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Sample records for abuse emotional neglect

  1. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  2. Long-term effects of child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in adulthood.

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    Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mediating effects of teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and emotional/behavioral problems.

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    Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distinct emotion regulation skills explain psychopathology and problems in social relationships following childhood emotional abuse and neglect.

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    Berzenski, Sara R

    2018-03-22

    Efforts to differentiate between the developmental sequelae of childhood emotional abuse and childhood emotional neglect are critical to both research and practice efforts. As an oft-identified mechanism of the effects of child maltreatment on later adjustment, emotion dysregulation represents a key potential pathway. The present study explored a higher order factor model of specific emotion regulation skills, and the extent to which these skill sets would indicate distinct developmental pathways from unique emotional maltreatment experiences to multidomain adjustment. A sample of 500 ethnoracially diverse college students reported on their experiences. A two-factor model of emotion regulation skills based on subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was revealed. Significant indirect effects of childhood emotional abuse on psychopathology and problems in social relationships were found through response-focused difficulties in emotion regulation, whereas a significant indirect effect of childhood emotional neglect on problems in social relationships was found through antecedent-focused difficulties in emotion regulation. These results are consistent with theoretical models and empirical evidence suggesting differential effects of childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect, and provide an important indication for developing targeted interventions focusing on specific higher order emotion dysregulation skill clusters.

  5. Emotional, behavioral, and developmental features indicative of neglect or emotional abuse in preschool children: a systematic review.

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    Naughton, Aideen Mary; Maguire, Sabine Ann; Mann, Mala Kanthi; Lumb, Rebecca Caroline; Tempest, Vanessa; Gracias, Shirley; Kemp, Alison Mary

    2013-08-01

    Early intervention for neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers may mitigate lifelong consequences, yet practitioners lack confidence in recognizing these children. To define the emotional, behavioral, and developmental features of neglect or emotional abuse in preschoolers. A literature search of 18 databases, 6 websites, and supplementary searching performed from January 1, 1960, to February 1, 2011, identified 22 669 abstracts. Standardized critical appraisal of 164 articles was conducted by 2 independent, trained reviewers. Inclusion criteria were children aged 0 to 6 years with confirmed neglect or emotional abuse who had emotional, behavioral, and developmental features recorded or for whom the carer-child interaction was documented. Twenty-eight case-control (matched for socioeconomic, educational level, and ethnicity), 1 cross-sectional, and 13 cohort studies were included. Key features in the child included the following: aggression (11 studies) exhibited as angry, disruptive behavior, conduct problems, oppositional behavior, and low ego control; withdrawal or passivity (12 studies), including negative self-esteem, anxious or avoidant behavior, poor emotional knowledge, and difficulties in interpreting emotional expressions in others; developmental delay (17 studies), particularly delayed language, cognitive function, and overall development quotient; poor peer interaction (5 studies), showing poor social interactions, unlikely to act to relieve distress in others; and transition (6 studies) from ambivalent to avoidant insecure attachment pattern and from passive to increasingly aggressive behavior and negative self-representation. Emotional knowledge, cognitive function, and language deteriorate without intervention. Poor sensitivity, hostility, criticism, or disinterest characterize maternal-child interactions. Preschool children who have been neglected or emotionally abused exhibit a range of serious emotional and behavioral difficulties and adverse

  6. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  7. Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework.

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    Grossman, Frances K; Spinazzola, Joseph; Zucker, Marla; Hopper, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that stem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought. Moreover, CBP places particular emphasis on integration of key concepts from evidence-based treatment models developed in the past few decades predicated upon thinking and research on the effects of traumatic stress and processes of recovery for survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Consequences of child emotional abuse, emotional neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence for eating disorders: a systematic critical review.

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    Kimber, Melissa; McTavish, Jill R; Couturier, Jennifer; Boven, Alison; Gill, Sana; Dimitropoulos, Gina; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-09-22

    Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite the fact that globally, exposure to emotional abuse, emotional neglect and intimate partner violence are the three of the most common forms of child maltreatment. The objective of the present study is to systematically identify and critically review the literature examining the association between child emotional abuse (EA), emotional neglect (EN), and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult eating-disordered behavior and eating disorders. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC up to October 2015 to identify original research studies that investigated the association between EA, EN and children's exposure to IPV, with adult eating disorders or eating-disordered behavior using a quantitative research design. Database searches were complemented with forward and backward citation chaining. Studies were critically appraised using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. A total of 5556 publications were screened for this review resulting in twenty-three articles included in the present synthesis. These studies focused predominantly on EA and EN, with a minority examining the role of child exposure to IPV in adult eating-related pathology. Prevalence of EA and EN ranged from 21.0% to 66.0%, respectively. No prevalence information was provided in relation to child exposure to IPV. Samples included predominantly White women. The methodological quality of the available literature is generally low. Currently, the available literature precludes the possibility of determining the extent to which EA, EN or child exposure to IPV have independent explanatory influence in adult eating-related pathology above what has been identified for physical and sexual abuse. While a large proportion

  9. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

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    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  10. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana E Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]; drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]; suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]; and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of the evidence

  11. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

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    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant

  12. "Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework": Correction to Grossman et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Reports an error in "Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework" by Frances K. Grossman, Joseph Spinazzola, Marla Zucker and Elizabeth Hopper ( American Journal of Orthopsychiatry , 2017, Vol 87[1], 86-93). In the article, in the second sentence of the third paragraph of the "The Empirical Base for CBP" section, "construction of a life narrative" should have read "construction of a trauma narrative." The full corrected sentence follows: "Therefore, the trauma treatment component traditionally focused upon construction of a trauma narrative must be expanded to address the effects of trauma on our clients' entire life narratives, including their development of a sense of self and social identity." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-01147-002.) This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that stem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought. Moreover, CBP places particular emphasis on integration of key concepts from evidence-based treatment models developed in the past few decades predicated upon thinking and research on the effects of traumatic stress and processes of recovery for survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Turkey: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156

  14. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

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    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  15. Study on elder abuse and neglect among patients in a medical college hospital, Bangalore, India.

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    Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.

  16. Emotion knowledge in young neglected children.

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    Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions.

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

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    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  18. Hospitalization of abused and neglected children.

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    Marshall, W N

    1997-03-01

    To describe the use of inpatient hospitalization for abused and neglected children living in a metropolitan area. Retrospective record review of abused and neglected children admitted in 1992 and 1993 to hospitals with 87% of metropolitan area pediatric admissions; comparison of these data with population, crisis nursery, and child protective services data. Thirty-four abused and neglected children were admitted to hospital, representing 0.3% (34/11,066; 95% confidence interval, 0%-1.2%) of pediatric admissions and 0.2% (34/19,950; 95% confidence interval, 0%-0.6%) of child protective services reports. This represents a rate of hospitalization for child abuse of 10 children (95% confidence interval, 0-46) per 100,000 child population per year. Seven hundred fifteen children were admitted to the crisis nursery by child protective services. Of those admitted to the hospital, 12 needed intensive care, 5 of whom died. Only 3 of 34 hospital-admitted children had private health insurance; 19 of 34 were younger than 1 year. Inpatient hospitalization for abuse represented a small fraction of total pediatric admissions and of child protective services reports. Comprehensive medical care for most abused children and medical education about child abuse must occur in outpatient settings.

  19. Patterns of Language Comprehension Deficit in Abused and Neglected Children.

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    Fox, Lynn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of the relationship between child abuse/neglect and language disability compared 30 abused, generally neglected, or severely neglected children, aged 3-8, to 10 nonabused controls. Results on language comprehension tests suggest that abused and severely neglected children show greater difficulty with language comprehension tasks than their…

  20. A Predictive and Follow-Up Study of Abusive and Neglectful Families by Case Analysis.

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    Heap, Kari Killen

    1991-01-01

    A case analysis, predictive study, and follow-up study of 17 abused and/or neglected children found that the prognosis for abusive and/or neglectful parents is poorer when they are scored high on immaturity than when they are scored high on emotional problems. (BRM)

  1. Elder Abuse and Neglect: The Illinois Response.

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    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…

  2. Do adult mental health services identify child abuse and neglect? A systematic review.

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    Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela

    2018-02-01

    Child abuse and neglect play a causal role in many mental health problems. Knowing whether users of mental health services were abused or neglected as children could be considered essential for developing comprehensive formulations and effective treatment plans. In the present study we report the findings of a systematic review, using independent searches of three databases designed to discover how often mental health staff find out whether their clients were abused or neglected as children. Twenty-one relevant studies were identified. Most people who use mental health services are never asked about child abuse or neglect. The majority of cases of child abuse or neglect are not identified by mental health services. Only 28% of abuse or neglect cases identified by researchers are found in the clients' files: emotional abuse, 44%; physical abuse, 33%; sexual abuse, 30%; emotional neglect, 17%; and physical neglect, 10%. Between 0% and 22% of mental health service users report being asked about child abuse. Men and people diagnosed with psychotic disorders are asked less than other people. Male staff ask less often than female staff. Some improvement over time was found. Policies compelling routine enquiry, training, and trauma-informed services are required. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. A Profile of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas, Paul

    A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…

  4. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

  5. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

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    ... navigation Search form Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  6. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  7. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act, the...

  8. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

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    Hecht, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)

  9. Declarative memory in abused and neglected infants.

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    Cheatham, Carol L; Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children

  10. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

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    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.

  11. Analysis of trauma severity and the impact of abuse and neglect on personality traits in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abuse and neglect might cause multiple and long-term consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of children. The consequences that abuse and neglect cause on a child’s personality and functioning in adult life have particular importance. The aim: Determining the level of trauma, as well as differences in personality traits of adolescents who are on psychiatric treatment and has been registered in Department for the protection of children against abuse and neglect, comparing with children who are on psychiatric treatment but not abused, and control group of adolescents. Materials and methods: The study analysed three groups: abused group on psychiatric treatment, group on psychiatric treatment and not abused, and control healthy population. All subjects filled out General questionnaire with basic socio-demographical data, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Temperament and Character Adolescent Inventory (ATCI – 46. Results: There is statistically significant difference between groups in all types of abuse: physical, emotional, sexual, as well as emotional and physical neglect (p<0.001. Psychiatric group has significantly lower scores on Persistence (P (p<0.01, while abused group has lower scores on Harm avoidance (HA (p<0.05. Negative correlation between abuse and Self-transcendence (ST, and negative correlation between physical abuse and Self-directedness (SD has been shown. Conclusion: Abuse and neglect in children and adolescents are a significant cause of trauma and can cause different psychopathology, as well as changes on character and temperament traits.

  12. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

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    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  13. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children’s emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children’s mothers completed the Parent–Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were iden...

  14. Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P neglect (P abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse had a higher Injury Severity Score, longer duration of hospitalization, and more injuries of head, face, and neck compared with other types of abuse. The reported rate of neglect was highly elevated after the CPMSDC established during the study period. Recognition of neglect is not easy, but the consequent injury, especially

  15. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  16. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  17. School Performance and Disciplinary Problems among Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, John; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Neglected, or physically or sexually abused, children performed poorer on standardized tests, received lower grades, were more likely to repeat a grade and had more discipline referrals than nonmaltreated children. Among maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest academic performance, and physically abused children had the most…

  18. Empowering Young Abused and Neglected Children through Contingency Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsberg, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    Argues that contingency play as an intervention strategy can ameliorate abused and neglected children's alienation from adults, reduce stress, and develop positive modes of behavior. The argument is supported by a case study of a four-year-old girl in a day treatment center for abused and neglected children. (BB)

  19. Attachment Styles and Aggression in Physically Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…

  20. Treatment for Abused and Neglected Children. The User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Harold P.

    This manual brings current knowledge about the needs of abused and neglected children together with practical ideas about what can be done to meet those needs. Designed primarily for use by child protective service (CPS) workers, the manual may also be used by other professionals dealing with child abuse and neglect. Chapter 1 briefly discusses…

  1. Elder Abuse and Neglect: Considerations for Mental Health Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Heather; Priest, Ronnie

    2005-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect are prevalent throughout the U.S. and are often unrecognized and untreated. It is projected that by the year 2030, the number of older adults (age 60 and older) will double, thereby increasing the likelihood that mental health practitioners will encounter instances of elder abuse and neglect. The authors address the…

  2. Greek Teachers' Experience and Perceptions of Child Abuse/Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibou-Nakou, I.; Markos, A.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper focuses on teachers' experiences of child abuse/neglect cases, teachers' awareness of reporting or discounting, and their ways of responding to a hypothetical disclosure of abuse/neglect. A total of 1877 teachers in Greek public schools participated from a national teacher in-service training across the country; of them, 306…

  3. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N

    2016-08-01

    To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse.  The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children.  The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.

  4. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  5. Practical Approaches for Identifying and Managing Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Nola T.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the exceptional challenges that abused and neglected children may pose for early-intervention providers, particularly speech-language pathologists. It focuses on practical strategies regarding reporting child abuse, effectively assessing the children who have been abused, and managing the bizarre behavior they may exhibit. (Author/CR)

  6. Drug Use, the Drug Environment, and Child Physical Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.

  7. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Elder Abuse and Neglect in the Community: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David; Pillemer, Karl; Caccamise, Paul L; Mason, Art; Henderson, Charles R; Berman, Jacquelin; Cook, Ann Marie; Shukoff, Denise; Brownell, Patricia; Powell, Mebane; Salamone, Aurora; Lachs, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    To estimate past-year prevalence and identify risk and protective factors of elder emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglect. Cross-sectional, population-based study using random-digit-dial sampling and direct telephone interviews. New York State households. Representative (race, ethnicity, sex) sample (N = 4,156) of English- or Spanish-speaking, community-dwelling, cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older. The Conflict Tactics Scale was adapted to assess elder emotional and physical abuse. Elder neglect was evaluated according to failure of a responsible caregiver to meet an older adult's needs using the Duke Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) scale. Caseness thresholds were based on mistreatment behavior frequencies and elder perceptions of problem seriousness. Past-year prevalence of elder emotional abuse was 1.9%, of physical abuse was 1.8%, and of neglect was 1.8%, with an aggregate prevalence of 4.6%. Emotional and physical abuse were associated with being separated or divorced, living in a lower-income household, functional impairment, and younger age. Neglect was associated with poor health, being separated or divorced, living below the poverty line, and younger age. Neglect was less likely in older adults of Hispanic ethnicity. Elder abuse and neglect are common problems, with divergent risk and protective factor profiles. These findings have direct implications for public screening and education and awareness efforts designed to prevent elder mistreatment. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  9. What shall we do about: Preventing child abuse and neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Like doctors and other healthcare professionals worldwide, many of us see children with injuries caused by physical violence and girls who have been raped. Sometimes we know that a child is malnourished, sick or traumatised because of abuse or neglect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of child abuse ...

  10. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  11. Prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity - example from central moravia, czech republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzny, Jan; Jurickova, Lubica

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) comprises emotional, financial, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect by other individuals, and self-neglect. Elder abuse and neglect in seniors with psychiatric morbidity was not monitored in the Czech Republic at all, despite the literature shows mental morbidity as one of the important risk factor for developing elder abuse and neglect. We designed comparative cross sectional study comprising 305 seniors hospitalized in Mental Hospital Kromeriz in June 2011 - group of 202 seniors hospitalized due to mental disorder in psychogeriatric ward and group of 103 seniors hospitalized due to somatic disorder in internal ward. Content analysis of medical records was done in both groups of seniors, with regards to symptoms of elder abuse. Then, we discussed the topic of elder abuse with 30 nurses of psychogeriatric ward in focus group interview. Between two compared groups of seniors we detected statistically higher prevalence of elder abuse in seniors with psychiatric morbidity (48 cases, 23.8% prevalence of EAN), compared to somatically ill seniors (3 cases, 2.9%). As for nursing staff, 5 from 30 nurses (16.7%) have never heard about symptoms of elder abuse and neglect, 10 from 30 nurses (33.3%) had just a partial knowledge about elder abuse and neglect and its symptoms, the rest of nurses (15 from 30 nurses, 50.0%) had good knowledge about elder abuse and neglect and its symptoms. Elder abuse and neglect seems to be a relevant problem in senior population with mental disorders. Development of educational programs for nursing and medical staff about Elder abuse and neglect (symptoms of EAN, early detection of EAN, knowledge how to report cases of EAN) could improve the situation and help mentally ill seniors to better quality of life.

  12. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  13. Are childhood abuse and neglect related to age of first homelessness episode among currently homeless adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p homeless during youth (p homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.

  14. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Teicher

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE. However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X with

  16. Battling the Passions: The Birth of a Conceptual Understanding of Suspicion for Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Einboden

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Legal obligations for reporting child abuse and neglect have positioned suspicion as a trigger for nursing responses. Suspicion dwells between emotion and thought, and is fraught with uncertainty. Given the importance of suspicion to initiating child protection, suspicion requires critical examination. Spinoza’s ideas of the imagination, and his distinctive inclusion of emotions in understanding human knowledge, provide a framework to explore the human experience of suspicion. These theoretical dimensions of suspicion are illustrated using a recent newspaper article of a missing child in Sydney, Australia. This process reveals the ontological vulnerability of the human mind to construct knowledge that is heavily influenced by our emotionality, our close social connections and our social values. Attending to these vulnerabilities generates new possibilities for understanding and using human suspicions of child abuse and neglect more effectively and creatively in nursing practice.

  17. Association Between Severe Dental Caries and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillevis Smitt, Henk; de Leeuw, Jenny; de Vries, Tjalling

    2017-11-01

    In their maxillofacial practice, the authors have encountered some children with severe dental caries whose teeth had to be removed; many later appeared to be abused children. The authors hypothesized that in the group of children who underwent multiple tooth extractions for caries under general anesthesia, a larger percentage would be found to be abused compared with the normal population. The authors identified children who underwent multiple tooth extractions under general anesthesia in a well-defined region in the Netherlands in 2005 and 2006. Subsequently, they sought these children in the database of the Dutch national organization against domestic violence and child abuse (Veilig Thuis) in 2015. Of the total group of 376 children, 205 (55%) underwent the procedure because of caries during this period. Child abuse and neglect was established by Veilig Thuis in 47 of these children (23%; 95% confidence interval, 20-26), whereas the procedure occurred before the child abuse was established in 27. There appears to be a strong association between severe dental caries and child abuse and neglect. Hence, severe dental caries could be regarded as an early symptom of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patterns of Childhood Abuse and Neglect in a Representative German Population Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schilling

    Full Text Available Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set.In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2. Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment.Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2 and anxiety (GAD-2. Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress.The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in adulthood. The results

  19. Patterns of Childhood Abuse and Neglect in a Representative German Population Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Christoph; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Häuser, Winfried; Pöhlmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a) to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b) to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c) to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d) to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set. Methods In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2). Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment. Results Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2) and anxiety (GAD-2). Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress. Conclusion The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in

  20. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  1. Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, J M; Widom, C S

    2001-01-01

    Although an extensive literature has accumulated documenting the maladaptive outcomes associated with childhood victimization, a limited body of knowledge addresses resilience. This paper sought to operationalize the construct of resilience across a number of domains of functioning and time periods and to determine the extent to which abused and neglected children grown up demonstrate resilience. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family social class with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995. 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hr in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment. Resilience requires meeting the criteria for success across six of eight domains of functioning: employment, homelessness, education, social activity, psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, and two domains assessing criminal behavior (official arrest and self-reports of violence). Results indicate that 22% of abused and neglected individuals meet the criteria for resilience. More females met the criteria for resilience and females were successful across a greater number of domains than males. We speculate on the meaning of these findings and discuss implications for the child maltreatment field. Limitations of the study are also acknowledged.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, C S

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which childhood abuse and neglect increase a person's risk for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to determine whether the relationship to PTSD persists despite controls for family, individual, and lifestyle characteristics associated with both childhood victimization and PTSD. Victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 in a Midwestern metropolitan county area were matched on the basis of age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic class with a group of nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Subjects (N = 1,196) were located and administered a 2-hour interview that included the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule to assess PTSD. Childhood victimization was associated with increased risk for lifetime and current PTSD. Slightly more than a third of the childhood victims of sexual abuse (37.5%), 32.7% of those physically abused, and 30.6% of victims of childhood neglect met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime PTSD. The relationship between childhood victimization and number of PTSD symptoms persisted despite the introduction of covariates associated with risk for both. Victims of child abuse (sexual and physical) and neglect are at increased risk for developing PTSD, but childhood victimization is not a sufficient condition. Family, individual, and lifestyle variables also place individuals at risk and contribute to the symptoms of PTSD.

  3. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  4. A psycho-educational programme for abused and neglected children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.A. Statistics show an increase in the number of cases of abused and neglected children handled by the Child Protection Unit. These particular statistics indicate only the number of reported cases, which according to Lewis (1999) and Starke (1995) should be tripled to estimate the true number of children being abused every day. Action research was selected for this study to assist the parents and the children in extending their understanding of their situation and thus resolve problems th...

  5. Abused and Neglected Children in the Juvenile and Family Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Patricia J.

    1994-01-01

    Considers dilemma of juvenile and family court judges who decide whether it is in best interest of abused and neglected children to remain with parents or whether foster care or other substitute placement is necessary. Discusses changes in federal and state legislation over past decade. Includes views of children who have been in foster care. (NB)

  6. Problems in Educating Abused and Neglected Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Lois A.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews and review of case files investigated reasons for the common failure to meet the educational needs of abused and neglected children with disabilities in foster care. Agency dysfunctions which negatively affected appropriate educational provisions were identified in such categories as eligibility, timeline violation, inappropriate…

  7. Fathers: A Placement Resource for Abused and Neglected Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.; Zuravin, Susan J.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated 17 custodial and 18 noncustodial fathers of abused or neglected children to determine: (1) how fathers get custody; (2) how situations in which fathers get custody differ from those in which they do not; and (3) the degree to which father placements are satisfactory. (SAK)

  8. Neglected and Abused Children of Mentally Retarded Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.; Scheurer, Susan L.

    1986-01-01

    Follow-up of 64 neglected and abused children, seen one to seven years earlier, with mentally retarded parent revealed that six children had been relinquished voluntarily for adoption; that courts had terminated parental rights for 34 children; and that nine had been placed in foster care. Cognitive limitations prevented parents from utilizing…

  9. Working With Abusive/Neglectful Indian Parents. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    Considering such factors as disruption of Indian families caused by Anglo educational programs (missionary schools, BIA boarding schools), by Indian relocation programs, and other non-Indian institutions, many of today's abusive and neglectful Indian parents were victims as children in these same institutions. The 9-page information sheet offers a…

  10. Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Oral health issues can also be associated with bullying and are commonly seen in human trafficking victims. Some medical providers may receive less education pertaining to oral health and dental injury and disease and may not detect the mouth and gum findings that are related to abuse or neglect as readily as they detect those involving other areas of the body. Therefore, pediatric care providers and dental providers are encouraged to collaborate to increase the prevention, detection, and treatment of these conditions in children.

  11. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  12. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  13. The Great Recession and risk for child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health.

  14. The intellectual profile of abused and neglected children in the Philippines: An analysis of SB5 IQ scores of sexually abused, physically abused and neglected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengwasan, Peejay D

    2018-05-24

    Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Children's Perceptions of Parental Emotional Neglect and Control and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…

  16. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and the...

  17. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tonmyr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%, and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations.

  18. Childhood abuse and neglect among women outpatients with chronic mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzenmaier, K; Meyer, I; Struening, E; Ferber, J

    1993-07-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness; to examine patterns of co-occurrence of the various types of abuse; and to explore the relationships between childhood abuse and adult psychiatric symptomatology. Childhood histories of abuse and data on clinical characteristics of 78 women enrolled in a New York State outpatient clinic were elicited in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the women reported histories of some type of abuse or neglect during childhood. Forty-five percent of the sample had been sexually abused, 51 percent had been physically abused, and 22 percent had experienced neglect. Seventy-four percent of the sexually abused women, 70 percent of the physically abused women, and 94 percent of the women who experienced neglect reported at least one additional form of abuse or neglect. Respondents who had been abused in childhood had higher levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms and higher rates of sexual victimization in adulthood than those who had not been abused. Women who experienced neglect as children had higher rates of homelessness in adulthood. Chronic mentally ill women seem to experience higher rates of abuse and more types of abuse than the general population. Clinicians should try to determine whether chronic mentally ill women have histories of abuse and to develop interventions to meet their special needs.

  19. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT IN THE INFORMAL CAREGIVING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias, Janetta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect within the informal caregiving setting from the perspective of ecological theory. This theory offers a deeper understanding of the complexity of elder abuse by considering the interactions that take place across a number of interrelated systems as well as the multiple risk factors that contribute to elder abuse and neglect. Researchers, policy makers and practitioners need to develop awareness of the risk factors regarding elder abuse and neglect, and to develop appropriate interventions in response to elder abuse and neglect.

  20. Behavior Problems in School-Aged Physically Abused and Neglected Children in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…

  1. 75 FR 40838 - Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse...: Notice. Authority: The Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation is authorized under... Services announces establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, as...

  2. Elder Abuse and Neglect Content in Higher Education Programs on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen F.

    This study sought to: (1) investigate the degree to which course content on elder abuse and neglect is a part of higher education curriculums in aging; (2) determine which specific elder abuse and neglect course content is included in required and elective coursework; and (3) describe the attitudes of instructors toward including elder abuse and…

  3. Individual and group-based parenting programmes for the treatment of physical child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J; Johnston, I; Kendrick, D; Polnay, L; Stewart-Brown, S

    2006-07-19

    group by the pooled standard deviation, to obtain an effect size. The results for each outcome in each study have been presented, with 95% confidence intervals. It was not possible to combine any results in a meta-analysis. A total of seven studies of variable quality were included in this review. Only two studies assessed the effectiveness of parenting programmes on the incidence of child abuse or number of injuries. One study showed that there were no reports of abuse in the intervention group compared with one report of abuse in the control group. In the second study the small number of injuries sustained precluded the possibility of statistical analysis. Data were also extracted on over fifty outcomes that are used as proxy measures of abusive parenting. These were on the whole diverse and measured a range of aspects of parenting (e.g. parental child management, discipline practices, child abuse potential and mental health), child health (e.g. emotional and behavioural adjustment) and family functioning, thereby precluding the possibility of undertaking a meta-analysis for most outcomes for which data were extracted. While none of the programmes were effective across all of the outcomes measured, many appeared to have improved some outcomes for some of the participating parents, although many failed to achieve statistical significance. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of parenting programmes to treat physical abuse or neglect (i.e. such as the incidence of child abuse using reports of child abuse/linjuries or children on the children protection register). There is, however, limited evidence to show that some parenting programmes may be effective in improving some outcomes that are associated with physically abusive parenting. There is an urgent need for further rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of parenting programmes that are specifically designed to treat physical abuse and neglect, either independently or as part of broader packages of

  4. Problems in educating abused and neglected children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, L A

    1997-09-01

    This study considers whether Goerge and colleagues' (1992) thesis is correct--that the reason the special education needs of abused or neglected children in foster care are not being met appropriately is that the services provided to them revolve around their need for protection. A case study was done of 12 children with disabilities who were removed from the homes of their parents because of abuse or neglect. The primary data were the legal interventions made on the children's behalf with various agencies serving them by a legal services office. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a review of the children's case files. The number of dysfunctions identified in the various agencies serving the children that negatively affected the children's ability to receive an appropriate education were in the following categories: search and serve (3); eligibility (1); timeline violation (8); IEP violation (11); inappropriate program (17); inadequate resources (4); lack of knowledge (3); parent advocacy problem (3); lack of coordination (7); dependent status (8); mobility delay (9). In those instances where the child welfare agency did not take into account a child's educational needs when placing that child, but simply considered the appropriateness of the living situation to protect and care for the child, then the thesis appears to be borne out. However, some-dysfunctions appear to be part of routine lack of compliance with certain areas of special education law, and would seem to affect any child with similar disabilities and educational needs in the offending school districts.

  5. A prospective investigation of borderline personality disorder in abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel

    2009-10-01

    Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.

  6. Memory, maternal representations and internalizing symptomatology among abused, neglected and nonmaltreated children

    OpenAIRE

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal-representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N= 33) and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children. Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreat...

  7. Voices from Nursery : A Crack of Intervention to Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to describe the status quo of abuse and neglected children in nursery school, and to analyze the factors affecting the conditions of those abused and neglected children. Method: Intensive interview to the directors of 9 nursery schools were conducted and data of 32 cases were collected. Results: 5 modified case episodes edited from collected data were presented to show the typical conditions of abused and neglected children in nursery schools. Some common characteri...

  8. Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.

  9. The Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect: Conference Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents highlights from the Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. The topic of child sexual abuse dominated the Congress; other topics included malnutrition, research problems, and concerns of Third World countries. Recommendations of the Congress are summarized.

  10. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound) and Canada (upper bound), whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings. PMID:23158382

  11. Court Appointed Volunteers for Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Renate G.

    2002-02-01

    A court appointed special advocate (CASA) volunteer is a trained citizen who is appointed by a judge to represent the best interests of an abused and neglected child in court. An independent voice, the volunteer gathers information and reports to the court. The CASA volunteer works in close cooperation with other professionals, physicians, lawyers, social workers, and teachers to find the most suitable permanent placement for a victimized child, whether it be a foster home, parental home, or adoptive home. Another function for CASA volunteers is to be supportive to the child during a time of uncertainty in his or her life and to help the youngster adjust to new and changing situations; the CASA volunteer may be the only consistent adult presence during this difficult period of transition.

  12. Economic Impact of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopp, Alex R; Schaeffer, Cindy M; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Powell, Jennifer S

    2018-04-04

    This study evaluated the economics of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST-CAN) by applying the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) cost-benefit model to data from a randomized effectiveness trial with 86 families (Swenson et al. in JFP 24:497-507, 2010b). The net benefit of MST-CAN, versus enhanced outpatient treatment, was $26,655 per family at 16 months post-baseline. Stated differently, every dollar spent on MST-CAN recovered $3.31 in savings to participants, taxpayers, and society at large. Policymakers and public service agencies should consider these findings when making investments into interventions for high-need families involved with child protective services.

  13. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  14. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  15. Gender differences in the impact of abuse and neglect victimization on adolescent offending behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines gender differences in the association between abuse and neglect during childhood, and sexual and violent offending in juvenile delinquents. Female juvenile delinquents were more frequently victim of sexual and physical abuse and had a history of neglect and maltreatment

  16. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect: Social Service Reader I [and] Reader II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.

    Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect United States Army U.S. Army Central Registry (1989-1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-31

    This report is an analysis of the child abuse and neglect cases that have been recorded in the Army Central Registry between 1989-1996. The following...were 30,551 initial substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect, or an average of about 3,80 cases per year. There were 2,336 subsequent incidents

  19. Training in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. The User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Diane D.; MacDicken, Robert A.

    Intended primarily for persons or agencies responsible for providing training to professionals and interested citizens involved in delivery of services to abusive and neglectful families, the manual addresses the importance of training in the identification, reporting, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Chapters focus…

  20. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse.

  1. Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Economic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967–1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003–2004 (N = 807). Results indicate that adults with documented histories of childhood abuse and/or neglect have lower levels of education, employment, earnings, and fewer assets as adults, compared to matched control children. There is a 14% gap between individuals with histories of abuse/neglect and controls in the probability of employment in middle age, controlling for background characteristics. Maltreatment appears to affect men and women differently, with larger effects for women than men. These new findings demonstrate that abused and neglected children experience large and enduring economic consequences. PMID:20425881

  2. How do mental health services respond when child abuse or neglect become known? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela

    2018-06-05

    Child abuse and neglect are strongly associated with many subsequent mental health problems. This review summarizes the research on how adult mental health services respond when child abuse or neglect become known. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for studies with rates of responding in various ways to child abuse and neglect by mental health professionals. Thirteen studies were identified: seven case note reviews, three surveys of staff, and three sets of interviews with service users. Rates of inclusion of abuse or neglect in treatment plans ranged from 12% to 44%. Rates of referral to abuse-related therapy ranged from 8% to 23%. Rates were lower for neglect than for abuse and were also lower for men and people with a diagnosis of psychosis. Two per cent or less of all cases were referred to legal authorities. The studies varied in focus and methodology, but all indicated inadequate clinical practice. The rates of abused or neglected people referred for therapy are actually lower than indicated by this review because most users of adult mental health services are not asked about abuse or neglect in the first place. The barriers to good practice, and the need for trauma-informed services, are discussed. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Reunifying abused or neglected children: Decision-making and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehal, Nina; Sinclair, Ian; Wade, Jim

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about decision-making regarding the reunification of children in care, or about the consequences of these decisions for the children concerned. This study compared decision-making and outcomes for 149 maltreated children in seven English authorities (68 reunified, 81 who remained in care). Children were followed up six months after their return home or, for those who were not reunified, six months after the 'effective decision' that they should remain in care. They were followed up again four years (on average) after the return or effective decision. Data were extracted from case files at baseline and six month follow-up and were gathered from surveys of social workers and teachers at final follow-up. The two key predictors of reunification were assessments that parental problems had improved and that risks to the child were not unacceptably high. Two-thirds returned to improved family circumstances, sometimes due to a change in the household they returned to, but others were reunified despite persisting concerns. However 35% re-entered care within six months and 63% re-entered at some point during the four-year follow-up period, often due to recurring abuse or neglect. At final follow-up remaining in care was the strongest predictor of positive outcomes on a range of dimensions, even once children's characteristics and histories were taken into account. Outcomes were especially poor for neglected children who were reunified, irrespective of whether reunification was stable or unstable. Results show the potential of the care system to produce positive outcomes for maltreated children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening injured children for physical abuse or neglect in emergency departments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, J; Lecky, F; Hodes, D; Pitt, M; Taylor, B; Gilbert, Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Screening markers are used in emergency departments (EDs) to identify children who should be assessed for possible physical abuse and neglect. We conducted three systematic reviews evaluating age, repeat attendance and injury type as markers for physical abuse or neglect in injured children attending EDs. We included studies comparing markers in physically abused or neglected children and non-abused injured children attending ED or hospital. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) for age group, repeat attendance and injury type (head injury, bruises, fractures, burns or other). Given the low prevalence of abuse or neglect, we considered that an LR of 10 or more would be clinically useful. All studies were poor quality. Infancy increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured or admitted children (LRs 7.7-13.0, 2 studies) but was not strongly associated in children attending the ED (LR 1.5, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; one study). Repeat attendance did not substantially increase the risk of abuse or neglect and may be confounded by chronic disease and socio-economic status (LRs 0.8-3.9, 3 studies). One study showed no evidence that the type of injury substantially increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured children. There was no evidence that any of the markers (infancy, type of injury, repeated attendance) were sufficiently accurate (i.e. LR >or= 10) to screen injured children in the ED to identify those requiring paediatric assessment for possible physical abuse or neglect. Clinicians should be aware that among injured children at ED a high proportion of abused children will present without these characteristics and a high proportion of non-abused children will present with them. Information about age, injury type and repeat attendances should be interpreted in this context.

  5. Review shows that Icelandic society is taking firmer steps to tackle the diverse forms of child abuse and neglect that its children are exposed to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Einarsdóttir, Jónína

    2018-04-04

    This review examined and summarised the research published on child abuse in Iceland, which was mainly in the country's native language, to make the findings more accessible to English speakers. It specifically focused on child rearing and the physical, emotional and sexual abuse, neglect and intrafamilial conflicts suffered by children at the hands of their parents and other carers. The review drew on published research, books and reports and compared the findings with Nordic research and global estimates of child abuse. Qualitative and quantitative research revealed that the prevalence of different forms of child abuse, child neglect and intra-familial conflicts in Iceland was similar to, or higher than, global and Nordic estimates. Younger respondents reported less physical abuse than older respondents, but higher levels of emotional abuse. Legislation, greater awareness, public debates and research on child abuse in Iceland have contributed to the growing recognition of the negative consequences of child abuse and strengthened support for prevention strategies. Icelandic children have reportedly experienced diverse forms of child abuse and neglect from their parents and other carers. Diverse initiatives have been put in place that underline the urgent need to tackle such behaviour. ©2018 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Language Problems Among Abused and Neglected Children: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Bussières, Ève-Line; Bouchard, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Research data show that exposure to abuse and neglect has detrimental effects on a child's language development. In this meta-analysis, we analyze studies (k = 23), to compare the language skills (receptive language, expressive language, pragmatics) of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect with the language skills of children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect and to examine whether age or type of maltreatment moderate the relationship between maltreatment and language skills. Results confirm that the language skills of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect are delayed when compared to children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect. Compared to older children, young children seem particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. No significant differences were demonstrated concerning the type of maltreatment suffered by the child. These findings support the necessity of early detection of language problems in abused and neglected children as well as early intervention in order to implement interventions that will positively stimulate their development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish society: social workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2018-02-13

    In the last 30 years, elder abuse and neglect has been recognized as a social and health-related problem. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in a separatist faith-based society (ultra-Orthodox Jewish society-UOJS). A qualitative-phenomenological study with 28 social workers who underwent in-depth semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide consisting of the following items: visibility of the elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox society, and dilemmas and sensitive issues that arise when working with this population. Three main themes emerged: (1) Between the commandment to honor one's parents and concealment patterns: Cultural barriers to exposing the abuse and neglect phenomenon; (2) "Life is demanding:" The unique expression of abusive and neglectful behavior in the UOJS; (3) Culturally related dilemmas when intervening with cases of elder abuse and neglect. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish cultural belief is a differentiating component in the context of elder abuse and neglect. Social workers need to develop a deep understanding of the unique characteristics of the phenomenon and cultural sensitivity to cope with it to address the well-being of older ultra-Orthodox Jews.

  8. Attachment as a partial mediator of the relationship between emotional abuse and schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Karen; Rush, Robert; Grünwald, Lisa; Darling, Stephen; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-12-15

    Developmental theories highlight the salience of attachment theory in explaining vulnerability towards psychosis. At the same time there is increasing recognition that psychosis is associated with childhood trauma variables. This study explored the interaction between attachment and several trauma variables in relation to schizotypy levels in a non-clinical sample. 283 non-clinical participants completed online measures of schizotypy, attachment, childhood abuse and neglect. When five types of abuse/neglect were entered into a linear regression analysis emotional abuse was the sole independent predictor of schizotypy. Age, attachment anxiety and avoidance were independent predictors after the effects of emotional abuse were controlled for. The overall model was significant, explaining 34% of the variation in schizotypy. Moderation analysis indicated that the effect of emotional abuse was not conditional upon attachment. Parallel mediation analysis indicated small but significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on schizotypy through attachment avoidance (13%) and attachment anxiety (8%). We conclude that emotional abuse contributes to vulnerability towards psychosis both directly and indirectly through attachment insecurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction during Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…

  10. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habetha Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound and Canada (upper bound, whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.

  12. Comparison of ego defenses among physically abused children, neglected, and non-maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.

  13. Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fourth National Incidende Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NIS–4 data were collected to provide updated estimates of the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States and measure changes in incidence from the...

  15. A New System for Improving the Care of Neglected and Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Marvin R.; Balyeat, Ralph

    1974-01-01

    A demonstration program of a system coordinating the wide variety of services provided for neglected and abused children in a metropolitan area has produced many gains in the handling of such cases: notably, avoidance of institutionalization. (Author/CS)

  16. Child abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration: a prospective investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49

  17. Perspectives on Elder Abuse and Neglect in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra-Flanders, Wilson; Clark, Jennifer C.

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 70 Brazilian participants (46 females and 24 males) who responded to the cross-cultural survey on family violence and abuse, nearly half of the participants provided no examples of extreme, moderate, or mild elder abuse. In the sample of responses that were provided, the most commonly cited form of abuse overall was psychological…

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  19. Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; James, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse has profound immediate and long-term effects on a child's development. The long-term impact of abuse of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse and relationship difficulties [Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2003). "The long-term health outcomes of…

  20. Screening Children for Abuse and Neglect: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoft, Mary; Haddad, Lisa

    Child abuse and neglect occur in epidemic numbers in the United States and around the world, resulting in major physical and mental health consequences for abused children in the present and future. A vast amount of information is available on the signs and symptoms and short- and long-term consequences of abuse. A limited number of instruments have been empirically developed to screen for child abuse, with most focused on physical abuse in the context of the emergency department, which have been found to be minimally effective and lacking rigor. This literature review focuses on physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect, occurring in one or multiple forms (polyabuse). A systematic, in-depth analysis of the literature was conducted. This literature review provides information for identifying children who have been abused and neglected but exposes the need for a comprehensive screening instrument or protocol that will capture all forms of child abuse and neglect. Screening needs to be succinct, user-friendly, and amenable for use with children at every point of care in the healthcare system.

  1. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from First Macedonian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Defining the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in the context of our country can facilitate support of abused older people and, most importantly, may help develop policy and programmes based on evidence-based practices, targeting prevention and response.

  2. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  3. A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; DuMont, Kimberly; Czaja, Sally J

    2007-01-01

    Few prospective longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between abuse or neglect in childhood and depression in adulthood. To determine whether abused and neglected children were at elevated risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychiatric comorbidity, compared with matched control subjects, when followed up into young adulthood. Prospective cohort design study. Midwestern metropolitan county area. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (before the age of 11 years) from January 1, 1967, to December 31, 1971 (n = 676) were matched based on age, race, sex, and approximate family social class with a group of non-abused and non-neglected children (n = 520) and followed up into young adulthood (mean age, 28.7 years). Between October 20, 1989, and December 22, 1995, 2-hour in-person interviews were conducted, using the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III Revised, to determine DSM-III-R MDD and other psychiatric diagnoses. Child abuse and neglect were associated with an increased risk for current MDD (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.14; PChildren who were physically abused (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.52; Pneglect increased risk for current MDD (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.10-2.29; Pneglected children compared with controls. Among those with MDD, comorbidity was higher for abused and neglected individuals than for controls. These results support the need for clinicians to increase efforts to detect and treat depression in physically abused and neglected children.

  4. Vision screening of abused and neglected children by the UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, R; Logani, S; Mahat, M; Wheeler, N C; Lee, D A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to present descriptive findings of ocular abnormalities in vision screening examinations of abused and neglected children. We compared the prevalence and the nature of eye diseases and refractive error between abused and neglected boys staying at the Hathaway Home, a residential facility for abused children, and boys from neighboring Boys and Girls clubs. The children in the study received vision screening examinations through the UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic following a standard format. Clinical data were analyzed by chi-square test. The children with a history of abuse demonstrated significantly higher prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, and external eye disorders. Our study suggests that children with a history of abuse may be at higher risk for visual impairment. These visual impairments may be the long-term sequelae of child abuse.

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for the Pastoral Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual was developed to help the pastor identify, evaluate, and counsel families experiencing child abuse situations. Precise data is presented...agencies involved in treating child abuse . The causal factors - parent, child, and environment are discussed. A practical viewpoint and analysis of the legal...ramifications of child abuse are presented. This manual presents a biblical bases for the counseling model which determine intervention strategies

  6. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies In women abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Galego Carrillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event.  Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior. For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.

  7. Cumulative childhood risk and adult functioning in abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning.

  8. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impulsivity as a mechanism linking child abuse and neglect with substance use in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Kogan, Steve M; Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S; Vanderbroek, Lauren; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James

    2018-05-01

    Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of youth (Study 1, N = 9,421) and (b) a cross-sectional sample of adults (Study 2, N = 1,011). In Study 1, the links between child abuse and neglect and young adult smoking and marijuana use were mediated by increases in adolescent impulsivity. In Study 2, indirect links between child abuse and neglect and substance use were evidenced via delayed reward discounting and impulsivity traits. Among impulsivity subcomponents, robust indirect effects connecting childhood experiences to cigarette use emerged for negative urgency. Negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking mediated the effect of child abuse and neglect on cannabis and alcohol use. Results suggest that child abuse and neglect increases risk for substance use in part, due to effects on impulsivity. Individuals with adverse childhood experiences may benefit from substance use preventive intervention programs that target impulsive behaviors.

  10. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  11. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    of failure * fear of desertion by caregiver • inappropriate dress for the weather * discomfort when sitting * excessive masturbation , especially when...abusive parents are repeating the child-rearing practices that they had been subjected to as children. In some cases, abused children who 10 become parents...them abreast of the center’s procedures for reporting, the state’s reporting laws, and the specific practices of the state child welfare agency

  12. Elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh: understanding issues, associated factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekh Farid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fewer studies have attempted to address elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh despite its widespread prevalence and fatal consequences. Objectives. To collect qualitative facts concerning the nature of elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh and to find out the causes and impacts of this malpractice. Material and methods . The study categorized older people into ten broader classes and selected four old persons purposively under each category for an in-depth case study. In addition, Focus Group Discussion, Key Informants Interview and observational methods were also used to draw supplementary data. Results. The results show that all old persons interviewed, irrespective of socio-economic status, came up against varying degrees of abuse and neglect by their families, relatives and communities that resulted in their physical ill-health and mental distress. Financial and physical abuses were found more frequent among poor and weaker sections, whereas psychological abuse appeared as severe among those belonging to the middle and affluent classes. Families having strong religious practices and a long tradition of taking care of the elderly were less subjected to elder mistreatment. As is revealed, along with various other factors, degradation of moral and religious values, new family structure and the lower socio-economic status of old people were associated with the maltreatment they faced. Conclusions. Socio-economic insecurity and a poor institutional mechanism for old persons cause a higher incidence of elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh, which calls for immediate action from all levels.

  13. Risk factor characteristics in carers who physically abuse or neglect their elderly dependants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, A M; Browne, K D

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of, and differences in, risk factor characteristics in a sample of two select populations of carers, one of which physically abused their elderly dependants and one of which neglected them. Nineteen carers (nine who had physically abused and 10 who had neglected their elderly relatives), who were referred to clinical psychology by either their general practitioner or their psychiatrist, were invited to take part in this study. A detailed history of risk factors was obtained, including history of alcohol dependency, type and history of mental ill health, history of maltreatment earlier in life, who they were caring for, how long they had been a carer and whether they felt isolated as a carer. Subjects were then given five assessments to determine whether there were any differences between the two groups. These were the Conflict Tactic Scale, Strain Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Cost of Care Index. An examination of the risk factors suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and past childhood abuse by fathers were likely to lead to physical abuse. Significantly higher conflict and depression scores were also present in the physical abuse group, while the neglect group had significantly higher anxiety scores. It is suggested that these findings should be incorporated into an assessment of future risk of abuse or neglect by the carer.

  14. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Increase Risk for Perpetration of Violence Inside and Outside the Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, Izabela; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the extent to which abused and neglected children perpetrate three different types of violence within and outside the home: criminal, child abuse, and intimate partner violence and determine whether childhood maltreatment leads to an increased risk for poly-violence perpetration. Method: Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 676) were matched with children without such histories (n = 520) and assessed in young adulthood (average age 29). Official criminal records in conjunction with self-report data were used to assess violent outcomes. Results: Compared to the control group, individuals with histories of child abuse and/or neglect were significantly more likely to be poly-violence perpetrators, perpetrating violence in all three domains (relative risk = 1.26). All forms of childhood maltreatment (physical and sexual abuse and neglect) significantly predicted poly-violence perpetration. Conclusions: These findings expand the cycle of violence literature by combining the distinct literatures on criminal violence, child abuse, and partner violence to call attention to the phenomenon of poly-violence perpetration by maltreated children. Future research should examine the characteristics of maltreated children who become poly-violence perpetrators and mechanisms that lead to these outcomes. PMID:26191459

  15. Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

  16. A prospective examination of service use by abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Czaja, Sally J; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-08-01

    This study sought to determine whether abused and neglected children are more likely than those without childhood maltreatment to use health and social services as adults and whether psychiatric status mediates or moderates the relationship. A prospective cohort design was used. Individuals with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-10) and nonvictimized children matched on age, sex, and race-ethnicity were interviewed in adulthood (mean age 41 years). Past-year service use (general medical, mental health, substance abuse, and social) was assessed during 2003-2004 interviews (maltreated group, N=458; control group, N=349). Psychiatric status (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], drug abuse, and major depressive disorder) was assessed during 1989-1995 (mean age 29) by structured interview. Individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were significantly more likely than their control group counterparts to use mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.04-2.45) and social services (OR=2.95, CI=2.19-3.97) in adulthood. Psychiatric status in young adulthood (PTSD and major depressive disorder) partially mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and use of mental health services, whereas major depression and drug abuse moderated the relationship between maltreatment and use of any services and general medical services. In adulthood, individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect are more likely than persons without such histories to use some types of services, and psychiatric status mediates and moderates these relationships. Findings have implications for the provision of services to persons with childhood abuse and neglect.

  17. Association between Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect and Health Risk Behaviours among Young Adolescents: Results from the National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a relationship between physical abuse and later manifestation of health risk behaviours such as: smoking and early pregnancy. Physical neglect increased the chances for drug abuse, drink-driving, having early sex, having more sexual partners.

  18. What do we know about child abuse and neglect patterns of co-occurrence? A systematic review of profiling studies and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Willmott, Dominic; Boduszek, Daniel; Jones, Adele D

    2017-08-01

    Latent class (LCA) and latent profile (LPA) analysis represent methodological approaches to identify subgroups of maltreated individuals. Although research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles is still rare, the application of person-centered techniques to clarify CAN types co-occurrence has substantially increased in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide a summary and critical evaluation of the findings of LCA/LPA child maltreatment research to: (a) systemize the current understanding of patterns of maltreatment across populations and (b) elucidate interactive effects of CAN types on psychosocial functioning. A search in PsychInfo, Eric, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Google Scholar was performed. Sixteen studies examining the co-occurrence between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and/or exposure to domestic violence were identified. A critical review of the studies revealed inconsistent findings as to the number of CAN classes, but most research uncovered a poly-victimized and a low abuse group. Further, multiple victimization was associated with most adverse internalizing and externalizing outcomes, especially when sexual abuse was present. Exposure to physical and emotional abuse was frequently reported to lead to behavioural problems. Based on the present study results, we provide a set of recommendations for surpassing the current methodological and conceptual limitations in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Child abuse and neglect experts' determination of when a child being left home alone constitutes child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Evans, Erin; Oral, Resmiye; Denning, Gerene

    2018-04-10

    Only 14 states have laws or guidelines regarding the minimum age a child may be left home alone. These ages range from 6 to 14 years. Our objective was to identify factors that influence child neglect determination by experts with regards to parents leaving children home alone. American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Child Abuse and Neglect members (N = 523) were surveyed from July-August, 2015. Respondents were asked whether scenarios involving a child of varying age knowingly left home alone for 4 h were neglect in the presence or absence of injury to the child and the legality of the situation. Comparisons were performed using the chi-square test. One hundred ninety-three members responded (36.9%). In the scenario where there were no relevant laws and the child was uninjured, nearly 100% of the child experts determined this as being child neglect when the child was 6 years old. For 8, 10, 12, and 14 year olds, this was 88, 48, 4, and 1%, respectively. However, a significantly higher percentage of experts considered it child neglect for most ages when there was a law making the scenario illegal as compared when there was no law, and when the child was injured versus when they were not. The only demographic variable that showed a difference in child neglect determination was that females were more likely to consider higher aged children as having been neglected when there were no laws but the child was injured. The vast majority of experts (85%) stated that leaving a child home alone for 4 h should be illegal if the child is < 9 years old, and nearly one-half (44%) said it should be illegal for children < 11 years old. A number of factors affect how experts view children being left home alone as potential child neglect. Our data suggests that such cases may be evaluated differently due to variations in state laws, even though the risk to the child is the same. These results call for child safety law reform to provide greater uniformity in the

  20. Causes, Spectrum and Effects of Surgical Child Abuse and Neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Children are dependent on parents/care givers for the quality of health care services received and in developing countries, where they are not protected against child abuse; many die as a result of denial of appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the causes, ...

  1. Emergency Medical Services Perspectives on Identifying and Reporting Victims of Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Self-Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Lien, Cynthia; Stern, Michael E; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mysliwiec, Regina; McCarthy, Thomas J; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R; Ribaudo, Daniel S; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl; Flomenbaum, Neal E

    2017-10-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers, who perform initial assessments of ill and injured patients, often in a patient's home, are uniquely positioned to identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. Despite this, few organized programs exist to ensure that EMS concerns are communicated to or further investigated by other health care providers, social workers, or the authorities. To explore attitudes and self-reported practices of EMS providers surrounding identification and reporting of elder mistreatment. Five semi-structured focus groups with 27 EMS providers. Participants reported believing they frequently encountered and were able to identify potential elder mistreatment victims. Many reported infrequently discussing their concerns with other health care providers or social workers and not reporting them to the authorities due to barriers: 1) lack of EMS protocols or training specific to vulnerable elders; 2) challenges in communication with emergency department providers, including social workers, who are often unavailable or not receptive; 3) time limitations; and 4) lack of follow-up when EMS providers do report concerns. Many participants reported interest in adopting protocols to assist in elder protection. Additional strategies included photographically documenting the home environment, additional training, improved direct communication with social workers, a dedicated location on existing forms or new form to document concerns, a reporting hotline, a system to provide feedback to EMS, and community paramedicine. EMS providers frequently identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, and self-neglect, but significant barriers to reporting exist. Strategies to empower EMS providers and improve reporting were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A systematic review on community-based interventions for elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearing, Gwendolyn; Sheppard, Christine L; McDonald, Lynn; Beaulieu, Marie; Hitzig, Sander L

    2017-03-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a societal issue that requires prevention and intervention strategies at the practice and policy level. A systematic review on the efficacy of community-based elder abuse interventions was undertaken to advance the state of knowledge in the field. The peer-reviewed literature between 2009 and December 2015 were searched across four databases. Two raters independently reviewed all articles, assessed their methodological quality, and used a modified Sackett Scale to assign levels of evidence. Four thousand nine hundred and five articles were identified; nine were selected for inclusion. Although there was Level-1 evidence for psychological interventions (n = 2), only one study on strategies for relatives (START) led to a reported decrease in elder abuse. There was Level-4 evidence for conservatorship, an elder abuse intervention/prevention program (ECARE), and a multidisciplinary intervention (n = 4), in which one study yielded significant decreases in elder abuse and/or neglect. The remaining three were classified as Level-5 evidence (n = 3) for elder mediation and multidisciplinary interventions. There are limited studies with high levels of evidence for interventions that decrease elder abuse and neglect. The scarcity of community-based interventions for older adults and caregivers highlights the need for further work to elevate the quality of studies.

  3. Elder abuse and neglect in institutional settings: the resident's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Michèle; Soulières, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    This article strives to share research findings concerning the rights and empowerment of the elderly living in various long-term care (LTC) or residential care facilities (public and private sectors) in Quebec, Canada. Inspired by the theories of constructivism, the research aims to understand the residents' perception of abuse, as well as the strategies they are developing to exercise their rights and liberties. Data from semistructured interviews with 20 residents, mostly very old women aged 80 to 98, are presented. Results show that residents' perception of abuse: (1) is conditioned by sensationalistic media coverage; (2) is limited to physical mistreatment; and (3) tends to legitimize day-to-day infringements of their rights, as these "minor" violations seem inoffensive when compared to the "real" acts of violence reported in the media. Tensions that can build up among residents, sometimes resulting in intimidation or even bullying, were addressed.

  4. More than Poverty—Teen Pregnancy Risk and Reports of Child Abuse Reports and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gerassi; Melissa, Jonson-Reid; Katie, Plax; Brett, Drake

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare risk for teen pregnancies between children living in poverty with no Child Protection Services (CPS) report history, and those in poverty with a history of CPS report. Methods Children selected from families in poverty, both with and without CPS report histories were prospectively followed from 1993–2009 using electronic administrative records from agencies including child protective services, emergency departments, Medicaid services and juvenile courts. A total of 3281 adolescent females were followed until age 18. Results For teens with history of poverty only, 16.8% had been pregnant at least once by age 17. In teens with history of both poverty and report of child abuse or neglect, 28.9% had been pregnant at least once by age 17. While multivariate survival analyses revealed several other significant factors at the family and youth services levels, a report of maltreatment remained significant (about a 66% higher risk). Conclusions Maltreatment is a significant risk factor for teen pregnancy among low income youth even after controlling for neighborhood disadvantage, other caregiver risks and indicators of individual emotional and behavioral problems. PMID:26206437

  5. More Than Poverty: The Effect of Child Abuse and Neglect on Teen Pregnancy Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Sarah K; Gerassi, Lara; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Plax, Katie; Drake, Brett

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare risk for teen pregnancies between children living in poverty with no child protective services (CPS) report history and those in poverty with a history of CPS report. Children selected from families in poverty, both with and without CPS report histories were prospectively followed from 1993 to 2009 using electronic administrative records from agencies including CPS, emergency departments, Medicaid services, and juvenile courts. A total of 3,281 adolescent females were followed until the age of 18 years. For teens with history of poverty only, 16.8% had been pregnant at least once by the age of 17 years. In teens with history of both poverty and report of child abuse or neglect, 28.9% had been pregnant at least once by the age of 17 years. Although multivariate survival analyses revealed several other significant factors at the family and youth services levels, a report of maltreatment remained significant (about a 66% higher risk). Maltreatment is a significant risk factor for teen pregnancy among low income youth even after controlling for neighborhood disadvantage, other caregiver risks and indicators of individual emotional and behavioral problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. What is the system of care for abused and neglected children in children's institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Irene; Bauchner, Howard; Reece, Robert M

    2002-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the number of children with suspected abuse or neglect (CAN) cared for in selected children's hospitals, to determine how they are tracked and followed, and to better describe the composition, function, and financial support of child protection teams (CPTs). A self-administered survey was mailed to child abuse contact leaders at institutions that were members of the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions in 2001. Responses from rehabilitation hospitals and those that did not indicate whether a CPT was present were excluded. One hundred thirty-four of 157 leaders responded. One hundred twenty-two (91%) met study criteria. Eighty-eight hospitals (72%) had a CPT-54% were pediatric facilities, 59% had >100 beds, and 89% had a pediatric residency. Compared with institutions without a CPT, institutions with a CPT were less likely to be located in the South (28% vs 70%) and more likely to have >200 beds (26% vs 1%), a medical school affiliation (92% vs 74%), and a pediatric residency (98% vs 68%). Sixty-one percent of institutions cared for abuse or neglect (70%), providing quality assurance on CAN cases (63%), and filing reports with child protective services (61%). Twenty-four hour consultative coverage was provided by most CPTs (79%), for which 94% provided phone consultation and 81% provided in-person consultation when necessary. The institutions surveyed cared for many children suspected of abuse and neglect. Thirty-eight percent did >300 evaluations per year. In general, institutions with CPTs provided more comprehensive documentation and follow-up of children suspected of having been abused or neglected than institutions without CPTs. Whether this is associated with better outcomes for children suspected of abuse or neglect is unknown.

  7. [Domestic elder abuse and neglect--conclusions from the evaluation of a model project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgen, T; Nägele, B

    2005-02-01

    The main task of a federally funded model project in the German city of Hannover was to develop approaches for prevention and intervention in the field of domestic elder abuse. Over a three year period (1998-2001), different approaches--like a telephone helpline for senior citizens, and social workers operating as counsellors for elderly people and their relatives--were tested at a local level. The paper presents results from the evaluation of the project and draws conclusions for future prevention and intervention in the field. The authors argue that the explicit use of the conceptual framework of "violence"/"abuse" creates potentials for scandalizing the issue and is therefore supportive for media appearance, whereas it can impede the approach to the main target groups (elderly people and their relatives) and reduce accessibility of counselling services for potential clients. In the light of evaluation results the focus of the project ("domestic elder abuse" or "violence against elderly people in close relationships") was too narrow for a local project. Counselling services were used in a relatively small number of cases; analyses of cases show that incidents of domestic elder abuse are often embedded in complex problem constellations. Cases brought to the attention of the model project were multifaceted and not limited to incidents of neglect and abuse of elderly care recipients caused by caregiver overload. Cases of intimate violence in partnerships and of intergenerational violence without any of the participants being dependent on care show the need to develop a broader concept of domestic elder abuse. Integration of the concepts of domestic violence, violence against women, elder abuse/neglect and abuse/neglect in caregiving relationships is necessary on a conceptual level as well as on the level of interagency cooperation of institutions dealing with cases of "elder abuse".

  8. The profile and progress of neglected and abused children in long-term foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James G; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2009-07-01

    This study compared the profile of neglected and abused children in the Australian foster care system as well as differences between maltreatment types in relation to parental contact, reunification and psychosocial progress in care. The case files of 235 children entering foster care were examined and their social workers were administered standardised questionnaires at the point of intake. All measures were repeated for those remaining in care 1 year and then again 2 years later. Neglected children were younger than non-neglected children, more likely to have a physical or mental disability, more likely to experience multiple forms of maltreatment and less likely to pose conduct problems for carers. Neglected children were more likely than non-neglected children to experience a decline in parental contact over time, and were less likely to be reunified with their families of origin. There was minimal difference between neglected and non-neglected in their psychosocial progress while in care. Aboriginal children were more likely to be reunified than non-Aboriginal children when neglect was attributable to transient factors (parental incapacity) but the reverse was true for non-neglected children. The fact that neglected children more often require a second form of maltreatment before being removed from home suggests that children's services workers are less inclined to remove children for neglect than for other forms of maltreatment. As a consequence, those neglected children who are in care tend to come from more dysfunctional families than non-neglected children do, as evidenced by the relatively poorer parental contact and reunification results of neglected children. Neglected children differ systematically from non-neglected children and suffer relative disadvantage in relation to multiple forms of maltreatment, parental contact, and reunification. The fact that declines in parental contact among neglected children in care occurred only when indirect contact

  9. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.

  10. Predictors of Resilience in Abused and Neglected Children Grown-Up: The Role of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMont, Kimberly A.; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines individual, family, and neighborhood level predictors of resilience in adolescence and young adulthood and describes changes in resilience over time from adolescence to young adulthood in abused and neglected children grown up. Method: We use documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (n = 676)…

  11. Using Neuropsychological Profiles to Classify Neglected Children with or without Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…

  12. Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

  13. Child Protection and Justice Systems Processing of Serious Child Abuse and Neglect Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…

  14. Parental Depression and Child Outcomes: The Mediating Effects of Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…

  15. Educational paper Detection of child abuse and neglect at the emergency room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, Arianne Hélène; Derkx, Bert H. F.; Koster, Willeke A.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2012-01-01

    The emergency room (ER) represents the main system entry for crises-based health care visits. It is estimated that 2% to 10% of children visiting the ER are victims of child abuse and neglect (CAN). Therefore, ER personnel may be the first hospital contact and opportunity for CAN victims to be

  16. Survey of Home Visiting Programs for Abused and Neglected Children and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara Hanna; Roberts, Richard N.

    1994-01-01

    This report on a survey of 224 home visitation programs that provide services for abused and neglected children and their families presents data on program characteristics, characteristics of home visits, credentials of home visitors, and program documentation procedures. Programs reported that training in parenting skills and parent coping were…

  17. Antecedents and Consequences of Parental Rights Termination for Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Robert

    1981-01-01

    This study of 29 adopted children examines the consequences of parental rights termination (PRT) for neglected or abused children in relation to antecedent characteristics of children, parents, and circumstances in the foster care process. Suggests alternative plans for children whose PRT has not been followed by permanent adoptive placement.…

  18. Variables Associated with Disrupted Placement in a Select Sample of Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carolyn S.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of the placement history of 172 abused and/or neglected children found that children had a more disrupted foster care placement history if they: (1) had severe behavior problems; (2) were very young when first removed from the natural home; or (3) had drug-addicted and/or alcoholic parents. (Author/DB)

  19. Substitute Care Providers: Helping Abused and Neglected Children. The User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kenneth

    This manual for child welfare staff and foster/adoptive parents is intended to provide guidelines for serving abused and neglected children who are in family foster care and adoption. The first section is on substitute care and permanency planning and offers an historical perspective on substitute care and definitions of family foster care and…

  20. A Comparison of the School Performance of Sexually Abused, Neglected and Non-Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge

    1993-01-01

    Compared the school performance of sexually abused children and neglected children with the performance of two matched groups of nonmaltreated children, those from lower middle class families and from families receiving public assistance. Analyses of children's behavior ratings and school achievement indicated marked cognitive and behavioral…

  1. Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social-Conventional Transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The effect of child maltreatment on children's social-cognitive development was examined by investigating abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children's judgments regarding the permissibility of social-conventional and moral transgressions pertaining to physical harm, psychological distress, and the unfair distribution of resources. (Author/RH)

  2. Correlates of Problem Recognition and Intentions to Change among Caregivers of Abused and Neglected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Julia H.; Girvin, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual, family, and caseworker characteristics associated with problem recognition (PR) and intentions to change (ITC) in a sample of caregivers who received in-home child welfare services following substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect. Methods: Caregivers were interviewed at 4 weeks, 16 weeks, and 1 year…

  3. CWLA Standards of Excellence for Services for Abused or Neglected Children and Their Families. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Child welfare program standards based on current knowledge, children's developmental needs, and tested ways of meeting these needs most effectively provide benchmarks of excellence that can be used as goals to advance and guide contemporary practice. This book delineates standards for services for abused or neglected children and their families.…

  4. The Educational Needs of Abused and Neglected Children: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocme, Nico; Caunce, Carrie

    1995-01-01

    Examines the literature on the relationship between educational deficit and various risk and protective factors: history of abuse or neglect, foster placement, child age, and environmental conditions. Findings suggest interventions with preschoolers that focus on strengthening children's socioemotional competencies and differentiate between needs…

  5. A Planning Model for the Development of Programs for Abused and Neglected Children in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, William A.

    Described are planning steps involved in developing programs for abused and neglected children in rural areas. Among barriers cited are economic factors and resistance to social planning. Emphasized is the need for congruence among local and regional agencies and organizations. Analyzed are six planning stages: entry, in which consultants gain…

  6. The Effect of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect on Aggressive, Withdrawn, and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prino, Claudia T.; Peyrot, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behavior in 21 physically abused, 26 nonabused-neglected, and 21 nonabused-nonneglected children, ages 5-8. No single dimension adequately discriminated children in each of the three groups. Full discrimination was achieved only when aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors were…

  7. Elder Abuse and Neglect: Assessment Tools, Interventions, and Recommendations for Effective Service Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbody, Bethany; Vandsburger, Etty

    2011-01-01

    With our communities rapidly aging, there is always a clear need for greater knowledge on how to serve elders. Professionals must be able to recognize cases of abuse and neglect and provide appropriate follow up services. Through reviewing recent literature, this paper surveys existing assessment tools and interventions, describes characteristics…

  8. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  9. Abuse and neglect in children with disabilities: risk varies by type of disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Maclean

    2017-04-01

    Different disabilities are associated with differing risk of child maltreatment and child protection involvement. Groups that are considered at higher risk require services to identify and address the support needs of this group and determine how prevention and early intervention can lower the risk for child abuse and neglect in this vulnerable group.

  10. Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

  11. Modification of the "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect" (PCAN) Curriculum for IDEA Part C Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Janice E.; Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic workforce training of organizations that provide services to families of young children with special needs can help strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, but few curriculua are available for this purpose. One professional development curriculum, "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child…

  12. Building Coaches' Skills in Addressing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Wade-Mdivanian, Rebecca; Davis, Jerome; Paluta, Lauren; Gibson, Allison; Wilson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Incidences of child abuse and neglect in youth sport, youth development programs, and on university campuses have increased the awareness and concern for safety. In response, various entities are exploring the coaches' responsibility in relation to ensuring the safety and well-being of the children and youth they work with. The "Protecting…

  13. We Cannot Walk Away: DEC's Position of Child Abuse, Neglect, and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This article details two important reasons why supporting young children with disabilities who have experienced abuse and neglect and their families is the responsibility and obligation of the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children (DEC): (1) Although prevalent in their work, this population is overlooked; and (2)…

  14. Innovations in the Field of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect prevention is a complex field due, in part, to the diverse and numerous factors that can lead to maltreatment. As a result, prevention strategies, interventions, and initiatives must address multiple issues and rely on expertise from a variety of disciplines. This literature review considers recent and multidisciplinary…

  15. Community and Individual Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse and Child Neglect: Variations by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Font, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status. Specifically, we used a three-level hierarchical linear model (families nested within census tracts and nested within cities) to estimate the relationships between physical child abuse and child neglect and neighborhood structural factors, neighborhood processes, and individual characteristics. We compared these relationships between lower and higher income families in a sample of approximately 3,000 families from 50 cities in the State of California. We found that neighborhood-level disadvantage was especially detrimental for families in poverty and that neighborhood-level protective processes (social) were not associated with physical child abuse and child neglect for impoverished families, but that they had a protective effect for higher income families.

  16. Elder abuse and neglect in Ireland: results from a national prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Corina; Drennan, Jonathan; Lyons, Imogen; Lafferty, Attracta; Treacy, Margaret; Phelan, Amanda; O'Loughlin, Anne; Delaney, Liam

    2012-01-01

    To measure the 12-month prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in community-dwelling older people in Ireland and examine the risk profile of people who experienced mistreatment and that of the perpetrators. Cross-sectional general population survey. Community. People aged 65 years or older living in the community. Information was collected in face-to-face interviews on abuse types, socioeconomic, health, and social support characteristics of the population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.41-2.94) in the previous 12 months. The frequency of mistreatment type was financial 1.3%, psychological 1.2%, physical abuse 0.5%, neglect 0.3%, and sexual abuse 0.05%. In the univariate analysis lower income OR 2.39 (95% CI: 1.01-5.69), impaired physical health OR 3.41 (95% CI: 1.74-6.65), mental health OR 6.33 (95% CI: 3.33-12.0), and poor social support OR 4.91 (95% CI: 2.1-11.5) were associated with a higher risk of mistreatment but only social support and mental health remained independent predictors. Among perpetrators adult children (50%) were most frequently identified. Unemployment (50%) and addiction (20%) were characteristics of this group.

  17. Cognitive vulnerabilities as mediators between emotional abuse and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  18. Illicit drug exposure in patients evaluated for alleged child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Bayman, Levent; Assad, Abraham; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Buhrow, Jakob; Austin, Andrea; Bayman, Emine O

    2011-06-01

    Substantiation of drug exposure in cases with alleged maltreatment is important to provide proper treatment and services to these children and their families. A study performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics showed that 30% of pediatric patients with burn injuries, which were due to child maltreatment, were also exposed to illicit drugs. The children presenting to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with alleged maltreatment have been tested for illicit substances since 2004. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of illicit drug exposure in the pediatric subpopulation admitted to pediatric inpatient and outpatient units for an evaluation for abuse/neglect. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Using hospital databases, every pediatric chart with a child abuse/neglect allegation was retrieved. The association between risk factors and clinical presentation and illicit drug test result was assessed. Excel and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct this study. Six hundred sixty-five charts met study inclusion criteria for child abuse/neglect allegation. Of those, 232 cases were tested for illicit drugs between 2004 and 2008 per the testing protocol. Thirty-four cases (14.7%) tested positive on a drug test. Positive test rates based on clinical presentation were 28.6% (18/63) in neglect cases, 16.1% (5/31) in cases with soft tissue injuries, 14.3% (4/28) in burn injuries, 10.0% (2/20) in cases with sexual abuse, 7.1% (2/28) in cases with fractures, and 4.8% (3/62) in abusive head trauma cases. There were long-term abuse findings in 129 children (55.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive drug testing was most significantly associated with clinical symptoms suggesting physical abuse or neglect versus sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 6.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-35.49; P = 0.026), no or public health insurance versus those with

  19. The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

    2013-08-01

    To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse.

  20. Child abuse and neglect as seen in General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur--a two year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, M S; George, R; Kassim, K; Begum, M; Cherian, M P; Tajudin, A K; Chandran, V; Anan, A; Reddy, R; Singh, J

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-six children diagnosed as child abuse and/or neglect were admitted to the Paediatric wards of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur during 1985 and 1986. Of these cases, 62 were of physical abuse, six of sexual abuse, one case of both physical and sexual abuse and 17 of neglect. There were 25 boys and 61 girls. Thirty-four of these children were Malays, 16 Chinese, 26 Indians, three mixed and seven illegal immigrants. Twenty-one were below the age of one year, 24 from one to four years, 25 from five to nine years and 16 were ten years and above. The abusers were mainly close members of the family. Of these children, 24 were sent back to their parents and 11 to their relatives home. Twenty-seven were taken into care by the Ministry of Social Welfare and the remaining seven children who were illegal immigrants, were deported with their parents. Only one child was successfully fostered. Eleven children were taken away from the hospital by their parents or guardians without the knowledge of the health staff. There were five deaths in the series.

  1. Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

  2. Prevention of child abuse and neglect and improvements in child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane

    2009-01-01

    of a standardised questionnaire covering a period of four years. The most damaging family conditions seemed to be psychological maltreatment, physical/sexual abuse and neglect. Maltreated children were more often in a depressed state, unhappy, socially isolated, or they had an eating disorder, inadequate or under....... The questionnaire explored the impact of various interventions, including services geared to strengthen the child's network, but results indicated that the child displayed reduced risk of reactive symptoms only when parental behaviour improved and abuse and neglect were reduced.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the implementation of a section in the Danish Social Assistance Act which encourages local authorities to offer families services in order to support children at risk of child maltreatment. The specific purpose of the present paper is to answer the question...

  3. Feasibility study for a survey measuring abuse and neglect of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayda, Jacqueline; Magnus, Bill; Duggan, Joseph; Taylor-Butts, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    This feasibility study was prepared by Statistics Canada, under arrangement with the Strategic Policy Research Directorate, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). It investigates issues associated with conducting surveys of abuse and neglect of older adults in community and institutional settings in Canada. A roadmap is provided for the work ahead, including options for a sampling frame, collection approaches, estimated costs, and an activity schedule.

  4. When Bigger Is Better: Household Size, Abuse Injuries, Neglect, and Family Response in Novosibirsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Arenas, Carmen; Kim, Jaeyop; Chan, Ko Ling

    2017-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated larger households to be at higher risk of physical abuse and neglect of children, we argue that unilateral conceptualization of larger households as a risk factor is inappropriate. Application of resource dilution theory must capture the possibility that larger families may have more members with both the agency and will to intervene against child maltreatment. We hypothesized a negative interaction between household size and protective informal social control by family members in predicting abuse injuries and neglect. A three-stage probability proportional to size cluster sample representative of Novosibirsk, Russia, was collected from 306 cohabiting couples. One parent in each household was interviewed. A focal child was selected using most recent birthday. When responses limited to families with minor children (below age 18) were selected, 172 families remained in the data. Physical abuse and neglect were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). Protective informal social control by family members was measured using the Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment (ISC_CM) Scale. Models were tested using random effects regression and logistic regression. Nearly 7% of focal children were injured in the last year, 10% were neglected. Consistent with previous research, protective informal social control was associated with lower odds of injury and fewer instances of neglect. The significant negative interaction between household size and protective control is consistent with the idea that larger households may be protective when adult family members intervene against maltreatment to protect children. Replication and further investigation of protective ISC_CM in Western populations is much needed. Future research should not conceptualize or measure household size as a unilateral risk factor.

  5. Child-Child and Adult-Child Interaction in a Preschool for Physically-Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Strain, Phillip S.

    1979-01-01

    Reports that physically abused and neglected children most frequently responded to positive overtures by adults by ignoring them and that they regularly responded in positive ways to overtures by peers. (FL)

  6. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Emotion regulation promotes persistence in a residential substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Schade, Nick; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation at treatment entry was evaluated among 115 patients in an inner-city substance use residential facility who either persisted (N = 94) or discontinued treatment (N = 21). Emotion regulation capacity including emotional clarity and the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite emotional distress, as well as lower scores on a measure of trait-negative emotionality, were associated with treatment persistence, whereas motivational variables were not. Findings indicate the importance of regulating negative emotions for treatment engagement among substance abusers.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Sousse, Tunisia: A 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Mohamed Yassine; Jedidi, Maher; Hmila, Imene; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to examine epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Tunisia. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study over a period of 10 years (January 2006-December 2015), based on the files handled by the Child Protective Services (CPS) agency in the city of Sousse, Tunisia. During the study period, 3736 referrals were received by the CPS agency of Sousse. Of the total, 2212 (59.2%) were screened in and investigated. Of the investigated cases, 317 (14,3%) were substantiated as abuse or neglect. The reports of maltreatment came mostly from parents (37.8%). Neglect was the major type of maltreatment (51.4%) and an association of 2 types of maltreatment was found in 76 cases (24%). Parents were the perpetrators in 221 cases (69.7%). The average age of the victims was 10 years and boys accounted for 56%. In the 257 cases where the marital status of the parents was noted in the files, the parents were divorced in 62 cases (24.1%) and the child lived with a single mother in 35 cases (13.6%). Alcohol addiction was found in 21 parents (6.6%) and one of the parents was incarcerated in 39 cases (12.3%). As for the socio-economic status, it was evaluated in 188 families and was low in 123 cases (65.4%). In the absence of studies related to this scourge in Tunisia, we hope to raise awareness of the abuse and alert those who come into contact with the child on the importance of detecting and reporting early maltreatment and thus to introduce more appropriate care. A comprehensive prevention strategy needs to be established by addressing risk factors, cultural norms conducive to abuse and unwanted pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect, and Psychiatric Disorders in Nonviolent and Violent Female Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauffer, Nicole; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2017-12-01

    Although the percentage of crimes committed by females has increased over the last 20 years in the United States, most research focuses on crimes by males. This article describes an examination of the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts violent and nonviolent offending in females and the role of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, girls with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect were matched with nonmaltreated girls (controls) on the basis of age, race, and approximate family socioeconomic class, and followed into adulthood ( N  = 582). Information was obtained from official arrest records and participant responses to a standardized structured psychiatric interview. Women with a history of any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect were at significantly increased risk for having an arrest for violence, compared to control women. Except for those with a history of physical abuse, abused and neglected women were also at increased risk for arrest for a nonviolent crime, compared to controls. In bivariate chi-square comparisons, the three groups of women (violent offenders, nonviolent offenders, and nonoffenders) differed significantly in the diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and dysthymia, but not major depressive disorder, and violent female offenders had significantly higher rates of these disorders compared to nonoffenders. However, with controls for age and race, PTSD was the only psychiatric disorder to distinguish women arrested for a violent crime compared to a nonviolent crime (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.32, confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.84-21.68, p  < 0.01), and PTSD moderated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and violent offending (AOR = 5.55, 95% CI = 1.49-20.71): women with histories of childhood maltreatment were equally likely to have an arrest for violence, regardless

  10. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elder Abuse and Neglect in Israel: A Comparison between the General Elderly Population and Elderly New Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between the general elderly population and elderly new immigrants from former Soviet Union countries in regard to the incidence of elder abuse and neglect, victims' characteristics, and perpetrators' characteristics. In addition, the study sought to examine predictors of various types of abuse and…

  12. Combating Violence against Children: Jordanian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions towards Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…

  13. Environmental factors that distinguish between clinical and healthy samples with childhood experiences of abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Giannone, Francesca; Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Lo Cascio, Maria; Parzer, Peter; Kaess, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with a wide range of problems in adulthood. However, specific environmental factors (either positive or negative) influence mental health outcomes in maltreated children. The present study investigated the effect of environmental factors by comparing a group of clinical participants with experiences of abuse/neglect with a healthy group with similar patterns of experiences. Environmental factors selected were: separation from parents, financial hardship, parental psychiatric disorders, and low social involvement. The study included 55 mixed clinical participants and 23 healthy participants. All participants were investigated using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) interview. The two groups were specifically matched with regard to patterns of childhood maltreatment. The findings indicated that psychopathological outcome was associated with a greater presence of negative environmental factors (p < 0.001). In particular, lack of social support seemed to be the only one predictor (OR = 27.86). This study is the first to investigate the influence of specific environmental factors in two groups with similar childhood experiences of abuse/neglect but different mental health outcomes. These findings suggest that efforts should be made to incorporate both familial and external sources of social support in promoting mental health for maltreated children. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Retrospective reports of attachment disruptions, parental abuse and neglect mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kendal; Huprich, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Studies have shown a direct relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem; however, there have not been many studies that have empirically tested which theoretically relevant variables mediate this relationship. In the present study, we evaluated how self-reported, early negative childhood experiences with parental figures mediate the relationship between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. Four-hundred eight-five undergraduates from a Midwestern university retrospectively assessed their experiences of parental attachment and bonding, as well as their levels of pathological narcissism and current self-esteem. There was a significant correlation among all pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem, except for the Exploitativeness subscale. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with all negative childhood experiences on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was positively correlated with positive childhood experiences on the Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ). The parental relationship quality was negatively associated with all but one Pathological Narcissism Inventory subscale, as was the PAQ total score. Lastly, emotional neglect on the CTQ significantly mediated the relationship between several pathological narcissism subscales and self-esteem. When investigating parental attachment and parental bonding, the quality of the relationship with the parent was a significant mediator between pathological narcissism and self-esteem. These findings demonstrate the importance of understanding the adverse effects of parental abuse and neglect on healthy development of the self and self-esteem. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A review of recent analyses of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Potter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this analysis is to identify, assess the quality and summarize the findings of peer-reviewed articles that used data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS published since November 2011 and data from provincial oversamples of the CIS as well as to illustrate evolving uses of these datasets. Methods: Articles were identified from the Public Health Agency of Canada's data request records tracking access to CIS data and publications produced from that data. At least two raters independently reviewed and appraised the quality of each article. Results: A total of 32 articles were included. Common strengths of articles included clearly stated research aims, appropriate control variables and analyses, sufficient sample sizes, appropriate conclusions and relevance to practice or policy. Common problem areas of articles included unclear definitions for variables and inclusion criteria of cases. Articles frequently measured the associations between maltreatment, child, caregiver, household and agency/referral characteristics and investigative outcomes such as opening cases for ongoing services and placement. Conclusion: Articles using CIS data were rated positively on most quality indicators. Researchers have recently focussed on inadequately studied categories of maltreatment (exposure to intimate partner violence [IPV], neglect and emotional maltreatment and examined factors specific to First Nations children. Data from the CIS oversamples have been underutilized. The use of multivariate analysis techniques has increased.

  16. Modeling the differential incidence of "child abuse, neglect and exploitation" in poor households in South Africa: Focus on child trafficking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbecke, P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available above hinders their care, protection and well- being. As a consequence of remarkable abuse, neglect and exploitation of children in South Africa, in 2005 Child Welfare South Africa (CWSA), an umbrella body representing 169 children?s organizations... (affiliates, branches and developing organizations) provided services to 108 379 children considered and defined by the Child Care Act as ?children in need of care?. Out of this number there were 5 000 physically abused children, 6 637 sexually abused...

  17. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The importance of culture in treating abused and neglected children: an empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Deblinger, E; Mannarino, A P; de Arellano, M A

    2001-05-01

    There is growing evidence that cultural factors may influence symptom development and treatment referral patterns among abused and neglected children. To date, few treatment outcome studies have specifically examined the impact of race, culture, or ethnicity on treatment response among maltreated children. Those that have attempted to include these factors have typically suffered from lack of clarity of the meaning of these terms. This article reviews the available empirical evidence that addresses the influence of culture on symptom formation, treatment-seeking behaviors, treatment preference, and response following child maltreatment. Hypotheses regarding these findings are addressed, and implications for practice, research, and public policy are discussed.

  19. A controlled evaluation of family behavior therapy in concurrent child neglect and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H; Bradshaw, Kelsey; Van Hasselt, Vincent B; Cross, Chad L; Urgelles, Jessica; Romero, Valerie; Hill, Heather H; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 50% of child protective service (CPS) referrals abuse drugs; yet, existing treatment studies in this population have been limited to case examinations. Therefore, a family-based behavioral therapy was evaluated in mothers referred from CPS for child neglect and drug abuse utilizing a controlled experimental design. Seventy-two mothers evidencing drug abuse or dependence and child neglect were randomly assigned to family behavior therapy (FBT) or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 10 months postrandomization. As hypothesized, intent-to-treat repeated measures analyses revealed mothers referred for child neglect not due to their children being exposed to illicit drugs demonstrated better outcomes in child maltreatment potential from baseline to 6- and 10-month postrandomization assessments when assigned to FBT, as compared with TAU mothers and FBT mothers who were referred due to child drug exposure. Similar results occurred for hard drug use from baseline to 6 and 10 months postrandomization. However, TAU mothers referred due to child drug exposure were also found to decrease their hard drug use more than TAU mothers of non-drug-exposed children and FBT mothers of drug-exposed children at 6 and 10 months postrandomization. Although effect sizes for mothers assigned to FBT were slightly larger for marijuana use than TAU (medium vs. large), these differences were not statistically significant. Specific to secondary outcomes, mothers in FBT, relative to TAU, increased time employed from baseline to 6 and 10 months postrandomization. Mothers in FBT, compared to TAU, also decreased HIV risk from baseline to 6 months postrandomization. There were no differences in outcome between FBT and TAU for number of days children were in CPS custody and alcohol intoxication, although FBT mothers demonstrated marginal decreases (p = .058) in incarceration from baseline to 6 months postrandomization relative to TAU mothers

  20. Relationships and Community Risk Factors for Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from the First National Prevalence Study on Elder Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to mesaure the 12-months prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in private huousehold and to examine the relationship and community level risk factors for elder abuse and neglect. METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study.  Nationally stratified quota sampling procedure was applied, through four stages. Information was collected in face-to face interview on socio-demographic, healthy life style, physical and mental health, and abuse and neglect types characteristics of elder population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and odd ratios (OR. Statistical significance was set up at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The respondents reported prevalence of psychological abuse 25.7%, followed by financial abuse 12 %, neglect 6.6%, physical abuse 5.7%, physical injury 3.1%, and sexual abuse 1.3% (reported only in female respondents in the previous 12-months. Living with close relatives, dissatisfaction with the household income, less equipped households, lacking property of house/flat are associated risk factors for elder maltreatment on relationship level. Living in the northeast, southeast, and Polog region are associated risk for elder maltreatment. CONCLUSION: Study findings emphasised the previous data obtained with regards to the community and relationships risk factors for elder maltreatment.

  1. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between suicidal behavior and childhood abuse and neglect: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Fang, Yumin; Gong, Jingbo; Cui, Xilong; Meng, Tiantian; Xiao, Bo; He, Yuqiong; Shen, Yanmei; Luo, Xuerong

    2017-10-01

    Relationships of some types of childhood maltreatment and suicidal behavior remain controversial and inconclusive. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane library were searched for eligible studies, and the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. childhood maltreatment was associated positively with suicidal behavior in the total population and maltreatment subgroups. Emotional abuse had the strongest effect (OR =2.33, SMD =0.660, Psuicidal behavior in men and women (women: OR =4.84, Psuicidal behavior in the general population (OR =3.78, Psuicide attempt (OR =1.11, SMD =0.48, Psuicidal ideation. Some subgroup samples were not sufficiently large. Childhood maltreatment increases the risk of suicidal behavior. Emotional abuse had the strongest effect among the five types of maltreatment. The risk of suicidal behavior is higher in the general population, women, and individuals with chronic schizophrenia who have histories of childhood maltreatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Social Workers' Reflections on the Therapeutic Encounter With Elder Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Band-Winterstein, Tova; Alon, Sara

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore social workers' reflections on their experience of the therapeutic encounter with victims and perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect. The research questions were as follows: How do social workers tune themselves toward the therapeutic encounter with elder abuse? How do they position themselves vis-à-vis the clients? How do social workers describe the meaning of the intervention both for the clients and for themselves? What is the added value of the therapeutic encounter in this field for the social workers? Participants were 17 experienced women social workers, who worked with abusers and with abused and neglected older adults in Israel. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were later transcribed and content analyzed. Two main themes emerged from the findings, emphasizing two key aspects of the social workers' reflective process experienced during the therapeutic encounter: (a) focus on the client: "This is the journey of their lives"-reflection on the therapeutic "journey"; (b) focus on the social worker's inner and professional world: "'There is nothing to be done' is no longer in my vocabulary"-a personal and professional maturation process. The social workers expressed a positive attitude toward their elder clients. A unique dialogue developed in the therapeutic encounter, whereby the social workers considered any change as valuable if it allowed the elders a sense of control and self-worth, whereas the social workers were enriched by the elders' life experience, and matured both personally and professionally. Thus, both sides benefited from this reciprocal relationship. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Treatment and Rehabilitation of Abused and Neglected Children an Inpatient Center Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Fırat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation and treatment centers are organizations that provide services for children and adolescents, with the main goal being to implement a “mental health” treatment plan for the individuals under their care. These organizations, which provide a continuous 24-hour service, may differ from one another in terms of the specific programs and treatment methods they apply. The Oğuz Kağan Köksal Children and Youth Center was established in the Adana Province to provide for the treatment and rehabilitation of girls between the ages of 8 and 18 who have been subject to abuse or neglect, who suffer from alcohol/substance abuse, who are in need of treatment for mental problems and/or who live on the streets. A study was made of 72 girls who had been admitted to the institution for treatment and rehabilitation since 2004 with a history abuse and neglect. The girls were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I, the Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-II and the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI upon being admitted to the institution and at the end of their stay (i.e. their discharge. The differences between the mean admission and discharge scores of the girls in the BDI, STAI-I, STAI-II and MOCI assessments was determined to be statistically significant (p<0.001. According to the duration of stay groups (0–3 months; 4–6 months; 7–9 months and ≥10 months, a statistically significant difference was identified between the mean admission and discharge scores of children who remained in the institution for 3–7 months, with the post-treatment scores of the inventories being significantly lower in comparison to the baseline values (p≤0.05. These results suggest discharging patients from the center prior to their third month of stay or a stay period of longer than seven months does not affect with any significance the scores of the depression, anxiety and obsession inventories. To ensure a

  5. Child abuse and neglect in Cambodian refugee families: characteristics and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Janet; Rhee, Siyon; Berthold, S Megan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and patterns of child maltreatment among Cambodian refugee families in Los Angeles and assesses the implications for child welfare practice with Cambodian refugee families. Data were extracted from 243 active Cambodian case files maintained by the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services (LAC-DCFS). Some of the major findings include (1) Cambodian child maltreatment cases were most frequently reported to the LAC-DCFS among various Asian Pacific ethnic groups; (2) Cambodian refugee families were more likely to be charged with neglect, while their Asian Pacific counterparts were more likely charged with physical abuse; (3) the circumstances under which maltreatment occurred most frequently were parental substance abuse and mental illness; and (4) while fathers who maltreated their child were likely to use alcohol, mothers were also more likely to have a mental health problem such as depression. This study suggests the importance of collaboration between Child Protective Service agencies, substance abuse programs, traditional healers, mental health services, and other social service agencies for effective child abuse prevention and intervention efforts.

  6. Child abuse and neglect in institutional settings, cumulative lifetime traumatization, and psychopathological long-term correlates in adult survivors: The Vienna Institutional Abuse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Knefel, Matthias; Glück, Tobias M; Jagsch, Reinhold; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina

    2018-02-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) in foster care settings (i.e., institutional abuse, IA) is known to have negative effects on adult survivor's mental health. This study examines and compares the extent of CM (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and lifetime traumatization with regard to current adult mental health in a group of survivors of IA and a comparison group from the community. Participants in the foster care group (n = 220) were adult survivors of IA in Viennese foster care institutions, the comparison group (n = 234) consisted of persons from the Viennese population. The comparison group included persons who were exposed to CM within their families. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Life Events Checklist for DSM-5, the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the International Trauma Questionnaire for ICD-11, and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and completed a structured clinical interview. Participants in the foster care group showed higher scores in all types of CM than the comparison group and 57.7% reported exposure to all types of CM. The foster care group had significantly higher prevalence rates in almost all mental disorders including personality disorders and suffered from higher symptom distress in all dimensional measures of psychopathology including depression, anxiety, somatization, dissociation, and the symptom dimensions of PTSD. In both groups, adult life events and some but not all forms of CM predicted PTSD and adult life events partly mediated the association of PTSD and CM. Explanations for the severe consequences of CM and IA are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Family Matters: Examining Child Abuse and Neglect as Family Dysfunction for Minority Youth Living in Extreme Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; David, Michael A; Jeffries, Sara R; Bolland, John M

    2017-12-01

    Two competing models of child abuse and neglect (scapegoat vs. family dysfunction) are used to illustrate how the specification of victims ("index" victim vs. all children in household) from incidents of child abuse and neglect can be used to improve estimates of maltreatment for at-risk minority youth. Child Protection Services records were searched in 2005 for 366 "index" victims who were surveyed for 5 consecutive years (from 1998 to 2002) for the Mobile Youth Survey as well as other siblings in the household. The findings indicate that the baseline estimate of any maltreatment, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect increased by 68%, 26%, 33%, and 74%, respectively, after adjusting for incidents that involved multiple victims (i.e., maltreatment as family dysfunction). In addition, the baseline estimate of more severe (indicated) incidents of physical abuse and neglect increased by 67% and 64%, respectively, after accounting for incidents that involved multiple victims, but there were no incidents of more severe (indicated) sexual abuse that involved multiple victims. Similarly, baseline estimates of age of onset (or chronicity) of maltreatment during childhood and adolescence increased by 62% and 26%, respectively. Baseline estimates for youth with 3 or more years of maltreatment and youth with 3 or more incidents of maltreatment both increased by about 71%. The implications of these findings for policy and practice as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  9. Emotion Dysregulation Mediates Between Childhood Emotional Abuse and Motives for Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmand, Usha; Khazaee, Ali; Hashjin, Goudarz Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and motives for opiate use. Seventy four adolescent users of Tramadol, a synthetic opiate, were recruited from a boot camp for de-addiction and rehabilitation services for the study. Data were collected between May, 2014 and November, 2014. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, difficulties regulating emotions, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet. The results of the current study indicate that types of abuse may be associated with particular outcomes and can inform treatment planning for substance users. Findings from bootstrap mediator analyses indicated that emotion dysregulation, but not impulsiveness, mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and expansion and enhancement motives for substance use. The current study provides preliminary evidence that difficulties regulating emotions may function as a mechanism linking prior childhood experiences of emotional abuse to subsequent motives for substance use. Clinical implications of these findings suggest that targeting emotion dysregulation problems may be an effective adjunct in the treatment of childhood emotional abuse adolescent victims at risk for substance use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  11. The Neglected Heart: The Emotional Dangers of Premature Sexual Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Discussions of teen sex usually focus on the dangers of pregnancy and disease but ignore the emotional hazards and destructive psychological consequences of temporary sexual relationships. Teenagers absorbed in a sexual relationship may turn inward at a time then they should be reaching out to others. (SLD)

  12. Elder Abuse and Chronic Pain: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Results from the Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Raudah M; Hairi, Noran N; Choo, Wan Y; Tan, Maw P; Hairi, Farizah; Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Ismail, Norliana; Kandiben, Shatanapriya; Peramalah, Devi; Ali, Zainudin M; Ahmad, Sharifah N; Razak, Inayah A; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Mydin, Fadzilah Hm; Chinna, Karuthan; Bulgiba, Awang

    2018-03-30

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between elder abuse and neglect (EAN) and chronic pain in rural older Malaysians. Two-year prospective cohort study. Kuala Pilah, a district in Negeri Sembilan approximately 100 km from the capital city, Kuala Lumpur. Community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and older. Using a multistage cluster sampling strategy, 1,927 respondents were recruited and assessed at baseline, of whom 1,189 were re-assessed 2 years later. EAN was determined using the modified Conflict Tactic Scale, and chronic pain was assessed through self-report using validated questions. The prevalence of chronic pain was 20.4%. Cross-sectional results revealed 8 variables significantly associated with chronic pain-age, education, income, comorbidities, self-rated health, depression, gait speed, and EAN. Abused elderly adults were 1.52 times as likely to have chronic pain (odds ratio=1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03-2.27), although longitudinal analyses showed no relationship between EAN and risk of chronic pain (risk ratio=1.14, 95% CI=0.81-1.60). This lack of causal link was consistent when comparing analysis with complete cases with that of imputed data. Our findings indicate no temporal relationship between EAN and chronic pain but indicated cross-sectional associations between the two. This might indicate that, although EAN does not lead to chronic pain, individuals with greater physical limitations are more vulnerable to abuse. Our study also shows the importance of cohort design in determining causal relationships between EAN and potentially linked health outcomes. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can

  14. Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention in the Clinical Setting: Perceptions and Barriers Faced by Primary Care Physicians in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study attempts to explore the definition, perceptions, practice experience, and barriers of primary care physicians (PCPs) in identifying and intervening in cases of elder abuse and neglect at the primary care level. Semistructured in-depth interview was conducted among 10 PCPs. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. In general, PCPs showed consistency in defining elder abuse and neglect. PCPs considered that they were optimally positioned to intervene in cases of elder abuse and neglect, but indicated the potential of overlooking such problems. The hurdles faced by PCPs in the identification and intervention of elder abuse were determined to be occurring at three levels: clinical, organizational, and policy. At the clinical level, PCPs recognize that they are lacking both the confidence and knowledge of elder abuse and neglect intervention. PCPs' conflicting personal and professional beliefs create barriers during the clinical practice. Time constraints, patients' other clinical problems, and, in addition, the preservation of a good doctor-patient relationship overshadow the importance of addressing and intervening in elder abuse and neglect issues during the consultation. This is further exacerbated by the barriers perceived by the patients: their nondisclosure and reluctance to accept outside intervention. At the organizational level, the lack of efficient interagency networks or support for the health system poses barriers. At the policy level, the absence of legislation specifically addressing elder abuse also creates considerable difficulties. However, PCPs gave differing responses when asked about a law concerning the elderly and mandatory reporting. Addressing these multilevel barriers is critical for ensuring that opportunities arising at the primary care level for elder maltreatment intervention are correctly utilized.

  15. [On the relationship between emotional dependency and abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, C; Loas, S

    2016-01-01

    Abuse is a complex psychosocial issue with multiple implications. This paper takes a look at the physical and psychological manifestations of domestic violence, i.e. between adult (romantic) partners as well as abuse of the elderly. Past studies have looked at the relationship between emotional dependency, the occurence and sustainability of abuse and the likehood that a victimized person will terminate a relationship. Indeed, individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) or with dependent characteristics present a higher risk of becoming abusive (both physically and mentally) as well as becoming a victim of abuse. Regarding the elderly, the concept of "reverse violence"--where the current abuser was the victim of the senior who is being abused-, also entails dependent relationships. We identified three concepts that are necessary in the understanding of how dependent relationships underpin abuse: Rusbult's model of commitment in intimate relationships, the notion of dependency-possessiveness and Murphy et al's notion of escalating affective dependency. Thus, it is imperative that future studies in the field of domestic violence look at the dynamics of dyads rather than the individuals alone.

  16. Individual, Family, and Culture Level Contributions to Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Longitudinal Study in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,432 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers’ and fathers’ reports of corporal punishment and children’s reports of their parents’ neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers’ and fathers’ use of corporal punishment and children’s perceptions of their parents’ neglect were predicted by parents’ belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents’ perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents’ progressive parenting attitudes, parents’ endorsement of aggression, parents’ education, children’s externalizing problems, and children’s internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  17. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.

  18. FKBP5 and emotional neglect interact to predict individual differences in amygdala reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M G; Bogdan, R; Fisher, P M; Muñoz, K E; Williamson, D E; Hariri, A R

    2012-10-01

    Individual variation in physiological responsiveness to stress mediates risk for mental illness and is influenced by both experiential and genetic factors. Common polymorphisms in the human gene for FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), which is involved in transcriptional regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have been shown to interact with childhood abuse and trauma to predict stress-related psychopathology. In the current study, we examined if such gene-environment interaction effects may be related to variability in the threat-related reactivity of the amygdala, which plays a critical role in mediating physiological and behavioral adaptations to stress including modulation of the HPA axis. To this end, 139 healthy Caucasian youth completed a blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging probe of amygdala reactivity and self-report assessments of emotional neglect (EN) and other forms of maltreatment. These individuals were genotyped for 6 FKBP5 polymorphisms (rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9296158, rs3800373, rs9470080 and rs9394309) previously associated with psychopathology and/or HPA axis function. Interactions between each SNP and EN emerged such that risk alleles predicted relatively increased dorsal amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN, even after correcting for multiple testing. Two different haplotype analyses confirmed this relationship as haplotypes with risk alleles also exhibited increased amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN. Our results suggest that increased threat-related amygdala reactivity may represent a mechanism linking psychopathology to interactions between common genetic variants affecting HPA axis function and childhood trauma. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-07-01

    Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes.

  20. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  1. [Treatment of neglected and abused children and their families in the context of complicated divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganić-Gajić, Saveta; Calovska-Hercog, Nevena; Lecić-Tosevski, Dugica; Pilija, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Coceptualisation of complicated divorce, as an escalation of systemic dysfunctioning in a highly disturbed and unbalanced system, acquires attributes of trauma-organised-system, and yields itself for therapeutic interventions. The authors comment on their experience while treating families sent by Court order in divorce custody disputes, with explicit aim of evaluating parental competence. This type of systemic dysfunction is severely affecting communication styles, family rules and norms, whereas parenting is frequently marked by tendency to repeat relational-style experienced in marital, partners' conflicts. Feelings of discontent and resentment are projected onto children, and may take form of disqualifications, rejection, discrimination or else, those feelings stemming out of personal ambition such as favoring children. Parental rivalry worsens these processes, leading to attempts of establishing inappropriate level of control over children (instrumentalisation or favorisation). Therefore, care and protection of children is inadequate and children are emotionally neglected Many of these highly disturbed families, especially those sent by Court order are engaged in a network of different social, legal and mental health institutions. Intervention plans are thus conceived and specifically tailored to suit individual families, confronting dysfunctional patterns and appealing to enhance parental responsibilities. Overcoming family crisis of complicated divorce where childresn's emotional needs are neglected is highly indicated for systemic intervening. The authors discuss their experience in treating such families and offer their questions, dilemmas and recommendations.

  2. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.

  3. Parents with Schizophrenia – Insights from notifications of suspected child abuse and neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard; Ranning, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Children of parents with acute symptoms of schizophrenia are at high risk of being exposed to adverse environmental circumstances known to predict future mental and physical illness. To ensure a healthy development of children human services must address the needs of children of patients...... with schizophrenia. In this study, notifications of suspected child abuse and neglect was used to elicit difficulties in parental role functioning in schizophrenia patients. Qualitative text analysis was used to elicit common themes in 49 written documents from social workers at mental health centres expressing...... concerns about the wellbeing of children of patients with schizophrenia. We found the most recurring themes to be “parents’ delusions”, “parents being absorbed in their private reality”, “parents’ distress as a result of symptoms”, “fierce or violent scenes in the home” and “burden on other caretakers...

  4. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis was used to assess the associations between personality disorders and emotional reations. Results Cluster B disorder features were associated with feeling distance to patients, and cluster C disorder features were associated with feeling helpful towards patients. Cluster A disorders had no significant impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse.

  5. Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallon Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most effective way to provide support to caregivers with infants in order to promote good health, social, emotional and developmental outcomes is the subject of numerous debates in the literature. In Canada, each province adopts a different approach which range from universal to targeted programs. Nonetheless, each year a group of vulnerable infants is identified to the child welfare system with concerns about their well-being and safety. This study examines maltreatment-related investigations in Canada involving children under the age of one year to identify which factors determine service provision at the conclusion of the investigation. Methods A secondary analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect CIS-2008 (PHAC, 2010 dataset was conducted. Multivariate analyses were conducted to understand the profile of investigations involving infants (n=1,203 and which predictors were significant in the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services at the conclusion of the investigation. Logistic Regression and Classification and Regression Trees (CART were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome and predictors. Results The results suggest that there are three main sources that refer infants to the Canadian child welfare system: hospital, police, and non-professionals. Infant maltreatment-related investigations involve young caregivers who struggle with poverty, single-parenthood, drug/solvent and alcohol abuse, mental health issues, lack of social supports, and intimate partner violence. Across the three referral sources, primary caregiver risk factors are the strongest predictor of the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services. Conclusions Multivariate analyses indicate that the presence of infant concerns does not predict ongoing service provision, except when the infant is identified with positive toxicology at birth. The opportunity for early intervention and the

  6. A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Influence of childhood abuse and neglect subtypes on late-life suicide risk beyond depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr Gomes Jardim, Gabriel; Novelo, Marta; Spanemberg, Lucas; von Gunten, Armin; Engroff, Paula; Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Cataldo Neto, Alfredo

    2018-06-01

    The association of childhood maltreatment and suicide has been extensively examined within the population. Depression figures as a main cause for the elevated suicide rate in advanced ages and is often related to childhood maltreatment. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment subtypes and suicide risk, testing geriatric depression as a moderator. This is a cross-sectional study looking at a sample of 449 individuals 60 year s old or older from the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly of Porto Alegre Family Health Strategy, Brazil (EMI-SUS/POA). Childhood maltreatment (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), geriatric depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), and suicide risk (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) were assessed. The subtypes of childhood abuse and neglect were significantly associated with suicide risk. In the multivariate analysis, controlling for age, gender, income, marital status, ethnicity, smoking, and geriatric depression symptoms, all trauma subtypes remained associated with suicide risk with the exception of physical neglect (EA = 3.65; PA = 3.16; SA = 5.1; EN = 2.43; PN = 1.76). The present study showed that childhood maltreatment subtypes predicted suicide risk, and geriatric depression does not directly mediate this relation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental adversities and psychotic symptoms: The impact of timing of trauma, abuse, and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Breinlinger, Susanne; Hirt, Vanessa; Teicher, Martin H; Odenwald, Michael; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2017-11-13

    Trauma and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) occur more often in mental illness, including psychosis, than in the general population. Individuals with psychosis (cases) report a higher number and severity (dose) of adversities than healthy controls. While a dose-dependent increase of adversities has been related to more severe psychopathology, the role of type and timing is still insufficiently understood on the exacerbation of positive and negative psychotic symptoms. Moreover, dissociative symptoms were examined as potential mediator between adversities and severity of psychotic symptoms. Exposure to adversities were assessed by interviews in n=180 cases and n=70 controls. In cases, symptom severities were obtained for psychotic symptoms and dissociation. Conditioned random forest regression determined the importance of type and timing of ACE for positive and negative symptom severity, and mediator analyses evaluated the role of dissociative symptoms in the relationship between adversities and psychotic symptoms. Cases experienced substantially more abuse and neglect than controls. Adversities were related in a dose-dependent manner to psychotic disorder. An array of adversities was associated with more severe positive symptoms, while the conditioned random forest regression depicted neglect at age 10 as the most important predictor. Dissociative symptoms mediated the small relation of trauma load in childhood and positive symptoms. The role of trauma and ACE on psychotic symptoms can be specified by neglect during frontocortical development in the exacerbation of positive symptoms. The mediating role of dissociation is restricted to the relation of childhood trauma and positive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Prospective Examination of the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood: The Potential Mediating Role of Four Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-01-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with…

  10. The severity of childhood abuse and neglect in relationship to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among female sex workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the

  11. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  12. The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P

    In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by

  13. The Healing Power of Play: Therapeutic Work with Chronically Neglected and Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Fraser

    2014-12-09

    This article concerns a therapeutic intervention with a group of abandoned children living in a Romanian pediatric hospital. The children, ranging in age from one to ten years old, had suffered chronic neglect and abuse. They had previously spent most of their lives tied in the same cot in the same hospital ward. They were poorly fed and their nappies were rarely changed. Although able to see and hear the other abused children, they experienced little in the way of social interaction. The article focuses on the play-based methods that were employed to aid the children's recovery, while at the same time highlighting the general benefits of this very specific therapeutic approach to children's recovery and development. In particular, there is an exploration of concepts such as symbolic representation, negative capability, joining, and the significance of play cues. However, despite the clear value of these individually focused techniques, the article proposes the tentative hypothesis that the most powerful healing factor was the unfettered playful interaction between the children themselves. In other words, the children in a very real sense may have healed each other while playing.

  14. The Healing Power of Play: Therapeutic Work with Chronically Neglected and Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Brown

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns a therapeutic intervention with a group of abandoned children living in a Romanian pediatric hospital. The children, ranging in age from one to ten years old, had suffered chronic neglect and abuse. They had previously spent most of their lives tied in the same cot in the same hospital ward. They were poorly fed and their nappies were rarely changed. Although able to see and hear the other abused children, they experienced little in the way of social interaction. The article focuses on the play-based methods that were employed to aid the children’s recovery, while at the same time highlighting the general benefits of this very specific therapeutic approach to children’s recovery and development. In particular, there is an exploration of concepts such as symbolic representation, negative capability, joining, and the significance of play cues. However, despite the clear value of these individually focused techniques, the article proposes the tentative hypothesis that the most powerful healing factor was the unfettered playful interaction between the children themselves. In other words, the children in a very real sense may have healed each other while playing.

  15. [The battered, abused and neglected child and the Crisis Center for Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunovský, J

    1995-05-31

    The syndrome of the battered, abused and neglected child is becoming manifest also in our country with increasing frequency and severity, not only because much more attention is paid to it than ever before. Our system of child care and protection is, however, by far not yet ready to resolve this serious problem in the life of children, families and society as a whole and therefore ways and means must be sought how to face it, how to recognize it, treat it and in particular how to prevent it. One of the important means how to tackle this dangerous social phenomenon is a specialized department concerned in a comprehensive way on an interdisciplinary basis, with skilled and effective clinical work with every single abused child and its family in close association with all disciplines and institutions interested in the problem as well as by conceptual work, research, training and expert opinions etc. The crisis centre for children in Prague 4-Michle wants to serve with its experience and findings as a model workplace for building special institutions within the framework of a rational, interdisciplinary network of child care and protection in this country. The results of its two-year work and the great interest in it on the part of many localities and regions justify its efforts.

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect: Screening for Risks During the Perinatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, T.; Pillhofer, M.; Botzenhart, S.; Ziegenhain, U.; Kindler, H.; Spangler, G.; Bovenschen, I.; Gabler, S.; Künster, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Currently, there is a claim for earlier interventions for families in order to prevent child maltreatment. Here, a screening instrument to assess risk indicators for child abuse and neglect already in the context of maternity clinics is introduced. The present study is the first report on the psychometric properties of this instrument, the “short questionnaire for risk indices around birth” (RIAB). Material and Methods: Data were collected in the context of three different studies conducted at Ulm University Hospital. To examine interrater reliability eight case vignettes were rated by n = 90 study participants (50 students and 40 experts working at a maternity clinic). Criterion validity was examined in two studies applying the German version of the child abuse potential inventory CAPI (n = 96 families at risk and n = 160 additional families). Results: Both laymen and experts were able to understand and use the screening instrument correctly, leading to a high agreement with the sample solutions given. A high concordance was found between parentsʼ and expertsʼ ratings: In case of no reported risk factors applying the screening instrument RIAB, parents themselves reported significantly less stressors and burdens, compared to those parents with an indication for a thorough examination as pointed out in the RIAB. Conclusion: In the context of maternity clinics the RIAB is a useful, broadly applicable instrument, screening for existing risk factors at the earliest and thus allowing for the initiation of specific interventions when needed. PMID:25298543

  17. The notion and consequences of emotional abuse of a child in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojev Nadežda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the notion of emotional abuse of a child in the family as one of the most serious forms of family pathology. Emotional abuse is defined as parent’s or guardian’s acting or non acting, such as rejection insult, isolation, terror, verbal attack etc. that might cause serious and permanent disorders in child’s emotional development. Due to that, very complicated consequences of this serious form of abuse are particularly analyzed. In this paper, the author is standing up for the opinion that sexual and physical abuse are always in connection with the emotional, while emotional abuse could appear as a separate phenomenon.

  18. The Role of Youth Problem Behaviors in the Path from Child Abuse and Neglect to Prostitution: A Prospective Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-01-01

    Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages…

  19. Legislation regarding social protection of children and youth in Sweden with particular emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slobodan 2

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of children from abuse and neglect is a current problem in the world. The consequences of violence against children are very important because they can leave behind permanent bodily injuries up to severe invalidity, as well as psychological consequences which very often lead to transmission of violence into next generations. In most extreme cases death occurs as a consequence of abuse and neglect. In this paper authors present legislation which regulate social protection of children and youth in Sweden, with special emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect. Sweden is a country in which social care of most vulnerable groups including children, was always at the top of priorities. Authors made comparative analysis of Swedish and domestic (Serbian laws regarding protection of children from violence, with particular emphasis on mandatory report of these cases from professionals who are in regular professional contact with children. Authors will also put emphasis on duties of medical doctors in the system of protection of children and youth from abuse and neglect.

  20. The Biological Embedding of Child Abuse and Neglect Implications for Policy and Practice. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Christian, Cindy W.

    2014-01-01

    Each year within the US alone over 770,000 children are victimized by abuse and neglect (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010), and this figure is likely to underestimate the extent of the problem. Researchers have long recognized that maltreatment has adverse effects on children's mental health and academic achievement. Studies of…

  1. Does age of onset of risk behaviors mediate the relationship between child abuse and neglect and outcomes in middle adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment has been linked with a number of risk behaviors that are associated with long-lasting maladaptive outcomes across multiple domains of functioning. This study examines whether the ages of onset of four risk behaviors-sexual intercourse, alcohol use, drug use, and criminal behavior-mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and outcomes in middle adulthood among a sample of court-documented victims of child abuse/neglect and matched controls (N = 1,196; 51.7% female; 66.2% White, 32.6% Black). Adult outcomes included employment status, welfare receipt, internalizing symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms, substance use problems, and criminal arrests. The results indicated gender differences in these relationships. For females, age of onset of sexual intercourse mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and both internalizing symptoms and substance use problems in middle adulthood. For males, age at first criminal arrest mediated the relationship between child abuse/neglect and extensive involvement in the justice system in middle adulthood. Age of onset of alcohol use and drug use did not mediate the relationship between child abuse/neglect and middle adult outcomes. This study expands current knowledge by identifying associations between early initiation of risk behavior in one domain and later, continuing problems in different domains. Thus, early initiation of specific risk behaviors may have more wide-ranging negative consequences than are typically considered during intervention or treatment and strategies may need to target multiple domains of functioning.

  2. Abuse and neglect in adolescents of Jammu, India: The role of gender, family structure, and parental education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the factor structure of the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), and use it to describe the prevalence of abuse and neglect in Indian adolescents, and its associations with gender, family structure (nuclear vs. joint), and level of parental

  3. A Call for Integrating a Mental Health Perspective into Systems of Care for Abused and Neglected Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2011-01-01

    A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…

  4. Developmental Growth Trajectories of Self-Esteem in Adolescence: Associations with Child Neglect and Drug Use and Abuse in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Kwon, Josephine A; Zeichner, Amos; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2017-01-01

    Neglectful rearing is linked with young adults' substance use and abuse, though the developmental mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. The present study examines links between self-esteem growth during adolescence, childhood supervisory versus physical neglect severity, and substance use and abuse in young adulthood. A sample of youth was obtained from the Add Health study (N = 8738; 55.4 %-Female; 20 %-African American, 14.7 %-Hispanic). Growth mixture modeling analyses supported declining, ascending, and stable high self-esteem trajectories. The declining and ascending trajectories reported greater neglect and alcohol abuse (but not use) as well as cannabis use and abuse. The findings suggest that compromised development of self-esteem underlies associations between neglect and substance use and abuse. Preventive interventions may benefit from targeting self-esteem among neglected youth.

  5. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  6. Sexually transmitted diseases among adults who had been abused and neglected as children: a 30-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy S

    2009-04-01

    We examined associations between childhood abuse and neglect and the risk in adulthood for sexually transmitted diseases. In a prospective cohort design, we matched children aged 0 to 11 years with documented cases of abuse or neglect during 1967 to 1971 with a control group of children who had not been maltreated (754 participants in all) and followed them into adulthood. Information about lifetime history of sexually transmitted diseases was collected as part of a medical status examination when participants were approximately 41 years old. Childhood sexual abuse increased risk for any sexually transmitted disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 3.77; P = .05) and more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.33, 8.22; P = .01). Physical abuse increased risk for more than 1 type of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.39, 9.38; P = .009). Our results provided the first prospective evidence that child physical and sexual abuse increases risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Early screening and interventions are needed to identify and prevent sexually transmitted diseases among child abuse victims.

  7. A global response to elder abuse and neglect: building primary health care capacity to deal with the problem worldwide : main report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaindl, Karina

    2008-01-01

    ....Elder.abuse.and.neglect.and.the.role.of.PHC.professionals. . ... 3 1.4.Detecting.elder.abuse.in.a.PHC.setting... 5 2 The project ...7 2.1.Aims.and.objectives... 7 2.2.The.Elder.Abuse.Suspicion.Index. . ... 8 2.3...

  8. Influence of emotional abuse on the self-concept of senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey data collected from 2,000 senior secondary two (SSII) students in Cross River state Nigeria were analyzed to determine the influence of emotional abuse on the self-concept of the students. One aspect of child abuse (emotional abuse) and five dimensions of self-concept (social selfconcept, physical self-concept, ...

  9. Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Association between Emotional Neglect and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Won; Bae, Geum Ye; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Lee, Seung Jae; Chang, Sung Man; Kim, Byung-Soo; Won, Seunghee

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that childhood maltreatment experiences could induce biological and psychological vulnerability in depressive disorders. However, it is still unclear that type-specific effects of childhood maltreatment on psychological resilience, depressive symptoms and interactions among childhood maltreatment experiences, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A total of 438 medical students were included in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used for measuring childhood maltreatment experiences, psychological resilience, and depressive symptoms, respectively. We investigated the effects of childhood maltreatment experiences on resilience and depressive symptoms using correlation analysis. In addition, we analyzed the mediating effect of resilience on the association between childhood maltreatment and symptoms of depression. Among childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect was a significant predictor of the scores of low resilience and high depressive symptoms in both gender groups (all psresilience was found to be a mediator connecting emotional neglect experiences with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that emotional neglect has detrimental effects on mood and resilience, and clinicians need to focus on the recovery of resilience when they deal with depressive symptoms in victims of childhood maltreatment.

  10. A systems perspective on research and treatment with abused and neglected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyman, R B

    2000-01-01

    To discuss two systems-level changes in the organization and financing of mental health and child welfare services that will increasingly affect abused and neglected children: the implementation of managed care processes and the incorporation of accountability mechanisms in the management of mental health and child welfare services, particularly the use of systematic outcomes assessments. A central goal of the paper is to identify critical research questions which will help us to understand the impact of these changes on maltreated children. These two systems-level changes are described, and ways they may affect maltreated children are addressed. Both managed care and the growing focus on managing services by monitoring outcomes may positively or negatively affect maltreated children. Both of these trends are affecting the mental health and child welfare systems. It is likely that they will affect maltreated children's access to and the quality, cost, and outcomes of mental health and child welfare services. Systematic research on the impact of these large-scale changes can increase the likelihood that these changes will benefit maltreated children. A number of critical areas are identified for future research.

  11. Oral health in children investigated by Social services on suspicion of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, T; Annerbäck, E-M; Dahllöf, G

    2018-02-01

    Child abuse and neglect (CAN) are likely to have negative consequences on health; however, for oral health, studies on associated outcomes are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess oral health and oral health behaviors in relation to suspected CAN among children being investigated by the Swedish Social Services. The material comprised data from the Social Services and dental records; the sample, 86 children and 172 matched controls. The children in the study group had a higher prevalence of dental caries than the control group; in addition, levels of non-attendance and dental avoidance were high, as was parental failure to promote good oral health. We found four factors that, taken together, indicated a high probability of being investigated because of suspected CAN: prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth, fillings in permanent teeth, dental health service avoidance, and referral to specialist pediatric dentistry clinics. If all four factors were present, the cumulative probability of being investigated was 0.918. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of dental caries, irregular attendance, and a need for referral a pediatric dental clinic among Swedish children under investigation due to suspected CAN. Social context is an important factor in assessing the risk of developing dental caries, the inclination to follow treatment plans, and the prerequisites for cooperation during treatment. Routinely requesting dental records during an investigation would provide important information for social workers on parental skills and abilities to fulfill the basic needs of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attachment, Development, and Mental Health in Abused and Neglected Preschool Children in Foster Care: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mira; Petermann, Franz

    2016-09-22

    A proper preparation for foster parents to care for abused and neglected children includes effective training and initial diagnostics in order to plan individual treatment. Hence, a basic knowledge about the main psychosocial and developmental problems associated with abuse and neglect and their prevalence in foster children is needed. For this purpose, a systematical literature review and a series of meta-analyses were conducted. A total of 25 studies reporting data on development (n = 4,033), mental health (n = 726), and attachment (n = 255) of foster children in preschool age met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses indicated prevalence rates of approximately 40% for developmental, mental health problems, and insecure attachment. Rates of disorganized attachment were estimated to 22%. These findings outline the necessity of an initial trauma-oriented diagnostics and trainings for foster parents that address foster children's development, mental health, and disorganized attachment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Emotional Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-07-01

    To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Transmission of Neglect in Substance Abuse Families: The Role of Child Dysregulation and Parental SUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marija G.; Mezzich, Ada; Janiszewski, Susan; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2001-01-01

    Paternal and maternal models of transmission of child neglect were tested separately in offspring of men with a substance use disorder (SUD). Child dysregulation was independently related to neglect severity. SUD in the mother directly correlated with severity of neglectful parenting. (Contains 51 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  15. When abuse primes addiction - automatic activation of alcohol concepts by child maltreatment related cues in emotionally abused alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Recent research indicates that there is a link between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD), but the underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. There is reason to assume that maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. The current study aimed to examine this network in AD patients who experienced emotional abuse using a priming paradigm. A specific priming effect in emotionally abused AD subjects was hypothesized for maltreatment related words that preceded alcohol related words. 49 AD subjects (n=14 with emotional abuse vs. n=35 without emotional abuse) and 34 control subjects performed a priming task with maltreatment related and neutral prime words combined with alcohol related and neutral target words. Maltreatment related words consisted of socially and physically threatening words. As hypothesized, a specific priming effect for socially threatening and physically threatening cues was found only in AD subjects with emotional abuse. The present data are the first to provide evidence that child maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network in alcoholics with emotional abuse experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Child Abuse and Neglect United States Army U.S. Army Central Registry (1989-1996)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarroll, James

    1998-01-01

    ..., the offender's history of violence and abuse, substance abuse involvement of the victim and the offender, and the military and civil actions that had occurred at the time the case was reported...

  17. The neglected shadow: European perspectives on emotional supports for early school leaving prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Downes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OECD reports emphasise ten key steps to equity in education, with concrete targets related to low attainment and early school leaving. Such steps, however, neglect the importance of emotional dimensions to early school leaving and the consequent need for system level emotional supports. The current study involves qualitative research interviews with senior government officials and secondary school management representatives across eight European countries, with a particular focus on school climate and emotional support issues. Issues raised by interviewees for students at risk of early school leaving include supports for withdrawn children, for those at risk of suicide and those being bullied at school affecting their nonattendance. Other emerging themes include alternatives to suspension and teacher education for improving their conflict resolution skills. Some interviewees explicitly observe the dearth of emotional support services available in practice in their countries. The pervasive policy gaps across national levels for a mental health and emotional support strategy, as part of an early school leaving prevention strategy, requires serious and immediate attention.

  18. Distinguishing neglect from abuse and accident: analysis of the case files of a hospital child protection team in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Zur, Shmuel; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2010-11-01

    The study compares the characteristics of children assessed as neglected, physically abused, or accident victims by a hospital child protection team (CPT) and identifies the information on which the CPT based its assessments. The comparison is based on content analysis of records of 414 children examined by the CPT in a major hospital in Israel between 1991 and 2006, of whom 130 (31.4%) were neglected, 54 (13.0%) were physically abused, and 230 (55.6%) were accident victims. Findings of three hierarchical logistic regressions show that the children classified as neglected had the most early development problems, but were the least likely to have received psychological treatment, and that that their families were the most likely to be receiving state financial support and to have had prior contact with the social services. They also show that the CPT had received the least information indicative of maltreatment about these children from the community and that their medical and physical examinations aroused the least suspicion. Finally, they show that the impressions the hospital staff and CPT had of the parents during the hospital visit had greater power to distinguish between the groups than the children's characteristics or the parents' socio-demographic background. The findings attest to the ability of the CPT to differentiate between neglect victims and physical abuse or accident victims. With this, they also point to ambiguities in the classification process that should be addressed by further research and training and to the need for detailed and thorough documentation of the information and observations on which the CPT's assessments are based. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs of Sexual Abuse Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the child: • Has difficulty walking or sitting • Suddenly refuses to ... adults in their environment Consider the possibility of sexual abuse when the parent ... unduly protective of the child or severely limits the child’s contact with other ...

  20. Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-05-14

    Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  1. Recognizing and responding to cases of suspected animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect: what the veterinarian needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkow P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phil Arkow National Link Coalition – The National Resource Center on The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence, Stratford, NJ, USA Abstract: The identification of a “battered pets” syndrome, which put the veterinary profession on a parallel footing with its counterparts in human medicine who respond to battered children, women, and elders, expanded the veterinarian’s role as an advocate for animals’ welfare to include the recognition of, response to, and prevention of animal abuse. Professional policies and legislation in several nations have been amended to define these responsibilities and delineate appropriate responses when animal maltreatment or other forms of family violence are suspected. This article reviews these changes, discusses abuse as a matter of animal welfare and public health, and summarizes research describing animal abuse as a possible indicator and predictor of interpersonal violence. Five steps that helped build human health care’s response to child abuse, domestic violence, and elder abuse, and that are analogous to forces in contemporary veterinary practice, are described. It familiarizes practitioners with terminology used in animal cruelty investigations. It describes clinical presentations, client profiles and behaviors, and environmental conditions that may raise a practitioner’s index of suspicion of possible animal maltreatment. It reviews protocols that practitioners may employ to respond compassionately and effectively to suspected animal abuse and enhance successful law enforcement investigations and prosecutions. Such responses can unite human and veterinary medicine in a common concern for vulnerable, victimized, and at-risk populations and position veterinarians as an essential part of public health approaches to break the cycles of violence affecting animals and human members of the family and community. Keywords: animal cruelty, animal abuse, neglect, reporting, animal welfare, domestic

  2. An examination of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and borderline personality disorder features: the role of difficulties with emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Khoury, Jennifer E; Metcalfe, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been consistently linked with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and recent studies suggest that some forms of childhood abuse might be uniquely related to both BPD and BPD features. In addition, difficulties with emotion regulation have been found to be associated with childhood abuse, BPD, as well as BPD features. The present study examined (1) whether frequency of childhood emotional abuse is uniquely associated with BPD feature severity when controlling for other forms of childhood abuse and (2) whether difficulties with emotion regulation accounts for the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD feature severity. A sample of undergraduates (n=243) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Symptom List-23. Multiple regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were conducted. Results indicated that frequency of childhood emotional abuse (and not sexual or physical abuse) was uniquely associated with BPD feature severity. In addition, while there was no direct path between childhood emotional abuse, childhood physical abuse, or childhood sexual abuse and BPD features, there was an indirect relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD features through difficulties with emotion regulation. These findings suggest that, of the different forms of childhood abuse, emotional abuse specifically, may have a developmental role in BPD pathology. Prevention and treatment of BPD pathology might benefit from the provision of emotion regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A cross-national exploration of societal-level factors associated with child physical abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Ports, Katie A; Austin, Chelsea; Ludlow, Ivan J; Hurd, Jacqueline

    2017-11-28

    Children around the world experience violence at the hands of their caregivers at alarming rates. A recent review estimates that a minimum of 50% of children in Asia, Africa, and North America experienced severe physical violence by caregivers in the past year, with large variations between countries. Identifying modifiable country-level factors driving these geographic variations has great potential for achieving population-level reductions in rates of child maltreatment. This study builds on previous research by focusing on caregiver-reported physical abuse and neglect victimisation, examining 22 societal factors representing 11 different constructs among 42 countries from 5 continents at different stages of development. Our findings suggest that gender inequity may be important for both child physical abuse and neglect. Indicators of literacy and development may also be important for child neglect. Given the limitations of the correlational findings and measurement issues, it is critical to continue to investigate societal-level factors of child maltreatment so that interventions and prevention efforts can incorporate strategies that have the greatest potential for population-level impact.

  4. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  5. Addressing the Clinical Burden of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect in a Large Metropolitan Region: Improving the Evidence-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children at risk of abuse are more likely to be hospitalized and utilize health services according to international research. In a large metropolitan health region in New South Wales, Australia, there was little known of the clinical burden of child physical abuse and/or neglect (PAN, or of systems for clinical assessment of children presenting with abuse/neglect. We aimed to identify the number of children presenting with suspected PAN to emergency departments (EDs and paediatric services in this region, to determine enablers and barriers to assessment for children with PAN presenting to frontline services, and to identify best practices to address gaps. We collated available data on children presenting to EDs and paediatric services with suspected PAN in 2007. We interviewed 36 health professionals from nine hospitals and 12 statutory child protection professionals, across the region before undertaking relevant document analysis. Of 64,700 paediatric ED presentations, a quarter were due to injury; 2%–5% of these were due to maltreatment. Clinician estimates and assessments of PAN varied widely; health and welfare workers identified major practice gaps, as well as good local practice. We identified feasible minimum standards for improving clinical assessment and follow-up for children presenting with PAN, given the right organizational support.

  6. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  7. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Bailey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  8. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Understanding the medical markers of elder abuse and neglect: physical examination findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    A specific foundation of knowledge is important for evaluating potential abuse from physical findings in the older adult. The standard physical examination is a foundation for detecting many types of abuse. An understanding of traumatic injuries, including patterns of injury, is important for health care providers, and inclusion of elder abuse in the differential diagnosis of patient care is essential. One must possess the skills needed to piece the history, including functional capabilities, and physical findings together. Armed with this skill set, health care providers will develop the confidence needed to identify and intervene in cases of elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-12-01

    In the general population, women's lifetime risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is twice that of men's. However, evidence is contradictory as to whether this sex difference is present among child abuse/neglect victims. The authors examined sex differences in PTSD among a sample of 674 individuals with documented child abuse/neglect histories assessed for PTSD in adulthood. Across all types of abuse/neglect, women were more than twice as likely to develop PTSD as men. The sex difference was greatest among sexual abuse victims. Female victims' greater revictimization explained a substantial proportion (39%) of the sex differences in PTSD risk. Future research should identify mechanisms that make female victims particularly vulnerable to revictimization and the development of PTSD.

  11. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ..., abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual, emotional, and physical abuse threaten too many children every... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our..., productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our unwavering commitment to...

  12. Child neglect and oral health problems in offspring of substance-abusing fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzich, Ada C; Bretz, Walter A; Day, Bang-Shiuh; Corby, Patricia M; Kirisci, Levent; Swaney, Michelle; Cornelius, Jack R; Weyant, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    This study examined (1) orodental (OD) problems in 10-19-year-old children of substance use disorder (SUD) (n = 127) and non-SUD fathers (n = 111) and (2) the moderating effect of child's substance use (SU) involvement in the associations of paternal SUD and neglectful parenting with OD problems in the offspring. The results showed that periodontal problems differentiated between groups and the interactions between child's SU involvement and paternal SUD and neglectful parenting were respectively associated with hard/soft tissue lesions and carious lesions in the offspring, indicating that SU involvement increases risk for OD due to paternal SUD and neglectful parenting.

  13. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  14. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grégoire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.

  15. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  16. Comparing physically abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating parents during interactions with their children: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R; Rack, Jessica J; Shi, Xiaowei; Norris, Alda M

    2008-09-01

    To clarify the nature and extent of differences in the ways that physically abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating parents communicate during interactions with their children. A meta-analysis was conducted of 33 observational studies comparing parent-child interactions in families where parents have a documented history of physical abuse or neglect vs. where parents have no history of child maltreatment. Parental behaviors were grouped into three clusters (positivity, aversiveness, and involvement) for comparison across studies. When comparing maltreating (physically abusive or neglectful) vs. non-maltreating parents, mean weighted effect sizes for the three behavioral clusters range from d=.46 to .62. Physically abusive parents are distinguished from non-maltreating parents more so than neglectful parents in terms of aversive behavior, whereas the reverse is true for involvement. Publication date, parent and child age, and task structure moderate the magnitude, though not direction, of differences. Parents with a documented history of child physical abuse or child neglect also are distinguished from non-maltreating parents by the levels of aversiveness, positivity, and involvement they display during interactions that constitute the parent-child relationship. Researchers and practitioners need to carefully consider sample size, length and setting of observation, and interaction tasks when using observational methods.

  17. Working with parents and their emotionally neglected children, being a facilitator and a role model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    This paper is part of a symposium with Amelia Oldfield as Chair. It revolves around how to approach and intervene with at risk families in music therapy specifically emotionally neglected children and their parents. In improving parent-child interaction, these families often need clear role...... modelling for them to try out new ways of communicating. For any therapist working in this area, it can be difficult to combine role modelling with being a facilitator for the parent-child relationship. The family needs to see and experience how they might chance without the disadvantages of the therapist...... forming an alliance with either child or parent. To help the family as much as possible in developing new ways of interacting and breaking inappropriate interaction patterns, the therapist must show the family how without doing it for them. The presentation has its focus on how music therapy can...

  18. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  19. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA ® . With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotional Reactivity to Network Stress in Middle and Late Adulthood: The Role of Childhood Parental Emotional Abuse and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Knight, Bob G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether recalled childhood parental emotional abuse and support were associated with emotional reactivity to network stress among middle-aged and older adults. Design and Methods: Hypotheses were tested by performing 2-level multilevel modeling analysis on 787 participants aged 33-83 who participated in the Daily…

  1. The role of the dermatologist in detecting elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Melissa J; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2015-08-01

    The National Research Council of the National Academies defines elder mistreatment as: (1) intentional actions that cause harm or create serious risk of harm (whether or not harm is intended) to a vulnerable elder by a caregiver or other person who stands in a trust relationship to the elder; or (2) failure by a caregiver to satisfy the elder's basic needs or to protect the elder from harm. Estimates of the prevalence of elder abuse have ranged from 2.2% to 18.4%. Dermatologists are uniquely positioned to identify and manage suspected cases of elder abuse given their expertise in distinguishing skin lesions of abuse from organic medical disease and their patient populations with strong elderly representation. This article discusses aspects of both the screening and management of elder abuse with particular relevance to dermatologists. Like physicians across medical specialties, dermatologists must be familiar with those aspects of elder abuse in screening, diagnosis, management, and reporting that are unique to their field and to those aspects that are applicable to all health care providers. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptions and experiences of dentists towards child abuse and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child abuse and neglect (CAN) includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development or dignity.Since approximately half the manifestations of CAN are evident in the cranial, orofacial and neck ...

  4. Mediating toxic emotions in the workplace--the impact of abusive supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    This study explores whether abusive supervision can effectively predict employees' counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and the role of toxic emotions at work as a potential mediator of these relationships in nursing settings. Workplace bullying is widespread in nursing. Despite the growing literature on abusive supervision and employees' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour, few studies have examined the relationships between abusive supervision and these work behaviours from the viewpoint of the victimed employee's emotion process. This study adopted a two-stage survey of 212 nurses, all of whom were employed by hospitals in Taiwan. Hypotheses were tested through the use of hierarchical multiple regression. The results showed that abusive supervision was positively associated with toxic emotions. Moreover, toxic emotions could effectively predict nurses' counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Finally, it was found that toxic emotions partially mediated the negative effects of abusive supervision on both work behaviours. Toxic emotions at work are a critical mediating variable between abusive supervision and both counterproductive work behaviour and organisational citizenship behaviour. Hospital administrators can implement policies designed to manage events effectively that can spark toxic emotions in their employees. Work empowerment may be an effective way to reduce counterproductive work behaviour and to enhance organisational citizenship behaviour among nurses when supervisors do not promote a healthy work environment for them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F

    2013-07-01

    As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental

  6. A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: new findings from a 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Bentley, Tyrone; Johnson, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether abused and neglected children are at risk for negative physical health outcomes in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, we matched children (aged 0-11 years) with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect from a US Midwestern county during 1967 through 1971 with nonmaltreated children. Both groups completed a medical status examination (measured health outcomes and blood tests) and interview during 2003 through 2005 (mean age=41.2 years). After adjusting for age, gender, and race, child maltreatment predicted above normal hemoglobin, lower albumin levels, poor peak airflow, and vision problems in adulthood. Physical abuse predicted malnutrition, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and hemoglobin A1C. Neglect predicted hemoglobin A1C, albumin, poor peak airflow, and oral health and vision problems, Sexual abuse predicted hepatitis C and oral health problems. Additional controls for childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, unhealthy behaviors, smoking, and mental health problems play varying roles in attenuating or intensifying these relationships. Child abuse and neglect affect long-term health status-increasing risk for diabetes, lung disease, malnutrition, and vision problems-and support the need for early health care prevention.

  7. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect with Parent Training: Evidence and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified four common co-occurring parental risk factors--substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and child conduct problems--that lead to child maltreatment. The extent to which maltreatment prevention programs must directly address these risk factors to improve responsiveness to parenting programs or can directly…

  8. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...

  9. [Sexual Abuse and Neglect Situations as Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Martínez, Miguel; Trujillo Numa, Laura; Restrepo Bernal, Diana; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Sierra, Gloria

    In Colombia, one out of five women between the ages of 15 and 19 years have been pregnant. Almost two-thirds (64%) of these pregnancies were unplanned. To examine the socio-demographic, psychosocial and clinical risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. An analytical prevalence study was performed using secondary data from the First Demographic Study of Mental Health in Medellin, Colombia. Female adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were included in the study. The population was evaluated using the Composite International Diagnosis Interview, a structured interview developed by the World Health Organization, which establishes diagnoses according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. A sample of 499 female adolescents was obtained, in which 135 adolescent pregnancies were identified, representing a prevalence of 21.5%. The large majority (84.4%) were between 16 and 19 years old. The median age was 17 years, with an interquartile range of 2 years. Almost two-thirds (61.2%) of female adolescents had initiated sexual activity at the age of 15 or later. Almost one-third (31.9%) reported being physically abused during childhood, and 6.7% sexually abused. Of those who were pregnant, 66.7% reported previous sexual abuse. A bivariate analysis showed that sexual abuse (OR=7.68), childhood negligence (OR=4.33), and having a partner (OR=6.31) were factors associated with an adolescent pregnancy. Negligence and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence can be prevented, and adolescent pregnancies can be decreased. This finding has important implications for clinical management and prognosis, and requires public preventive policies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  11. Mediators of the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness association in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A; Wilson, Christina K; Shahane, Amit A; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-08-01

    Although there is an association between experiencing childhood emotional abuse and feeling hopeless as an adult, it is critical to understand the factors that may be protective in this relationship. The goal of this study was to determine if two protective factors, namely spiritual well-being, including both religious and existential well-being, and positive self-esteem, served to mediate the association between childhood emotional abuse and adult hopelessness. The sample for this investigation was low-income African American women suicide attempters who were abused by a partner in the prior year (N=121). A path analysis revealed that in this sample, the childhood emotional abuse-hopelessness link was mediated by existential well-being and positive self-esteem, as well as by the two-mediator path of emotional abuse on existential well-being on self-esteem on hopelessness. Results suggested that existential well-being may be a more salient protective factor for hopelessness than religious well-being among abused, suicidal African American women who experienced childhood emotional abuse. Findings highlight the value of culturally relevant strategies for enhancing existential well-being and self-esteem in this at-risk population to reduce their vulnerability to feelings of hopelessness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Building workforce capacity to detect and respond to child abuse and neglect cases: A training intervention for staff working in emergency settings in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemington, Tara; Fraser, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Too many children are brought to hospital emergency departments on numerous occasions before they are recognised as victims of child abuse and neglect. For this reason, improving knowledge and response behaviors of emergency staff at all levels is likely to have a significant impact on better outcomes. An Australian based training programme was the first of its kind to address this issue in a Vietnamese Emergency Department. Titled 'Safe Children Vietnam', the programme aimed to improve knowledge, attitudes and reporting behaviors concerning child abuse in the emergency setting. A pre-post test design was used to evaluate the impact of 'Safe Children Vietnam' on emergency staff knowledge, attitudes and intentions to report child abuse and neglect. Emergency staff including doctors, nurses and healthcare staff (n=116) participated in the clinical training programme. Linear Mixed Model analyses showed that on programme completion, they were more likely to recognise serious cases of all types of abuse. The 'Safe Children Vietnam' programme was effective at improving emergency staff knowledge of child abuse and neglect. A systems wide approach may be necessary to impact on emergency staff attitudes towards reporting cases of abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Forgiveness Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress for Women after Spousal Emotional Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…

  14. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  15. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Interpersonal Behavior among Substance Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zahed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.

  16. Interpersonal and systemic aspects of emotional abuse at work: the target's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keashly, L

    2001-06-01

    The most frequent form of workplace aggression is not physical, it is emotional and psychological in nature. Known by many names, emotional abuse at work is rapidly becoming recognized as pervasive and costly both in individual and organizational terms. Most of the research to date on emotional abuse at work has utilized survey and other quantitative methodologies in an effort to document the presence, prevalence, and impact of these behaviors. However, these methodologies are based on researchers' definitions and theories of what constitutes emotional abuse rather than on the meaning given to these experiences by the targets of these behaviors. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon requires a scholarly appreciation of the target's experience. Taking "feeling abused" as the criterion variable, this study examined target's experiences based on interviews with people who self-identifed as having experienced difficulties with a boss, coworker, or subordinate. The interpersonal aspects of emotional abuse focused on the nature of behaviors exhibited and the respondents' labeling of their experience. Consistent with elements of researchers' definitions, behaviors were defined as abusive when they were repetitive, resulted in injury or harm to target, and were experienced as a lack of recognition of the individual's integrity. Judgments of violation of standards of conduct and unsolicited nature of the behaviors were also related to respondents' experiences. Relative power differential was also an important element. However, contrary to researchers' definitions, actor intent was not central in defining the experience as abusive. The systemic aspect of emotional abuse was illustrated in the nature of organizational responding to concerns raised by respondents. These responses were of critical importance in respondents' labeling of their experiences as abusive. The focus on the meaning of the behaviors for the respondents provides an enriched picture of key

  17. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N Al Dosari

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be measured, and prevention initiatives, such as screening and counseling for parents of children at risk, can be developed and incorporated into primary care practice.

  18. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Personal reflections about the work of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrikin-Gold, Byron D

    2015-03-01

    Created by amendments in 1988 to the Child Abuse Treatment and Prevention Act of 1974 and first convened in 1989, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued a series of passion- and research-laden reports that articulated a new neighborhood-based strategy for child protection in the United States. In so doing, the Board went far beyond the vision of its congressional creators, the most relevant federal agencies, and the field itself. The dedication, daring, collegiality, and public spirit of the drafters and ultimately the moral and intellectual power of the reports themselves were awe-inspiring, as was the level of public attention given to the Board's initial declaration of a national emergency. However, the specific effects on policy were quite limited. Possible reasons for the enormous gap between the strength of the Board's vision and the weakness of its implementation are reviewed. In the end, the history of the Board may be a case study of a single but notable step in a long process toward redemptive cultural change in the status and safety of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotional Abuse in a Sample of Multiply Maltreated, Urban Young Adolescents: Issues of Definition and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Kim, Kihyun; Sang, Jina

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this paper is to use the Brassard and Donovan [Brassard, M. R. & Donovan, K. L. (2006). "Defining psychological maltreatment." In M. M. Freerick, J. F. Knutson, P. K. Trickett, & S. M. Flanzer (Eds.), "Child abuse and neglect: Definitions, classifications, and a framework for research" (pp. 151-197). Baltimore, MD:…

  1. Parenting for Yourself and Your Child. A Parenting Curriculum for High Risk Families. Neglectful and Abusive Parents: Curriculum Development and Pilot Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Janet

    Developed for use by parent educators and others working with high risk, abusive, or neglectful families, this curriculum guide is intended to enable and facilitate the growth of this target population in key parenting learning and skill areas. Section 1 provides an overview of the manual, offers suggestions for home visits following each class…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect in the Mexican American Community (1st, Laredo, Texas, May 26-29, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Guadalupe, Ed.,; Torres, Angelina Moreno

    The conference focused attention on the severe problems of abuse and neglect among Mexican American children, particularly among migrant children. The welcome address discussed the plight and hardship endured by the Mexican American migrant worker and family. The keynote address emphasized the fact that minority families, who are usually poor, and…

  3. Cannabis abuse is associated with better emotional memory in schizophrenia: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna; Durand, Myriam; Lakis, Nadia; Lipp, Olivier; Stip, Emmanuel; Lalonde, Pierre; Grignon, Sylvain; Potvin, Stéphane

    2013-10-30

    In schizophrenia cannabis abuse/dependence is associated with poor compliance and psychotic relapse. Despite this, the reasons for cannabis abuse remain elusive, but emotions may play a critical role in this comorbidity. Accordingly, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of emotional memory in schizophrenia patients with cannabis abuse (dual-diagnosis, DD). Participants comprised 14 DD patients, 14 non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ), and 21 healthy controls (HC) who had to recognize positive and negative pictures while being scanned. Recognition of positive and negative emotions was prominently impaired in SCZ patients, relative to HC, while differences between DD and HC were smaller. For positive and negative stimuli, we observed significant activations in frontal, limbic, temporal and occipital regions in HC; in frontal, limbic and temporal regions in DD; and in temporal, parietal, limbic and occipital regions in the SCZ group. Our results suggest that emotional memory and prefrontal lobe functioning are preserved in DD relative to SCZ patients. These results are consistent with previous findings showing that cannabis abuse is associated with fewer negative symptoms and better cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. Longitudinal studies will need to determine whether the relative preservation of emotional memory is primary or secondary to cannabis abuse in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Protection of children of divorced parents who are victims of emotional abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little is said and written about the problem of emotional abuse of children, as a result of parental divorce and separation, probably because it is a very sophisticated type of emotional abuse, which unfortunately sometimes experts do not recognize. This phenomenon is rarely explored and researched in general and especially in the Republic of Macedonia. It is not disputed that there is a solid legal framework for a government response to this type of child abuse in Republic of Macedonia. Given the impact on children, this problem requires much more attention, education and cooperation between the competent institutions. This paper tries to explore the concept of emotional abuse of children, as a result of divorce and separation of the parents, as a very specific form of domestic violence from a psychological point of view, as well as to analyze the legal norm of this form of domestic violence in the Republic of Macedonia.

  5. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most

  6. Inscriptions of violence: societal and medical neglect of child abuse--impact on life and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise

    2008-03-01

    A sickness history from General Practice will be unfolded with regard to its implicit lived meanings. This experiential matrix will be analyzed with regard to its medico-theoretical aspects. The analysis is grounded in a phenomenology of the body. The patient Katherine Kaplan lends a particular portrait to the dynamics that are enacted in the interface between socially silenced domestic violence and the theoretical assumptions of human health as these inform the clinical practice of health care. By applying an understanding of sickness that transcends the mind-body split, a concealed and complex logic emerges. This logic is embedded in a nexus of the impact of childhood abuse experience and the medical disinterest in subjective experiences and their impact on selfhood and health. Its core is twofold: the violation of embodiment resulting from intra-familial abuse and existential threat, and the embodiment of violation resulting from social rules and the theoretically blinded medical gaze. A considerable medical investment, apparently conducted in a correct and consistent manner as to diagnostic and therapeutic measures, results in the complete incapacitation of a young physician.

  7. Childhood abuse affects emotional closeness with family in mid- and later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savla, J Tina; Roberto, Karen A; Jaramillo-Sierra, Ana L; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks; Karimi, Hassan; Butner, L Michelle

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of early life adversity on kin relationships in later years is sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine if childhood abuse and adversity negatively influences emotional closeness with family in mid- and later life. A second goal was to determine the role of psychosocial resources and personality traits in buffering the effects of early adversities. Gender and cohort differences were explored to see if men were differentially affected than women and whether middle-aged adults (35-49 years old) were differentially affected than older adults (50-74 years old) by the effects of childhood abuse and adversity. Using retrospective accounts of early family abuse and adversities of 1,266 middle aged adults and 1,219 older adults from a large population-based survey, the National Survey of Midlife Development in United States (MIDUS), separate multiple regression analyses were conducted for the two cohorts to examine the effects of childhood emotional and physical abuse and family adversities on perceived emotional closeness with family. Interaction effects between childhood abuse and adversity (e.g., being expelled from school, death of sibling, parental divorce, losing a home to a natural disaster) with psychosocial resources (perceived control and self acceptance), personality characteristics (extraversion and neuroticism), and gender were examined. Results of OLS regressions suggest emotional and physical abuse predicted family closeness in middle-aged adults. Conversely, only emotional abuse predicted family closeness in older adults. Moderation models revealed that high levels of self acceptance were associated with better maintenance of emotional closeness among middle-aged adults who were emotionally and physically abused as children. Older adults with lower extraversion who experienced emotional abuse or reported greater number of adversities in childhood were found to be at higher risk for lower emotional closeness with family

  8. Ethnicity, desirable responding, and self-reports of abuse: a comparison of European- and Asian-ancestry undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meston, C M; Heiman, J R; Trapnell, P D; Carlin, A S

    1999-02-01

    One thousand fifty-two (582 non-Asian, 470 Asian) university students were assessed regarding levels of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and socially desirable responding. Differences between Asian-ancestry and European-ancestry students in self-reported incidence and expression of abuse were evaluated, as was gender and the relation between self-reported abuse and socially desirable responding. Asian-ancestry men and women reported higher levels of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect than did their Euro-ancestry counterparts, and Euro-ancestry women reported a higher incidence of sexual abuse than did Asian-ancestry women. Across ethnicity, men reported higher levels of physical abuse and neglect but lower levels of sexual abuse than did women. Socially desirable responding was not related to measures of abuse. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural influences on child-rearing and disciplinary practices.

  9. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-09-01

    One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being related to abuse, rejection and abandonment only. The current experiment examines the specificity of emotional hyperreactivity in BPD. The impact of four film clips (BPD-specific: childhood abuse by primary caregivers; BPD-nonspecific: peer bullying; positive; and neutral) on self-reported emotional affect was assessed in three female groups; BPD-patients (n = 24), cluster C personality disorder patients (n = 17) and non-patient controls (n = 23). Results showed that compared to the neutral film clip, BPD-patients reacted with more overall negative affect following the childhood abuse clip, and with more anger following the peer bullying clip than the two other groups. The current study was restricted to assessment of the impact of evocative stimuli on self-reported emotions, and the order in which the film clips were presented to the participants was fixed. Results suggest that BPD-patients only react generally excessively emotional to stimuli related to childhood abuse by primary caregivers, and with excessive anger to peer-bullying stimuli. These findings are thus not in line with the core idea of general emotional hyperreactvity in BPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  11. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads—involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)—were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subjected to MLM. Abusive and neglectful mothers displayed less positive parenting and more strict/hostile control, relative to non-CM mothers. Non-CM mothers displayed greater WP heterogeneity in variance over time in their RSA scores, and greater consistency over time in their parenting behaviors, relative to abusive or neglectful mothers. CM group also moderated concurrent and lagged WP associations in RSA and positive parenting. When abusive mothers displayed lower RSA in a given epoch, relative to their task average, they showed concurrent increases in positive parenting, and higher subsequent levels of hostile control in the following epoch, suggesting that it is physiologically taxing for abusive mothers to parent in positive ways. In contrast, lagged effects for non-CM mothers were observed in which RSA decreases led to subsequent WP increases in positive parenting and decreases in control. Reversed models were significant only for neglectful mothers: Increases in positive parenting led to subsequent increases in RSA levels, and increases in strict, hostile control led to subsequent RSA decreases. These results provide new evidence that concurrent and time-ordered coupling in maternal physiology and behavior during parenting vary in theoretically meaningful ways across CM and non-CM mothers. Implications for intervention and study limitations are discussed. PMID:24729945

  12. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L; Van Ryzin, Mark J

    2013-06-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads-involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)-were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subjected to MLM. Abusive and neglectful mothers displayed less positive parenting and more strict/hostile control, relative to non-CM mothers. Non-CM mothers displayed greater WP heterogeneity in variance over time in their RSA scores, and greater consistency over time in their parenting behaviors, relative to abusive or neglectful mothers. CM group also moderated concurrent and lagged WP associations in RSA and positive parenting. When abusive mothers displayed lower RSA in a given epoch, relative to their task average, they showed concurrent increases in positive parenting, and higher subsequent levels of hostile control in the following epoch, suggesting that it is physiologically taxing for abusive mothers to parent in positive ways. In contrast, lagged effects for non-CM mothers were observed in which RSA decreases led to subsequent WP increases in positive parenting and decreases in control. Reversed models were significant only for neglectful mothers: Increases in positive parenting led to subsequent increases in RSA levels, and increases in strict, hostile control led to subsequent RSA decreases. These results provide new evidence that concurrent and time-ordered coupling in maternal physiology and behavior during parenting vary in theoretically meaningful ways across CM and non-CM mothers. Implications for intervention and study limitations are discussed.

  13. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  14. [Abuse of minors. Clinical considerations on physical abuse, sexual aggression and emotional deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo-Abdalá, A; Trejo-Hernández, J; Bustos-Valenzuela, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians and other health personnel dealing with the consequences of child abuse ought to have abroad understanding of the magnitude of this serious medical and social phenomenon. The three main patterns of child mistreatment as observed at a pediatric hospital are reviewed, with emphasis on its medical and juridical aspects. Various pathologic entities are to be taken into account for differential diagnoses when child abuse is suspected. Risk factors regarding the victims, the abusers and the psychosocial environment are noted.

  15. Identifying elder abuse & neglect among family caregiving dyads: A cross sectional study of psychometric properties of the QualCare scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Ridenour, Kimberly; Salaysay, Zachary; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Pierce, Steven J

    2017-04-01

    Universal screening for elder abuse and neglect is a current controversy in geriatrics, fueled by the lack of evidence on valid and reliable instruments. Since each U.S. State and many other countries have their own legal definitions of what constitutes elder abuse and neglect, this further complicates instrument development and clinical assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the sensitivity and specificity of the QualCare Scale, an instrument with utility in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older adults receiving care at home. Data used in this analysis were collected during a training program in which trainees completed assessments (N=80) of standardized case scenarios of caregiving dyads. Trainees completed the QualCare Scale during each assessment. This training program, including the assessments of the standardized case scenarios, was completed using a custom designed virtual-reality platform. Trainees were able to interact with the environment, older adult and caregiver within the case scenario. Thirty-six nurses and social workers from two Michigan Medicaid Waiver Sites participated in the training program. Each participant assessed between one and five scenarios, yielding the sample of 80 assessments used in this analysis. The research team designed each standardized case scenario to reflect whether or not the QualCare Scale subscale score should indicate reportable elder abuse and neglect per the State statute. Accordingly, the research team's QualCare Scale scores for each scenario were used as the gold standard criterion of clinical significance for comparison against the participant's assessment scores. Sensitivity and specificity for each of the six QualCare subscales was determined. Overall, the subscales had high sensitivity (≥0.811) but a wide range for specificity (0.167-1.000). The QualCare Scale can be an effective tool in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older

  16. Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Witt Huberts, Jessie C

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotions as a trigger for food intake has mainly been focused on the role of negative emotions. In the present studies the role of positive emotions as a trigger for food intake is investigated in a sample of healthy participants with a normal weight. Two laboratory studies were conducted in which positive emotions or no emotions were induced (Study 1) or in addition negative emotions were induced (Study 2) after which unhealthy food intake was assessed by bogus taste tests. In Study 3, food intake was assessed by registering snack intake in a 7-day diary study together with the emotions accompanying each snacking episode to provide a more ecologically valid test of our hypothesis. Studies 1 and 2 showed that positive emotions, compared to the control conditions, evoked more caloric intake. Dietary restraint did not moderate this effect. Study 2 additionally showed that positive emotions evoked caloric intake to the same extent as negative emotions. Study 3 showed that snack intake in daily life was reported to result from positive emotions more frequently than from negative emotions. Positive emotions serve as an important but under-investigated trigger for unhealthy food intake that deserves further scrutiny. Future research should further investigate whether food intake results from emotional arousal in general, or from emotional valence in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expended providing treatment for these injuries. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: ... that violent practices are deployed by men against women in attempts to maintain ... child abuse, or sexual harassment; social support; and experiences with police and ...

  18. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed.

  19. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of "disgust" in traumatic stress and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)-Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES-General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA survivors.

  20. The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  2. Opening the Eyes of Counselors to the Emotional Abuse of Men: An Overlooked Dynamic in Dysfunctional Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.; Pitariu, Gabriela V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors suggest that counselors should expand their awareness of emotional abuse within heterosexual relationships, offering definitions of emotional abuse and statistics that confirm the victimization of men. The implications of this knowledge for counselors" personal growth and therapeutic practice are discussed. The statistics on the…

  3. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads—involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)—were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subje...

  4. An examination of risky sexual behavior and HIV in victims of child abuse and neglect: a 30-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2008-03-01

    This article examined links between childhood maltreatment and risky sexual behavior (early sexual contact, promiscuity, prostitution) and HIV in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, physically and sexually abused and neglected children (ages 0-11) with documented cases during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into adulthood. Early sexual contact, promiscuity, and prostitution were assessed through in-person interviews and official records (prostitution) at approximate age 29 (N=1196). HIV tests were conducted at approximate age 41 (N=631). Child maltreatment was associated with prostitution (OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.35-4.50) and early sexual contact (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.24-2.40). Prevalence of HIV in the abuse/neglect group was twice that in controls (OR=2.35, 95% CI=.64-8.62), although this difference did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. SEM provided significant support for a model linking child abuse and neglect to prostitution through early sexual contact and a marginal link to HIV through prostitution. These findings provide prospective evidence that maltreated children are more likely to report sexual contact before age 15, engage in prostitution by young adulthood, and test positive for HIV in middle adulthood. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Gender Inequity Associated with Increased Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: a Cross-Country Analysis of Population-Based Surveys and Country-Level Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Ports, Katie A

    2017-11-01

    Gender inequity is proposed as a societal-level risk factor for child maltreatment. However, most cross-national research examining this association is limited to developing countries and has used limited measures of gender inequity and child homicides as a proxy for child maltreatment. To examine the relationship between gender inequity and child maltreatment, we used caregivers' reported use of severe physical punishment (proxy for physical abuse) and children under 5 left alone or under the care of another child younger than 10 years of age (supervisory neglect) and three indices of gender inequity (the Social and Institutional Gender Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Gender Gap Index) from 57 countries, over half of which were developing countries. We found all three gender inequity indices to be significantly associated with physical abuse and two of the three to be significantly associated with neglect, after controlling for country-level development. Based on these findings, efforts to prevent child abuse and neglect might benefit from reducing gender inequity.

  6. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  7. Context matters: the benefits and costs of expressing positive emotion among survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, George A; Colak, Deniz M; Keltner, Dacher; Shiota, Michelle N; Papa, Anthony; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2007-11-01

    Positive emotions promote adjustment to aversive life events. However, evolutionary theory and empirical research on trauma disclosure suggest that in the context of stigmatized events, expressing positive emotions might incur social costs. To test this thesis, the authors coded genuine (Duchenne) smiling and laughter and also non-Duchenne smiling from videotapes of late-adolescent and young adult women, approximately half with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), as they described the most distressing event of their lives. Consistent with previous studies, genuine positive emotional expression was generally associated with better social adjustment two years later. However, as anticipated, CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion in the context of describing a past CSA experience had poorer long-term social adjustment, whereas CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion while describing a nonabuse experience had improved social adjustment. These findings suggest that the benefits of positive emotional expression may often be context specific.

  8. The efficacy of family reunification practices: reentry rates and correlates of reentry for abused and neglected children reunited with their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terling, T

    1999-12-01

    Since the 1980s Child Protective Services has increasingly relied on family reunification for abused/neglected children rather than long term foster care or adoption. While family reunification practices are controversial, little research is available to inform the debate. This research explores the efficacy of these practices. This study utilizes two CPS data sources and both quantitative and qualitative methodologies to identify reentry rates and correlates of reentry for abused and neglected children returned to their families by CPS. System reentry due to additional maltreatment is considerable. Thirty-seven percent of the children reunited with their families reenter the system within 3 1/2 years. Correlates of reentry are identified as; abuse type, CPS history, parental competency, race, criminal history, substance abuse, and social support. Notably, assessments of risk made by caseworkers are found to be unrelated to reentry. The high reentry rate and the limitations of current risk assessment procedures suggest that CPS family reunification practices have not been entirely successful. The identification of specific risks of reentry, such as those revealed in this study, will be helpful in assessing risk on cases. In addition, future studies should explore the systemic deficiencies that contribute to the additional maltreatment that occurs for a sizable proportion of the children served by the system.

  9. The impact of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl

    2014-01-01

    Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse...

  10. Interactive Bibliotherapy: An Effective Method for Healing and Empowering Emotionally-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Biller, Derrik L.; Rancourt, Regan E.; Teets, Karen A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the clinical use of story, and examines the therapeutic use of interactive bibliotherapy as a catalyst for healing and empowering an emotionally abused woman. Offers a case history of the adult woman, discussing the use of dialog journals and a particular children's book in her therapy. (SR)

  11. The universality of childhood emotional abuse: A meta-analysis of worldwide prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive meta-analysis combined prevalence figures of child emotional abuse reported in 29 studies, including 46 independent samples with a total of 7,082,279 participants. The overall estimated prevalence was 3/1,000 for studies using informants and 363/1,000 for studies using self-report

  12. Emotional Abuse History and Migraine Among Young Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Add Health Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E; Karmakar, Monita; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr A

    2017-01-01

    To define and examine the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and migraine among young adults. Headache and migraine have been linked to childhood abuse in numerous studies, but there is incomplete characterization of headache types, and limited assessment of abuse types and frequency. Only one population-based study has examined the relationship between emotional abuse and migraine. None have investigated the temporal relationship between onset of abuse and of migraine. We analyzed data from 14,356 adults aged 24-32 years in Wave 4, which is a cross-sectional subset of the longitudinal Add Health study. Participants were queried regarding abuse (emotional, physical and sexual) during childhood, diagnosis of migraine, depression and anxiety by healthcare providers, and symptoms of current depression. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between childhood abuse and migraine, controlling for socio-demographic factors, current depression, and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety and depression. About 14% (n = 2040) of respondents reported migraine. Participants with migraine (vs no migraine) reported significantly higher rates of childhood abuse overall (60.6% vs 48.9%), including emotional (57.8% vs 45.4%), sexual (8.4% vs 4.6%) and physical (22.4% vs 17.9%) abuse. Emotional abuse had a stronger association with migraine (odds ratio [OR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-1.85) when compared with physical (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.89-1.68) and sexual abuse (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.93-1.68), adjusting for socio-demographic factors. The emotional abuse-migraine association remained even when controlling for lifetime diagnosis of depression and anxiety (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.19-1.57) and for current depression (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.30-1.67). The odds of migraine increased with increasing number of abuse types reported. There was a U-shaped distribution of odds of migraine associated with frequency of occurrences of emotional abuse, peaking at one time

  13. The Role of Metacognition and Negative Emotions on Prediction of Abuse Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Mohammadyfar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was determination of the role of metacognition and negative emotions on prediction of abuse behaviors. Method: In correlational research design which is categorized as descriptive research design, 200 participants selected by available sampling in abandonment clinics in Shahrod city. Out of 200 participants, 128 were addicted and 72 were non addicted persons. Metacognition, anxiety, depression, and stress questionnaires were administered among selected samples. Results: The results of regression analysis showed both variables could be significant predictors in prediction of abuse behaviors. Of metacognition subscales, negative believes about not controlling and risk, and cognitive confidence also of negative emotion subscales depression and anxiety were significant predictors. Conclusion: By consideration of results it could be said by intervention of significant variables the probability of suffering of substance abuse and its relapse could be down.

  14. The Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Michiko; Takagishi, Haruto

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect affect the development of social cognition in children and inhibit social adjustment. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to identify the emotional states of others between abused and non-abused children. The participants, 129 children (44 abused and 85 non-abused children), completed a children’s version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Results showed that the mean accuracy rate on the RMET for abused children was significantly lower than the rate of the non-abused children. In addition, the accuracy rates for positive emotion items (e.g., hoping, interested, happy) were significantly lower for the abused children, but negative emotion and neutral items were not different across the groups. This study found a negative relationship between child abuse and the ability to understand others’ emotions, especially positive emotions. PMID:24465891

  15. The relationship between child maltreatment and emotion recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Koizumi

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect affect the development of social cognition in children and inhibit social adjustment. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to identify the emotional states of others between abused and non-abused children. The participants, 129 children (44 abused and 85 non-abused children, completed a children's version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. Results showed that the mean accuracy rate on the RMET for abused children was significantly lower than the rate of the non-abused children. In addition, the accuracy rates for positive emotion items (e.g., hoping, interested, happy were significantly lower for the abused children, but negative emotion and neutral items were not different across the groups. This study found a negative relationship between child abuse and the ability to understand others' emotions, especially positive emotions.

  16. Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Initial Reports on Child Abuse and Neglect from the U. S. Army Central Registry (1975-1995)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, J

    1996-01-01

    ..., the offender's history of violence and abuse, substance abuse involvement of the victim and the offender, and the military and civil actions that had occurred at the time the case was reported...

  18. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  19. Parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation: Associations with abused children's school functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused children. Methods The sample included 92 physically abused children ages 4-7 and one of their parents (95.7% mothers). Parents completed a measure of their own emotional expressiveness, and parents and teachers provided reports of children's self-regulatory skills. Children's school functioning was measured by observations of playground aggression and teacher reports of aggression and classroom behavior. Results Parents’ expression of positive and negative emotions was associated with various aspects of children's self-regulation and functioning in the school setting. Links between self-regulation and children's school adjustment were robust; poor self-regulation was associated with higher aggression and lower cooperation and self-directed behavior in the classroom. There was minimal support for a mediating role of children's self-regulation in links between parent expressiveness and children's behavior. Practice implications Findings point to the relevance of parent emotional expressivity and children's self-regulatory processes in understanding physically abused children's functioning at the transition to school. Although further research is needed, findings indicate that increasing parental expression of positive emotion should be a focus in treatment along with reduction in negativity of abusive parents. Further, addressing children's self-regulation could be important in efforts to reduce aggression and enhance children's classroom competence. PMID:22565040

  20. Abuse and maltreatment in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martins

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We found that the abuse and mistreatment are present in the everyday life of many seniors and are a difficult subject to approach. The evidence, invite us to reflect on the development of intervention strategies, particularly at the levels of emotional abuse, neglect, promotion of health and family functioning in order to contribute to the reduction or extinction of abuse and ill-treatment in the elderly.

  1. Mindfulness meditation improves emotion regulation and reduces drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    The core clinical symptoms of addiction include an enhanced incentive for drug taking (craving), impaired self-control (impulsivity and compulsivity), emotional dysregulation (negative mood) and increased stress reactivity. Symptoms related to impaired self-control involve reduced activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), adjacent prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain areas. Behavioral training such as mindfulness meditation can increase the function of control networks including those leading to improved emotion regulation and thus may be a promising approach for the treatment of addiction. In a series of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we tested whether increased ACC/mPFC activity is related to better self-control abilities in executive functions, emotion regulation and stress response in healthy and addicted populations. After a brief mindfulness training (Integrative Body-Mind Training, IBMT), we used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) to measure emotion regulation, salivary cortisol for the stress response and fMRI for brain functional and DTI structural changes. Relaxation training was used to serve as an active control. In both smokers and nonsmokers, improved self-control abilities in emotion regulation and stress reduction were found after training and these changes were related to increased ACC/mPFC activity following training. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced ACC/mPFC activity in the self-control network before training, and these deficits were ameliorated after training. These results indicate that promoting emotion regulation and improving ACC/mPFC brain activity can help for addiction prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Empathy and child neglect: a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paul, Joaquín; Guibert, María

    2008-11-01

    To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect is considered as a specific type of non-helping behavior. The central hypothesis of the theoretical model presented here suggests that neglectful parents cannot develop the helping response set to care for their children because the observation of a child's signal of need does not lead to the experience of emotions that motivate helping or because the parents experience these emotions, but specific cognitions modify the motivation to help. The present theoretical model suggests that different typologies of neglectful parents could be developed based on different reasons that parents might not to experience emotions that motivate helping behaviors. The model can be helpful to promote new empirical studies about the etiology of different groups of neglectful families.

  3. Neglect, Sexual Abuse, and Witnessing Intimate Partner Violence During Childhood Predicts Later Life Violent Attitudes Against Children Among Kenyan Women: Evidence of Intergenerational Risk Transmission From Cross-Sectional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Hindman, Andrea; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley; Ackerman Porter, Katherine; Raimer, Ben G

    2017-01-01

    Violence against children, including corporal punishment, remains a global concern. Understanding sources of support for corporal punishment within cultures, and the potential for intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment, is essential for policy-development and community engagement to protect children. In this study, we use data from a cross-section of women in Meru County, Kenya ( n = 1,974) to profile attitudes toward violence against children using the Velicer Attitudes Towards Violence-Child subscale. We find reported histories of sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, and witnessing interpersonal violence during childhood predict more violent attitudes toward children in adulthood. The pathway between these forms of child maltreatment and violent attitudes is significantly mediated by family function, perceived stress, and attitudes toward violence against women. Interventions to prevent sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and promote attachments between parents and children may benefit future generations in this population. Furthermore, secondary prevention of the effects of these childhood adversities may require development of social support, improving family function and challenging violent attitudes against women.

  4. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Abuse, Child Neglect, Bipolar Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Domestic Violence: A Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self-report inventories and objective urinalysis, treatment was found to result in the cessation of substance use, lower risk of child maltreatment, improved parenting attitudes and practices, and reduced instances of violence in the home. The importance of utilizing validity scales in the assessment of referrals from child welfare settings is discussed, and future directions are reported in light of the results. PMID:23457426

  5. A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the potential mediating role of four risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-03-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.

  6. Identifying child abuse and neglect risk among postpartum women in Japan using the Japanese version of the Kempe Family Stress Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kaori; Kataoka, Yaeko

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the rate of women who are high-risk for child abuse and neglect in a perinatal unit in Japan, and to identify the factors associated with risk level. To assess the potential risk for child abuse and neglect the Japanese version of the Kempe Family Stress Checklist (FSC-J) was used to guide interviews with postpartum women. FSC-J uses a three-point scale to score 10 categories, categorizing responses as "no risk=0", "risk=5", and "high risk=10". The range of FSC-J is 0-100. Using an established cutoff point of 25, subjects were divided into high and low risk groups. For both groups, relationships between factors were analyzed. Of the 174 subjects who agreed to participate, 12 (6.9%) scored high-risk, and 162 (93.1%) scored low-risk. Adjusted odds ratio identified three associated factors as important for predicting risk level: past mental illness (OR=341.1), previous experience of intimate partner violence (OR=68.0), and having a partner who was unemployed (OR=14.5). Although this study was on a small sample of women in one hospital in Japan and a larger population would make this study much stronger, these results suggest that some 6.9% of postpartum women in Japan may be at high-risk for child abuse and neglect. It is critical, therefore, to develop a system for screening, intervention, and referral for such women and their children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.

  8. Survey of Key Informants on Elder Abuse and Neglect: Report to the Texas Senate Select Subcommittee on Elder Abuse, 70th Legislative Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey M.; Theiss, John T.

    This document reports the findings of a study conducted for the Texas legislature to use in evaluating alternatives for dealing with elder abuse. The described study analyzed experiences with elder abuse of 1,653 Texas professionals in the fields of health and medicine, the judiciary, financial services, law enforcement, and social services. The…

  9. The Effect of Perceived Abusive Management of Workers to Their Performance and the Role of Emotional Intelligence on This Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut AKIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research it is evaluated the effect of perceived abusive management of workers to their performance and the role of emotional intelligence on this effect. Research is realized with 253 civil servants in Kırşehir. Workers performance is handled two dimensional. One of them is task performance and the other one is contextual performance. According to the results, emotional intelligence is diminished or eliminated the effects of abusive management on workers performance. Additionally; emotional intelligence has a positive oriented relationship with task and contextual performance, abusive management has a negative oriented relationship with task and contextual performance. There is a positive oriented relationship between task and contextual performance. Another result of the research is the negative oriented relationship between emotional intelligence and the perceived abusive management.

  10. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Emotions Control among Substance Abusers and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J Bagyan Kouleh Marz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare Alexithymia and emotional control among substance abusers and healthy people. Method: The research design was causal-comparative research design which is categorized as descriptive research method. The population included of all people who were referred to addiction treatment centers in Noor-Abad city (Delfan. The participants of the study comprised of 50 addicts under treatment and 50 healthy participants who were matched based on age, education level, social-economical status, and number of children selected by available sampling method. The alexithymia (TAS-20 and emotions control scales administered among both groups. Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between addicts and non-addicts groups in terms of alexithymia and emotional control. In addition, difficulty in identifying of feelings, depression, anxiety and anger were the most important predictors of addiction severity. Conclusion: These results show that any difficulty in expressing emotions and disability in controlling of negative emotions (anger, depression, and anxiety are risk factors for substance abuse.

  11. Childhood emotional abuse, dissociation, and suicidality among patients with drug dependency in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar-Gurol, Defne; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Evren, Cuneyt; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among patients with drug dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was used to screen 104 consecutive patients at an addiction treatment center. Thirty-seven patients who had scores >or=30 were compared with 21 patients who scored suicide attempt and/or childhood emotional abuse was significant predictors of a dissociative disorder. The majority (59.3%) of dissociative drug users reported that dissociative experiences had existed prior to substance use. More patients in the dissociative disorder than in the non-dissociative group stopped their treatment prematurely. A considerable proportion of drug users have a dissociative disorder, which may also interfere with treatment process. The relatively young age of this subgroup of patients and frequent reports of childhood emotional abuse underline potential preventive benefits of early intervention among adolescents with developmental trauma history and dissociative psychopathology.

  12. 77 FR 36901 - World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... this global public health issue, and we rededicate ourselves to providing our elders the care and... abuse cuts across race, gender, culture, and circumstance, and whether physical, emotional, or financial... signs of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation, and by raising awareness about this public health issue...

  13. A music therapy tool for assessing parent-child interaction in cases of emotional neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; H. McKinney, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Using a music therapy approach to assess emotional communication and parent–child interaction is new to the field of child protection. However, musical improvisations in music therapy has long been known as an analogue to affect attunement and early non-verbal communication between parent and inf...

  14. Longitudinal associations between physically abusive parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M; Haskett, Mary E

    2018-03-01

    The present study took a developmental psychopathology approach to examine the longitudinal association between parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation. Data collection spanned from 2004 to 2008. Ninety-two physically abusive parents completed yearly assessments of their emotional expressiveness, as well as their children's self-regulation abilities. Observational and behavioral measures were also obtained yearly to capture both parents' emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation. Specifically, parents participated in a parent-child interaction task, which provided insight into their levels of flat affect. A puzzle box task was completed by each child to assess self-regulation. Results indicated, first, that greater parental expression of negative emotions predicted poorer self-regulation in children, both concurrently and across time. Second, parental expressions of positive emotions and parents' flat affect were unrelated to children's self-regulation. Findings inform our understanding of parental socialization of self-regulation and provide insight into the roles of distinct components of emotional expressiveness. Moreover, findings have crucial implications for understanding emotional expressiveness in high-risk samples and increase our understanding of within-group functioning among maltreating families that may serve as a means to direct intervention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visión del maltrato al anciano desde atención primaria Primary care doctors' and nurses' opinion of elder abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coma Montserrat

    2007-06-01

    : Twenty-seven health professionals in primary care. Analyses of the thematic content of data, codification, segmentation and creation of categories of the text corpus. Results: The most frequent types of abuse were psychological and financial. Neglect was associated with current lifestyles. Physical and sexual abuse was considered infrequent, but possibly under-detected. Important risk factors were dysfunctional families, stressed and under-trained caregivers, and elder hostility. The profile of the abuser was associated with mental disorders, drug addiction and prior family violence in physical and financial abuse, but no clear profile was identified in the categories of neglect and abandonment. Social and health resources were insufficient and limited intervention, thus making detection fruitless. Education, monitoring and counseling of health professionals in elder abuse was considered necessary because, given external and well coordinated support, primary care could intervene effectively in situations of elder abuse. Conclusions: Although the phenomenon of elder abuse is well known, consensus guidelines for its detection and intervention need to be defined. The lack of resources and the difficulties of delimiting responsibilities in the management of elder abuse should be taken into account when planning strategies. The health professionals considered themselves as a resource and did not avoid involvement.

  16. Incorporating a Healthy Living Curriculum within Family Behavior Therapy: A Clinical Case Example in a Woman with a History of Domestic Violence, Child Neglect, Drug Abuse, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly B. LaPota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA020548-01A1 awarded to Brad Donohue. The authors wish to thank Sally K. Miller, PhD, APN, FAANP and Associate Professor, UNLV School of Nursing for her work in completing the initial in-home health evaluation/physical for the current project.

  17. Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes: Do Special Care Units Make a Difference? A Secondary Data Analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld Arens, Olivia; Fierz, Katharina; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    In special care units (SCUs) for residents with advanced dementia, both personnel and organizations are adapted to the needs of residents. However, whether these adaptations have a preventive effect on elder abuse has not yet been explored. To describe the prevalence of observed emotional abuse, neglect, and physical abuse in Swiss nursing homes, to compare SCUs with non-SCUs concerning the frequency of observed emotional abuse, neglect, and physical abuse, and to explore how resident-related characteristics, staff outcomes/characteristics, and organizational/environmental factors relate to observed elder abuse. This is a secondary data analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP), a cross-sectional multicenter study. Data were collected from 2012 to 2013 and are based on observed rather than perpetrated elder abuse. We performed multilevel mixed-effects logistic regressions taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data with personnel nested within units and facilities. Of 4,599 care workers in 400 units and 156 facilities, 50.8% observed emotional abuse, 23.7% neglect, and 1.4% physical abuse. There was no significant difference between SCUs and non-SCUs regarding observed emotional abuse and neglect. Higher scores for 'workload' and sexual aggression towards care workers were associated with higher rates of emotional abuse and neglect. Verbal and physical resident aggression, however, were only associated with higher rates of emotional abuse. Negative associations were found between 'teamwork and resident safety climate' and both forms of abuse. Improving teamwork and the safety climate and reducing work stressors might be promising points of intervention to reduce elder abuse. More specific research about elder abuse in SCUs and the interaction between work climate and elder abuse is required. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan L C; Bertoglio, Leandro J; Guimarães, Francisco S; Stevenson, Carl W

    2017-10-01

    Learning to associate cues or contexts with potential threats or rewards is adaptive and enhances survival. Both aversive and appetitive memories are therefore powerful drivers of behaviour, but the inappropriate expression of conditioned responding to fear- and drug-related stimuli can develop into anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders respectively. These disorders are associated with abnormally persistent emotional memories and inadequate treatment, often leading to symptom relapse. Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT 1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat. There is also accumulating evidence from animal studies investigating the effects of cannabidiol on fear memory processing indicating that it reduces learned fear in paradigms that are translationally relevant to phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder. Cannabidiol does so by reducing fear expression acutely and by disrupting fear memory reconsolidation and enhancing fear extinction, both of which can result in a lasting reduction of learned fear. Recent studies have also begun to elucidate the effects of cannabidiol on drug memory expression using paradigms with translational relevance to addiction. The findings suggest that cannabidiol reduces the expression of drug memories acutely and by disrupting their reconsolidation. Here, we review the literature demonstrating the anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol before focusing on studies investigating its effects on various fear and drug memory processes. Understanding how cannabidiol regulates emotion and emotional memory processing may eventually lead to its use as a treatment for anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of Cognition: a Panacea for Neuropsychiatric Disease? To view the other articles in this section visit

  19. Five-year all-cause mortality rates across five categories of substantiated elder abuse occurring in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jason; Jackson, Shelly L; Sinha, Arup K; Aschenbrenner, Andrew R; Murphy, Kathleen Pace; Xia, Rui; Diamond, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse increases the likelihood of early mortality, but little is known regarding which types of abuse may be resulting in the greatest mortality risk. This study included N = 1,670 cases of substantiated elder abuse and estimated the 5-year all-cause mortality for five types of elder abuse (caregiver neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and polyvictimization). Statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality risks were found between abuse types and across gender. Caregiver neglect and financial exploitation had the lowest survival rates, underscoring the value of considering the long-term consequences associated with different forms of abuse. Likewise, mortality differences between genders and abuse types indicate the need to consider this interaction in elder abuse case investigations and responses. Further mortality studies are needed in this population to better understand these patterns and implications for public health and clinical management of community-dwelling elder abuse victims.

  20. Associations Between Childhood Abuse, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Implicit Emotion Regulation Deficits: Evidence From a Low-Income, Inner-City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Bradley, Bekh; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including increased risk for development of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the present study was to examine associations between child abuse, PTSD symptoms, and performance on an emotional conflict regulation task that assesses implicit emotion regulation abilities. The sample consisted of 67 (94% African American) females recruited from a public, urban hospital. Childhood abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was measured using the modified PTSD Symptom Scale. Task accuracy and implicit emotion regulation were measured through an emotional conflict regulation behavioral task. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that exposure to moderate to severe childhood abuse was significantly related to worse emotional conflict regulation scores independent of current PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and adult trauma exposure, suggesting a deficit in implicit emotion regulation. We also found an interaction between PTSD symptoms and abuse exposure in predicting accuracy on the behavioral task; high levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer task accuracy among individuals who reported moderate to severe exposure to childhood abuse. However, no relationship between implicit emotion regulation abilities and overall PTSD symptom severity was found. This study provides preliminary evidence of an implicit emotion regulation deficit for individuals exposed to significant childhood abuse and further supports the growing evidence that addressing various aspects of emotion dysregulation, such as awareness of emotions and strategies to manage strong emotions, in the context of treatment would be valuable.

  1. Children's Views on Child Abuse and Neglect: Findings from an Exploratory Study with Chinese Children in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuk-chung; Lam, Gladys L. T.; Shae, Wan-Chaw

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This research study explored children's views on issues about child abuse in Hong Kong and examined their implications on child protection work and research in Chinese societies. Method: Six primary schools were recruited from different districts of Hong Kong. Five vignettes of child maltreatment in the form of flash movies were…

  2. Childhood exposure to emotional abuse and later life stress among Kenyan women: a mediation analysis of cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Gutarra, Claudia; Billingsley, Katherine M; Keiser, Philip H; Gitari, Stanley

    2017-07-01

    We explore whether perceived stress among Kenyan mothers is predicted by childhood exposure to emotional abuse - both witnessed among parents and experienced directly. Further, we explore whether this association is mediated by social support, family functioning and polygynous marriage. We used cross-sectional data from a systematic random sample (n = 1974) of mothers in semi-rural Kenya. Data were collected using validated scales and trained interviewers. Analyses were conducted using bootstrapped structural equation models and fixed-effects linear regression models, controlling for age and household wealth. Reported experience of emotional abuse - both directly experienced and observed among household adults - was high in the present population (72.5% and 69%, respectively). Perceived stress among women was significantly higher if they were exposed to more emotional abuse during childhood (p emotional abuse exposure during childhood and adult perceived stress. Future research should investigate whether social integration, identity formation and self-esteem underlie observed dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to promote social integration and support should target children currently experiencing emotional abuse, and may include child-targeted high quality television programing and adult-targeted media and celebrity campaigns.

  3. Seeing Context through Metaphor: Using Communications Research to Bring a Social Determinants Perspective to Public Thinking about Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Kendall-Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human beings think in metaphor and reason through analogy. The metaphors through which we think influence how we understand and feel about social issues as well as the actions that we see as appropriate and important. Metaphors can be used to increase understanding of how issues work and increase the salience of a given issue, build support for programs and policies necessary to address the issue, and instigate demand for change and civic action. In this paper, we use a mixed methods research design, including brief qualitative interviews, experimental surveys, and focus groups, to test the ability of different metaphors to influence public understanding of the social determinants of child abuse and neglect in the UK. We find one metaphor in particular that improves people’s understanding of the social causes of child maltreatment and increases support for structural solutions. This metaphor can be used to build support for preventative public health solutions.

  4. Seeing Context through Metaphor: Using Communications Research to Bring a Social Determinants Perspective to Public Thinking about Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Taylor, Nathaniel; Stanley, Kate

    2018-01-19

    Human beings think in metaphor and reason through analogy. The metaphors through which we think influence how we understand and feel about social issues as well as the actions that we see as appropriate and important. Metaphors can be used to increase understanding of how issues work and increase the salience of a given issue, build support for programs and policies necessary to address the issue, and instigate demand for change and civic action. In this paper, we use a mixed methods research design, including brief qualitative interviews, experimental surveys, and focus groups, to test the ability of different metaphors to influence public understanding of the social determinants of child abuse and neglect in the UK. We find one metaphor in particular that improves people's understanding of the social causes of child maltreatment and increases support for structural solutions. This metaphor can be used to build support for preventative public health solutions.

  5. The Effect of Emotional Focused Intervention on Spousal Emotional Abuse and Marital Satisfaction among Elderly Married Couples: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hazrati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the impacts of an Emotional Focused Intervention on emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction among the elderly married couples. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was carried out in Shiraz-Iran, during September 2013-2014. The elderly couples were invited to join an emotional focused intervention, following the advertisement and announcement on bulletin boards in the elderly day clinic centers and all governmental primary health care centers. Then, 57 couples (114 participants who were eligible for study were assigned in two groups by block randomization (29 in the experimental and 28 in the control group(.The couples in the experimental group received intervention twice a week for four weeks. Each session lasted 90 minutes. The control group didn’t receive any intervention and the subjects were put in the waiting list. The outcome measures were evaluated by Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse Questionnaire (MMEAQ and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire for Older People (MSQFOP. Repeated measurement ANOVA was used to detect any significant changes between groups in their mean scores of emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction from pre- to post-test, and 3 months after the intervention. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS, version 19, and P≤0.05 was measured as significant. Results: The mean duration of marriage was 39.56±9.64 years. In the experimental group, the abusive behaviors decreased significantly (P<0.001 at times 2 and 3 compared with time 1, and marital satisfaction improved significantly only at time 3 (P<0.001. These differences were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Emotion-focused couple-based interventions are helpful in reducing the spousal emotional abuse and improving marital satisfaction in among the elderly couples. Trial Registration Number: 2013111715426N1

  6. The Prediction of Tendency to Substance Abuse on the Basis of Self Esteem and Components of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzad nasiry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was the prediction of tendency to substance abuse on the basis of self esteem and components of emotional intelligence. Method: In this descriptive-correlational Study our sample included 153 students of Azad university of qorveh which selected by simple random sampling. APS, Rosenberg’s self esteem scale and Bradberry’s emotional intelligence questionnaires administered among selected sample. Results: Research findings represented that there are negative significant correlation between tendency to substance abuse and self esteem, also between tendency to substance abuse and self management and relationship management. Conclusion: Results of this study are showing the predictor role of self esteem, self-management and relationship management in tendency to substance abuse.

  7. Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Self-harm in Early Childhood in a Cohort at Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Elise; Ortin, Ana

    2017-12-27

    This study provides prevalence and persistence rates of suicidal ideation and self-harm, and examines how child maltreatment types, mental health symptoms, and age 4 suicidal ideation and self-harm are associated with each suicidal outcome among 6-year-old children. Participants were 1,090 caregivers assessed when their children were 4 and 6 years old from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Data were collected from the Child Behavior Checklist, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and Child Protective Services. Persistence rates within each suicidal outcome were high. Failure to provide -a physical neglect subtype- was the only maltreatment type that independently predicted self-harm. Depressive/anxious symptoms and age 4 suicidal ideation were independently associated with age 6 suicidal ideation, whereas attention problems and age 4 self-harm predicted age 6 self-harm. Our findings align with the consensus emerging from adolescent studies that risk factors associate differentially with suicidal ideation and self-harm.

  8. Physical and emotional abuse in romantic relationships: motivation for perpetration among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisring, Penny A

    2013-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management.

  9. Toward an Etiologic Classification of Pediatric Social Illness: A Descriptive Epidemiology of Child Abuse and Neglect, Failure to Thrive, Accidents and Poisonings in Children Under Four Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberger, Eli H.; And Others

    This study examined the underlying common origins of pediatric social illnesses (i.e., child abuse and neglect, failure to thrive, accidents, and poisonings) in children under age 4. Subjects were 560 children admitted to the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. Children admitted with pediatric social diagnoses were matched on the basis…

  10. Parental cannabis abuse and accidental intoxications in children: prevention by detecting neglectful situations and at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, Fanny; Claudet, Isabelle; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Franchitto, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Cannabis intoxication in toddlers is rare and mostly accidental. Our objectives were to focus on the characteristics and management of children under the age of 6 years who were admitted to our emergency department with cannabis poisoning reported as accidental by parents, and to point out the need to consider accidental cannabis ingestions as an indicator of neglect. The medical records of children hospitalized for cannabis poisoning in a pediatric emergency department from January 2007 to November 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Data collected included age, sex, drug ingested, source of drug, intentional versus accidental ingestion, pediatric intensive care unit or hospital admission, treatment and length of hospital stay, toxicology results, and rate of child protectives services referral. Twelve toddlers (4 boys and 8 girls; mean age, 16.6 months) were included. All had ingested cannabis. Their parents reported the ingestion. Seven children experienced drowsiness or hypotonia. Three children were given activated charcoal. Blood screening for cannabinoids, performed in 2 cases, was negative in both, and urine samples were positive in 7 children (70%). All children had favorable outcomes after being hospitalized from 2 to 48 hours. Nine children were referred to social services for further assessment before discharge. Cannabis intoxication in children should be reported to child protection services with the aim of prevention, to detect situations of neglect and at-risk families. Legal action against the parents may be considered. Accidental intoxication and caring parents should be no exception to this rule.

  11. The Health and Well-Being of Neglected, Abused and Exploited Children: The Kyiv Street Children Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Michael; Koshyl, Vira; Roganov, Oleksandr; Mikhailichenko, Kateryna; Gorbova, Irina; Pottage, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To report on the backgrounds and physical and emotional well-being of street children using two street shelters in Kyiv, Ukraine. This study is important because personal accounts of street children may highlight individual or family factors that are associated with vulnerability for and risk of poor mental health, and these could have…

  12. Dissociation fully mediates the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and DSM-5 PTSD in a sample of treatment-seeking adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Maria Louison; Shevlin, Mark; Karatzias, Thanos

    2018-01-01

    emotional abuse on post-traumatic stress severity. The indirect effect model fit the data best. Conclusion: Dissociation fully mediated the relationship between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and post-traumatic stress severity. The results are limited by the use of retrospective self-report measures...

  13. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION: THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL DEPRESSION IN REMISSION AND ADDITIONAL HISTORY OF CHILDHOOD ABUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczniok, Dorothea; Boedeker, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Fydrich, Thomas; Fuehrer, Daniel; Dittrich, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Winter, Sibylle; Heinz, Andreas; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bermpohl, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The association between maternal depression and adverse outcomes in children is well established. Similar links have been found for maternal childhood abuse. One proposed pathway of risk transmission is reduced maternal emotional availability. Our aim was to investigate whether sensitive parenting is impaired in mothers with depression in remission, and whether among these mothers childhood abuse has an additional impact. The mother-child interaction of 188 dyads was assessed during a play situation using the Emotional Availability Scales, which measure the overall affective quality of the interaction: maternal sensitivity, structuring, nonhostility, and nonintrusiveness. Mothers with depression in remission were compared to healthy mothers. Children were between 5 and 12 years old. Group differences and impact of additional childhood abuse were analyzed by one-factorial analyses of covariance and planned contrasts. Mothers with depression in remission showed less emotional availability during mother-child interaction compared to healthy control mothers. Specifically, they were less sensitive and, at trend-level, less structuring and more hostile. Among these mothers, we found an additional effect of severe maternal childhood abuse on maternal sensitivity: Mothers with depression in remission and a history of severe childhood abuse were less sensitive than remitted mothers without childhood abuse. Our data suggest that depression impacts on maternal emotional availability during remission, which might represent a trait characteristic of depression. Mothers with depression in remission and additional severe childhood abuse were particularly affected. These findings may contribute to the understanding of children's vulnerability to develop a depressive disorder themselves. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The health and well-being of neglected, abused and exploited children: the Kyiv Street Children Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Michael; Koshyl, Vira; Roganov, Oleksandr; Mikhailichenko, Kateryna; Gorbova, Irina; Pottage, David

    2007-01-01

    To report on the backgrounds and physical and emotional well-being of street children using two street shelters in Kyiv, Ukraine. This study is important because personal accounts of street children may highlight individual or family factors that are associated with vulnerability for and risk of poor mental health, and these could have serious repercussions for the future. This study also poses a challenge to research because street children are a highly elusive population that services find hard to reach. Ninety-seven children were recruited and interviewed using a semistructured, psychosocial interview schedule; psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ). Seventy percent of street children scored for behavioral and emotional difficulties on the SDQ, and 74% scored for depression on the MFQ. Current health problems were reported by 78%, with 43% described as persistent or severe. Two thirds of the children in this sample were not homeless but had chosen life on the streets in preference to permanent residence with their families. Their "survival" history on the streets contributed to the development of three different profiles of vulnerability. High rates of physical and emotional problems in a population of street children, many of whom were still connected to their families, emphasize the importance of developing different approaches for children with different vulnerabilities. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of embedding on-going field research into the service dimension of "front-line" social care agencies.

  15. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  17. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...

  18. Neural correlates of the classic color and emotional stroop in women with abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J Douglas; Vermetten, Eric; Vythilingam, Meena; Afzal, Nadeem; Schmahl, Christian; Elzinga, Bernet; Charney, Dennis S

    2004-03-15

    The anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex play an important role in the inhibition of responses, as measured by the Stroop task, as well as in emotional regulation. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to use the Stroop task as a probe of anterior cingulate function in PTSD. Women with early childhood sexual abuse-related PTSD (n = 12) and women with abuse but without PTSD (n = 9) underwent positron emission tomographic measurement of cerebral blood flow during exposure to control, color Stroop, and emotional Stroop conditions. Women with abuse with PTSD (but not abused non-PTSD women) had a relative decrease in anterior cingulate blood flow during exposure to the emotional (but not color) classic Stroop task. During the color Stroop there were also relatively greater increases in blood flow in non-PTSD compared with PTSD women in right visual association cortex, cuneus, and right inferior parietal lobule. These findings add further evidence for dysfunction of a network of brain regions, including anterior cingulate and visual and parietal cortex, in abuse-related PTSD.

  19. The Analysis of the Relationship between Well Being and the Levels of Emotional Abuse of the Teacher Candidates Perceive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Zuleyha; Akca, Figen; Bozkurt, Aysegul

    2017-01-01

    Emotional abuse can be defined as a large behavior pattern which the individual is exposed to and can be compiled as, the abasement, violent attitude, exclusion, continuous criticism, unfulfilled need for love and making someone feel worthless. From this point of view the effect on the well being is a key concern about the individuals exposed to…

  20. 'You don’t realize what you see!': the institutional context of emotional abuse in elite youth sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, F.M.; Smits, Froukje; Knoppers, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Various discourses construct youth sport as a site for pleasure and participation, for positive development, for performance and for protection/safeguarding. Elite youth sport however continues to be a site for emotionally abusive coaching behaviour. Little attention has been paid to how the

  1. 'You don't realize what you see!': the institutional context of emotional abuse in elite youth sport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Jacobs; Froukje Smits; Annelies Knoppers

    2017-01-01

    Various discourses construct youth sport as a site for pleasure and participation, for positive development, for performance and for protection/safeguarding. Elite youth sport however continues to be a site for emotionally abusive coaching behaviour. Little attention has been paid to how the

  2. 'You don't realize what you see!': the institutional context of emotional abuse in elite youth sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Jacobs; Froukje Smits; Annelies Knoppers

    2016-01-01

    Various discourses construct youth sport as a site for pleasure and participation, for positive development, for performance and for protection/safeguarding. Elite youth sport however continues to be a site for emotionally abusive coaching behaviour. Little attention has been paid to how the

  3. 'You don’t realize what you see!': the institutional context of emotional abuse in elite youth sport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, F.M.; Smits, Froukje; Knoppers, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Various discourses construct youth sport as a site for pleasure and participation, for positive development, for performance and for protection/safeguarding. Elite youth sport however continues to be a site for emotionally abusive coaching behaviour. Little attention has been paid to how the

  4. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for

  5. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  6. The prevalence and correlates of elder abuse and neglect in a rural community of Negeri Sembilan state: baseline findings from The Malaysian Elder Mistreatment Project (MAESTRO), a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Noran N; Chinna, Karuthan; Hairi, Farizah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ahmad, Sharifah Nor; Razak, Inayah Abdul; Aziz, Suriyati Abdul; Ramli, Rohaya; Mohamad, Rosmala; Mohammad, Zaiton Lal; Peramalah, Devi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Aris, Tahir; Bulgiba, Awang

    2017-09-01

    As Malaysia is fast becoming an ageing nation, the health, safety and welfare of elders are major societal concerns. Elder abuse is a phenomenon recognised abroad but less so locally. This paper presents the baseline findings from the Malaysian Elder Mistreatment Project (MAESTRO) study, the first community-based study on elder abuse in Malaysia. Cross-sectional study, analysing baseline findings of a cohort of older adults. Kuala Pilah district, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia. To determine the prevalence of elder abuse among community dwelling older adults and its associated factors. A total of 2112 community dwelling older adults aged 60 years and above were recruited employing a multistage sampling using the national census. Elder abuse, measured using a validated instrument derived from previous literature and the modified Conflict Tactic Scales, similar to the Irish national prevalence survey on elder abuse with modification to local context. Factors associated with abuse and profiles of respondents were also examined. The prevalence of overall abuse was reported to be 4.5% in the past 12 months. Psychological abuse was most common, followed by financial, physical, neglect and sexual abuse. Two or more occurrences of abusive acts were common, while clustering of various types of abuse was experienced by one-third of abused elders. Being male (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.15, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.78), being at risk of social isolation (aOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.58), a prior history of abuse (aOR 3.28, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.68) and depressive symptomatology (aOR 7.83, 95% CI 2.88 to 21.27) were independently associated with overall abuse. Elder abuse occurred among one in every 20 elders. The findings on elder abuse indicate the need to enhance elder protection in Malaysia, with both screening of and interventions for elder abuse. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  7. The Effectiveness of Group Training of Procedural Emotion Regulation Strategies in Cognitive Coping of Individuals Suffering Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ghaedniay jahromi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies in cognitive coping of individuals suffering substance abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. Then, 16 patients suffering substance abuse were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to two control and experimental groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies while the control group received no treatment. Both groups before and after the treatment completed the Persian version of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (Hasani, 2011. Results: The results showed that group training of e procedural motion regulation strategies leads to a reduction in maladaptive strategies such as self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame and an increase in adaptive strategies such as refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and perspective development. Conclusion: Training of procedural emotion regulation strategies via the reduction of maladaptive and increase of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies can provide the opportunity for the improvement and non-return to substance abuse.

  8. Definition, Measuring and Prevalence of Child Neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...

  9. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lefebvre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013 were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001. The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  10. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  11. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  12. Examination of Life Satisfaction, Child Maltreatment Potential and Substance Use in Mothers Referred for Treatment by Child Protective Services for Child Neglect and Substance Abuse: Implications for Intervention Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, Christopher P.; Donohue, Brad; Holland, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest mothers who are served by child protective service agencies are relatively dissatisfied in their lives, leading some investigators to conclude life dissatisfaction may be associated with child maltreatment. To assist in better understanding this relationship the Life Satisfaction Scale for Caregivers (LSSC) was psychometrically developed in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred for behavioral treatment for child neglect and substance abuse by caseworkers from a...

  13. Emotional Abuse: How the Concept Sheds Light on the Understanding of Psychological Harassment (in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Harvey

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of emotional abuse in the workplace and applies relevant findings and concepts to psychological harassment as defined in the legislation enacted in Quebec beginning June 1, 2004. It is noted that the terms are highly related by definition and that a clear similarity exists. Accordingly, a prospective look is taken at the challenges involved in the understanding and application of psychological harassment based on seven dimensions commonly studied and referred to in the academic literature on emotional abuse. The conclusion is that the determination of psychological harassment involves a multidimensional consideration of factors and that this gives rise to several challenges in applying the new legislation.Cet article s’intéresse au concept d’abus émotif au travail et à son application à des problèmes de harcèlement psychologique, tel que défini par la législation promulguée au Québec en juin 2004. Les définitions des deux termes sont rapprochées ce qui suggère qu’il s’agit de problèmes similaires. À des fins de prospective, l’article étudie les implications pratiques de l’application au harcèlement psychologique des sept dimensions associées à l’abus émotif dans la littérature scientifique. L’article arrive à la conclusion qu’un diagnostic de harcèlement psychologique requiert la prise en compte de facteurs multidimensionnels, ce qui soulève des difficultés multiples en ce qui a trait à l’application de la législation récente.Este artículo se interesa al concepto de abuso emotivo en el trabajo y a su aplicación a los problemas de acoso psicológico, según la definición que figura en la legislación promulgada en Québec en junio del 2004. Las definiciones de los dos términos son próximas lo que sugiere que se trata de problemas similares. Con fines prospectivos, el artículo estudia las implicaciones prácticas de la aplicación de siete dimensiones asociadas al

  14. Prevalence of child abuse in Khorramabad junior high school students, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh Malekshahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.

  15. In-house consultation to support professionals' responses to child abuse and neglect: Determinants of professionals' use and the association with guideline adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnendijk, Annemieke A J; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Kaya, Anna H; Haasnoot, Maria E; Need, Ariana

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the presence and strengths of determinants associated with consultation of an in-house expert on child abuse and neglect (CAN) by preventive child health care professionals who suspect CAN. This study also assessed the relationship between in-house CAN expert consultation and professionals' performance of six recommended activities described in a national guideline on preventing CAN for preventive child health care professionals. A total of 154 professionals met the study's inclusion criteria. They filled in a questionnaire that measured in-house consultation practices and twelve determinants associated with the professional, the in-house expert, and the organizational context. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Almost half of the participants (46.8%) reported to consult the in-house expert in (almost) all of their suspected CAN cases. Professionals who reported better recollection of consulting the in-house expert (i.e. not forgetting to consult the expert) (p=.001), who were more familiar with consultation (p=.002), who had more positive attitudes and beliefs about consultation (p=.011) and who reported being more susceptible to the behavior (p=.001) and expectations/opinions (p=.025) of colleagues regarding in-house expert consultation were more likely to consult the in-house expert. Furthermore, in-house expert consultation was positively associated with two of six key guideline activities: consulting the regional child protection service and monitoring whether support was provided to families. The implications of these results for improving professionals' responses to CAN are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of serious events in cases of (suspected) child abuse and/or neglect: A RoSE by any other name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Maiese, Michelle; Vasquez, Viviana; Gordon, Paola; Jones, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases presenting to health-services may be complex; when things go seriously wrong such as a child death or near miss, cases are reviewed and health-services and professionals subject to intense scrutiny. While there are a variety of mechanisms to review critical incidents in health-services no formal process for the review of cases where child protection is the primary concern exists in Australia. We aimed to develop a systematic process to review serious events in cases of suspected CAN across two health districts in Sydney, so that shared learnings could fuel system change. Drawing upon mapping, case review, literature findings and using quality improvement methodology, we developed a model named Review of Serious Events (RoSE), in suspected cases of CAN. The RoSE model has the key features of: being child focused; seeking to examine care over a period of time; using child protection staff as lead reviewers; involving health professionals/services in the review who have been involved with the child; and actioning systems change at local levels. The RoSE model was trialled through 2014-2015. Eight cases were reviewed using RoSE; cases were similar to those reviewed prior to having a model. Participant feedback from RoSE group processes was overwhelmingly positive; outputs were transparent and accessible to key stakeholders, there was mixed progress with implementation. The RoSE model is a serious case review process that is strongly child-focused, is both investigative and reflective, led by child protection experts; and can be adapted to other settings and systems. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. When the customer is unethical: the explanatory role of employee emotional exhaustion onto work-family conflict, relationship conflict with coworkers, and job neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Rebecca L; Quade, Matthew J; Mawritz, Mary B; Kim, Joongseo; Crosby, Durand

    2014-11-01

    We integrate deontological ethics (Folger, 1998, 2001; Kant, 1785/1948, 1797/1991) with conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) to propose that an employee's repeated exposure to violations of moral principle can diminish the availability of resources to appropriately attend to other personal and work domains. In particular, we identify customer unethical behavior as a morally charged work demand that leads to a depletion of resources as captured by employee emotional exhaustion. In turn, emotionally exhausted employees experience higher levels of work-family conflict, relationship conflict with coworkers, and job neglect. Employee emotional exhaustion serves as the mediator between customer unethical behavior and such outcomes. To provide further evidence of a deontological effect, we demonstrate the unique effect of customer unethical behavior onto emotional exhaustion beyond perceptions of personal mistreatment and trait negative affectivity. In Study 1, we found support for our theoretical model using multisource field data from customer-service professionals across a variety of industries. In Study 2, we also found support for our theoretical model using multisource, longitudinal field data from service employees in a large government organization. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The role of emotional vulnerability and abuse in the financial exploitation of older people from culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannettino, Lana; Bagshaw, Dale; Wendt, Sarah; Adams, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    While the literature acknowledges that older people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CaLD) communities are particularly susceptible to financial abuse by their family members, there is a dearth of research that explores the nature of CaLD older people's vulnerability to this form of abuse. This case study examines unique dynamics shaping this form of abuse and demonstrates how emotional vulnerability and dependence, exacerbated by cultural and linguistic disconnection, can place older people at risk.

  19. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the association with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress in a multi-ethnic pregnant population in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Schei, Berit; Östman, Margareta; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and analyze associations with symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) in pregnancy, by ethnic background. This is a cross-sectional study of the Swedish data from the Bidens cohort study. Ethnicity was categorized as native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Women completed a questionnaire while attending routine antenatal care. The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) assessed a history of emotional, physical or sexual abuse. The Edinburgh Depression Scale-5 measured symptoms of depression. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) included intrusion, avoidance and numbness. Of 1003 women, 78.6% were native and 21.4% were non-native Swedish-speakers. Native and non-native Swedish-speakers experienced a similar proportion of lifetime abuse. Moderate emotional and physical abuse in childhood was significantly more common among non-native Swedish-speakers. Sexual abuse in adulthood was significantly more prevalent among native Swedish-speakers. Emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of depression for both natives and non-natives. Physical abuse was significantly associated with symptoms of depression for non-natives only. All types of abuse were significantly associated with symptoms of PTS for both native and non-native Swedish-speakers. Adding ethnicity to the multiple binary regression analyses did not really alter the association between the different types of abuse and symptoms of depression and PTS. The prevalence of lifetime abuse did not differ significantly for native and non-native Swedish-speakers but there were significant differences on a more detailed level. Abuse was associated with symptoms of depression and PTS. Being a non-native Swedish-speaker did not influence the association much. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua

    2012-04-01

    This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.

  1. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.

  2. Abuse of physically disabled women in Ghana: its emotional consequences and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the different forms of abuse experienced by physically disabled women in Ghana, and seeks to provide an understanding of the coping strategies used by these women. This is a qualitative inquiry based on data collected after informed consent from five female informants using in-depth interviews and focus groups. Presentation of results and discussion: The data revealed that our informants experienced social, physical/verbal and sexual abuse to which they adopt coping strategies such as help-seeking, avoidance, confrontation, confidence building and an exchange of sympathy. Disabled women in Ghana still face various forms of abuse that appear to be generally accepted because of cultural beliefs and norms, and they employ various strategies to cope with abuse and sustain their female identity. There is the need for awareness programmes at all societal levels to eradicate prejudices and practices that expose disabled women to abuse. Implications for Rehabilitation The rehabilitation of abused disabled women should include empowering processes that enable them to overcome abusive relationships. The dignity of abused disabled women can be restored by increasing their access to rehabilitation facilities. Cultural stereotypes that legitimate abuse should be addressed in efforts to rehabilitate abused, disabled women. Abused, disabled women may increase their female identity when they engage in rehabilitation processes such as networking and participation in full-time work.

  3. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.

  5. Changes in emotion regulation in adults with and without a history of childhood abuse following posttraumatic stress disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerud, Alissa B; Zoellner, Lori A; Pruitt, Larry D; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-08-01

    This study compared changes in emotion regulation and trait affect over the course of PTSD treatment with either prolonged exposure (PE) therapy or sertraline in adults with and without a history of childhood abuse (CA). Two hundred adults with PTSD received 10 weeks of PE or sertraline. Emotion regulation and trait affect were assessed pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003), the Negative Mood Regulation Scale (Catanzaro & Mearns, 1990), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Individuals with and without a history of CA did not differ from one another at pretreatment on PTSD severity, emotion regulation, or positive/negative affect. In addition, treatment was effective at improving emotion regulation and trait affect in those with and without a history of CA, and no significant differences in emotion regulation or trait affect emerged posttreatment or at 6-month follow-up between adults with and without a history of CA. Furthermore, noninferiority analyses indicated that the emotion regulation and trait affect outcomes of individuals with a history of CA were no worse than those of individuals without a history of CA. These findings cast doubt on the assumption that CA is associated with worse emotion regulation following PTSD treatment, arguing against assertions that a history of CA itself is a contraindication for traditional PTSD treatment, and that there is a clear necessity for additional interventions designed to target assumed emotion regulation deficits. [Corrected] PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Intersections between cardiac physiology, emotion regulation and interpersonal warmth in preschoolers: Implications for drug abuse prevention from translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Giuliano, Ryan J; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-06-01

    Early childhood is characterized by dramatic gains in emotion regulation skills that support social adjustment and mental health. Understanding the physiological substrates of healthy emotion regulation may offer new directions for altering trajectories toward initiation and escalation of substance abuse. Here, we describe the intersections between parasympathetic and sympathetic tone, emotion regulation and prosocial behavior in a high-risk sample of preschoolers. Fifty-two 3-6 year old children completed an assessment of attention regulation in response to affective stimuli. Cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an index of parasympathetic tone, and pre-ejection period, a marker of sympathetic activation, were recorded at rest and while children engaged in social interactions with their mothers and an unfamiliar research assistant. Mothers reported on children's emotional reactivity and prosocial behavior. Controlling for age and psychosocial risk, higher parasympathetic tone predicted better attention regulation in response to angry emotion and higher levels of prosocial behavior, whereas a reciprocal pattern of higher parasympathetic tone and lower sympathetic arousal predicted better attention in response to positive emotion and lower emotional reactivity. Children exposed to fewer risk factors and higher levels of maternal warmth were more able to sustain a high level of parasympathetic tone during interaction episodes. Findings suggest that autonomic measures represent biomarkers for socio-emotional competence in young children. They also point to the importance of early experiences in the establishment of physiological regulation and the promise of family-based intervention to promote healthy emotion regulation and prevent substance dependence in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of endogenous and exogenous progesterone on emotional intelligence in cocaine-dependent men and women who also abuse alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Verica; Sinha, Rajita; Morgan, Peter T; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Fox, Helen C

    2014-11-01

    As sex differences in substance dependence may impinge upon the perception and regulation of emotion, we assess emotional intelligence (EI) as a function of gender, menstrual cycle (MC) phase and hormonal changes in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals who abuse alcohol (CDA). Study 1: The Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 98 CDA (55 M/43 F) and 56 healthy (28 M/28 F) individuals. Performance in women was also assessed by MC phase. Study 2: The MSCEIT was administered to 28 CDA (19 M/9 F) who received exogenous progesterone (400 mg/day) versus placebo for 7 days (study 2). Study 1: Healthy females were better than healthy males at facilitating thought and managing emotions. This gender discrepancy was not observed in the CDA group. Additionally, all women in the high compared with the low progesterone phase of their MC were better at managing their emotions. Study 2: Exogenous progesterone improved ability to facilitate thought in both males and females. CDA women may be vulnerable to difficulties managing and regulating emotions. Gonadal hormones may contribute to this gender effect, as increases in both endogenous and exogenous progesterone improved selective aspects of EI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Co-Occurrence of Parental Substance Abuse and Child Serious Emotional Disturbance: Understanding Multiple Pathways to Improve Child and Family Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs.

  9. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  10. Quantifying sources of bias in longitudinal data linkage studies of child abuse and neglect: measuring impact of outcome specification, linkage error, and partial cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Jared W; Shanahan, Meghan E; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Lanier, Paul; Daniels, Julie L; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-12-01

    Health informatics projects combining statewide birth populations with child welfare records have emerged as a valuable approach to conducting longitudinal research of child maltreatment. The potential bias resulting from linkage misspecification, partial cohort follow-up, and outcome misclassification in these studies has been largely unexplored. This study integrated epidemiological survey and novel administrative data sources to establish the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project. Using these data we evaluated and quantified the impact of non-linkage misspecification and single source maltreatment ascertainment use on reported maltreatment risk and effect estimates. The ALCANLink project integrates the 2009-2011 Alaska Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) sample with multiple administrative databases through 2014, including one novel administrative source to track out-of-state emigration. For this project we limited our analysis to the 2009 PRAMS sample. We report on the impact of linkage quality, cohort follow-up, and multisource outcome ascertainment on the incidence proportion of reported maltreatment before age 6 and hazard ratios of selected characteristics that are often available in birth cohort linkage studies of maltreatment. Failure to account for out-of-state emigration biased the incidence proportion by 12% (from 28.3% w to 25.2% w ), and the hazard ratio (HR) by as much as 33% for some risk factors. Overly restrictive linkage parameters biased the incidence proportion downwards by 43% and the HR by as much as 27% for some factors. Multi-source linkages, on the other hand, were of little benefit for improving reported maltreatment ascertainment. Using the ALCANLink data which included a novel administrative data source, we were able to observe and quantify bias to both the incidence proportion and HR in a birth cohort linkage study of reported child maltreatment. Failure to account for out

  11. Concurrent validity, discriminatory power and feasibility of the instrument for Identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrevorts, Esther M B; van Grieken, Amy; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Bannink, Rienke; Bouwmeester-Landweer, Merian B R; Broeren, Suzanne; Raat, Hein

    2017-08-23

    To determine the feasibility, concurrent validity and discriminatory power of the instrument for Identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN) among Dutch parents with a newborn child. Community paediatrics. Data from a controlled trial were used. In total, 2659 Dutch parents with a newborn child were invited to participate. Of the 2659 parents, 759 parents filled in the consent form and participated in the study. Concurrent validity was determined by calculating correlations-using the Pearson's correlation (r)-between the IPARAN score and related constructs from the following instruments: the Empowerment Questionnaire 2.0, the Family Functioning Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Questionnaire. Discriminatory power was determined by calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves between high-risk mothers and low-risk mothers according to their scores on the related constructs. Feasibility was determined by examining the percentage of missing answers. In terms of concurrent validity, we found that 3 out of 12 correlations between the IPARAN score and related constructs were strong (ie, r>0.50) and 4 out of 12 were medium (ie, r=0.30-0.49). In terms of discriminatory power, mothers with a score in the borderline/clinical range or lowest 10 percent (P10) range of the related constructs (high-risk mothers) had a higher IPARAN score than mothers with a score in the normal range or highest 90 percent (P90) range of the related constructs (low-risk mothers). Effect sizes varied from d=0.37 to d=1.93, and the area under the ROC curve varied from 0.62 to 0.93. Regarding feasibility, the part of the IPARAN filled in by the mother had on average 0.7% missing answers, whereas the part of the IPARAN filled in by the father had on average 1.7% missing answers. The results of this study support the concurrent validity, discriminatory power and feasibility of the IPARAN among a population of Dutch parents with a newborn child.

  12. Child Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity Among Chinese Adolescents: Emotional Processing as Mediator and PTSD from Past Trauma as Moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Chen, Zhuo Sheng

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity in a group of Chinese adolescents, and whether this association would be mediated by emotional processing difficulties and moderated by the severity of PTSD from other traumas in the past. Four hundred seventy-four adolescents participated in the study. They completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Emotional processing scale-25. The results showed that after adjusting for the total number of traumatic events and how long ago the most traumatic event occurred, child abuse was associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. This association was not moderated by the severity of PTSD from past traumas but mediated by emotion processing difficulties. To conclude, adolescents who experience child abuse can develop emotional processing difficulties which in turn impact on psychiatric symptoms. Experience of past trauma does not influence these psychological processes.

  13. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Appearance of Psychological Symptomatology in Adult Women Victims of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jauregui, Paula; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse affects people's ways of thinking, feeling, and observing the world, resulting in dysfunctional beliefs and maladaptive schemas. Thus, consequences of child abuse may persist during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychological consequences (anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) of different types of maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect) and to study the role of early maladaptive schemas in the onset of symptomatology in adult female victims of child abuse. The sample consisted of 75 women referred by associations for treatment of abuse and maltreatment in childhood. Sexual abuse was the type of maltreatment that was most strongly related to most dysfunctional symptomatology, followed by emotional abuse and physical abuse, whereas physical neglect was the least related. Also, early maladaptive schemas were found to correlate with child abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology. Finally, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and dysfunctional symptomatology when the effect of other types of abuse was controlled. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.

  14. Attachment representations among substance-abusing women in transition to motherhood: implications for prenatal emotions and mother-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-08-01

    We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad.

  15. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  16. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okato, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Tanaka, Mami; Tachibana, Masumi; Machizawa, Akira; Okayama, Jun; Endo, Mamiko; Senda, Masayoshi; Saito, Naoki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1) each respondent's evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2) each CPT member's opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. The EFA returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84) and assessment and support (α = 0.89). A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians ( r = 0.315, p = 0.001), neonatologists ( r = 0.261, p = 0.007), midwives ( r = 0.248, p = 0.011), and psychiatrists ( r = 0.194, p = 0.048); however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives ( r = 0.208, p = 0.039). This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important

  17. Role of veterinarians in recognition and prevention of animal abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Criminal law of the Republic of Serbia in 2005 as well as the Law on veterinary medicine, there has been an increasing number of cases that deal with raising criminal charges due to animal killing or torturing. There is also a significant number of forensic cases that are aimed at discovering criminal acts. Animal abuse is a social issue, which includes a range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse, or neglect. Abuse and neglect of animals have a variety of forms and manifestations, but the end result is always the same - animal suffering. The connection between animal abuse, domestic violence, and child abuse indicates that there is a significant role of veterinarians in social contexts and in terms of stopping this vicious cycle by preventing, discovering and turning in suspects involved in these crimes. The help that veterinarians provide to public prosecutors is of great importance. This study shows the role of veterinarians in cases of possible animal abuse, as well as their role in processing that type of cases.

  18. 'Not good enough:' Exploring self-criticism's role as a mediator between childhood emotional abuse & adult binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi

    2016-12-01

    Empirical studies have identified emotional abuse in childhood (CEA) as a risk factor with long-term implications for psychological problems. Indeed, recent studies indicate it is more prevalent than behavioral forms of abuse, (i.e. childhood sexual and physical abuse) and the childhood trauma most clearly associated with subsequent eating pathology in adulthood. However, relatively little is understood about the mechanisms linking these distal experiences. This study explores three psychological mechanisms - self-criticism (SC), depression and anxiety symptoms - as plausible mediators that may account for the relationship between CEA and binge eating (BE) among adult women. Detailed telephone interviews conducted with a community-based sample of 498 adult women (mean age 44) assess BE, CEA and SC along with the most frequently researched psychological variables, anxiety and depression. Regression analyses reveal that BE is partially explained by CEA along with the three mediators. Bootstrapping analysis, which compares multiple mediators within a single model using thousands of repeated random sampling observations from the data set, reveals a striking finding: SC is the only psychological variable that makes a significant contribution to explaining BE severity. The unique role of punitive self-evaluations vis-à-vis binge eating warrants additional research and, in the interim, that clinicians consider broadening treatment interventions accordingly. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Experiential Avoidance on Maladaptive Problem Solving and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570

  20. The impact of childhood emotional abuse and experiential avoidance on maladaptive problem solving and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-04-16

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.

  1. Examination of Life Satisfaction, Child Maltreatment Potential and Substance Use in Mothers Referred for Treatment by Child Protective Services for Child Neglect and Substance Abuse: Implications for Intervention Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Christopher P.; Donohue, Brad; Holland, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest mothers who are served by child protective service agencies are relatively dissatisfied in their lives, leading some investigators to conclude life dissatisfaction may be associated with child maltreatment. To assist in better understanding this relationship the Life Satisfaction Scale for Caregivers (LSSC) was psychometrically developed in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred for behavioral treatment for child neglect and substance abuse by caseworkers from a local child protective service agency. The LSSC was developed to assess mothers’ happiness in nine domains (family, friendships, employment/work, spirituality/religion, safety, sex life/dating, ability to avoid drugs, ability to avoid alcohol, control over one’s own life). Results indicated two factors that appeared to be relevant to Social Satisfaction and Safety and Control Satisfaction. Higher satisfaction scores on both of these scales were negatively associated with child maltreatment potential and substance use at baseline (i.e., positive urinalysis test). Mothers who exposed their children to substances in utero or in infancy (a distinct type of child neglect) were found to report higher satisfaction scores on the LSSC than other types of child neglect. Hispanic-American, African-American, and Caucasian women reported similar levels of life satisfaction. Application of the LSSC as a non-stigmatizing, wellness-focused instrument is discussed within the context of intervention planning. PMID:27617042

  2. When the face reveals what words do not: facial expressions of emotion, smiling, and the willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, George A; Keltner, Dacher; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K; LeJeune, Jenna; Anderson, Cameron

    2002-07-01

    For survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), verbal disclosure is often complex and painful. The authors examined the voluntary disclosure-nondisclosure of CSA in relation to nonverbal expressions of emotion in the face. Consistent with hypotheses derived from recent theorizing about the moral nature of emotion, CSA survivors who did not voluntarily disclose CSA showed greater facial expressions of shame, whereas CSA survivors who voluntarily disclosed CSA expressed greater disgust. Expressions of disgust also signaled sexual abuse accompanied by violence. Consistent with recent theorizing about smiling behavior, CSA nondisclosers made more polite smiles, whereas nonabused participants expressed greater genuine positive emotion. Discussion addressed the implications of these findings for the study of disclosure of traumatic events, facial expression, and the links between morality and emotion.

  3. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  4. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being

  6. The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  8. Child abuse and neglect in the Jaffna district of Sri Lanka - a study on knowledge attitude practices and behavior of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Viswalingam, Arunath; Vijayaratnam, Karunya

    2018-05-05

    Victims and perpetrators of child abuse do not typically self-report to child protection services, therefore responsibility of detection and reporting falls on the others. Knowledge on child protection is essential for the first contact person and such information is sparse in research literature originally coming from Sri Lanka. Anecdotally, several cases of child abuse have been missed out at the first contact level. Therefore we undertook this survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes towards child protection and the experiences of medical officers, nursing officers and social workers on child protection. This was a descriptive analytical study carried out in hospitals and the community during March-October 2016. An anonymous content validated self-administered questionnaire was used as the study instrument. Knowledge, Attitude, Practices and Behaviour were assessed via multiple choice questions and responses according to Likert score. Three anonymised case records were given as case vignettes to be studied by the participants and their responses were also recorded on the questionnaire. Among the 246 responders 156 (63.4%) were doctors. All groups of professionals identified the forms of child abuse correctly and the social indicators of child abuse was correctly identified in 152 (61.7%). Majority failed to identify the features of the perpetrator. Majority of the professionals showed a favourable response in attitude when dealing with child maltreatment. 153 (62%) had suspected child abuse in their career and 64% of them had reported it to the authority. Fifty two (21%) had attended a training workshop on child abuse and 65.8% of the responders were not satisfied with their knowledge. 229(93%) of them indicated that they wanted some form of education on child maltreatment. The Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour towards child abuse were significantly good on people with experience in the field of Paediatrics and Judicial Medical work, when compared to those who

  9. [Mediating role of emotional regulation between impulsive behavior in gambling, Internet and videogame abuse, and dysfunctional symptomatology in young adults and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez Gutiérrez, Ana; Herrero Fernández, David; Sarabia Gonzalvo, Izaskun; Jáuregui Bilbao, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The way emotions are regulated might affect the engagement on risk behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, studying the relationship between these variables could be of great importance. Some of the less studied risky behaviors are pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse. This research aims to analyze the existing relationship between such risky behaviors, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional psychological symptomatology (depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, somatization, obsessive-–compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism). In addition, it also looks to assess whether emotional regulation plays a mediating role between pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse, and psychological symptomatology. The sample was composed of 1312 young adults and adolescents, aged between 12 and 30, recruited from scholar centers, universities and free time groups, and from associations and centers associated with FEJAR (Spanish Federation of Rehabilitated Gamblers). Participants completed measurements of impulsive behavior, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional symptomatology. Results showed that there is generally a positive and significant relation between these variables. Moreover, it has been pointed out that emotion regulation mediates the association between impulsive behavior and dysfunctional symptomatology among those young adults and adolescents who engage in these impulsive behaviors, except for the relation between videogame abuse and depressive symptomatology. Training in emotional regulation skills could be useful in dealing with and treating this type of behaviors in adolescents and young adults.

  10. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okato A

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayumi Okato,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,1 Mami Tanaka,2 Masumi Tachibana,1 Akira Machizawa,3 Jun Okayama,4 Mamiko Endo,5 Masayoshi Senda,6,7 Naoki Saito,5,7 Masaomi Iyo1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 2Division of Clinical Study on Juvenile Delinquency, Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 4Department of Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 5Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 6Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, 7Division of Clinical Forensic Medicine, Education and Research Center of Legal Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Background: Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. Participants and methods: The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1 each respondent’s evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2 each CPT member’s opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. Results: The EFA

  11. Influence of Emotional Abuse on the Self-Concept of Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRCMRS UCHENNA EGODI

    the trait of Introversion-Extroversion among. Senior. Secondary. School. Students in Cross River State, Nigeria. Annals of Modern Education (1), 122-. 127. Beckar, S., 1996.Child Abuse: Invisible Scars. http://66.127.183.74/article/invscar.html.r etrieved on 10th May 2006. Craig, W. W., 1976. Human work ethics and their.

  12. Prevalence of child abuse in school environment in Kerala, India: An ICAST-CI based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj Therayil; Kumar, Sebind; Singh, Surendra P; Kar, Nilamadhab

    2017-08-01

    Very few studies focus on childhood abuse in developing countries and only a small fraction of such studies explicitly deal with abuse in a school environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in a school environment in a developing country. Abuse history was collected using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Children's Institutional Version (ICAST-CI). Demographic variables were also collected. Student supportive measures were provided both during and after the survey. 6682 school attending adolescents in Thrissur, Kerala participated in this cross sectional self report study. One year and lifetime prevalence of physical (75.5%, 78.5%), emotional (84.5%, 85.7%) and sexual (21.0%, 23.8%) abuse was high. Abuse was considered to be present even if an individual item from these three categories was reported. Most abuse was reported as occurring 'sometimes' rather than 'many times'. More males than females reported being victims of abuse; figures for one-year prevalence were: physical abuse (83.4% vs. 61.7%), emotional abuse (89.5% vs. 75.7%), and sexual abuse (29.5% vs. 6.2%). Various factors significantly increase the likelihood of abuse-male gender, low socioeconomic status, regular use of alcohol and drugs by family member at home, and having other difficulties at school. Children tended to report abuse less frequently if they liked attending school and if they always felt safe at school. The results highlight the urgent need to address the issue of abuse in the school environment and minimize its impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Timing of Academic Difficulties for Neglected and Nonmaltreated Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Neglected or abused/neglected children (N=420) were compared with matched, nonmal-treated children on measures of school performance. Differences between the sexes in timing of academic difficulties was found for both math and English. Grades of neglected and abused/neglected students paralleled that of nonmal-treated students but were lower at…

  14. College Students' Responses to Emotional Anti-Alcohol Abuse Media Messages: Should We Scare or Amuse Them?

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    Lee, Moon J

    2018-05-01

    This study examined college students' responses to emotional anti-alcohol abuse media messages (i.e., fear vs. humor appeal) aimed at discouraging heavy/binge drinking. An experiment was conducted with 94 college students. As expected, college students generally expressed higher levels of interest in anti-alcohol abuse media messages when watching fear appeal than those watching humor appeal. However, college binge drinkers who watched the fear appeal reported lower levels of readiness to change their drinking behavior than those who watched the humor appeal. This pattern was the opposite among college nonbinge drinkers, in that college nonbinge drinkers were more likely to say they would change their drinking behaviors when exposed to fear appeal than those who were exposed to humor appeal or those who did not watch any media messages. Conventional fear appeal to scare college binge drinkers seems ineffective and even counterproductive while humor appeal, if well designed, could offer alternative ways to communicate with college binge drinkers.

  15. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  16. Neglected simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures secondary to narcotic drug abuse treated by bilateral one-staged hemiarthroplasty: a case report

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    Vahedi Ehsan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are extremely rare and associated with various conditions. Up to now Most cases had correlations with major trauma, repetitive minor trauma, seizure, parathyroid or renal dysfunction, anti-epileptic medications, seizure, etc. A 28-year-old addict man referred to us with a 10-year history of narcotic drug abuse and history of 8 months bilateral groin pain. He admitted with displaced bilateral femoral neck fracture. Because of long duration of this condition and osteonecrosis revealed on bone scan, one-staged bilateral hip hemiarthroplasty was done. A good function was noted after surgery to 4-month follow up. Up to now, have not be founded in the literature that a case of bilateral femoral neck fracture associated with narcotic drug abuse. Because of negative effects of opium or smoking on bone tissues, a simple bone pain should aware us about the risk of stress or fatigue fracture.

  17. Identification and Evaluation of Abused Children at Imam Hossein Hospital.

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    Arabghol, Fariba; Derakhshanpour, Firooze; Davari Ashtiyani, Rozita; Chimeh, Narges; Panaghi, Layli

    2016-03-01

    Child abuse is a phenomenon that confronts the child, family, and society with irretrievable physical and mental injuries, and its negative effects continue until adulthood. The present study was conducted to identify and evaluate cases of abused children at a medical center. This is a descriptive-analytic study. The subjects were all children and adolescents who were referred to Imam Hussein hospital within 6 months due to physical or psychiatric reasons and were diagnosed with child abuse and neglect by a child and adolescent psychiatrist. The number of these children was 73. Children and their parents were assessed by schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS), Kiddie-SADS, and child abuse and demographic questionnaires. The statistical methods of mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data. 56 cases (76%) were physically abused, 53 cases (72.6%) were emotionally abused, and 3 cases (12.3%) were neglected. The most common psychiatric disorder in abused children was ADHD (65.8%). The next most common were oppositional defiant disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and enuresis. About 80% of the abused children had at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorders in mothers were general anxiety disorder (34.8%) and depression (33.3%), and in fathers, it was substance abuse (19.7%). Child abuse is a common phenomenon that relates to psychiatric disorders in the abused child or abuser parents. It seems that on-time identification and appropriate interventions can prevent further negative consequences for the child, family, and society.

  18. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

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    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  19. Is Child Abuse Associated with Adolescent Obesity? A Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Katherine; Norris, Tom; Crawley, Esther; Shield, Julian P H

    Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England. Using data from the 4205 children with complete data at 13 and 16 years, we analyzed body mass index (BMI) and anonymous parental report of abuse. Abuse was categorized as emotional, physical, or sexual. A sub-sample of 3429 had BMI recorded at 18 years, enabling a longitudinal analysis of BMI trajectories. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and family adversity, no association was found between child abuse and BMI, BMI Z-scores, overweight, or obesity, at 13 or 16 years, with all confidence intervals straddling the null. There was weak evidence of a negative association between physical and emotional abuse and BMI trajectories between 13 and 18 years. No relationship was found between child abuse and adolescent obesity in this cohort. This challenges the assumption that adolescent obesity is linked to previous child abuse, as demonstrated for obesity in adult life. A further longitudinal study utilizing both parental and child reports with data record linkage, to improve reporting of abuse, and including neglect as an abuse category, would be desirable.

  20. Entre quatro paredes: atendimento fonoaudiológico a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência Speech-language therapy for abused and neglected child

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    Milica Satake Noguchi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se levantar o conhecimento e a experiência de fonoaudiólogos da cidade do Rio de Janeiro sobre o problema da violência familiar contra a criança e o adolescente. Foi efetuado um survey via correio, com duplo envio de questionários, a uma amostra de profissionais registrados no Conselho Regional de Fonoaudiologia. Foram enviados 500 questionários sendo obtidas 224 respostas. Os resultados indicam que, dos 71% dos entrevistados que trabalham em consultório ou clínica particular, 25,8% já tiveram clientes infanto-juvenis que sofreram violência familiar. Apesar de somente 12,9% dos fonoaudiólogos trabalharem em centro/posto de saúde, quase a metade desses profissionais já atendeu vítimas de violência familiar (48,3%. Dos fonoaudiólogos que atenderam pelo menos um caso de violência, 88,9% indicaram o Conselho Tutelar para encaminhamento dos casos, mas somente quatro fonoaudiólogos afirmaram ter efetuado a notificação. Os resultados sugerem que, além da falta de informação sobre o tema, a configuração do trabalho deste profissional, em que predomina a atuação em consultórios particulares, dificulta a realização da notificação, já que não contam com um apoio institucional no enfrentamento deste grave problema.The objective of this work was to appraise the knowledge and experience of Rio de Janeiro's speech-language pathologist and audiologist about child abuse and neglect. We sent a survey form by mail to a sample of professionals registered at the Speech-Language Pathologist and Audiologist Local Council. The forms were sent twice to each professional. Five hundred forms were sent and 224 professionals responded, of which 71% worked in private clinics. Among these professionals, 25.8% had had child clients who suffered some type of abuse. Only 12.9% of interviewees worked in public health services and almost half of them (43.8% had cared of clients who suffered abuse and/or neglect. Even though 88.9% of

  1. Childhood Emotional Abuse Moderates Associations Among Corticomotor White Matter Structure and Stress Neuromodulators in Women With and Without Depression

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    Carlton P. Frost

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adverse caregiving during development can produce long-lasting changes to neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stress, and is strongly related to elevated risk of adult psychopathology. While prior experience of adversity is associated with altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity, the underlying neural pathways are not completely understood. In a double-blind crossover study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine whether variation in white matter structure predicts differences in HPA-SNS interactions as a function of early adversity. Participants included 74 women who exhibited a wide range of depression severity and/or childhood emotional abuse (EA. Participants attended two experimental sessions during which they were administered 20 mg cortisol (CORT or placebo and after 90 min, viewed emotionally laden pictures while undergoing MRI scanning. Immediately after emotional picture-viewing, we collected salivary alpha-amylase (sAA to index SNS activation. We tested whether EA moderated the relation between fractional anisotropy (FA, a measure of white matter fiber structure, and sAA. In the placebo condition, for participants with minimal history of EA, higher FA in corticomotor projections was negatively correlated with sAA, whereas in participants with severe EA, the correlation was trending in the opposite direction. Following CORT administration, FA and sAA were not related, suggesting that SNS tone during acute cortisol elevation may depend on neural pathways other than corticomotor projections. The results suggest that at baseline—though not during cortisol elevation—increased FA in these tracts is associated with lower levels of SNS activity in women with minimal EA, but not in women with severe EA. These findings provide evidence that corticomotor projections may be a key component of altered neural circuitry in adults with history of maltreatment, and may be

  2. Neglecting Neglect: Some Thoughts about Children Who Have Lacked Good Input, and Are "Undrawn" and "Unenjoyed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at emotional neglect in the early years of life, and postulates some probable long-term sequelae of such neglect. It argues that there is a continuum of neglect; ranging from the severest form, as seen in institutional orphanages, to milder variations. A range of theoretical and research traditions, including developmental…

  3. The effect of a family-based intervention with a cognitive-behavioral approach on elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlary, Zahra; Maarefvand, Masoomeh; Biglarian, Akbar; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse may become a health issue in developing countries, including Iran. The purpose of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Social Work (FBCBSW) in reducing elder abuse. In a randomized clinical trial in Iran, 27 elders participated in intervention and control groups. The intervention groups received a five-session FBCBSW intervention and completed the Domestic-Elder-Abuse-Questionnaire (DEAQ), which evaluates elder abuse at baseline and follow-ups. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Wilcoxon test were used to analyze the data. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed that FBCBSW was successful in reducing elder abuse. The Wilcoxon test indicated that emotional neglect, care neglect, financial neglect, curtailment of personal autonomy, psychological abuse, and financial abuse significantly decreased over time, but there was no statistically significant difference in physical abuse before and after the intervention. The findings from this study suggest that FBCBSW is a promising approach to reducing elder abuse and warrants further study with larger samples.

  4. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse During Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

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    Alaptagin eKhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age.METHODS: 560 (223M/337F young adults (18-25 years were recruited from the community without regard to diagnosis and balanced to have equal exposure to 0-4 plus types of maltreatment. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure scale assessed severity of exposure to 10 types of maltreatment across each year of childhood. Major depression (MDD and current symptoms were evaluated by SCID, interview and self-report. Predictive analytics assessed importance of exposure at each age and evaluated whether exposure at one or two ages was a more important predictor than number, severity or duration of maltreatment across childhood.RESULTS: The most important predictors of lifetime history of MDD was non-verbal emotional abuse (NVEA in males and peer emotional abuse (EA in females at 14 years of age, and these were more important predictors across models than number of types of maltreatment (Males: t9=16.39, p<10-7; Females t9=5.78, p<10-4. Suicidal ideation was predicted, in part, by NVEA and peer EA at age 14, but most importantly by parental verbal abuse at age 5 in males and sexual abuse at age 18 in females. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for sensitive exposure periods when maltreatment maximally impacts risk for depression, and provides an alternative interpretation of the ACE study results. These findings fit with emerging neuroimaging evidence for regional sensitivity periods. The presence of sensitive exposure periods has important implications for prevention, preemption and

  5. Several unusual cases of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, H; Weston, J T

    1976-10-01

    All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.

  6. FOOD NEGLECT AND INFANT DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana

    2018-03-01

    The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple fractures in infants who have Ehlers-Danlos/hypermobility syndrome and or vitamin D deficiency: A case series of 72 infants whose parents were accused of child abuse and neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Nezhad, A.; Tabatabaei, F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To increase the level of awareness that Ehlers-Danlos/hypermobility syndrome (EDS) and vitamin D deficiency are associated with infantile fragility fractures and radiologic features that may be mistakenly reported to be caused by non-accidental trauma due to Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN). Patients and Methods: We constructed a case series, the largest to date, of infants with EDS who were vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient and infants without EDS but with documented vitamin D deficiency and radiologic evidence of rickets who presented with multiple fractures originally diagnosed as being non-accidental and caused by child abuse. These infants were referred to the outpatient Bone Health Care Clinic at Boston University Medical Campus over a 6-year (2010–2015) period. We also present 6 index cases in which the court concluded that there was no convincing evidence of child abuse and the infants were returned to their parents. Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval was obtained. Results: We present 72 cases of infants with multiple fractures diagnosed to be caused by non-accidental trauma. All infants were younger than one year of age. Among them, 93%(67) had clinical evidence of EDS and/or a family history with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of at least one parent having EDS and the other 7%(5) without evidence of EDS had vitamin D deficiency/infantile rickets. Three of the EDS infants were diagnosed as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)/EDS overlap syndrome. The most common fractures noted at diagnosis were ribs and extremity fractures (including classic metaphyseal lesions). Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were reported in 48 infants (18.0 ± 8.5 ng/ml) and in 30 mothers (21.3 ± 11.7 ng/ml). Sixty-three percent (27) of the EDS infants who had their serum 25(OH)D measured were vitamin D deficient 25(OH)D30 ng/ml. The mean serum level for infants with vitamin D deficiency/rickets was (10.2 ± 3.0 ng/ml) Conclusion: EDS

  9. Re-experiencing Violence across the Life Course: Histories of Childhood Maltreatment and Elder Abuse Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jooyoung; Easton, Scott D

    2018-03-26

    This study primarily examines the associations between histories of childhood maltreatment (i.e., neglect, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse) and elder abuse victimization and explores whether gender moderates the associations. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 5,968 older adults (mean age = 71 years) based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (2010-2011). Using retrospective self-reports of childhood and current (past 12 months) victimization experiences, logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of early-life adversities on the likelihood of elder abuse victimization. Results indicate that childhood emotional abuse and childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater risk of being abused as older adults, after controlling for childhood and adult background factors. We also found that the effect of childhood sexual abuse on elder abuse victimization was weaker for women than men. Findings suggest that the phenomenon of revictimization may occur not only in early and middle adulthood, but also in late life. To advance our understanding of victimization across the life course, future research on root causes of elder abuse should include histories of child abuse.

  10. Effects of a dyadic music therapy intervention on parent-child interaction, parent stress, and parent-child relationship in families with emotionally neglected children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Stine L; McKinney, Cathy H; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Work with families and families at risk within the field of music therapy have been developing for the last decade. To diminish risk for unhealthy child development, families with emotionally neglected children need help to improve their emotional communication and develop healthy parent-child interactions. While some researchers have investigated the effect of music therapy on either the parent or the child, no study has investigated the effect of music therapy on the observed interaction between the parent and child within the field of child protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a dyadic music therapy intervention on observed parent-child interaction (mutual attunement, nonverbal communication, emotional parental response), self-reported parenting stress, and self-reported parent-child relationship in families at risk and families with emotionally neglected children, ages 5-12 years. This was a randomized controlled trial study conducted at a family care center in Denmark. Eighteen parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to receive 10 weekly music therapy sessions with a credentialed music therapist (n = 9) or treatment as usual (n = 9). Observational measures for parent-child interaction, self-reported measures for parenting stress and parent-child relationship were completed at baseline and 4 months post-baseline assessment. Results of the study showed that dyads who received music therapy intervention significantly improved their nonverbal communication and mutual attunement. Similarly, parents who participated in dyadic music therapy reported themselves to be significantly less stressed by the mood of the child and to significantly improve their parent-child relationship in terms of being better at talking to and understanding their children than parents who did not receive music therapy. Both groups significantly improved in terms of increased positive and decreased negative emotional parental response, parenting stress and

  11. Neglected tropical diseases, neglected data sources, and neglected issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton H Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a so-called neglected tropical disease, currently overshadowed by higher-profile efforts to address malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Despite recent successes in arresting transmission, some 40 million people who already have the disease have been largely neglected. This study aims to increase understanding of how this vulnerable, neglected group can be helped. METHODS: We used purposive sampling to select 60 men and women with filarial lymphoedema (45 with filarial elephantiasis and 15 men with filarial hydrocoele from the south of Sri Lanka in 2004-2005. Participants were selected to give a balance of men and women and poor and nonpoor, and a range of stages of the disease. Participants' experiences and the consequences of their disease for the household were explored with in-depth qualitative, semistructured interviews. FINDINGS: LF was extremely debilitating to participants over long periods of time. The stigma attached to the condition caused social isolation and emotional distress, and delayed diagnosis and treatment, resulting in undue advancement of the disease. Free treatment services at government clinics were avoided because the participants' condition would be identifiable in public. Loss of income due to the condition was reported by all households in the sample, not just the poorest. Households that were already on low incomes were pushed into near destitution, from which it was almost impossible to escape. Affected members of low-income households also had less opportunity to obtain appropriate treatment from distant clinics, and had living and working conditions that made hygiene and compliance difficult. SIGNIFICANCE: This highly vulnerable category of patients has low visibility, thus becoming marginalized and forgotten. With an estimated 300,000 total cases of elephantiasis and/or oedema in Sri Lanka, and around 300,000 men with filarial hydrocoele, the affected households will need

  12. Hippotherapy as a treatment for socialization after sexual abuse and emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, Marcelo R.; Briel, Alysson F.; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Hippotherapy is a therapeutic resource that uses the horse as a kinesiotherapy instrument to elicit motor and cognitive improvements in individuals with special needs. [Subjects and Methods] This research evaluated two women aged 18 and 21 years, who had suffered sexual violence when they were children between the ages of 6 and 7 years old. The subjects did not have mental dysfunction but they were regular students registered at a school of special education. The patients presented severe motor limitation, difficulty with coordination, significant muscular retractions, thoracic and cervical kyphosis, cervical protrusion wich was basically a function of the postures they had adopted when victims of the sexual violence suffered in childhood. The patients performed twenty sessions of 30 minutes of hippotherapy on a horse. The activities were structured to stimulate coordination, proprioception, the vestibular and motor-sensorial systems for the improvement of posture, muscle activity and cognition. [Results] The activities provided during the hippotherapy sessions elicited alterations in postural adjustment resulting in 30% improvement, 80% improvement in coordination in, 50% improvement in corporal balance and in sociability and self-esteem. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy proved to be an effective treatment method for coordination, balance and postural correction, and also improved the patients’ self-esteem that had suffered serious emotional stress. PMID:25931769

  13. Treatment effects on insular and anterior cingulate cortex activation during classic and emotional Stroop interference in child abuse-related complex post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, K; Dorrepaal, E; Draijer, N; de Ruiter, M B; Elzinga, B M; van Balkom, A J; Smit, J H; Veltman, D J

    2012-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown increased Stroop interference coupled with altered anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula activation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These brain areas are associated with error detection and emotional arousal. There is some evidence that treatment can normalize these activation patterns. At baseline, we compared classic and emotional Stroop performance and blood oxygenation level-dependent responses (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of 29 child abuse-related complex PTSD patients with 22 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls. In 16 of these patients, we studied treatment effects of psycho-educational and cognitive behavioural stabilizing group treatment (experimental treatment; EXP) added to treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU only, and correlations with clinical improvement. At baseline, complex PTSD patients showed a trend for increased left anterior insula and dorsal ACC activation in the classic Stroop task. Only EXP patients showed decreased dorsal ACC and left anterior insula activation after treatment. In the emotional Stroop contrasts, clinical improvement was associated with decreased dorsal ACC activation and decreased left anterior insula activation. We found further evidence that successful treatment in child abuse-related complex PTSD is associated with functional changes in the ACC and insula, which may be due to improved selective attention and lower emotional arousal, indicating greater cognitive control over PTSD symptoms.

  14. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  15. Developmental trajectories of abuse--an hypothesis for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Caley

    2013-11-01

    The United States has a high rate of child maltreatment, with nearly 12 in 1000 children being victims of abuse or neglect. Child abuse strongly predicts negative life outcomes, especially in areas of emotional and mental health. Abused children are also more likely than their peers to engage in violence and enter the juvenile justice system, as well as to become abusive parents themselves. Research has shown that child abuse and trauma can lead to decreased hippocampal volume, which could be indicative of abnormal hippocampal development. Hippocampal development appears to directly affect the development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain area responsible for emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, and general executive function. Therefore, I hypothesize that if child abuse results in abnormal hippocampal development, which leads to abnormal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex development, many of the correlated risk factors of child abuse, such as emotionally-laden parenting and unfavorable cognitive distortions regarding children's behaviors, may be in part caused by underdevelopment or abnormal functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as a function of the individual's own experiences with abuse during childhood. If this hypothesis is supported with future research, more targeted, successful, and cost-effective prevention and treatment protocols could ensue. For instance, programs that have been empirically shown to increase the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, could be effective in decreasing the incidence of intergenerational transfer of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosed Intellectual and Emotional Impairment among Parents Who Seriously Mistreat Their Children: Prevalence, Type, and Outcome in a Court Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carol G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the court records of 206 seriously abused or neglected children and their families in a large urban area and found that in over half the records a parent had been diagnosed as having an emotional disorder and/or low intelligence, with a majority of these diagnoses indicating significant impairment. (Author/DB)

  17. Cognitive processes associated with child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-08-01

    To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N=34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N=33) were obtained from community agencies serving families. Participants were administered the IFEEL Picture task to assess maternal perceptions of infant emotions, eight vignettes of young children's behavior to assess attributions for child behavior across different scenarios, and a passage recall task to assess information processing problems. A measure of depression was used as a covariate to control for this variable. Neglectful mothers were significantly less likely to recognize infants' feelings of interest, more likely to see sadness and shame, more inaccurate at labeling infants' emotions, and had a more limited emotion vocabulary. They also made more internal and stable attributions for children's behaviors in situations where it was not clear whether a child was at risk of harm, and had poor recall of information. Depressive symptoms had little effect on these findings with the exception of information recall. Neglectful mothers show significant problems in information processing concerning their child's emotions and behaviors, which may affect their childrearing behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to improve parents' abilities to recognize their child's emotions and to address maladaptive attributions may be of value.

  18. A mediational model of obesity related disordered eating: The roles of childhood emotional abuse and self-perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Genna; Salwen, Jessica; Salis, Katie Lee

    2017-08-01

    The extant literature indicates negative self-perceptions are a risk factor for disordered eating (DE) and DE is a risk factor for overweight and obesity. While childhood emotional abuse (EA) is often linked to DE and obesity, it is typically not included in comprehensive models of these health problems. Further investigation of interactions among EA, self-perception, and DE is needed to refine treatments for overweight, obesity, and DE. This study evaluated a model of DE and weight difficulties in which negative self-perception mediate the relationship between EA and DE, and DE predicts body mass index (BMI) in a population of emerging adults. Further, this study investigated the utility of history of EA for prediction of DE and classification of individuals with and without DE. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychopathology, and eating behaviors were administered to 598 undergraduate students. Latent variable analysis confirmed the hypothesized model. Recursive partitioning determined that individuals reporting a high level of EA likely meet criteria for night eating syndrome (NES) or binge eating disorder (BED), and history of EA has a moderate to high level of specificity as a predictor of BED and NES. These findings confirm the necessity of evaluating EA and DE in emerging adults with weight difficulties, and the importance of assessing self-perception and DE in individuals with a history of EA. Future studies should investigate the utility of addressing EA and self-perception in interventions for DE and obesity and to determine whether these findings can be generalized to a clinical population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Child Welfare among Postpartum Mothers with a History of Childhood Maltreatment and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A M; Schury, K; Reister, F; Köhler-Dauner, F; Schauer, M; Ruf-Leuschner, M; Gündel, H; Ziegenhain, U; Fegert, J M; Kolassa, I-T

    2016-03-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) can increase the risk of psychosocial risk factors in adulthood (e. g. intimate partner violence, financial problems, substance abuse or medical problems). The transition to parenthood presents those affected by CM with particular challenges, in addition to usual birth-related stressors. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 240 women were interviewed in the puerperium with respect to CM experiences, using the German version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Current psychosocial risk factors (e. g. financial concerns, maternal mental illness, single parent) were assessed using the Constance Index (KINDEX) for early childhood risk factors. Associations between CM experience and psychosocial risk factors were calculated using simple correlation. Results: The average age of participants was 33 years. On the CTQ 13.8 % of participants reported emotional abuse, 6.7 % physical abuse and 12.5 % sexual abuse, while 32.1 % reported emotional neglect and 7.5 % physical neglect during childhood. With rising severity of CM, more psychosocial risk factors (KINDEX) were present. Conclusions: This study shows a clear association between experiences of maltreatment during childhood and the presence of psychosocial stressors among women in the puerperium. Regular screening for a history of CM and parental psychosocial stressors should be conducted early, i.e. during pregnancy, to avoid negative consequences for the child.

  20. Willingness to disclose child maltreatment: CSA vs other forms of child abuse in relation to gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; First, Maya

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the role of gender in willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse (CSA) compared to other forms of abuse (physical, emotional and neglect) in young adolescents. Willingness was examined through two terms: reluctance- the level of unwillingness or disinclination to disclose, and urge-the need to share in order to get rid of unbearable feelings. The sample consisted of 3,156 boys (n = 1,544) and girls (n = 1,612) between the ages of 11-16 who reported having been abused at least once during their life. Participants were divided into three groups: experiencing other than CSA, sexual abuse with no physical contact, and sexual abuse with physical contact. Regarding measures, a self-report questionnaire incorporating the following instruments was administered: Demographics, the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), and the Disclosure of Trauma Questionnaire (DTQ). Study results indicated that CSA victims were more reluctant to disclose than victims of other than CSA forms of abuse. The more severe the CSA (physical contact) the lower was the willingness to disclose. Boys were more reluctant than girls to disclose sexual abuse whether or not it involved physical contact. Reluctance to disclose was positively associated with emotional reactions to disclosure while urge to talk was negatively correlated with emotional reactions to disclosure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Influence of punishment, emotional rejection, child abuse, and broken home on aggression in adolescence: an examination of aggressive adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, S; Lucht, M; Freyberger, H J

    2001-01-01

    The results of this study provide evidence for the importance of psychosocial risks in childhood for aggressive behavior in adolescence. This study demonstrated that aggressive adolescents differed from a nonaggressive control group in an increased exposure to prior psychotraumatic events, such as sexual abuse (tendency), physical abuse, and broken homes. However, in predicting later aggressive behavior, long-term and chronically effective negative living conditions seem of greater importance. Parenting behavior which includes harsh punishment and emotional rejection as well as separation of the parents early in life are particularly important factors. Whereas aggressive girls do not differ from the nonaggressive control group in terms of self-reported mental health, the aggressive boys reported more attention deficits, depression, anxiety, delinquency, and social problems. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Proposed pathways to problematic drinking via post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative tendencies following child/adolescent sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E; Tuliao, Antover P

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between early sexual abuse and college problem drinking was examined using an integration of the self-medication and vulnerability-stress models. Baseline survey data from parti-cipants (N = 213; 135 men and 78 college women) completing a mandated, brief alcohol intervention were utilized. Representative of the self-medication model, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated the early sexual abuse/problem drinking relationship. Two psychological vulnerability factors-emotion dysregulation and dissociative tendencies-were incorporated into self-medication findings via more advanced mediational models. Results highlighted that problem drinking increased as dissociative tendencies increased, and relations between the vulnerability factors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were in an unexpected direction.

  3. Sexual knowledge and emotional reaction as indicators of sexual abuse in young children: Theory and research challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brilleslijper-Kater, S.N.; Friedrich, W.N.; Corwin, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Age inappropriate sexual behavior is strongly associated with sexual abuse but is also correlated with other factors that often co-occur in the lives of vulnerable children, including physical abuse, domestic violence, excessive life stress, and inappropriate exposure to family sexuality. In

  4. Screening for potential child maltreatment in parents of a newborn baby: The predictive validity of an Instrument for early identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Bouwmeester-Landweer, Merian B R; Landsmeer-Beker, Eleonore A; Wit, Jan M; Dekker, Friedo W; Kousemaker, N Pieter J; Baartman, Herman E M

    2017-08-01

    For preventive purposes it is important to be able to identify families with a high risk of child maltreatment at an early stage. Therefore we developed an actuarial instrument for screening families with a newborn baby, the Instrument for identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN). The aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of the IPARAN and to examine whether combining actuarial and clinical methods leads to an improvement of the predictive validity. We examined the predictive validity by calculating several performance indicators (i.e., sensitivity, specificity and the Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve [AUC]) in a sample of 4692 Dutch families with newborns. The outcome measure was a report of child maltreatment at Child Protection Services during a follow-up of 3 years. For 17 children (.4%) a report of maltreatment was registered. The predictive validity of the IPARAN was significantly better than chance (AUC=.700, 95% CI [.567-.832]), in contrast to a low value for clinical judgement of nurses of the Youth Health Care Centers (AUC=.591, 95% CI [.422-.759]). The combination of the IPARAN and clinical judgement resulted in the highest predictive validity (AUC=.720, 95% CI [.593-.847]), however, the difference between the methods did not reach statistical significance. The good predictive validity of the IPARAN in combination with clinical judgment of the nurse enables professionals to assess risks at an early stage and to make referrals to early intervention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Delivering social work services in collaboration with the legal representation for individual clients: An effective, ethical and economical approach to supporting families in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Robbin

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses the need to improve the quality of helping relationships between families and social workers in the child protection system and the growing body of evidence that teams of social workers and lawyers are effective at improving outcomes in child protection legal proceedings. The author presents an alternative structure of delivering social work services within the child protection systems once a court gets involved with a family, proposing that social workers should focus on individual clients in collaboration with their legal representation, rather than the traditional model of a governmental agency social worker serving the family as a unit as it also determines placement of the children. Pairing the social worker to an individual client in tandem with their legal representative would help resolve the widely observed relationship problems between service users and governmental agency social workers that include the power imbalance created by the agency's authority to determine placement of children, the conflicts of interest that agency workers face when required to manage differing family members' needs, and the lack of protection of the due process right of confidentiality for parties involved in legal proceedings. This alternative structure also impacts the need to use resources more efficiently and has been demonstrated to result in substantial returns on investment. This article concludes that when a family becomes involved in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings, the child welfare agency should shift the delivery of social work services to the individual parties, away from the governmental agency and in conjunction with their legal representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder and Experiences of Child Abuse among Students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Mohammadi Derakhshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to investigate the relationship between symptoms of histrionic personality disorder and experiences of child abuse among students of Tabriz Islamic Azad University in 2013-2014. The general aim of this study is to predict histrionic personality disorder in adulthood based on child abuse experiences during childhood. The population of this study include 19599 people among whom 377 were selected through simple random sampling. The instrument of this study includes Millon-3 CASRS questionnaire and child abuse questionnaire. The data was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression. The obtained results revealed that there is significant relationship between histrionic personality disorder (independent variable and dimensions of child abuse (dependent variable that includes emotional, neglect, physical, and sexual child abuse. Considering different dimensions of child abuse, neglect of child and sexual child abuse have the most and the least contribution in predicting symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood. In addition, the results showed that all four dimensions of child abuse can predict symptoms of histrionic personality disorder in adulthood, but ignorance or neglecting child has the most effect and sexual dimension has the least effect in the prediction.

  7. The mediating effects of childhood neglect on the association between schizotypal and autistic personality traits and depression in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Gong, Jingbo; Nie, Guanghui; He, Yuqiong; Xiao, Bo; Shen, Yanmei; Luo, Xuerong

    2017-10-25

    Autistic personality traits (APT) and schizotypal personality traits (SPT) are associated with depression. However, mediating factors within these relationships have not yet been explored. Thus, the focus of the current study was to examine the effects of childhood neglect on the relationship between APT/SPT and depression. This cross-sectional study was conducted on first-year students (N = 2469) at Hunan University of Chinese Medicine and Hengyang Normal College (Changsha, China). Participants completed surveys on APT, SPT, childhood neglect, abuse and depression. Through correlational analyses, APT and SPT traits were positively correlated with childhood neglect and depression (p childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect (β = 0.112, p Childhood neglect did not account for the relationships between APT/SPT and depression. Further analysis found that childhood neglect mediated the relationship between SPT and depression but not APT and depression. Among types of childhood maltreatment, neglect was the strongest predicting factor for depression. Neglect did not account for the relationship between APT/SPT and depression but was a strong mediating factor between SPT and depression.

  8. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong XQ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions 

  9. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  10. The neglected role of adolescent emotional well-being in national educational achievement: bridging the gap between education and mental health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Reisel, Liza; Romer, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Although child poverty is recognized as a critical determinant of poor educational achievement in the United States, policy discussions on raising academic achievement rarely include the importance of the effects of poverty on the mental health of adolescents. This article examines the role of adolescent emotional well-being (indicators of depression) as a mediator of the effects of poverty on differences in educational achievement at the national and U.S. state levels. Differences in standardized adolescent academic achievement across 23 developed countries and 39 U.S. states were analyzed using path analytic techniques to test the hypothesis that indicators of adolescent emotional well-being mediate relations between child poverty rates and academic achievement. Child poverty rates were related to both adolescent emotional well-being and educational achievement across both U.S. states and developed countries. Path analyses showed that the status of a country's or state's adolescent emotional well-being is a strong predictor of its educational achievement and that emotional well-being mediates the relationship between poverty and educational achievement. Policies designed to ameliorate the adverse effects of poverty on mental health are critical as they are likely to improve both average educational achievement and student emotional well-being. Attention to improving mental health care not only has the potential to reduce societal and individual costs directly related to health but also to reduce the indirect costs of poor educational achievement. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...

  12. Fetal abuse and neglect: an emerging controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwirth, J

    1987-04-01

    Advances in fetal medicine have expanded opportunities for protection of fetal health and intrauterine management of an increasing number of fetal disorders. The legal rights and duties of parents to provide necessary medical treatment for the child may extend to the prenatal period. Resolution of the conflict between the rights of the fetus to be born healthy and the pregnant woman's right of privacy is difficult and controversial. It is suggested that intrusion into a woman's individual fundamental rights for the potential benefit of her fetus should be permissible only in narrowly defined circumstances.

  13. Strategic self-regulation, decision-making and emotion processing in poly-substance abusers in their first year of abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Rivas-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2007-01-12

    Individuals with substance dependence (ISD) frequently show signs of impaired emotion processing, self-regulation and decision-making, even after prolonged abstinence from drug use and partial recovery of other neuropsychological functions. These impairments have been associated with alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in lesion and imaging studies. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of ISD, who had been abstinent for at least 4 months, on a series of emotional perception, self-regulation and decision-making tests sensitive to OFC dysfunction. Thirty ISD (poly-substance abusers in their first year of abstinence) and 35 healthy comparison (HC) participants were in the study. We administered the Ekman Faces Test (EFT), the Revised Strategy Application Test (R-SAT) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to both ISD and HC. Results showed that the ISD presented significant deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions and decision-making as measured by the EFT and the IGT. The ISD also showed poorer strategy awareness, impaired self-regulation and higher impulsivity on the R-SAT. We found significant correlations between the different measures linked to OFC functioning. We did not find significant correlations between length of abstinence and performance on these tests. These results suggest that the evaluation of emotion, self-regulation and decision-making contributes greatly to the characterization of the persistent deficits exhibited by ISD during prolonged abstinence.

  14. A Survey of Abuse of the Elderly in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeff; And Others

    Many elderly persons suffer abuse and neglect from which they cannot escape. Questions concerning the extent of elder abuse, the kinds of abuse, and underlying factors associated with elder abuse in Texas were explored in a survey of professionals most likely to encounter elder abuse in their work. Questionnaires (1,508) were mailed to agencies…

  15. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  16. The association between child maltreatment and emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; Van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2017-04-19

    There is a paucity of research on correlates of child maltreatment in limited-resource countries with a relatively high tolerance of harsh discipline. This Vietnamese study aimed to investigate associations between different types of child maltreatment and child emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning as well as moderation effects of gender and ethnicity. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1851 randomly selected students aged 12-17 years. Both self-report and more objective measures (weight, height, study ranking, and a memory test) were used. All types of child maltreatment were associated with emotional dysfunctioning. Life time and past year experiences of physical abuse and life time experiences of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer perceived physical health. The study did not find associations between any type of child maltreatment and overweight or underweight status. Regarding cognitive functioning, life time experience of sexual abuse and neglect were related to poorer working memory performance. Noticeably, emotional abuse was related to better academic performance, which might be an indication of "tiger parenting" practice in Vietnam, implying academic performance stimulation at the expense of emotional security. No significant moderation effects by gender and ethnicity were found. Even in a culture in which harsh discipline is normative, child maltreatment was related to negative aspects of child wellbeing including emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning. Efficient and low-cost interventions on child maltreatment should be developed and conducted in Vietnam as well as other countries with similar contexts.

  17. Using feminist, emotion-focused, and developmental approaches to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N

    2008-06-01

    A body of research indicates the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault in adulthood. The generalizability of these treatments to women who present with trauma symptoms associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has yet to be shown, however. A number of characteristics and dynamics of CSA that make it unique from sexual assault in adulthood are described, specifically its disruption of normal childhood development, its impact on attachment style and interpersonal relationships, its inescapability, and the stigma attached to it. Then, drawing on the developmental, emotion-focused, and feminist literatures, a number of considerations that would enhance the application of cognitive- behavioral trauma therapies to the treatment of women with PTSD related to CSA are delineated. These considerations relate to providing clients with corrective interpersonal experiences, creating new relationship events, enhancing affect regulation skills before initiating exposure therapy, considering the time elapsed since the abuse, addressing themes of power, betrayal, self-blame, stigma, and sex-related cognitions and emotions, and helping clients develop a feminist consciousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Trauma complexity and child abuse: A qualitative study of attachment narratives in adult refugees with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify trauma types over the life course among adult refugees and to explore their accounts of childhood maltreatment. A sample of 43 Arabic-speaking refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) attending a treatment context in Denmark were interviewed. Using a "Trauma Coding Manual" developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information for refugee trauma treatment providers.

  19. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. Methods We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. Results A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. Conclusions In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of

  20. Effects of a Dyadic Music Therapy Intervention on Parent-Child Interaction, Parent Stress, and Parent-Child Relationship in Families with Emotionally Neglected Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; H. McKinney, Cathy; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of a dyadic music therapy intervention on observed parent-child interaction (mutual attunement, nonverbal communication, emotional parental response), self-reported parenting stress, and self-reported parent-child relationship in families at risk and families...... significantly improved their nonverbal communication and mutual attunement. Similarly, parents who participated in dyadic music therapy reported themselves to be significantly less stressed by the mood of the child and to significantly improve their parent-child relationship in terms of being better at talking......-perceived autonomy, attachment, and parental competence. Conclusions: The dyadic music therapy intervention examined in this study improved emotional communication between parent and child and interaction after 6 to 10 sessions and can be considered as a viable treatment alternative or supplement for families...

  1. Exploring alternate specifications to explain agency-level effects in placement decisions regarding aboriginal children: further analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Martin; Fallon, Barbara; Tonmyr, Lil; MacLaurin, Bruce; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds upon the analyses presented in two companion papers (Fluke et al., 2010; Fallon et al., 2013) using data from the 1998 and 2003 cycles of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-1998 and CIS-2003) to examine the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place a child in out-of-home care at the conclusion of a child maltreatment investigation. This paper explores various model specifications to explain the effect of an agency-level factor, proportion of Aboriginal reports, which emerged as a stable and significant factor through the two data collection cycles. It addresses the issue of data comparability between the two cycles and explores various re-specifications and descriptive analyses of reported models to evaluate their solidity with regards to the sampling schemes and the precise contribution of a multi-level specification. The decision to place a child in out-of-home care was examined using data from the CIS-2003. This child welfare dataset collected information about the results of nearly 12,000 child maltreatment investigations as well as a description of the characteristics of the workers and organization responsible for conducting those investigations. Multi-level statistical models were developed using MPlus software, which can accommodate dichotomous outcome variables and are more reflective of decision-making in child welfare. The models are thus multi-level binary logistic regressions. Final models revealed that two agency-level variables, 'Education degree of majority of workers' and 'Degree of centralization in the agency' clarify the nature of the effect of 'Proportion of Aboriginal reports', a stable, key second level predictor of the placement decision. The comparability of the effect of this agency-level variable across the 1998 and 2003 cycles becomes further evident through this analysis. By using a unified database including both cycles and various

  2. The influence of sex on mock jurors' verdicts across type of child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettalia, Jennifer; Pozzulo, Joanna D; Reed, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the influence of victim sex, mock juror sex, and type of child abuse (physical, sexual, emotional, and neglect) on mock jurors' assessments of eyewitness and defendant integrity, continuous guilt ratings, dichotomous verdicts, and sentencing recommendations. Participants read one of eight versions of a trial transcript and then answered a self-report questionnaire. Female mock jurors were significantly more likely to find the defendant guilty overall. Moreover, female mock jurors recommended significantly longer sentences for defendants in sexual abuse cases; whereas, male mock jurors recommended significantly longer sentences for defendants in sexual and physical abuse cases. Male mock jurors perceived the defendant more favorably than female mock jurors; whereas, female mock jurors perceived the alleged victim more favorable than male mock jurors. These results suggest that juror sex may be an influential factor in child abuse cases overall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana R.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of chronic childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM; emotional abuse and/or neglect), adequately responding to facial expressions is an important skill. Over time, however, this adaptive response may lead to a persistent vigilance for emotional facial expressions. The amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key regions in face processing. However, the neurobiological correlates of face processing in adults reporting CEM are yet unknown. We examined amydala and mPFC reactivity to emotional faces (Angry, Fearful, Sad, Happy, Neutral) vs scrambled faces in healthy controls and unmedicated patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders reporting CEM before the age of 16 years (n = 60), and controls and patients who report no childhood abuse (n = 75). We found that CEM was associated with enhanced bilateral amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in general, and independent of psychiatric status. Furthermore, we found no support for differential mPFC functioning, suggesting that amygdala hyper-responsivity to emotional facial perception in adults reporting CEM may be independent from top–down influences of the mPFC. These findings may be key in understanding the increased emotional sensitivity and interpersonal difficulties, that have been reported in individuals with a history of CEM. PMID:22258799

  4. Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  5. [Neglect of Children--a neglected problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Steven; Jernbro, Carolina

    2014-11-18

    Although neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the home, it has received relatively little attention in both research and medical practice. Up to one in six children in the western world experience physical or psychological neglect during their upbringing. Severe neglect is associated with anatomical and physiological changes in the brain that in turn are coupled to cognitive impairment, impulsivity, and disturbances in concentration and social behavior. Reducing the risk of neglect requires the provision of preventive interventions at the individual and societal level, both universally and targeted to parents and children in need of special support. Health care services can play a key role in the prevention and early detection of neglect in childhood.

  6. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  7. A Model of Sexual Abuse's Effects on Suicidal Behavior and Delinquency: The Role of Emotions as Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on Agnew's general strain theory, we examined whether depressed mood and anger mediated the effects of sexual abuse on suicidal behavior and delinquency. Participants included 9,113 students attending high schools in Iceland. Structural equation modeling showed that, while controlling for family structure and parental education, being…

  8. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  9. Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...

  10. Elder Abuse Reporting: Limitations of Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Elyse; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares 16 state elder abuse reporting statutes and analyzes their implementation. Generally, the statutes have failed to ensure consistent information about elder abuse within or across states. Neglect is more often reported than abuse and little prosecutory activity was noted. Suggestions for improving reporting policies are made. (JAC)

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.

  12. Recovery of personal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  13. The contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to risky sexual behavior within a sample of patients in residential substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Matthew T; Weiss, Nicole H; Adams, Claire E; Gratz, Kim L

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the unique contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to past-year risky sexual behavior (RSB) among substance use disorder (SUD) patients (above and beyond other known RSB risk factors). A sample of 177 SUD patients completed a series of questionnaires. At the zero-order level, emotion regulation difficulties, were significantly positively associated with the number of commercial sexual (i.e., the exchange of sex for drugs or money) partners with which penetrative sex occurred and significantly negatively associated with the likelihood of using a condom when having sex with a commercial partner under the influence of drugs. Emotion regulation difficulties also significantly predicted these RSB indices above and beyond other RSB risk factors, including demographics, depression, sensation seeking, traumatic exposure, and substance use severity. The specific emotion regulation difficulty of lack of emotional clarity emerged as a unique predictor of RSB. The implications of these findings for understanding motivations for RSB and developing targeted interventions for RSB among SUD patients are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Heravi-Karimooi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this methodological study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a new and specific questionnaire for assessing domestic elder abuse in the context of Iranian culture. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, phenomenology was applied to explore the meaning of domestic elder abuse phenomenon. In the second phase, a questionnaire was compiled, using the results of the qualitative research implemented in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third phase, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test- retest reliability were measured. 325 elderly people who were selected randomly participated in the last stage. Results: The initial 78 item questionnaire designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 49 items in the process of determining the face and content validity. The result of exploratory factor analysis showed that this questionnaire contains 8 factors including care neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, financial abuse, curtailment of personal autonomy, abandonment, financial neglect and emotional neglect. These 8 factors explained nearly 79.93% of the variance. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this questionnaire could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the indexes of re-hospitalization and functional status. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90–0.975. Test-retest reliability (ICC of the questionnaire with interval time of two weeks was 0.98 (P<0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that the Domestic Elder Abuse questionnaire with 49 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect abuse among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care

  15. Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friestad, Christine; Åse-Bente, Rustad; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse. The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.

  16. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Lability, and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults At-Risk for ADHD: Testing Moderation and Moderated Moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunford, Nóra; Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Shorey, Ryan C

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems are common among young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the degree to which maltreatment and alcohol problems are associated; potential pertinent mediating or moderating mechanisms, such as emotional lability; and whether this association varies by sex. We examined, in a sample of adults at risk for ADHD (N = 122, 37% male), the association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems, whether emotional lability mediated or moderated this association, and whether either role of emotional lability differed between men and women. Emotional lability moderated the association between emotional neglect and alcohol problems; maltreatment increased risk for alcohol problems for those scoring high tovery high on emotional lability, but not for those with very low-moderate levels. The association between emotional abuse and alcohol problems depended both on emotional lability and sex; emotional abuse decreased the risk for alcohol problems among men very low/low on emotional lability, but not for men who were moderate to very high on emotional lability, or for women. These findings have implications for the way in which targeting maltreatment and emotional lability may be incorporated into prevention and intervention programs to prevent alcohol problems among men and women at risk for ADHD.

  17. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semiparametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA (2 to 12 y.o.) and HIV/AIDS risk behavior at age 14 (i.e., sexual intercourse & alcohol use). Trajectory analyses revealed a link between a history of CSA and the development of risky behavior. In addition, trajectories for physical and emotional abuse, but not neglect or witnessed violence, contributed to risky behavior over and above the role of CSA. Child gender did not moderate the findings. Findings highlight the signficance of CSA histories, as well as the broader context of maltreatment, for better understanding the development of risk behaviors in both girls and boys. PMID:20706919

  18. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  19. [The prevalence and influencing factors of abuse and negligence against elderly in rural areas of Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pu-yu; Hao, Jia-hu; Xiong, Li-ming; Yu, Dan-dan; Cao, Yue-ting; Fang, Yun; Jiang, Xiu-ling; Qian, Qiao-xia; Tao, Fang-biao

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors related to abuse and negligence against the elderly in the rural areas. 975 elderly over 60 years from 41 counties in Anhui province were included. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire including items as: educational background, marital condition, income, child-discipline, rude action to parents, daily activities, physical functions, having chronic illness, abuse and negligence against the elderly, etc. In the last year, rates of common physical abuse, serious physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, negligence, overall abuse and negligence against the elderly were 4.5%, 1.5%, 26.9%, 4.9%, 7.2%, 29.9% respectively. Among the 281 victims, 80.4% reported that they were suffered more than 3 times of abuse and neglect episodes, and 34.9% reported that they were suffered more than 2 forms of abuse and negligence. The primary sadism was carried out by the daughter-in-law or son-in-law (43.2%) of the elderly. Low activity on daily life and having chronic illness were the risk factors causing common physical abuse while better education was the protective factor to it. Low ability in managing daily activity of living was the risk factor causing serious physical abuse. Less active on daily life and having rude action to parents were the risk factors to emotional abuse, but being strict with their children was the protective factor to emotional abuse. Less active on daily life, often beating their children and having rude action to parents were the risk factors related to financial exploitation. Less active on daily life, having rude action to parents and having bad physical functions were the risk factors causing negligence. Less active on daily life and having rude manner to parents were the risk factors of overall elderly abuse and negligence, but being strict with their children was protective factor to the abuse and negligence against the elderly. High prevalence on abuse and

  20. Imaging of Neonatal Child Abuse with an Emphasis on Abusive Head Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Spevak, Melissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a serious clinical and socioeconomic problem that is sometimes underestimated. One of the most devastating forms is abusive head trauma. This review addresses the radiological workup in cases of suspected child abuse. The use of all modalities, and their advantages and