide and the reasons for the court's judgment. In particular, the predictability of violent behaviour and the concept of causal links are examined in detail. The cases provide an opportunity for a study of comparative jurisprudence. The topics discussed are relevant not only to practicing psychiatrists but also to experts assessing medical liability in cases of criminal acts committed by psychiatric patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Third Party Liability governing Dangerous and Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, Vittorio.

    1979-01-01

    The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr

  5. When love hurts: assessing the intersectionality of ethnicity, socio-economic status, parental connectedness, child abuse, and gender attitudes in juvenile violent delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlah, Esmah; Lens, Kim M E; Bogaerts, Stefan; van der Knaap, Leontien M

    2013-11-01

    Researchers have not yet reached agreement about the validity of several competing explanations that seek to explain ethnic differences in juvenile violent offending. Ethnicity cannot solely explain why boys with an ethnic minority background commit more (violent) crimes. By assessing the intersectionality of structural, cultural and individual considerations, both the independent effects as well as the interplay between different factors can be examined. This study shows that aforementioned factors cumulatively play a role in severe violent offending, with parental connectedness and child abuse having the strongest associations. However, since most variables interact and ethnicity is associated with those specific factors, a conclusion to be drawn is that ethnicity may be relevant as an additional variable predicting severe violent offending although indirectly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necessary expenses are carried by the Federal Government and estimated to amount to about EUR 6.5 billion. In addition the Federal Republic of Germany inherited 6 operating NPPs of soviet design from the former GDR. Comprehensive safety analyses after the German reunification arrived at the conclusion that they did not correspond to Western German safety standards. They had to be shut down in 1990. As the power industry was not prepared to carry the financial risks of backfitting and re-licensing the reactors, the Federal Republic of Germany took over the liabilities. The aim is to finish the decommissioning activities around the year 2012. The total costs for dismantling the plants and storing the resulting waste are estimated to amount to about EUR 3.1 billion

  7. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  8. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  9. The Modes of Liability at the ICC: The Labels that Don't Always Stick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The article critically analyses recent developments in the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Court. In particular, it scrutinises two convictions rendered by the Court to the date with the view of assessing the viability of the modes of liability employed by the ICC. The argument is tha...

  10. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  11. Child sexual abuse and family outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed

  12. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  13. Abuse potential of propofol used for sedation in gastric endoscopy and its correlation with subject characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ja Hyun; Byun, Heewon; Kim, Jun Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Propofol has been widely used for an induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia, or for sedation for various procedures. Although it has many ideal aspects, there have been several cases of drug abuse and addiction. The authors investigated whether there are abuse liable groups among the general population. We surveyed 169 patients after gastric endoscopic examination, which used propofol as a sedative, with the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) questionnaire. Other characteristics of the patients, such as past history, smoking habits, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse liability and sleep disturbance, were recorded by history taking and several questionnaires before the exam. Propofol had a high Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) score (representative value for euphoria) of 6.3, which is higher than marijuana, and a Pentobarbital-Chlorpromazine-Alcohol Group (PCAG) score (representative value of sedation) of 8.1, which is lower than most opioids. The MBG score showed no statistically significant correlation between any of the characteristics of the groups. In females, the PCAG score showed a correlation with age, and in males, it showed a correlation with a sleeping problem. Propofol had relatively high euphoria and low residual sedative effects. It had a more potent sedative effect in the female group who were young, and in the male group who had a low sleep quality index. There were differences in the abuse liability from a single exposure to propofol in the general population. Further study is needed to evaluate the abuse liability of repeated exposure.

  14. Maternal hair testing for the assessment of fetal exposure to drug of abuse during early pregnancy: Comparison with testing in placental and fetal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, M; Pichini, S; Joya, J; Pujadas, M; Sanchez, A; Vall, O; García Algar, O; Luna, A; de la Torre, R; Rotolo, M C; Pellegrini, M

    2012-05-10

    Drug use by pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and subsequent fetal exposure during early gestation can be assessed only by repetitive/systematic maternal blood/urine analysis or segmental hair analysis. No evidence of any relationship between maternal/fetal exposure during this specific period of gestation has been demonstrated to date in a human model. To clarify drugs toxicokinetics and transplacental passage during early pregnancy, the presence of the most widely used recreational drugs of abuse and metabolites was investigated in the proximal 4cm hair segments of women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy (n=280) during the 12th week of gestation and the results were compared to those from placenta and fetal tissue samples in order to verify whether maternal hair testing can reflect fetal exposure and, if so, to what extent. Hair, placenta and fetal remains were analyzed by validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry assays. Eighty one positive hair samples were identified: 60 were positive for cannabis (74.1%), 28 for cocaine (34.6%), 7 for opiates (8.6%), 3 for MDMA (3.7%) and 18.5% were positive for more than one drug. The positive hair test results were confirmed in placenta/fetal tissues in 10 cases out of 60 for cannabis (16. 7%); in 7 out of 28 for cocaine (25%); and none for the 6 opiates positive cases and 3 MDMA cases, respectively. Drugs/metabolites in hair of pregnant women can be used as biomarkers of past drug use (repetitive or sporadic), although the use is not always reflected in fetal/placental tissues. There are several possible hypotheses to explain the results: (1) the use occurred before the start of pregnancy, (2) past sporadic consumption which could be measured in hair but not in fetal and placental remains because of the narrow window of drug detection in placental/fetal tissues; (3) the sensitivity of the analytical methods was not high enough for the detection of the minute amount of drugs of abuse and

  15. Introduction of unlimited liability into the atomic law with special regard to the international nuclear liability conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper was read at the international symposium on nuclear liability held in Munich in September 1984 by OECD/NEA and IAEA. It outlines the basic principles of the Paris liability convention and the international development. The author pleads in favour of unlimited liability for hazards on grounds of history, legal policy, legal dogmatics and practice. Moreover he thinks it useful and appropriate because it also improves the protection of the citizens. The same as the federal government the author holds that unlimited liability for hazards is compatible with the maximum damages and the congruity regulations of the Paris and Brussels liability convention. An amendment to the liability convention, though not necessary, would be desirable to make clear that both options - limited and unlimited liability - are open. (HSCH) [de

  16. Should nuclear liability limits be removed. No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The opposing view to the proposition that limits on nuclear liability under the Price-Anderson Act should be removed cites the historical recognition of the need to protect the public as it was defined in 1957. The limit on liability today is $630 million per nuclear incident, with total protection continuing to increase as new plants come on line and additional purchased insurance becomes available. The limit gives the industry an incentive to commit capital and technical resources to develop new technology. Removing the limit would increase costs, but not benefits, for electric consumers, and would require a new way to protect the public other than through purchased insurance or the utility's resources. The industry will support raising the limit, however

  17. Finance, providers issue brief: insurer liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothouse, M; Stauffer, M

    2000-05-24

    When a health plan denies payment for a procedure on grounds that it is not medically necessary or when it refuses a physician-ordered referral to a specialist, has it crossed the line from making an insurance judgment to practicing medicine? If the patient suffers harm as a result of the decision, is the plan liable for medical malpractice? Those were questions 35 states considered in 1999, and at least 32 states are grappling with this year as they seek to respond to physician and patient pressure to curb the power of the managed care industry. Traditionally, health insurers have been protected by state laws banning "the corporate practice of medicine," which means the patient's only recourse is to sue under a "vicarious liability" theory. Now, however, lawmakers are debating legislation to extend the scope of malpractice liability beyond individual practitioners to insurance carriers and plans themselves.

  18. Review of the nuclear liability act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There has always been concern that nuclear materials have the potential to cause injury and property damage. For this reason, nuclear operators have always been required by national regulatory authorities to exercise special precautions in the operation of their facilities. Federal legislation was drafted in Canada as the Nuclear Liability Act in 1970. The Act ensures that funds are available from all operators of nuclear facilities to provide financial compensation to third parties for injuries or damages suffered as a result of a nuclear incident; at the same time the Act provides protection to the operators by limiting their related liability. The Act also protects persons other than operators. The review of the Act has progressed in stages. The first stage was conducted by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board and catalogued previously identified difficulties with the Act. The second stage was a preliminary examination of the Act by an Interdepartmental Working Group. 2 figs

  19. Liability concerns in contraceptive research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, S J

    1999-12-01

    The history of liability claims in the US against contraceptive products is among the issues that discourage manufacturers from investing in discovery and development in this field. Other factors are the high cost of new drug development, elevated insurance rates for contraceptives, and the desire to avoid controversy that can disturb corporate tranquility. General features of the American legal system influence the large number and cost of product liability claims in the US compared to Europe. These differences pertain to issues such as the role of judges, how lawyers receive their compensation, and the use of expert scientific testimony. The history of litigation in the US against pharmaceutical products and devices pertaining to women's health suggests that interventions that involve the reproductive system are held to different standards or elicit different emotional responses than other pharmaceutical products or devices.

  20. Professional liability of the radon technologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The radon technologist will want to protect himself from lawsuits by plaintiffs who believe they have suffered consequences of a false measurement or erroneous recommendation. The author may be sued for negligence or on the contract. A plaintiff is more likely to be successful in a suit for monetary losses associated with real estate transactions or remediation than in a suit for personal injury. To avoid liability, the radon technologist will want to keep aware of the state of the art; use standard protocols; carefully supervise employees; take all technical precaution; and get legal advice in contracting. The author should also adhere to applicable federal, state, or local regulations. Disclosing the limits of measurement procedures and emphasizing the importance of maintaining standardized environmental conditions in the building are important. Since it is extremely difficult for an individual to get adequate professional liability insurance at a reasonable price, radon technologists should cooperate, perhaps through their professional societies, to negotiate the best possible insurance policies

  1. Ordinance on nuclear third party liability (ORCN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The Ordinance exempts from the application of the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability some substances with low radiation effects. It determines the amount of private insurance cover and defines the risks that insurers may exclude from cover. It establishes a special fund for nuclear damage made up of contributions from the nuclear operators. Specifications are given on the amount of the contributions and their conditions, as well as on administration of the fund. The Ordinance repeals the Ordinance of 13 June 1960 on funds for delayed atomic damage, the Order of 19 December 1960 on contributions to the fund for delayed atomic damage and the Ordinance of 30 November 1981 on cover for third party liability resulting from nuclear power plant operation [fr

  2. Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susukida, Ryoko; Crum, Rosa M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ebnesajjad, Cyrus; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    To compare the characteristics of individuals participating in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) with individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings, and to provide a summary quantitative measure of differences between characteristics of these two groups of individuals using propensity score methods. Design Analyses using data from RCT samples from the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and target populations of patients drawn from the Treatment Episodes Data Set-Admissions (TEDS-A). Settings Multiple clinical trial sites and nation-wide usual SUD treatment settings in the United States. A total of 3592 individuals from 10 CTN samples and 1 602 226 individuals selected from TEDS-A between 2001 and 2009. Measurements The propensity scores for enrolling in the RCTs were computed based on the following nine observable characteristics: sex, race/ethnicity, age, education, employment status, marital status, admission to treatment through criminal justice, intravenous drug use and the number of prior treatments. Findings The proportion of those with ≥ 12 years of education and the proportion of those who had full-time jobs were significantly higher among RCT samples than among target populations (in seven and nine trials, respectively, at P difference in the mean propensity scores between the RCTs and the target population was 1.54 standard deviations and was statistically significant at P different from individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings. Notably, RCT participants tend to have more years of education and a greater likelihood of full-time work compared with people receiving care in usual care settings. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Risiko Likuiditas Bank dan Asset Liabilities Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lesmana, Iwan

    2007-01-01

    Uquidity is of critical importance to companies in the banking services sector. Most failures of financialintermediaries have occured in large part due to insufficient liquidity resulting from adverse circumstances.Goldman Sachs has in piace a comprehensive set of liquidity and funding policies that are intended tomaintain significant flexibility to address specific and broader industry or market liquidity events.In asset liabilities mal1agement or liquidity management, liquidity risk is mana...

  4. Office gossip: a surprising source of liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Rumors and gossip are inevitable ingredients of work life. Within limits, they may have some beneficial functions. Still, practitioners and managers must be aware of the dangers inherent in defamation of character and harassment. This article defines workplace comments and activities that should be avoided and the employer's legal liability when situations get out of hand. It also outlines the manager's responsibilities and lists privacy rights that are codified by state and federal laws.

  5. Liability for international nuclear transport: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.; Horbach, N.

    2000-01-01

    Many elements can bear on liability for nuclear damage during transport. For example, liability may depend upon a number of facts that may be categorized as follows: shipment, origin or destination of the shipment, deviation from the planed route, temporary storage incidental to carriage; content of shipment, type of nuclear material involved, whether its origin is civilian or defence-related; sites of accident, number and type of territories damaged (i.e. potential conventions involved), applicable territorial limits, exclusive economic zone, high seas, etc.; nature of damages, personal injury, property damage, damage to the means of carriage, indirect damage, preventive measures, environmental cleanup or retrieval at seas, res communis, transboundary damages etc.; victims involved, nationality and domiciles of victims; jurisdiction, flag (for ships) or national registration (for aircraft) of the transporting vessel, courts of one or more states may have (or assert) jurisdiction to hear claims, and may have to determine what law to apply to a particular accident; applicable law, the applicability laws and/or international nuclear liability conventions; the extent to which any applicable convention has been implemented or modified by domestic legislation, conflicts with the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention or other applicable international agreements, and finally, also written agreements between installation operators and carriers can define applicable law as well as responsibilities. Harmonizing nuclear liability protection and applying it to additional international shipments would be facilitated by more countries being in treaty relations with each other as soon as possible. Adherence to an international convention by more countries (including China, Russia, the United States, etc.) would promote the open flow of services and advanced technology, and better facilitate international transport. The conventions protect the public, harmonize legislation in the

  6. Contractual medical liability in Portugal and Macao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Miguel Prista Patrício Cascão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liability of healthcare providers can be framed under the theory of contract in the law of Portugal and Macao, to obtain compensation for injury suffered by aggrieved patients, as a result of medical adverse events. However, shortcomings in the law, court practice and literature lead to some uncertainty in adjudication. This article aims at reducing said uncertainty, setting forward a clear-cut adjudication paradigm, while recommending legal reform.

  7. Development of international law concerning nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifflaender, G.; Kantner, G.

    1979-01-01

    A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)

  8. Nuclear Reactors and Their Legal Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.

    1999-09-01

    This paper examines Regulatory Regime in Turkey has no general Nuclear Energy Act and apart from legislation to the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the applicable law mainly covers protection and the licensing against of nuclear installation. In Addition this paper also contains briefly the major points which have to be taken into consideration and advance in the legal liability insurance of the nuclear power plants

  9. Comparative evaluation of civil liability conventions on radioactive and oil pollution and liability under international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoche, A.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of transfrontier radioactive pollution or oil pollution, compensation for damage may be sought under two different liability systems: there is the framework of international law of liability of international persons, and there is the liability regime established by international conventions. The latter system has adopted a very friendly attitude towards the claims of a private victim claiming compensation from the private polluter. The book first sets out the basic principles and practice of the two liability systems, also considering the latest developments and current discussions advocating the acknowledgement of the principle of strict and absolute liability in international law. The relationship of the two systems is the major issue of the book, and the Chernobyl reactor accident has made it a particularly topical issue at that. The problems arising in the wake of this accident have shown the need for clarification in this field. The author suggests as a practical approach a strict separation of the two bases of claims, so that parallel or successive procedure on the level of international law or civil law is possible. Finally the problem of avoiding duplication in the payment of compensation is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Practical Approaches for Identifying and Managing Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Nola T.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the exceptional challenges that abused and neglected children may pose for early-intervention providers, particularly speech-language pathologists. It focuses on practical strategies regarding reporting child abuse, effectively assessing the children who have been abused, and managing the bizarre behavior they may exhibit. (Author/CR)

  11. Minimizing generator liability while disposing hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Lahlou, M.; Pendurthi, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Potential liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal are related to waste properties, disposal practices and the potential threat to people and the environment in case of a pollutant release. Based on various regulations, these liabilities are enforceable and longstanding. A methodology which can help hazardous waste generators select a commercial disposal facility with a relatively low risk of potential liability is described in this paper. The methodology has two parts. The first part has 8 categories encompassing 30 factors common to all facilities, and the second part includes one category dealing with 5 factors on specific wastes and treatment/disposal technologies. This two-part evaluation feature enables the user to adapt the methodology to any type of waste disposal. In determining the scores for the factors used in the evaluation. an unranked paired comparison technique with slight modifications was used to weight the relative importance of the individual factors. In the methodology it is possible for the user to redefine the factors and change the scoring system. To make the methodology more efficient, a user-friendly computer program has been developed; the computer program is written so that desired changes in the methodology can be readily implemented

  12. Nuclear Liability, State of the Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Over fifty years ago states started to introduce legislation protecting the public against the potential magnitude and peculiarity of risks arising from the nuclear energy production. They did so trough a specific liability and compensation regime. Whether legislation was based on national initiatives or, as more frequently, related to international nuclear liability conventions, it was based on a number of principles being applied universally. Furthermore, it at the same time strived for not preventing the development of the nuclear industry because of an unbearable liability. This paper aims at explaining the broad outline of the above legislation, its development since its early years, the state of the art as regards its modernisation as well as the (alleged) problems underlying the delay in its introduction in a number of countries. When dealing with those problems it will be inevitable to touch upon a number of insurance related matters, which, as an insurer I am happy to tell, will lead me to familiar territory.(author).

  13. Environmental liability and the independent contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, B.S.

    1999-01-01

    The provisions of the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) regarding the relationship between a company and an independent contractor were reviewed. The EPEA was introduced in September 1993 and significantly altered the environmental laws in the province of Alberta. The provisions of the EPEA that apply to the petroleum industry are conservation and reclamation as well as provisions concerning release of substances, contaminated sites and penalties. Companies that pollute may be held liable for reclamation, even if the work was carried out by an independent contractor and despite the fact that the independent contractor is not an employee of the company. Under the current EPEA laws, companies may not be able to effectively shift responsibility for environmental liabilities to independent contractors even where the contractor was negligent. This paper presented suggestions regarding contractor agreements and due diligence to help minimize the risk of liability to companies. The paper also discussed the following two types of liabilities under the EPEA's harmful substances section: (1) the obligation to clean up an affected area, and (2) fines and penalties that may be imposed when an offence is committed

  14. THE UNPREDICTABILITY THEORY AND THE CONTRACTUAL LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMSA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to establish a relationship between the unpredictability theory and the contractual liability, from both theoretical and practical point of view. Usually, the unpredictability is invoked by way of defense by the debtor, refusing to perform the excessively onerous obligation. However the unpredictability theory shall apply also to the hypothesis of a performed obligation, by way of main action, depending on more factors: the nature of the agreement, investigating the attitude of the party affected by the unpredictability. Observing the conditions and the effects of these two ways of invoking the unpredictability will form the objectives of the present study.The debtor of the excessively onerous, in order to avoid the contractual liability, shall nevertheless perform such obligation, by carrying along some additional costs. If subsequently, the creditor shall refuse to revise the agreement and implicitly, to reimburse the exorbitant costs, the debtor will have to raise the unpredictability by way of action, in order to recover the exorbitant costs in performing the obligation. In such case, the unpredictability is accompanied by another legal issue: the contractual liability of the co-contractor of the party affected by unpredictability.

  15. An Inconvenient Deliberation. The Precautionary Principle's Contribution to the Uncertainties Surrounding Climate Change Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritz, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that adaptation to the inevitable is as relevant to climate change policymaking as mitigation efforts. Both mitigation and adaptation, as well as the unavoidable damage occurring both now and that is predicted to occur, all involve costs at the expense of diverse climate change victims. The allocation of responsibilities - implicit in terms of the burden-sharing mechanisms that currently exist in public and private governance - demands recourse under liability law, especially as it has become clear that most companies will only start reducing emissions if verifiable costs of the economic consequences of climate change, including the likelihood of liability, outweigh the costs of taking precautionary measures. This vitally important book asks: Can the precautionary principle make uncertainty judiciable in the context of liability for the consequences of climate change, and, if so, to what extent? Drawing on the full range of pertinent existing literature and case law, the author examines the precautionary principle both in terms of its content and application and in the context of liability law. She analyses the indirect means offered by existing legislation being used by environmental groups and affected individuals before the courts to challenge both companies and regulators as responsible agents of climate change damage. In the process of responding to its fundamental question, the analysis explores such further questions as the following: (a) What is the role of the precautionary principle in resolving uncertainty in scientific risk assessment when faced with inconclusive evidence, and how does it affect decision-making, particularly in the regulatory choices concerning climate change? To this end, what is the concrete content of the precautionary principle?; (b) How does liability law generally handle scientific uncertainty? What different types of liability exist, and how are they equipped to handle a climate change

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  17. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal-Silva, Rosa María; Viera-Mendes, Maria Helena; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment ...

  18. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  19. Liability for the Payment of Public School Fees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carnelley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights some legal issues regarding the liability of parents and other individuals to pay public school fees in the light of recent judicial precedent, specifically Fish Hoek Primary School v GW 2009 JOL 24624 (SCA. The various possible legal bases for the liability for such fees are examined. In this regard the common law duty to maintain as amended by legislation; contractual liability; and the concepts of household necessaries, stipulatio alteri, negotiorum gestio and unjustified enrichment are considered.

  20. Civil liability on nuclear activities; Responsabilidade civil nas atividades nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittar, C A

    1983-12-31

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs.

  1. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neems, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  2. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  3. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  4. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  6. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  7. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  9. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  10. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  11. Valuation of Non-Life Liabilities from Claims Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lindholm

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete program for the valuation of aggregate non-life insurance liability cash flows based on claims triangle data. The valuation is fully consistent with the principle of valuation by considering the costs associated with a transfer of the liability to a so-called reference undertaking subject to capital requirements throughout the runoff of the liability cash flow. The valuation program includes complete details on parameter estimation, bias correction and conservative estimation of the value of the liability under partial information. The latter is based on a new approach to the estimation of mean squared error of claims reserve prediction.

  12. Vicarious liability and criminal prosecutions for regulatory offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2006-08-01

    The parameters of vicarious liability of corporations for the conduct of their employees, especially in the context of provisions that criminalise breaches of regulatory provisions, are complex. The decision of Bell J in ABC Developmental Learning Centres Pty Ltd v Wallace [2006] VSC 171 raises starkly the potential unfairness of an approach which converts criminal liability of corporations too readily into absolute liability, irrespective of the absence of any form of proven culpability. The author queries whether fault should not be brought back in some form to constitute a determinant of criminal liability for corporations.

  13. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  14. Legal liabilities in continuing education: protecting your institution and yourself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, G H; Cava, A

    1988-01-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) activities conducted by medical schools, institutions, or organizations contain inherent liability potentials that should be recognized. Three major areas for potential liability should be carefully regarded by individuals who supervise, organize, or plan educational programs. These are: 1) contract liability--specifically in contracts with hotels, i.e., cancellation clauses, warranties, and indemnifications; 2) liability for ensuring the health and safety of individuals, i.e., fire, security, hazards, emergency procedures, and alcohol at functions; and 3) appropriate and adequate insurance coverage.

  15. FEATURES OF PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE REALIZATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Lobova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The signs of professional liability insurance are generalized in the article. It is the presence of losses, additional costs that require mechanisms and sources of compensation. The essence of the professional responsibility concept is determined and it is characterized like specialists material liability of different professions, lack of qualifications, errors and omissions are due to carelessness or negligence may cause harm to the client The main elements of the professional liability insurance contract, such as insurance objects, insurance compensation, insurance risks are described. The types of professional liability insurance are characterized. There are such types of the professional liability insurance: professional liability insurance of architect, lawyer, auditor (accountant, appraiser, notary, customs broker and doctor. It is determined, that the most widespread in Ukraine is the professional liability insurance of lawyer and customs broker because the policy is purchased for the sole purpose to obtain a license. The size of insurance rates in the provision of professional liability insurance in different insurance companies of Ukraine are analyzed. It is established that insurance rate depends on the type of professional activity, scope of service, qualifications and the other factors. The development impulse can only provide judicial and legal definition of professions wide list that are subject under mandatory professional liability insurance.

  16. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  18. The Effect of Using Assessment Instruments on Substance-abuse Outpatients' Adherence to Treatment: a Multi-centre Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekaert Eric

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drop-out is an important problem in the treatment of substance use disorder. The focus of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of within treatment assessment with feedback directly to patients with multiple substance use disorder on outpatient individual treatment adherence. Feedback consisted of personal resources' and readiness to change status and progress that facilitate or hinder change, thereby using graphical representation. Methods Informed consent was obtained from both the control and experimental groups to be involved in research and follow-up. Following Zelen's single consent design, baseline participants (n = 280 were randomised (sample-size-estimation: 80%power, p=.05, 2-sided and treatment consent was obtained from those allocated to the experiment (n = 142. In both groups, equal numbers of patients did not attend sessions after allocation. So, 227 persons were analyzed according to intention-to-treat analysis (ITT: experiment n = 116;control n = 111. Excluding refusals 211 participants remained for per-protocol analysis (PP: experiment n = 100; control n = 111, The study was conducted in five outpatient treatment-centres of a large network (De Sleutel in Belgium. Participants were people with multiple substance use disorder -abuse and dependence- who had asked for treatment and who had been advised to start individual treatment after a standardised admission assessment with the European Addiction Severity Index. The experimental condition consisted of informing the patient about the intervention and of subsequent assessments plus feedback following a protocol within the first seven sessions. Assessments were made with the Readiness to Change Questionnaire and the Personal Resources Diagnostic System. The control group received the usual treatment without within treatment assessment with feedback. The most important outcome measure in this analysis of the study was the level of adherence to treatment

  19. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  20. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  1. Suicide and psychiatrist's liability in Italian law cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Sartore, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the factors that are most frequently associated with a verdict of guilty delivered to the psychiatrist in cases of a patient's suicide in Italian law. Twenty-six sentences (1975-2009) were analyzed according to the claim of malpractice, patient characteristics, circumstances of the suicide, and reasons for the court's judgment. The court held the psychiatrist guilty in 12 cases, considering that the act of suicide was predictable and could have been avoided. Predictability was mainly related to errors in surveillance (7 cases), therapy (1 case), or both (2 cases). An error in diagnosis was considered to be related to the patient's death in two cases. Analysis of medical behavior considered to be erroneous and associated with a verdict of guilty provides an opportunity to discuss the topics relevant not only to practicing psychiatrists but also to experts assessing medical liability in cases of patient suicide. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional

  3. Due diligence duties for an environmental liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, M.

    2000-04-01

    Jurisdiction turned out well to create a basic ruling for due diligence duties. These due diligence duties are high standards for the law of torts (outside of contracts) within the Austrian civil law and represent a liability-extension for the holder of the source of danger. They establish an action for injunction in particular for preventing (further) damages. Therewith due diligence duties get a general sense in the range of a civil law for environmental liability. The responsible holder of a danger zone will therefore influence his way of acting to protect potential victims and the environment. The burden of proof is on the plaintiff (victims) under the Civil Code. Victims have specific sources of danger including high endangering special facilities in their argumentation with the so-called prima-facie-proof or first-appearance-proof. A turning back of the presentation of evidence to the polluter is wrong. The polluter himself has a continuing liability for dangerous activities and his clerks in the case of an extremely high danger of damage. All due diligence duties can be arranged in three areas: in information-, danger-avoidance- and danger-prevention-duties. The determination of range and essence of the duties has to be adjusted to each individual case. The range of the specific danger area is the essential link. The intensity of due diligence duties is increasing with the size of danger in the way of a movable system depending on the protected interest. Due diligence duties have to be kept within reasonable limits with two criterions: necessarity and demand. Proportionality of actions is a third criterion to avoid exaggeration of due diligence duties to obtain an effective protection for victims including the environment. (author)

  4. Medical liability and health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Becker, David J

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on medical liability and the controversy over whether federal medical reform including a damages cap could make a useful contribution to health care reform. By providing guaranteed access to health care insurance at community rates, the ACA could reduce the problem of under-compensation resulting from damages caps. However, it may also exacerbate the problem of under-claiming in the malpractice system, thereby reducing incentives to invest in loss prevention activities. Shifting losses from liability insurers to health insurers could further undermine the already weak deterrent effect of the medical liability system. Republicans in Congress and physician groups both pushed for the adoption of a federal damages cap as part of health care reform. Physician support for damages caps could be explained by concerns about the insurance cycle and the consequent instability of the market. Our own study presented here suggests that there is greater insurance market stability in states with caps on non-economic damages. Republicans in Congress argued that the enactment of damages caps would reduce aggregate health care costs. The Congressional Budget Office included savings from reduced health care utilization in its estimates of cost savings that would result from the enactment of a federal damages cap. But notwithstanding recent opinions offered by the CBO, it is not clear that caps will significantly reduce health care costs or that any savings will be passed on to consumers. The ACA included funding for state level demonstration projects for promising reforms such as offer and disclosure and health courts, but at this time the benefits of these reforms are also uncertain. There is a need for further studies on these issues.

  5. Ethical and legal issues regarding the action and knowledge of orthodontists before civil liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíza Valéria de Abreu Maia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ethical and legal conducts of orthodontists regarding the professional/patient relationship, documentation used and degree of knowledge on the professional liability during the exercise of their specialty. This study sought to assess whether the time since graduation of the dentist as an expert interfered with their knowledge degree about the dental professional liability. The object population of the present study consisted of 56 dental surgeons, specialized in orthodontics, from the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The research was carried out using a survey addressed to these professionals, and descriptive statistics of the data. Chi-square test was used to check independence between factors and comparisons of proportions.  100% interviewed professionals request orthodontic documentation prior to the start of treatment; 71.5% request final documentation; 91% professionals affirmed they file this documentation; however, only 21.4% keep records for over 20 years; and most professionals (86% use some sort of contract at the start of treatment, and a small percentage (30.4% regard the liability of orthodontists as objective. It can be concluded that the interviewed professionals should acquire a higher level of knowledge regarding the professional liability and current legislation involving dental surgeons.

  6. The limited liability company in Romania versus the limited liability company in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucia CRISTEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents parallel legislation in Romania and Republic of Moldova, in the matter of Limited Liability Company (LLC Ltd, aiming to extract similarities and differences to draw reliable conclusions regarding the advantages of setting up this type of company in the two countries.

  7. Negligent Liability Issues Involving Colleges and Students: Does an Ethic of Caring Heighten Institutional Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Joseph; Pearson, Douglas

    This paper--part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002--addresses the question of how and to what extent institutions of higher learning could be held liable for negligence involving students. The paper is, mainly, a review of recent case law related to the liability of…

  8. The limited liability company in Romania versus the limited liability company in the Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cristea; Nicoleta Cristina Ifrim

    2013-01-01

    The article presents parallel legislation in Romania and Republic of Moldova, in the matter of Limited Liability Company (LLC) Ltd, aiming to extract similarities and differences to draw reliable conclusions regarding the advantages of setting up this type of company in the two countries.

  9. [Beginners' operations and medical specialist standards : Avoidance of criminal liability and civil liability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H

    2018-05-16

    In all phases, patients are entitled to receive medical treatment according to medical specialist standards. This does not mean that patients necessarily have to be treated by a medical specialist. Operations performed by "beginners", e. g. assistant physicians, are permitted. However, there are increased liability risks, both for the specialist and the assistant physician. Furthermore, there are risks of criminal responsibility for causing bodily harm by negligence or negligent manslaughter. This article portrays the requirements of civil liability and criminal responsibility concerning beginners' operations on the basis of cases and judgments of the Federal Court and the Higher Regional Courts in Germany. Additionally, the reception of the jurisprudence by the relevant legal literature will be discussed. Jurisprudence and legal literature categorize breaches of duty of care. Assistant physicians can be subject to contributory negligence liabilities, while specialists can bear liabilities for negligent selection, organization or supervision. Responsible specialist and assistant physicians can protect themselves (and the patient) and avoid legal risks by only performing operations adequate to their educational level or by delegating operations to beginners and ensuring intervention by a specialist by supervision of the operation which is suitable to the assistant physician's level of education.

  10. Asset Liability Management in Insurance Company

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model, by using the option theory, determines the fair value of the insurance life policies with different time of maturity and shows that the effective liabilities duration of an Insurance Company exposed to the default risk is different from the duration of a default free zero coupon bond with the same time of maturity. Furthermore, it shows that the value of equity can be immunized in a dynamic way with respect to the movement of the spot rate by selling and purchasing the default fre...

  11. Harmonisation of Nuclear Liability Regimes in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladonja, B.

    2000-01-01

    After we have learned about the current discussions concerning the Paris Convention revision exercise and the open matters relating to the liability limits and insurance for nuclear damages, prescription period, definition of nuclear damage etc. and different approaches in some PCC in adopting their legislation as well as about the adoption of the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention and Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, within the Vienna Convention countries, during the obtained Session 9 of this Conference we will focus our attention on the matters which has been discovered from the moment when the reports has been written till the date of this Conference

  12. Management of nuclear liabilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The management of nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany is explored in this article. The intermediate storage and final disposal of spent fuels from the country's twenty nuclear power stations is discussed. Flexible solutions to the changing problems of nuclear fuel cycle economics are needed. Financing the back end of the nuclear power station lifetimes is currently underfunded. Monies should be accumulated during the plant's active life. The political, technical, legal and economic aspects of the nuclear industry must also be included. (UK)

  13. Discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other adverse life events in people with epilepsy: Population-based study to assess the burden of these events and their contribution to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo-Smith, Victoria; Brugha, Traolach S; Kerr, Michael P; McManus, Sally; Rai, Dheeraj

    2016-11-01

    To quantify the experience of discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other stressful life events in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population and people with other chronic conditions. To assess whether any excess relative burden of these adversities could explain the higher rates of depression in people with epilepsy. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 used comprehensive interviews with 7,403 individuals living in private residences in England. Doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and other chronic conditions were established by self-report. Discrimination, domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse, and other stressful life events were assessed using computerized self-completion and a face-to-face interview, respectively. People with epilepsy were sevenfold more likely to have reported experiencing discrimination due to health problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.3), than the general population without epilepsy. This estimate was substantially greater in people with epilepsy than for people with other chronic conditions. People with epilepsy also had greater odds of experiencing domestic violence and sexual abuse than the general population, although these associations were also found in people with other chronic conditions. There was less evidence of an association between epilepsy and a history of physical abuse or having a greater burden of other stressful life events. In exploratory analyses, assuming they lie on the causal pathway, discrimination, domestic violence, and sexual abuse explained 42.7% of the total effect of the relationship between epilepsy and depression or anxiety disorders. People with epilepsy can face a range of psychosocial adversities and extensively report feeling discriminated against as compared to the general population. In addition, if confirmed in longitudinal studies, the results suggest that these psychosocial adversities may have a significant role in the

  14. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 16645 - Increase in the Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Primary Nuclear Liability Insurance Premium AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule... impractical. The NRC is amending its regulations to increase the primary premium for liability insurance... protection requirements and indemnity agreements to increase the primary nuclear liability insurance layer...

  16. The assessment of cyberstalking: an expanded examination including social networking, attachment, jealousy, and anger in relation to violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhun, Jenna; Adams, Natasha; Huss, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    Because the first antistalking statute was enacted in California in 1990, stalking research has been expanded immensely, yet been largely confined to exploring traditional pursuit tactics. This study instead examined the prevalence and correlates of cyberstalking behaviors while examining the phenomenon in a more inclusive manner than previous studies focusing on cyberstalking by including social networking avenues. In addition to a measure assessing cyberstalking-related behaviors, questionnaires assessing pathological aspects of personality, including attachment style, interpersonal jealousy, interpersonal violence, and anger were also provided to participants. Results indicate that, given preliminary evidence, cyberstalking-related behaviors are related to past measures of traditional stalking and cyberstalking, although prior attachment, jealousy, and violence issues within relationships are significant predictors of cyberstalking-related behaviors. In addition, unexpected gender differences emerged. For example, women admitted greater frequencies of cyberstalking perpetration than males, signaling that further research on frequency and motivation for cyberstalking among the sexes is necessary.

  17. Theories and measures of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfathi Momtaz, Yadollah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-09-01

    Elder abuse is a pervasive phenomenon around the world with devastating effects on the victims. Although it is not a new phenomenon, interest in examining elder abuse is relatively new. This paper aims to provide an overview of the aetiological theories and measures of elder abuse. The paper briefly reviews theories to explain causes of elder abuse and then discusses the most commonly used measures of elder abuse. Based on the reviewed theories, it can be concluded that elder abuse is a multifactorial problem that may affect elderly people from different backgrounds and involve a wide variety of potential perpetrators, including caregivers, adult children, and partners. The review of existing measurement instruments notes that many different screening and assessment instruments have been developed to identify elders who are at risk for or are victims of abuse. However, there is a real need for more measurements of elder abuse, as the current instruments are limited in scope. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. Assessing the relationship between child sexual abuse and marginal living conditions on HIV/AIDS-related risk behavior among women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E

    2000-05-01

    There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.

  19. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: wynne@bnl.gov; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.

  20. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Wynne K.; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

  1. 7 CFR 1767.19 - Liabilities and other credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Liabilities and Other Credits Margins and Equities... Income Taxes—Other Liabilities and Other Credits Margins and Equities 200Memberships A. This account... conformance with the bylaws of the cooperative. 219Other Margins and Equities A. This account shall include...

  2. 33 CFR 153.405 - Liability to the pollution fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability to the pollution fund... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION CONTROL OF POLLUTION BY OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES, DISCHARGE REMOVAL Administration of the Pollution Fund § 153.405 Liability to the pollution fund. The owner or operator of the vessel...

  3. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  4. Liability for Unknown Risks: A Law and Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Faure (Michael); L.T. Visscher (Louis); F. Weber (Franziska)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the law and economics literature liability is generally regarded as an instrument which provides potential tortfeasors with incentives for optimal care taking. The question, however, arises whether liability can still provide those incentives when risks are unknown. That is the

  5. 17 CFR 256.242 - Miscellaneous current and accrued liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 7. Current and Accrued Liabilities § 256.242... as to show the nature of each liability included herein. 8. deferred credits ...

  6. Optimal Joint Liability Lending and with Costly Peer Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carli, Francesco; Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper characterizes an optimal group loan contract with costly peer monitoring. Using a fairly standard moral hazard framework, we show that the optimal group lending contract could exhibit a joint-liability scheme. However, optimality of joint-liability requires the involvement of a group

  7. 29 CFR 4043.32 - Transfer of benefit liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the value of the assets being transferred— (i) Equals the present value of the accrued benefits... actuarial assumptions used in determining the value of benefit liabilities (and, if appropriate, the value... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of benefit liabilities. 4043.32 Section 4043.32...

  8. 27 CFR 479.31 - Liability for tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for tax. 479.31... OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes § 479.31 Liability for tax. (a) General. Every person who... United States shall pay a special (occupational) tax at a rate specified by § 479.32. The tax shall be...

  9. 75 FR 1735 - Section 3504 Agent Employment Tax Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Section 3504 Agent Employment Tax Liability AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... employment tax liability of agents authorized by the Secretary under section 3504 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) to perform acts required of employers with respect to taxes under the Federal Unemployment...

  10. 7 CFR 760.113 - Refunds; joint and several liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refunds; joint and several liability. 760.113 Section... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.113 Refunds; joint and several liability. (a) In the event that... provided that interest will in all cases run from the date of the original disbursement. (b) All persons...

  11. Product Liability: A Neo-Austrian Based Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Leen, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    The paper is an exercise in a neo-Austrian based economic analysis of product liability. After a short historical introduction, we take two of the basic premises of Austrian economic thought and see which system of product liability results. If costs are subjective and entrepreneurship is the

  12. 31 CFR 315.56 - General instructions and liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General instructions and liability. 315.56 Section 315.56 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... and, where one is available, a corporate stamp or issuing or paying agent's stamp. (b) Liability. The...

  13. 42 CFR 455.202 - Limitation on contractor liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on contractor liability. 455.202 Section... § 455.202 Limitation on contractor liability. (a) A program contractor, a person, or an entity employed... contractor will not be held to have violated any criminal law and will not be held liable in any civil action...

  14. 31 CFR 321.15 - Liability for losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for losses. 321.15 Section... INSTITUTIONS OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) Losses Resulting From Erroneous Payments § 321.15 Liability for losses. Under the governing statute, as amended (31 U.S...

  15. "Contributory intent" as a defence limiting delictual liability | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of delictual liability, the term "fault" generally refers to the defendant's conduct, whereas "contributory fault" refers to the plaintiff's conduct. "Contributory intent" is a form of "contributory fault" and may apply as a defence limiting delictual liability within the ambit of the Apportionment of Damages Act 34 of 1956 ...

  16. Organizational Mortality: The Liabilities of Newness and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderl, Josef; Schussler, Rudolf

    1990-01-01

    Contains a theoretical discussion and an empirical test of Stinchcombe's "liability of newness" hypothesis, which assumes higher failure risks for young organizations than for older ones. This hypothesis does not adequately represent mortality hazards of German business organizations. A "liability of adolescence" concept…

  17. Nuclear Liability Legislation in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladonja, B.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a basic data about the legislation referring to third party liability for nuclear damage in Croatia. It also, gives some drafting provisions in the Croatian Nuclear Liability Act, but only those which implements a substantial changes compared to the Act currently in force. (author)

  18. The underwriting process of liability insurance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson, S. E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Liability risks may embody far-reaching financial consequences for individuals, business enterprises and professional people. This paper focuses on the underwriting process which should be taken into consideration by short-term insurers when they are underwriting the main types of liability insurance, which include employer’s, householder’s, personal, product, professional and public liability insurance. The improvement of financial decision-making by short-term insurers when underwriting liability insurance represents the objective of this research. A study of secondary data was done to identify the existing literature, which formed the basis for compiling a questionnaire to obtain primary data. The top 10 short-term insurers which are the market leaders of liability insurance in South Africa and who received more than 85% of the annual gross written premiums for liability insurance in South Africa, represented the sample of the empirical study. This paper highlights the importance of the underwriting factors concerning liability insurance, how often the stipulations of insurance policies should be adjusted by the short-term insurers to account for the underwriting factors, as well as the problem areas which the underwriters may experience when they are underwriting liability insurance. Possible solutions to solve the problem areas were also addressed

  19. The claims handling process of liability insurance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoline van Jaarsveld

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Liabilities play a very important financial role in business operations, professional service providers as well as in the personal lives of people. It is possible that a single claim may even lead to the bankruptcy of the defendant. The claims handling process of liability insurance by short-term insurers is therefore very important to these parties as it should be clear that liability claims may have enormous and far-reaching financial implications for them. The objective of this research paper embodies the improvement of financial decision-making by short-term insurers with regard to the claims handling process of liability insurance. Secondary data was initially studied which provided the basis to compile a questionnaire for the empirical survey. The leaders of liability insurance in the South African short-term insurance market that represented 69.5% of the annual gross written premiums received for liability insurance in South Africa were the respondents of the empirical study. The perceptions of these short-term insurers provided the primary data for the vital conclusions of this research. This paper pays special attention to the importance of the claims handling factors of liability insurance, how often the stipulations of liability insurance policies are adjusted by the short-term insurers to take the claims handling factors into consideration, as well as the problem areas which short-term insurers may experience during the claims handling process. Feasible solutions to address the problem areas are also discussed.

  20. Sub-seabed burial of radioactive waste and liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, Patrick.

    1982-10-01

    The author of this report discusses the problems raised by application of the special third party liability system to damage which may result from embedding radioactive waste in the sub-seabed. The matter of general liability of the State for nuclear damage caused to the environment is also dealt with in this paper. (NEA) [fr

  1. Unresolved legal questions in cross-border health care in Europe: liability and data protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, I N; Commers, M J

    2013-11-01

    Directive 2011/24/EU was designed to clarify the rights of EU citizens in evaluating, accessing and obtaining reimbursement for cross-border care. Based on three regional case studies, the authors attempted to assess the added value of the Directive in helping clarify issues in to two key areas that have been identified as barriers to cross-border care: liability and data protection. Qualitative case study employing secondary data sources including research of jurisprudence, that set up a Legal framework as a base to investigate liability and data protection in the context of cross-border projects. By means of three case studies that have tackled liability and data protection hurdles in cross-border care implementation, this article attempts to provide insight into legal certainty and uncertainty regarding cross-border care in Europe. The case studies reveal that the Directive has not resolved core uncertainties related to liability and data protection issues within cross-border health care. Some issues related to the practice of cross-border health care in Europe have been further clarified by the Directive and some direction has been given to possible solutions for issues connected to liability and data protection. Directive 2011/24/EU is clearly a transposition of existing regulations on data protection and ECJ case law, plus a set of additional, mostly, voluntary rules that might enhance regional border cooperation. Therefore, as shown in the case studies, a practical and case by case approach is still necessary in designing and providing cross-border care. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Indexing molecules for their hERG liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Anwar; Falah, Mizied; Raiyn, Jamal; Da'adoosh, Beny; Kadan, Sleman; Zaid, Hilal; Goldblum, Amiram

    2013-07-01

    The human Ether-a-go-go-Related-Gene (hERG) potassium (K(+)) channel is liable to drug-inducing blockage that prolongs the QT interval of the cardiac action potential, triggers arrhythmia and possibly causes sudden cardiac death. Early prediction of drug liability to hERG K(+) channel is therefore highly important and preferably obligatory at earlier stages of any drug discovery process. In vitro assessment of drug binding affinity to hERG K(+) channel involves substantial expenses, time, and labor; and therefore computational models for predicting liabilities of drug candidates for hERG toxicity is of much importance. In the present study, we apply the Iterative Stochastic Elimination (ISE) algorithm to construct a large number of rule-based models (filters) and exploit their combination for developing the concept of hERG Toxicity Index (ETI). ETI estimates the molecular risk to be a blocker of hERG potassium channel. The area under the curve (AUC) of the attained model is 0.94. The averaged ETI of hERG binders, drugs from CMC, clinical-MDDR, endogenous molecules, ACD and ZINC, were found to be 9.17, 2.53, 3.3, -1.98, -2.49 and -3.86 respectively. Applying the proposed hERG Toxicity Index Model on external test set composed of more than 1300 hERG blockers picked from chEMBL shows excellent performance (Matthews Correlation Coefficient of 0.89). The proposed strategy could be implemented for the evaluation of chemicals in the hit/lead optimization stages of the drug discovery process, improve the selection of drug candidates as well as the development of safe pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Financial considerations regarding environmental liabilities: Acquisitions and divestitures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    What position should your company assume in the mining industry? Should your company take a larger or smaller market position? Does it make sense to be acquiring or divesting properties? Should your company be pursuing acquisitions and divestitures simultaneously? The answers to these questions determine in large part what perspective your company will take in assessing and confronting risk of environmental liabilities. From the environmental perspective, serious problems confront the mining industry. Uninformed or misinformed regulators doing a poor job of open-quotes protectingclose quotes the environment continue to plague mining companies at the federal, state and local level. The press and public are routinely ill-informed and often hostile toward mining generally and toward specific projects. The open-quotes not-in-my-backyardclose quotes syndrome continues to haunt projects because every ore-rich plot of land lies in someone's backyard or playground. More profoundly, the industry confronts serious structural impediments caused by media-specific statutes and regulations written with an overriding preference for waste elimination or reduction. Mining and mineral production impact all media and result in an highly integrated project. Despite media-specific statutes and regulations that prefer wastes go anywhere but in their particular media, mine wastes must go somewhere. To its credit, the mining industry has persevered in the face of complex and often conflicting environmental statutes and regulations. The industry has continued to expand or contract in response to market conditions. Companies must continue to pursue acquisitions and divestitures based on their position and goals. This paper addresses financial risks in acquisitions and divestitures and, more importantly, suggests strategies to limit environmental liabilities during acquisitions and divestitures

  4. Addiction liability of pharmacotherapeutic interventions in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William M; Sylvester, Mark; Abraham, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and substance use disorders are rapidly growing problems throughout the world. Of the current mainstay therapies of diet, exercise, behavioral modification, surgery, and medications, drugs have the greatest risk for abuse and dependence. As each of these disorders share similar underpinnings mediated by the dopaminergic brain reward pathways, clinicians must seriously consider the safety of both the patient's physical and mental health when prescribing treatments. Specifically, balance and awareness of the factors involved in the variable abuse potentials of these prescribed medications is paramount. A cursory review of weight loss medications commonly used is performed with attention to FDA status, mechanism of action, and abuse potential. Concurrent strategies to minimize risk such as drug screening, ruling out doctor shopping, temporal considerations, monitoring for signs and symptoms of abuse and/or dependency, and a safety-tiered prescribing approach is also discussed in order to optimize best treatment practice. As the understanding of these disorders progresses along with the evolution of agreed nomenclature and awareness of compulsive behavioral disorders in general, greater safety and more appropriate interventions may be achieved. Further areas of research will help to elucidate nuances of the coocurrance and treatment of these disorders and perhaps guide drug research and development in the area of drug treatments of obesity.

  5. MDMA ("ecstasy") abuse as an example of dopamine neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Susan

    2011-04-01

    A number of reviews have focused on the short- and long-term effects of MDMA and, in particular, on the persistent deficits in serotonin neurotransmission that accompany some exposure regimens. The mechanisms underlying the serotonin deficits and their relevance to various behavioral and cognitive consequences of MDMA use are still being debated. It has become clear, however, that some individuals develop compulsive and uncontrolled drug-taking that is consistent with abuse. For other drugs of abuse, this transition has been attributed to neuroadaptations in central dopamine mechanisms that occur as a function of repeated drug exposure. A question remains as to whether similar neuroadaptations occur as a function of exposure to MDMA and the impact of serotonin neurotoxicity in the transition from use to abuse. This review focuses specifically on this issue by first providing an overview of human studies and then reviewing the animal literature with specific emphasis on paradigms that measure subjective effects of drugs and self-administration as indices of abuse liability. It is suggested that serotonin deficits resulting from repeated exposure to MDMA self-administration lead to a sensitized dopaminergic response to the drug and that this sensitized response renders MDMA comparable to other drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and Validity of a Measure of Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories among Women with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ilan H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Structured clinical interviews concerning childhood histories of physical and sexual abuse with 70 mentally ill women at 2 times found test-retest reliability of .63 for physical abuse and .82 for sexual abuse. Validity, assessed as consistency with an independent clinical assessment, showed 75% agreement for physical abuse and 93% agreement for…

  7. Assessment of an Innovative Voluntary Substance Abuse Treatment Program Designed to Replace Compulsory Drug Detention Centers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farrah; Krishnan, Archana; Ghani, Mansur A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Fu, Jeannia J; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth Kaur; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2018-01-28

    As part of an ongoing initiative by the Malaysian government to implement alternative approaches to involuntary detention of people who use drugs, the National Anti-Drug Agency has created new voluntary drug treatment programs known as Cure and Care (C&C) Centers that provide free access to addiction treatment services, including methadone maintenance therapy, integrated with social and health services.   We evaluated early treatment outcomes and client satisfaction among patients accessing C&C treatment and ancillary services at Malaysia's second C&C Center located in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In June-July 2012, a cross-sectional convenience survey of 96 C&C inpatients and outpatients who entered treatment >30 days previously was conducted to assess drug use, criminal justice experience, medical co-morbidities, motivation for seeking treatment, and attitudes towards the C&C. Drug use was compared for the 30-day-period before C&C entry and the 30-day-period before the interview. Self-reported drug use levels decreased significantly among both inpatient and outpatient clients after enrolling in C&C treatment. Higher levels of past drug use, lower levels of social support, and more severe mental health issues were reported by participants who were previously imprisoned. Self-reported satisfaction with C&C treatment services was high. Conclusions/Importance: Preliminary evidence of reduced drug use and high levels of client satisfaction among C&C clients provide support for Malaysia's ongoing transition from compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs) to these voluntary drug treatment centers. If C&C centers are successful, Malaysia plans to gradually transition away from CDDCs entirely.

  8. Civil liability versus state liability in case of a nuclear incident - some thoughts inspired by the Vienna Convention revision exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1992-01-01

    The juridical reconstruction involved in the current work in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage is not simply a matter of re-surfacing the edifice of private law liability. It has also led certain architects to draw up plans for the foundations of a regime of State responsibility in this field, based on the strict liability of States to compensate for transfrontier damage. Following the post-Chernobyl stocktaking by the author and Otto von Busckist for the Tokyo Congress in 1989, this report sets out to analyse the question of the implementation of States' liability in the case of a nuclear accident, from the viewpoints of positive law, the work of the International Law Commission and specific aspects linked to the nuclear risk. It also examines the proposals in this regard deposited with the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage. (author)

  9. Defense Infrastructure: Improved Guidance Needed for Estimating Alternatively Financed Project Liabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Solar PV; UESC Navy Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLogB) Albany GA Renewable Energy Cogeneration ESPC using Biogas PPA Navy MCLogB Albany GA...Armed Services Committee directed GAO to assess the impact of base closures on such agreements and how DOD captures costs associated with projects...this analysis and GAO’s case study review, liabilities will likely exist for renewable energy and privatized utility projects in the event of base

  10. Federal Act of 29 April 1964 on Liability for Nuclear Damage (Atomic Liability Act)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under this Act, the operator of a nuclear installation is liable for any nuclear incident occurring in such installation or which is caused by nuclear substances in his charge. If an incident is caused by a radioisotope, the person in possession of the radioisotope at the time of the incident is liable therefore. When an incident occurs during transport of nuclear substances, the carrier is liable in three cases only: when such substances are neither despatched to nor originating from installations on Austrian territory; when they are despatched without the written consent of the Austrian operator who is to receive them; and when they are not destined for a nuclear installation. Other provisions of the Act fix liability ceilings, a basis for apportionment of compensation when several victims are involved and the amount of security for coverage of the operators liability. The Act came into force on 1 September 1964. (NEA) [fr

  11. Claims expenses and limits of liability in third party liability insurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmann, J.

    1992-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, more than 300,000 individual claims totalling DM 440 million were settled in Germany, even though the level of radiation was relatively low. This has alerted insurers to the potential level of expenses connected with the handling and settlement of claims following a major nuclear accident which, it is estimated, could amount to DM 50 million per 100,000 claims. The Paris Convention (PC) states the principle of congruence between liability and coverage for nuclear installations. The minimum amounts of liability and coverage must be exclusively reserved for the compensation of accident victims. This paper will show that in PC countries, the majority of claims expenses - both internal and external -are borne by the insurers in addition to the sums insured for the compensation of third parties, with limited extensions of coverage in some cases. The situation is different in non-PC countries, and particularly in the United States of America, where expenses are included in the total sum insured together with compensation payments to third parties. This situation would not pose a problem if the minimum amounts of liability and coverage as stated in the PC were still applicable. In practice, most countries have since increased these amounts substantially, thus reducing the insurers' ability to make the maximum possible capacity available for indemnities to victims. Thus, before further increasing the statutory limits of liability, governments should, when conducting the Nuclear Energy Agency revision of the PC, consider allowing insurers to include claims handling expenses in their total sums insured; with a finite amount of risk, insurers would then be able to commit their full capacity instead of withholding a safety buffer for an open-ended commitment. (author)

  12. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  13. Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua

    2012-04-01

    This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.

  14. CORPORATION CRIME LIABILITY OF PERSPECTIVE PENAL REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Siku

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The setting of the responsibility criminal against corporations in Indonesia starting from the inception of the emergency law number 7 of 1955 on Economic Crime, then followed by some of the last act is Act No. 8 of 2010 on prevention and eradication of the crime of money laundering. In the framework of the renewal of national criminal law and the draft law on The Criminal law (Criminal Code systematically have set the criminal liability of corporations, whether incorporated corporation law and Corporation who is not a legal entity. Although there have been laws governing corporate crime responsibility about but are still have problems in its application. It can be seen from the lack of a corporate criminal sentenced by the Court.

  15. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized

  16. Problems of Liability Insurance of House Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionina M. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of liability insurance of the people who build houses on their own, in connection with the entry into force in January 1, 2014 of the Amendments to the Law № 214-FZ of 30.12.2004 "On Participation in the shared construction of multi apartment buildings and other real estate objects and on Amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation. The author analyzes all the alternative designs for developers concerning their responsibility to shareholders, paying attention to the problems which have the persons interested in this matter. Besides, one can mention a number of issues not regulated enough by changes in legislation

  17. Liability of Foreignness in Historical Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2014-01-01

    vis-à-vis local firms and raise doubts about the assumption that more distance necessarily translates into higher costs. This article adds to this criticism with a historical analysis of German multinational enterprises in preindependence India. The case proves (1) the relevance of specific......Much of international business literature has dealt with the costs of engaging in business abroad. Recently, several authors have called into question the basic assumptions of the “liability of foreignness” argument. They plead for a more nuanced look at nationality beyond the dichotomy of foreign...... with nationality are, thus making a thorough historical analysis of commercial, political, and cultural links between host and home country indispensable....

  18. [Liability in Anaesthesiology: theory of disproportionate damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C

    2013-10-01

    An analysis is made of the controversial application of the theory of disproportionate damage in the anaesthetic act, due to the high inherent risk, and regardless of the seriousness and importance of the surgery being performed. The existence of a disproportionate damage, that is, damage not foreseen nor accountable within the framework of the professional performance of the anaesthetist, does not by itself determine the existence of liability on the part of the anaesthetist, but the demand from the professionals themselves for a coherent explanation of the serious disagreement between the initial risk implied by their actions and the final consequence produced. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  20. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  1. Elder physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The law concerning liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    This treatise outlines the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Law No. 147, June 17, 1961) and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (Law, No. 148, June 17, 1961) which are both came into effect in March, 1962, and describes how these laws will be executed if an accident occurs actually in nuclear facilities. The first law which prescribes various provisions for compensation of nuclear damage is characterised as having the principle of no-fault liability and hence making a nuclear enterpriser responsible for securing adequate financial resources to indemnify general public for their damages from nuclear accidents. Thus, in compliance with the law a nuclear enterpriser should effect both the contract of the indemnity responsible insurance and the indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage. The second law deals with the indemnity agreement which is concluded by a nuclear enterpriser with the government and constitutes a full measure for compensation of nuclear damage supplementing the indemnity responsible insurance. The indemnity agreement is to insure compensation liabilities for nuclear damages which the indemnity responsible insurance can not cover-that is, damages caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and also damages from normal operations of nuclear facilities and those occurs after 10 years of an accident. Then, the author describes in detail how these laws apply in a nuclear accident to damages to third parties and those to facilities of related nuclear enterpriser himself and to his employees. Finally, the author refers to the legal systems for compensation of nuclear damage in the United States, Britain, France and West Germany. (Matsushima, A.)

  3. The 1968 Brussels convention and liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, Ph.; Galizzi, P.

    2000-01-01

    The legal regime governing civil liability for transboundary nuclear damage is expressly addressed by two instruments adopted in the 1960's: the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage These establish particular rules governing the jurisdiction of national courts and other matters, including channelling of liability to nuclear operators, definitions of nuclear damage, the applicable standard of care, and limitations on liability. Another instrument - the 1968 Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters (hereinafter referred to as 'the Brussels Convention') - which is not often mentioned in the nuclear context will nevertheless also be applicable in certain cases. It is premised upon different rules as to forum and applicable law, and presents an alternate vision of the appropriate arrangements governing civil liability for nuclear damage. In this paper we consider the relative merits and demerits of the Brussels Convention from the perspective of non-nuclear states which might suffer damage as a result of a nuclear accident in another state. We conclude that in the context of the applicability of the Brussels Convention the dedicated nuclear liability conventions present few attractions to non-nuclear states in Europe. We focus in particular on issues relating to jurisdiction and applicable law, and do so by reference to a hypothetical accident in the United Kingdom which has transboundary effects in Ireland. (author)

  4. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  5. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  6. Civil liability related to imaging exams in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Mathias Pante; Liedke, Gabriela Salatino; Fontoura, Helena da Silveira; Silveira, Heraldo Luis Dias da; Silveira, Heloísa Emilia Dias da

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To analyze all court lawsuits in Brazil in relation to civil liability involving radiographic and tomographic images up to February 2014. Methods: All Brazilian courts were surveyed for “civil liability,” “error,” “radiology,” “radiography,” and “tomography,” returning 3923 second-instance lawsuits. Out of them were excluded labor legislation, health insurance coverage of radiological examinations, and criminal liability cases and 359 were selected. Compliance with expert reports, involv...

  7. Catastrophic events leading to de facto limits on liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, K.A.; Okrent, D.

    1977-05-01

    This study conducts an overview of large technological systems in society to ascertain prevalence, if any, of situations that can lead to catastrophic effects where the resultant liabilities far exceed the insurances or assets subject to suit in court, thereby imposing de facto limits on liability. Several potential situations are examined: dam rupture, aircraft crash into a sports stadium, chemical plant accident, shipping disaster, and a toxic drug disaster. All of these events are estimated to have probabilities per year similar to or larger than a major nuclear accident and they are found to involve potential liability far exceeding the available resources, such as insurance, corporation assets, or government revenues

  8. The French regime of civil liability for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    As civil liability for nuclear is a matter of discussion and initiatives at the European and international levels, the author proposes an overview of the legal framework of the French regime of civil liability for nuclear which is a combination of two international treaties (Paris and Brussels conventions) and a national arrangement (a 1968 law). He presents and comments the main characteristics of this regime (geographical scope of application, concerned activities, excluded events, covered damages, principles regarding operator's liability) and the improvements brought by Paris and Brussels convention review protocols

  9. Strengthening Canada's nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.; Henault, J.

    2014-01-01

    On January 30, 2014, a Bill entitled the Energy Safety and Security Act, was introduced in Parliament that, among other things, would strengthen Canada's nuclear civil liability legislation by replacing the current Nuclear Liability Act. The proposed legislation also includes implementing provisions that would permit Canada to join the International Atomic Energy Agency's Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. This paper will discuss the importance of a comprehensive civil liability regime for nuclear damage to a country's legislative framework for nuclear development and will present the key elements of Canada's new legislation and the policy considerations behind them. (author))

  10. Liability aspects of home energy-rating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Liability aspects of home energy rating systems are discussed. An introduction to the rating system concept, including types of rating systems, implementation efforts to date, and possible groups to conduct ratings, is also included. The home energy rating system concept involves the periodic rating of the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The rating can provide a relative indication of a home's energy efficiency and also a quantitative estimate of consumption, fuel cost, or both. Primary attention is given to liability issues associated with developing and performing ratings. Secondary attention is given to possible liability associated with misuse of a rating once it has been performed.

  11. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Ferdinando; Gambardella, Elio.

    1974-06-01

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA) [fr

  12. Professional liability in the safety and environmental context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.A.; Price, A.A.; Scott, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    In Texas, the theories of liability under which professionals can be held liable are breach of contract, common law fraud or misrepresentation, failure to disclose, and the Texas Deceptive Trade Practices Act. Because case law involving safety or environmental professionals is scarce it is necessary to draw analogies from cases involving architects and engineers. These cases, however, may be directly applicable to those who are engineers. This paper reviews examples of these types of liabilities providing case references for each. The paper finishes with preventative steps for minimizing the liabilities of both consulting groups and practicing professionals

  13. Radiologists' Training, Experience, and Attitudes About Elder Abuse Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Harpe, Jasmin; Sanchez, Allen M; Mennitt, Kevin W; McCarthy, Thomas J; Nicola, Refky; Murphy, Kieran; LoFaso, Veronica M; Flomenbaum, Neal; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-12-01

    Elder abuse is underrecognized, and identification of subtle cases requires a high index of suspicion among all health care providers. Because many geriatric injury victims undergo radiographic imaging, diagnostic radiologists may be well positioned to identify injury patterns suggestive of abuse. Little is known about radiologists' experience with elder abuse. Our goal was to describe knowledge, attitudes, training, and practice experience in elder abuse detection among diagnostic radiologists. We conducted 19 interviews with diagnostic radiologists at a large urban academic medical center using a semistructured format. Data from these sessions were coded and analyzed to identify themes. Only two radiologists reported any formal or informal training in elder abuse detection. All subjects believed they had missed cases of elder abuse. Even experienced radiologists reported never having received a request from a referring physician to assess images for evidence suggestive of elder abuse. All subjects reported a desire for additional elder abuse training. Also, subjects identified radiographic findings or patterns potentially suggestive of elder abuse, including high-energy injuries such as upper rib fractures, injuries in multiple stages of healing, and injuries inconsistent with reported mechanism. Radiologists are uniquely positioned to identify elder abuse. Though training in detection is currently lacking, providers expressed a desire for increased knowledge. In addition, radiologists were able to identify radiographic findings suggestive of elder abuse. On the basis of these findings, we plan to conduct additional studies to define pathognomonic injury patterns and to explore how to empower radiologists to incorporate detection into their practice.

  14. Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

  15. The Liability of Churches for the Historical Sexual Assault of Children by Priests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Calitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Could a church be held liable for the sexual assault of children by priests when the victims claim as adults only many years after the event? Complainants can claim damages on the basis that the church is either directly or vicariously liable for the alleged acts. If the victims rely on vicarious liability, they will have to prove that the wrongdoer was an employee of the defendant and will further have to prove that the assaults were committed within the course and scope of the wrongdoer's employment. The requirement that a priest must be an employee has in the past created a hurdle for victims, since courts in different countries have traditionally held that priests are not employees of the church as they are servants of God, subject to ecclesiastic law and not civil law. However, in John Doe v Bennet in Canada and JGE v Diocese of Portsmouth in the UK the courts have recently held that even a relationship akin to employment is sufficient to be a basis for vicarious liability. In Bazley v Curry the Canadian Supreme Court moreover extended the traditional meaning of the "course and scope of employment" by developing the "close connection" test. The court found that the acts of a warden of a children's home were so closely connected with his duties that it was fair that his employer (a charitable organisation should be held liable for his conduct. The close connection test was followed by the House of Lords in the United Kingdom and by the South African Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security, although in another context. Adult complainants in cases such as these will further have to prove that their claim has not expired as a result of prescription. In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring their claims often decades after

  16. 26 CFR 301.6231(a)(2)-1 - Persons whose tax liability is determined indirectly by partnership items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in a partnership. (b) Shareholder of C corporation. A shareholder of a C corporation (as defined in... indirectly by partnership items. 301.6231(a)(2)-1 Section 301.6231(a)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Assessment In General § 301.6231(a)(2)-1 Persons whose tax liability is determined indirectly by partnership...

  17. 46 CFR 298.38 - Partnership agreements and limited liability company agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partnership agreements and limited liability company... liability company agreements. Partnership and limited liability company agreements must be in form and...) Duration of the entity; (b) Adequate partnership or limited liability company funding requirements and...

  18. 26 CFR 1.752-2 - Partner's share of recourse liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creditor's right to repayment of a partnership liability is limited solely to one or more assets of the... partnership liability equals the portion of that liability, if any, for which the partner or related person... risk of loss for a partnership liability is made under the rules in paragraphs (b) through (k) of this...

  19. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano

    1995-01-01

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs

  20. Paradigm Shift: Implementing "MEGA," a New Tool Proposed to Define and Assess Sexually Abusive Dynamics in Youth Ages 19 and Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucinda A.; Miccio-Fonseca, L. C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous definitions of sexually abusive behavior in children and adolescents were deficient in failing to (1) highlight salient neuropsychological elements and antisocial behaviors that may contribute to a youth's functioning; (2) discriminate among possible types of coercion (e.g., manipulation, threats, physical force, and use of weapons); and…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...

  2. Signs of domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  3. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  4. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  5. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  6. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  7. Sexual abuse and the problem of embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.

  8. Inventory of nuclear liabilities - The Belgian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minon, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Like all countries that use radioactive materials for producing electricity or for other peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all these materials, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12.12.97, charged ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. ONDRAF/NIRAS was specifically charged with ascertaining all facts of a technical and financial nature which should enable the minister responsible for energy to verify whether every operator or owner of a nuclear installation and every holder or owner of radioactive materials have provided in time for the requisite financial resources to cover the future costs of decommissioning and remediation. This evaluation of course also serves to enable the government to take the necessary

  9. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.

  10. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  11. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  12. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  13. Genetic liability to disability pension in women and men: a prospective population-based twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Narusyte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies of risk factors for disability pension (DP have mainly focused on psychosocial, or environmental, factors, while the relative importance of genetic effects has been less studied. Sex differences in biological mechanisms have not been investigated at all. METHODS: The study sample included 46,454 Swedish twins, consisting of 23,227 complete twin pairs, born 1928-1958, who were followed during 1993-2008. Data on DP, including diagnoses, were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency. Within-pair similarity in liability to DP was assessed by calculating intraclass correlations. Genetic and environmental influences on liability to DP were estimated by applying discrete-time frailty modeling. RESULTS: During follow-up, 7,669 individuals were granted DP (18.8% women and 14.1% men. Intraclass correlations were generally higher in MZ pairs than DZ pairs, while DZ same-sexed pairs were more similar than opposite-sexed pairs. The best-fitting model indicated that genetic factors contributed 49% (95% CI: 39-59 to the variance in DP due to mental diagnoses, 35% (95% CI: 29-41 due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, and 27% (95% CI: 20-33 due to all other diagnoses. In both sexes, genetic effects common to all ages explained one-third, whereas age-specific factors almost two-thirds, of the total variance in liability to DP irrespective of diagnosis. Sex differences in liability to DP were indicated, in that partly different sets of genes were found to operate in women and men, even though the magnitude of genetic variance explained was equal for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study suggest that genetic effects are important for liability to DP due to different diagnoses. Moreover, genetic contributions to liability to DP tend to differ between women and men, even though the overall relative contribution of genetic influences does not differ by sex. Hence, the pathways leading to DP might differ between women and

  14. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  15. The Contractual Liability of Student Organizations with Outside Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likins, Jeanne M.

    1978-01-01

    Included is a consideration of contract and agency law, how these apply to student organizations, potential liability consequences, guidelines to avoid such consequences, and a summary of the current situation. (Author)

  16. Approaching Environmental Cleanup Costs Liability Through Insurance Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corbin, Michael A

    1994-01-01

    .... Applying insurance industry principles to environmental cleanup costs liability will provide a firm foundation to reduce the risk of loss to the taxpayer, reduce cleanup costs, and stimulate private...

  17. Nuclear liability amounts on the rise for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena; Schwartz, Julia; Kuzeyli, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    The NEA Table on Nuclear Operator Liability Amounts and Financial Security Limits (NEA 'Liability Table'), which covers 71 countries, aims to provide one of the most comprehensive listings of nuclear liability amounts and financial security limits. The current and revised Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions ('Paris-Brussels regime'), the original and revised Vienna Conventions ('Vienna regime') and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, newly entered into force in April 2015, provide for the minimum amounts to be transposed in the national legislation of states parties to the conventions, and have served as guidelines for non-convention states. This article examine in more detail increases in the liability amounts provided for under these conventions, as well as examples of non-convention states (China, India and Korea)

  18. Nuclear Liability Act as amended (No 484/72)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Act which entered into force on 16th June 1972 adopted the essential principles laid down in the Paris Convention. These include in particular absolute liability of the operator, its limitation in amount and in time. (NEA) [fr

  19. 31 CFR 370.26 - What limitations exist on liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSFERS RELATING TO UNITED STATES SECURITIES Debit Entries § 370.26 What limitations exist on liability? If we sustain a loss because a financial institution fails to handle an entry in accordance with this...

  20. 7 CFR 46.10 - Nonlicensed person; liability; penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 46.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL... Licenses § 46.10 Nonlicensed person; liability; penalty. Any commission merchant, dealer, or broker who...