Sample records for abuse elder abuse

  1. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen


    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  2. Elder abuse in assisted living. (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas; Beach, Scott


    Assisted Living (AL) currently represents one of the most numerous institutional care settings for elders. Very little information exists on abuse in AL. Descriptive information on elder abuse reported by nurse aides working in AL is presented from a survey sent to nurse aides. The questionnaire had items addressing verbal, physical, psychological, caregiving, medication, material, and sexual abuse. The responses to the questions included in the verbal abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, caregiving abuse, medication abuse, and material exploitation abuse sections (28 questions) show that suspected abuse is not uncommon. We could not objectively verify the cases of abuse described in the survey, still, they give a first indication that staff abuse may occur in AL. This may be significant given the large number of ALs in the United States and may influence the health, quality of life, and safety of many residents.

  3. National Center on Elder Abuse (United States)

    ... Connect with Us Contact Us Newsroom FAQ Suspect Abuse? Get Help What We Do Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ...

  4. Community approaches to elder abuse. (United States)

    Dyer, Carmel B; Heisler, Candace J; Hill, Carrie A; Kim, Lucia C


    Collaboration of professionals from diverse disciplines is required to address the multiple, complex issues and needs of community-dwelling elders who are abused or neglected. Reporting suspected elder abuse or neglect cases to Adult Protective Service (APS) agencies provides access to services that address the social, medical, and legal needs of elderly persons. A geriatric interdisciplinary team can provide a comprehensive medical, functional, and social assessment. Based on the findings from the assessment and in collaboration with the APS team, the intervention plan can be formulated. Some cases of elder abuse or neglect may require intervention from the criminal justice or the civil justice system for serious legal issues such as sexual assault, financial exploitation, or guardianship. Other resources, such as Area Agencies on Aging, local women's shelters, and The National Center for Elder Abuse, are available to help manage elder abuse and neglect cases in the community.

  5. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge. (United States)

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.


    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  6. Abuse (United States)

    ... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

  7. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse. (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann


    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  8. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity. (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J


    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  9. Hydroxychloroquine-Associated Hyperpigmentation Mimicking Elder Abuse


    Cohen, Philip R.


    Background Hydroxychloroquine may result in cutaneous dyschromia. Older individuals who are the victims of elder abuse can present with bruising and resolving ecchymoses. Purpose The features of hydroxychloroquine-associated hyperpigmentation are described, the mucosal and skin manifestations of elder abuse are reviewed, and the mucocutaneous mimickers of elder abuse are summarized. Case Report An elderly woman being treated with hydroxychloroquine for systemic lupus erythematosus developed d...

  10. Abuse (United States)

    ... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...

  11. National profiling of elder abuse referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, Marguerite


    there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

  12. Domestic and institutional elder abuse legislation. (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M


    Statutes pertinent to elder abuse vary widely. This article provides examples of organizational structure, dependency and age of the victim, definitions of abuse, classification of penalties, and investigation processes. Health care providers must learn their state's elder abuse laws and review any operating manuals produced from the statutes or regulations. All health care workers must know and implement the law to protect the welfare of older persons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspectives on elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya


    This thesis explores perceptions and views of different groups involved in elder abuse. First chapter provides a general introduction to the topic and current study. In the second chapter of this thesis, definitions of elder abuse and their developments are reviewed. Chapter three explores different

  14. A Case-Comparison Analysis of Elder Abuse and Neglect. (United States)

    Godkin, Michael A.; And Others


    Compared 59 abused and 49 non-abused elders to identify factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect by caregivers in domestic setting. Found that members of abusive families often had emotional problems. Abused elders and caregivers had become increasingly interdependent because of loss of other family members, social isolation, and financial…

  15. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk


    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  16. Abuse and maltreatment in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martins


    Conclusion: We found that the abuse and mistreatment are present in the everyday life of many seniors and are a difficult subject to approach. The evidence, invite us to reflect on the development of intervention strategies, particularly at the levels of emotional abuse, neglect, promotion of health and family functioning in order to contribute to the reduction or extinction of abuse and ill-treatment in the elderly.

  17. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients]. (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara


    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Disrespect and Isolation: Elder Abuse in Chinese Communities (United States)

    Tam, Sandra; Neysmith, Sheila


    Based on a qualitative study of home care workers, this paper aims to understand elder abuse of Chinese Canadians. The findings show disrespect is the key form elder abuse takes in the Chinese community. As a culturally specific form of abuse, disrespect remains invisible under categories of elder abuse derived from a Western cultural perspective.…

  19. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.


    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  20. Interventions for preventing abuse in the elderly. (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen


    Maltreatment of older people (elder abuse) includes psychological, physical, sexual abuse, neglect and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 10% of older adults experience some form of abuse, and only a fraction of cases are actually reported or referred to social services agencies. Elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous interventions have been implemented to address the issue of elder maltreatment. It is, however, unclear which interventions best serve to prevent or reduce elder abuse. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary intervention programmes used to reduce or prevent abuse of the elderly in their own home, in organisational or institutional and community settings. The secondary objective was to investigate whether intervention effects are modified by types of abuse, types of participants, setting of intervention, or the cognitive status of older people. We searched 19 databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, Psycinfo, MEDLINE, Embase, Proquest Central, Social Services Abstracts‎, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Web of Science, LILACS, EPPI, InfoBase, CENTRAL, HMIC, Opengrey and Zetoc) on 12 platforms, including multidisciplinary disciplines covering medical, health, social sciences, social services, legal, finance and education. We also browsed related organisational websites, contacted authors of relevant articles and checked reference lists. Searches of databases were conducted between 30 August 2015 and 16 March 2016 and were not restricted by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-RCTs, before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series. Only studies with at least 12 weeks of follow-up investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing abuse of elderly people and those who interact with the elderly were included. Two review authors


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rey U. Acob


    Full Text Available Aim: The study determined individual lived experiences of the abused elderly in the provinces of Leyte and Biliran. Methods: The study utilized qualitative phenomenology. Interviews are made and recorded, then later transcribed verbatim. Collaizi’s method is used as method of analysis to obtain themes of the lived experiences of the ten abused key informants. Results: Based from results, most of the abused entities are female, widowed aging 6o to 65 years old, earning less than 2000 pesos per month and are dependently living in a nuclear family structure for 40 years. Based on their responses to the open-ended guide questions, key informants revealed emotional mistreatment being the most extensive type of abuse. Physical and sexual maltreatment are also evident amidst their old age. Family members and employers are the main identified perpetrators of the elderly. Bruises on most covered areas in their body, rope burns, torn undergarments, being touched without consent are some of the objective indicators of abuse. Themes such as family violence and workplace mistreatment are the most common form of abuse experienced. Conclusion: Based from the findings, it is recommended that the local government and concerned stakeholders to timely review existing rules protecting vulnerable adults especially its implementation.

  2. Addressing elder abuse: the Waterloo restorative justice approach to elder abuse project. (United States)

    Groh, Arlene; Linden, Rick


    The Community Care Access Centre (CCAC) of Waterloo Region, in partnership with a number of other social service agencies, designed and implemented a restorative justice model applicable to older adults who have been abused by an individual in a position of trust. The project was very successful in building partnerships, as many community agencies came together to deal with the problem of elder abuse. The program also raised the profile of elder abuse in the community. However, despite intensive efforts, referrals to the restorative justice program were quite low. Because of this, the program moved to a new organizational model, the Elder Abuse Response Team (EART), which has retained the guiding philosophy of restorative justice but has broadened the mandate. The team has evolved into a conflict management system that has multiple points of entry for cases and multiple options for dealing with elder abuse. The team has developed a broad range of community partners who can facilitate referrals to the EART and also can help to provide an individualized response to each case. The transition to the EART has been successful, and the number of referrals has increased significantly. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  3. Clinical decision making of nurses regarding elder abuse. (United States)

    Meeks-Sjostrom, Diana J


    A descriptive correlational design was used to examine the clinical decision making of nurses regarding elder abuse. The relationship of the nurses' applied knowledge of elder abuse, years of experience as a Registered Nurse (RN), clinical level of practice status, the use of intuition, and clinical decision outcomes for patients in cases of suspected elder abuse were examined. The convenience sample of 84 RNs consisted of 68 females and 16 males. Results indicated an overall model of two predictors that significantly predicted outcomes. The t-test revealed no difference between RNs who received elder abuse education and those who did not.

  4. Abusive Consumption Of Alcohol By Elderly

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    Cecília Danielle Bezerra Oliveira


    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the abusive consumption of alcohol in the elderly in the municipality of Santa Cruz - PB. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, with quantitative approach with a sample of 170 elderly. To perform the study, three instruments were used: the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test - Geriatric Version (MAST-G. The data were analyzed in the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 21. Results: 14.7% of the elderly were classified by the MAST-G score as elderly individuals presenting problems related to alcohol abuse, the majority of whom were male, single, with education above 05 years, who reside alone, and present some pathology and make use of medications. Conclusion: the research points out the need for multiprofessional work in health in Primary Care, in order to develop health actions that include the prevention of alcohol consumption and minimize the deleterious effects of consumption, in order to reduce the number of undesirable events arising from the use of that substance. Keywords: Primary health care; Alcohol; Old man.

  5. Professionals' Perceptions of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly. (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford


    Surveyed perceptions of the causes, severity, and treatment of elderly substance abuse as reported by 30 drug-abuse, health care, and social service practitioners. Perceptions differed as a function of both the basic type of services an agency provided and its specific response to older abusers. (Author)

  6. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

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    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad


    Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.

  7. Drug and Solvent Abuse Among Ahwaz\\'s Elderlies

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    Abdolrahim Asadollahi


    Full Text Available Objectives: There are researches to point epidemiology of addiction to drugs, chemical and solvent abuse in elderlies. Drug and Solvent abuse is considered as one of these addictions. This study was point to chemical abuse among elderly population of Ahwaz an Iranian city during year of 2007. Methods & Materials: Research method is description-exploration with use to questionnaire, clinical interview and survey of medical and clinical reports among volunteer clients. Statistical community is all elderly population at one of citizen region in Ahwaz city (Iran. Seventy four dossiers were considered via random sampling; with 30 Elder volunteer clients been interviewed and replied to Elderly Drug Abuse Questionnaire (EDAQ. Results: Signification of hypothesis with X2 test was considered significant relation between age and addiction record variables to solvent abuse; this relation is very significant to second value of drug's derivations such as Morphine, Codeine, Tebaine and Heroine. Interview showed psychological dependent due to appeal them to solvent abuse. Kind of abuse among elderly was snuffing and abuse of medicine drugs which were been recommended to them by their physician. Conclusion: Although study of solvent and chemical abuse's epidemiology pointed less average of this addiction in samples, should be considered important and notice in studies. Finally, researchers were suggested to avoid of this new drug abuse and so to control behavior and interaction of these addicted and their behavior development; it's better to control on distribution of solvent and glue materials and recommending of medicine drug via physicians visiting exderlies.

  8. Information processing of sexual abuse in elders. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann W; Clements, Paul T


    Sexual abuse is considered to be a pandemic contemporary public health issue, with significant physical and psychosocial consequences for its victims. However, the incidence of elder sexual assault is difficult to estimate with any degree of confidence. A convenience sample of 284 case records were reviewed for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to present the limited data noted on record review on four PTSD symptoms of startle, physiological upset, anger, and numbness. A treatment model for information processing of intrapsychic trauma is presented to describe domain disruption within a nursing diagnosis of rape trauma syndrome and provide guidance for sensitive assessment and intervention.

  9. [Prevalence of elder abuse in Spanish dwelling in community]. (United States)

    Pérez-Rojo, Gema; Izal, María; Montorio, Ignacio; Regato, Pilar; Espinosa, Juan Manuel


    Although elder abuse is not a new phenomenon, it remains hidden. There have been carried out various preliminary studies about the prevalence of elder abuse in different countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse in old persons without cognitive impairment, dwelling in community, who were attended in Primary Health Care or Social Services Centres. We carried out a transverse study in which 340 elders participated. We found a 12.1% prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse. Psychological abuse suspicion was the most frequent type and it was very common the simultaneous presence of different types of abuse (psychological and physical and sexual). The suspicion of elder abuse was more frequent in women and spouses were responsible in a high great frequency. The information obtained allows advancing in the knowledge of elder abuse in Spain, where the research about this issue is poor. However, the prevalence found neither has to be considered as a social alarm nor as a social slackness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Elder abuse within the family environment in the Azores Islands

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    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to dimension abuse against vulnerable adults within the family and community environment in the Azores Islands, identify risk factors for abuse and describe the profile of an abused elder. Method: descriptive cross-sectional study. Random sampling. The instruments used were: clinical histories of the users, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living, Family APGAR Scale, Elder Abuse Suspicion Index and Social Work Assessment Form. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative variables and multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with elder mistreatment. Results: abuse suspicion was identified in 24.5% of elderly participants. Psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse and sons were the main abusers. Conclusion: being a woman and belonging to a dysfunctional family is associated with an increased risk of becoming a victim of abuse; the high level of domestic violence against the elderly in the Azores Islands is in line with the rest of Portugal.

  11. Elder Abuse: Systematic Review and Implications for Practice. (United States)

    Dong, Xin Qi


    This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Drug Abuse Among the Elderly: Implications for Dental Practice. (United States)

    Ng, Kester F; Ouanounou, Aviv


    Current demographic data demonstrate an aging North American population, and projections suggest that the percentage of the elderly will increase. Substance abuse among seniors is a common problem, though it is often unidentified and frequently undiagnosed. The most predominant drugs abused by the geriatric individual are alcohol; analgesics, including opioids; central nervous system depressants; and illicit drugs. This article will discuss reasons for drug abuse among the elderly, warning signs associated with substance abuse, and the implications of this problem to the oral cavity and the dental practice.

  13. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane


    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  14. Exploring gender and elder abuse from the perspective of professionals. (United States)

    Weeks, Lori; Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne; Arseneault, Rina; MacQuarrie, Colleen; Gagnon, Danie; LeBlanc, Ginette Marie


    We conducted an online survey of professionals working in two Canadian provinces to learn about their knowledge of elder abuse from a gender-based perspective. A total of 169 professionals (90% women) completed a survey in either French or English. Five topic areas emerged from the analysis: the influence of gender on the risk of abuse; types of abuse detected; knowledge gaps; capacity to respond to gender-based abuse; and awareness of resources. To gain further insight into these results, we conducted three focus groups with a total of 24 professionals. Professionals held relatively little recognition of, or knowledge about, gender related to elder abuse. Our results indicate the need to develop educational and awareness raising opportunities for professionals who work with abused older adults in both French and English to identify and respond to the unique needs of older women and men.

  15. 78 FR 37427 - World Elder Abuse Awareness Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... and security. But too often, senior citizens are the victims of abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation. Elder abuse is a global public health problem that affects people of every background and culture... prosperity. Today, let us stand up and speak out on their behalf, and meet our responsibility to show our...

  16. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (United States)

    ... adults. With members representing aging and social services, APS, healthcare, justice, domestic violence, and other arenas, NCPEA ... enroll online ! Member benefits include: Subscription to the Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect (JEAN, a $198 value) ...

  17. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia. (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V


    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill.

  18. Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education


    Skirbekk, Vegard; James, KS


    BACKGROUND: Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India -- all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against se...

  19. Elder Abuse in the African Diaspora: A Review. (United States)

    Mouton, Charles P; Southerland, Janet H


    As with many other populations, abuse of older adults is a growing problem across the Africa Diaspora. Modernization and urbanization are eroding the traditional values of respect for older adults. Also, older adults living in environments with limited social and economic resources, and having no means of economic support create a recipe for elder abuse and neglect. This article reviews the current literature on the epidemiology, risk factors, and interventions used for elder abuse across the African Diaspora. Reports of elder abuse range from 24.9% to 81.1% across the Diaspora. Risk factors include cognitive and physical impairment, social isolation, lack of resources and widowhood. Community-based programs using the unique social networks of older populations of African descent can provide a venue to improve caregiver training and support, reinforce traditional filial and informal caregiving practices, increase the utilization of available governmental and institutional. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. WorldView Environmental Scan on Elder Abuse. (United States)

    Podnieks, Elizabeth; Anetzberger, Georgia J; Wilson, Susannah J; Teaster, Pamela B; Wangmo, Tenzin


    In response to a growing and worldwide recognition of elder abuse, the WorldView Environmental Scan on Elder Abuse was undertaken. It represented an attempt to collect both information on the nature of the problem of elder abuse and responses to it from a global perspective. The first of its kind, the Scan gathered information about elder abuse as well as on related legislation and policy, services and programs, educational resources and needs, training, and past and ongoing research. A total of 53 countries responded to the survey questionnaire, with 362 respondents representing the six world regions designated by the World Health Organization. Findings revealed that factors contributing to elder abuse include changing social and economic structures, isolation of victims, inadequate knowledge of laws and services, intergenerational conflict, and poverty. Barriers to seeking resources to intervene and protect older adults include the culture of the country, language issues, literacy, stigma, lack of mobility, lack of funding, and insufficient familiarity with and access to the internet. The data serve as a catalyst to take action, both globally and nationally, while emphasizing the changes necessary to protect the rights and dignity of older adults.

  1. Alcohol Abuse and the Elderly: Comparison of Early & Late-Life Onset. (United States)

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others

    Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…

  2. Clinical concepts. The nursing role in reporting elder abuse: specific examples and interventions. (United States)

    Ziminski, Carolyn E; Phillips, Linda R


    Elder abuse is a serious national problem with potential for significant physical, emotional, and financial harm. In some situations, elder abuse may lead to death. Nurses are mandated reporters for suspected elder abuse to help prevent and curtail these serious outcomes and thus are responsible for recognizing the types of elder abuse and ways it can manifest. However, the variety of settings, perpetrators, and types of elder abuse may make it difficult for nurses to recognize when elder abuse is present and to understand the proper course of action. In addition, it is necessary for nurses to be aware that elder abuse is not just a public problem but can occur in clinical settings and everyday practice. The purpose of this article is to provide several brief clinical scenarios that exemplify specific aspects of potential elder abuse and to identify appropriate nursing interventions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Maltrato institucional a adultos mayores Institutional elder abuse

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    Miriam Rubio Acuña


    Full Text Available El maltrato institucional se refiere a cualquier forma de abuso que ocurre en servicios dirigidos a los ancianos. Esta revisión bibliográfica muestra que el maltrato se presenta con mayor frecuencia en residencias de larga estadía y el tipo más frecuente es la negligencia. Los factores asociados son los que tienen relación con el residente y con el ambiente. Las principales estrategias son invertir recursos sociosanitarios, sensibilizar a la población respecto al maltrato de los ancianos, considerar las necesidades de estos, fortalecer la formación de pregrado de los profesionales de salud en este ámbito y realizar educación continua. El maltrato es un problema social que debe ser abordado de manera integral.Institutional abuse refers to any form of abuse that occurs in services for the elderly. This literature review indicates that abuse occurs more frequently in nursing homes and the most frequent type of neglect. The factors that may relate to the relationship with the resident and the environment. The main strategies relate to social and health invest resources, raising awareness about the abuse of the elderly, consider their needs, strengthen undergraduate education of health professionals in this field and make continuing education. Abuse is a social problem so this must be addressed holistically.

  4. Assessment of the Associations of Depression With Elder Abuse Among the Elderly in Kashan City, Iran

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    Zahra Khalili


    Conclusion: The study results indicate the importance and necessity of providing health care services and support for the identification of depressed elderly victims of abuse and prevention to solve this problem and improve their situation.

  5. The Prevalence of Elder Abuse in Gorgan and Aq-Qala Cities, Iran in 2013

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    Hossien Nassiri


    Conclusion: Because of the high level of elder abuse by family, providing awareness programs for seniors, caregivers and health care providers seems to be essential to prevent and reduce the neglect and abuse of older people.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of abuse among community dwelling elderly of Guwahati City, Assam

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    Anku Moni Saikia


    Full Text Available Background: In spite of tremendous impact on health, elder abuse is still an underreported and unrecognized issue. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abuse among community dwelling elderly and to identify the various risk factors. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 randomly selected wards of Guwahati city. A total of 331 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed. Abuse was screened by Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S EAST. Results: The study revealed 9.31% prevalence. Neglect was the most common type of abuse reported. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, living status, and functional status were found to be significantly associated with abuse. Conclusion: Abuse is prevalent among elderly population.

  7. Vulnerability risk index profile for elder abuse in a community-dwelling. (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A


    To develop a vulnerability index for elder abuse in a community-dwelling population. Population-based. Geographically defined community in Chicago. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 8,157) who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP); 213 were reported to social services agency for suspected elder abuse. A nine-item vulnerability index for elder abuse was constructed from sociodemographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors. The outcomes of interest were reported and confirmed elder abuse. Logistic regression models were used to determine the accuracy of the index with respect to elder abuse outcomes. For every 1-point increase in the vulnerability index, there was twice the risk of reported (OR = 2.19,95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.00–2.40) and confirmed(OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.94–2.47) elder abuse. Older adults with three to four vulnerability index items had greater risk than the reference group (no elder abuse) of reported (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.98–4.49) and confirmed (OR = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.07–7.36) elder abuse, and the risk of reported (OR = 18.46, 95% CI = 12.15–28.04) and confirmed (OR = 26.79, 95% CI = 14.18–50.61) elder abuse was 18 and 27 times as great, respectively, in older adults with five or more risk index items. Statistically derived receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves ranged from 0.77 to 0.84 for predicting reported elder abuse and from 0.79 to 0.86 for predicting confirmed elder abuse. The vulnerability risk index demonstrates value for identifying individuals at risk of elder abuse. Additional studies are needed to validate this index in other community-dwelling populations.

  8. 75 FR 40838 - Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation (United States)


    ..., training, and coordination. Membership and Designation The Secretary is soliciting nominations for... experience and expertise in elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation prevention, detection, treatment...

  9. The Bet Tzedek legal services model: how a legal services model addresses elder abuse and neglect. (United States)

    Morris, Janet R


    Bet Tzedek, Hebrew for the "House of Justice," provides free legal assistance to older adults in Los Angeles County. Their civil attorneys work alongside prosecutors and service providers for the elderly as members of multidisciplinary teams to assist older adults with complicated elder abuse and neglect cases. Case examples demonstrate how civil attorneys collaborate with the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center to address financial abuse, real estate fraud, and self-neglect issues. Cooperation among the courts, Bet Tzedek, and other county agencies has resulted in more user-friendly processes to expedite filing of conservatorships and elder abuse restraining orders.

  10. Comparing routes of reporting in elder sexual abuse cases. (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Gregorian, Sarah B


    An exploratory study of 284 cases of alleged elder sexual abuse revealed fairly equal numbers of reports to the criminal justice system (CJS) and to Adult Protective Services (APS). Comparison of these two routes of reporting indicated the following: Suspected victims reported to APS were more likely to reside in their own homes, not receive rape exams, and have cognitive disabilities. Their alleged offenders were typically spouse/partners or family members age 40 or older. Victims reported to CJS were more frequently abused in institutions, received rape exams, and were victimized by offenders under age 40 who also committed nonsexual crimes. In cases reported to the CJS, alleged offenders were less likely than those in the APS cases to be identified, but once identified, were more likely to be arrested, referred for prosecution, and convicted, or to plea bargain their case.

  11. Drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly: is being alone the key? (United States)

    Brown, B B; Chiang, C P

    Despite the rising incidence of drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly, information concerning the social and psychological factors fostering such abuse is scanty and potentially biased toward the limited number of older abusers who obtain professional help. Using a brief interview with carefully selected samples, the present study compares characteristics of social background and social support among 21 older clients (age 55 and over) of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggest that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment for substance abuse more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Controlling for age and gender effects, substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single and divorced elderly and among respondents who lived alone; presence or absence of living companions was more influential than relationships with nearby social supports. Implications for health and social service programs as well as for further research are discussed.

  12. Nursing aides' attitudes to elder abuse in nursing homes: the effect of work stressors and burnout. (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Cohen, Miri


    Nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse are a possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against elder residents of long-term care facilities but have been studied infrequently. The purpose of the study was to assess nursing aides' attitudes that condone abusive behaviors toward elderly people, as well as the relationship of these attitudes to demographic variables, work stressors (role conflict, role ambiguity, and work overload), burnout, and perceived control, based on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality and behavior. Milton Keynes: Open University Press) Two hundred and eight nursing aides from 18 nursing homes in Israel completed demographic, work stressors, burnout, and perceived control questionnaires and a case vignette questionnaire to test attitudes condoning elder abuse. The mean score of the attitudes condoning abusive behaviors was relatively high at 3.24 (SD = 0.59) on a 1-4 scale. Condoning abusive behaviors were closely associated with higher levels of work stressors, burnout, and low income. Multiple regression analyses revealed that demographic variables, work stressors, burnout, and perceived control explained 12% of the variance of condoning abusive behaviors among the nursing aides. Of these, role ambiguity, role conflict, and burnout were significantly associated with attitudes condoning abusive behaviors. In addition, burnout partially mediated the relationship between work stressors and attitudes condoning elder abuse. As nursing aides' attitudes condoning elder abuse may influence their actual behaviors, training and supervision programs should be developed to reduce work stressors and burnout and to modify these attitudes.

  13. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older......In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show...... persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of...

  14. Screening tools for identification of elder abuse: a systematic review. (United States)

    Gallione, Chiara; Dal Molin, Alberto; Cristina, Fabio V B; Ferns, Hilary; Mattioli, Mark; Suardi, Barbara


    To review the efficacy and accuracy of tools administered to older people, intended to detect and measure elder abuse. The mistreatment of older people represents a widespread problem, with exponential growth risk, especially considering the progressive ageing of the world population. It could have serious consequences for the victim's health if not recognised early, denounced and stopped. Abuse is often undetected by service providers because there is a lack of awareness surrounding the magnitude of the problem. Education and formal training in the signs of abuse are also generally poorly developed, as are reporting procedures which would lead to further investigation. Systematic review. Comprehensive database searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and Scopus were undertaken. Screening of 695 articles resulted in 11 included. Appraisal and analysis using PRISMA Statement and STROBE checklist were undertaken. Eleven screening tools have been presented: H-S/EAST, VASS, EASI, CASE, BASE, E-IOA, EAI, EPAS, CPEABS, OAPAM and OAFEM, all aimed at healthcare professional or, in some cases, expected to be specifically used by nurses. The fundamental function of any assessment instrument is to guide through a standardised screening process and to ensure that signs of abuse are not missed. Several tools have been tested; some have demonstrated a moderate to good internal consistency and some have been validated to allow an early identification. None have been evaluated against measurable violence or health outcomes. Nurses and all healthcare providers should screen patients routinely. However, we are not able to recommend a single tool as the selection and implementation has to be appropriate to the setting. Furthermore, the study population and the possibility of using multiple tools in combination should be taken into consideration, to assess all the aspects of violence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Preventing Elder Abuse: Identificaton of High Risk Factors Prior to Placement Decisions. (United States)

    Kosberg, Jordan I.


    Asserts that some elder abuse can be prevented by systematic assessment of the older person and the potential caregiver, as well as of the family constellation. Uses research findings to identify high-risk factors associated with elder abuse, factors that can be used to guide placement decisions. (Author/nB)

  16. Developing a Peer Educator Program to Raise Awareness about Elder Abuse (United States)

    Weeks, Lori E.; Bryanton, Olive; McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Chaulk, Paul


    There continues to be lack of public awareness about elder abuse. To help address this issue, we developed and piloted an elder abuse peer educator training program from an educational gerontology and health empowerment perspective. We describe the process employed to train older adults as peer educators. We present evaluation results from data…

  17. Emergency Department Presentations for Injuries in Older Adults Independently Known to be Victims of Elder Abuse. (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; LoFaso, Veronica M; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Lachs, Mark S


    Elder abuse is under-recognized by emergency department (ED) providers, largely due to challenges distinguishing between abuse and accidental trauma. To describe patterns and circumstances surrounding elder abuse-related and potentially abuse-related injuries in ED patients independently known to be physical elder abuse victims. ED utilization of community-dwelling victims of physical elder abuse in New Haven, CT from 1981-1994 was analyzed previously. Cases were identified using Elderly Protective Services data matched to ED records. Sixty-six ED visits were judged to have high probability of being related to elder abuse and 244 were of indeterminate probability. We re-examined these visits to assess whether they occurred due to injury. We identified and analyzed in detail 31 injury-associated ED visits from 26 patients with high probability of being related to elder abuse and 108 visits from 57 patients with intermediate probability and accidental injury. Abuse-related injuries were most common on upper extremities (45% of visits) and lower extremities (32%), with injuries on head or neck noted in 13 visits (42%). Bruising was observed in 39% of visits, most commonly on upper extremities. Forty-two percent of purportedly accidental injuries had suspicious characteristics, with the most common suspicious circumstance being injury occurring more than 1 day prior to presentation, and the most common suspicious injury pattern being maxillofacial injuries. Victims of physical elder abuse commonly have injuries on the upper extremities, head, and neck. Suspicious circumstances and injury patterns may be identified and are commonly present when victims of physical elder abuse present with purportedly accidental injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evil and elder abuse: intersections of Paul Ricoeur's and Simone Weil's perspectives on evil with one abused older woman's narrative. (United States)

    Erlingsson, Christen L


    Doing violence and evil always indirectly or directly leads to making someone else suffer. Such is the dialogical structure of evil and it seems to be the dialogical structure of elder abuse as well. There is a perturbing sameness between definitions of evil and definitions of elder abuse. It is hard at times to see how or if there is any line of demarcation between the subjects. Two modern-day philosophers, Paul Ricoeur and Simone Weil have delved particularly into the concept of evil. The symbolism Ricoeur analyses in depth is that of defilement, sin, and guilt and the concept of the servile will. Integral in Weil's description of evil are the concepts of suffering and the special situation of extreme suffering, termed affliction. Grounded in the writings of Ricoeur and Weil, this paper is a series of reflections on the intersection of evil and elder abuse as exemplified in the narrative of an abused older woman. This woman provided around the clock care at home for her husband who had vascular dementia. She was also abused by her husband. This was witnessed by both family and others but no one intervened. In her narrative there were indications of defilement, sin, guilt, and true affliction as a servile will. This paper illuminates the evil of elder abuse that is harm and suffering, and the challenge of untangling issues of blame, free will, responsibility, and self-determinism. When engaging with abused, older persons it can be worthwhile for nurses to enter the encounter with non-judgemental compassion founded on the human to human connection and recognition of our mutual fallibility and potential for evil that is part of our human fragility. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Influences on the perception of elder financial abuse among older adults in Southern California. (United States)

    Knight, Bob G; Kim, Seungyoun; Rastegar, Sarah; Jones, Scott; Jump, Victoria; Wong, Serena


    Under-reporting of elder financial abuse is partly due to failure of those around the victim to perceive the financial mistreatment as abuse. This study explored the effect of victim and perceiver factors on perception of elder financial abuse in the context of Routine Activity Theory (RAT). 488 older adults in Ventura County (CA) were surveyed about financial abuse using vignette method. In the study's Vignette 1, the amount of money taken, the type of frailty, and the relationship of perpetrator and victim were manipulated. In Vignette 2, the victim's age and relationship of perpetrator and victim were manipulated. Respondents' demographics (age, gender, education, and ethnicity) were collected. Logistic regression analyses revealed that children of the victim were least likely to be seen as committing abuse in both vignettes. In Vignette 1, there was an interaction of gender of respondent and the amount of money taken. In Vignette 2, non-Whites were less likely to perceive the signing over of the house as financial abuse. Respondents endorsed the concept of a special court with expertize in elder abuse as a way to increase the likelihood that they would report. Even though most financial abuse is perpetrated by family members, older adults are less likely to perceive a financial situation as abuse when it involves a child of the victim, thus making reporting and prevention less likely. The support for a specialty Elder Abuse Court (EAC) suggests that some reluctance to report is based on misgivings about punishing the perpetrator.

  20. Exploring definitions of financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: the contribution of traditional cultural values. (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Sang E; Eaton, Charissa K


    The purpose of this study is to explore the cultural definitions of financial abuse from the perspective of 124 elderly Korean immigrants and to examine the role of traditional cultural values in their definitions by using a mixed methods approach. The qualitative analysis generated four themes relevant to definition of financial abuse. A binary logistic regression indicated that those with stronger cultural adherence to traditional values had higher odds of providing culture-based definitions of financial abuse. Education is needed for health professionals, social service providers, and adult protective workers to increase their understanding of culture-specific experiences of financial abuse among ethnic minority elders.

  1. Elderly Abuse in Ahwaz City and Its Relationship With Individual and Social Characteristics

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    Mahboube Karimi


    Full Text Available Objectives: Older people are a vulnerable group in the society and older people abuse is a common challenge in the domain of caring and advocating. This study aimed to investigate the elderly abuse prevalence and its relationship with individual and social characteristics. Methods & Materials: This study was a cross-sectional study. Participants were 385 older people aged more than 60 years old who were selected randomly. Elder Abuse scale (content validity and reliability=87% used. Data analysis conduced in SPSS. Results: Participant's mean age was 70 years old prevalence of physical abuse was 11.7%, emotional abuse 5.18%, neglect 27.7%, abundance 23/8% and financial abuse 18/3%. There was a significant association (P=0.001 between exiting disease and type of living and also between physical dependence to others and abuse (P=0.001. Conclusion: Despite respect to elder people in our culture, this population experience abuse specially neglect and financial ones. There fore,precise recognition of elder abuse in our society can increase the awareness and senility of responsible organizations in order to prevent and plan for an effective system, for vulnerable older people .

  2. Elder abuse and neglect: social problems revealed from 15 autopsy cases. (United States)

    Akaza, Kayoko; Bunai, Yasuo; Tsujinaka, Masatake; Nakamura, Isao; Nagai, Atsushi; Tsukata, Yukiyoshi; Ohya, Isao


    This study examined the elder abuse cases that occurred in Gifu Prefecture, Japan between 1990 and 2000. We conducted a retrospective study of all the cases in which the victim was 65 years or older and autopsied in the Department of Legal Medicine, Gifu University School of Medicine. Fifteen victims were classified as elder abuse victims: five men and ten women. The victims ranged in age from 66 to 87 years (mean age, 74.5 years). The types of abuse were as follows: physical abuse, 13 cases; emotional abuse, five cases; neglect, four cases; and financial abuse, three cases. In eight cases, the victims were subjected to two or more types of abuse. The cause of death of the victims varied with the type of abuse. In the physical abuse cases, subdural hemorrhage was the most common cause, followed by other violence-related deaths and hypothermia. In the neglect cases, the victims died of either starvation or suffocation after the aspiration of food into the airway. In the domestic abuse cases, one of the victim's sons was the most common perpetrator, and little or no income was considered to be a risk factor for perpetrators. In the neglect cases, dementia and difficulty in performing activities of daily living were considered to be risk factors for victims, in addition to living in social isolation.

  3. Prevalence of Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from First Macedonian Study

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    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska


    CONCLUSIONS: Defining the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in the context of our country can facilitate support of abused older people and, most importantly, may help develop policy and programmes based on evidence-based practices, targeting prevention and response.

  4. Institutional abuse toward the elderly: Perceptions of health care providers and older adult

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    M. Guadalupe Ruelas-González


    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the health care providers (HCP and elderly patients’ perceptions about abuse of the elderly by health personnel of public health services, in selected cities in Mexico. Materials and methods. A qualitative study and a strategy of data triangulation were performed during 2009 and 2012; 13 HCPs and 12 elders were interviewed, in order to obtain their experience regarding elder abuse. Grounded Theory proceedings were used for the analysis. Results. Elder abuse is a naturalized practice, from HCP and elderly people’s point of view; these perceptions are showed in different ways. Conclusion. Institutionalization, historical professionalization and lack of consciousness about needs of the elderly (sociocultural and economic, require changes in planning, organization and monitoring process in the Health System; training and educational interventions on staff and exchange attitudes and behavior are necessary in order to offer a health care that is comprehensive, decent, human and with respect for the human rights.

  5. The interaction of injury and disease in the elderly: a case report of fatal elder abuse. (United States)

    Paranitharan, P; Pollanen, Michael S


    We report a case of an elderly demented woman who died of a mitral rheumatic valvular disease in the context of multiple injuries and from elder abuse. History from police investigation indicated that the deceased was found collapsed on the floor in her bedroom for several days prior to death by her son who did not initiate medical care. Autopsy revealed a frail elderly woman with Alzheimer's disease and evidence of multiple healing sublethal blunt impact injuries of the face, mouth, neck, upper chest, and extremities. In addition, there was unwashed dirt encrusted skin, urine/fecal staining of skin and clothing, dirty overgrown toenails, and matting of the hair. This constellation of findings supports the medical diagnosis of elder abuse with neglect. However, the immediate cause of death was the left-sided congestive heart failure from mitral rheumatic valvular disease. Although the underlying cause of death was related to the chronic cardiac condition, the physical abuse and neglect was considered significant contributing factors to death, since physiologically the injuries and lack of medical treatment was thought to have hastened death by exacerbating the underlying heart disease. This case underscores the need for the forensic pathologist to consider contextual variables and sublethal injuries in cases were the causal interpretations benefit from a more holistic approach. Otherwise, cases like such as the one reported can go unnoticed and certified as a simple natural death.

  6. Child Abuse (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...

  7. Development of skills-based competencies for forensic nurse examiners providing elder abuse care (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark


    Objective As a critical step in advancing a comprehensive response to elder abuse built on existing forensic nursing-led hospital-based programmes, we developed a list of skills-based competencies for use in an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner curriculum. Participants and setting Programme leaders of 30 hospital-based forensic nursing-led sexual assault and domestic violence treatment centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures 149 verbatim recommendations for components of an elder abuse response were identified from a systematic scoping review. In 2 online Delphi consensus survey rounds, these components of care were evaluated by an expert panel for their overall importance to the elder abuse intervention under development and for their appropriateness to the scope of practice of an elder abuse nurse examiner. The components retained after evaluation were translated into skills-based competencies using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning and, using the Nominal Group Technique, were subsequently reviewed and revised by a subset of members of the expert panel in a consensus meeting. Results Of the 148 recommendations evaluated, 119 were rated as important and achieved consensus or high level of agreement. Of these, 101 were determined to be within the scope of practice of an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner and were translated into skills-based competencies. Following review and revision by meeting experts, 47 final competencies were organised by content into 5 metacompetencies: documentation, legal and legislative issues; interview with older adult, caregiver and other relevant contacts; assessment; medical and forensic examination; and case summary, discharge plan and follow-up care. Conclusions We determined the skills-based competencies of importance to training forensic nurse examiners to respond to elder abuse in the context of a hospital-based intervention. These findings may have implications for violence and abuse treatment programmes with a forensic nursing component

  8. The elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox Jewish society: social workers' perspectives. (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova


    In the last 30 years, elder abuse and neglect has been recognized as a social and health-related problem. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in a separatist faith-based society (ultra-Orthodox Jewish society-UOJS). A qualitative-phenomenological study with 28 social workers who underwent in-depth semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide consisting of the following items: visibility of the elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox society, and dilemmas and sensitive issues that arise when working with this population. Three main themes emerged: (1) Between the commandment to honor one's parents and concealment patterns: Cultural barriers to exposing the abuse and neglect phenomenon; (2) "Life is demanding:" The unique expression of abusive and neglectful behavior in the UOJS; (3) Culturally related dilemmas when intervening with cases of elder abuse and neglect. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish cultural belief is a differentiating component in the context of elder abuse and neglect. Social workers need to develop a deep understanding of the unique characteristics of the phenomenon and cultural sensitivity to cope with it to address the well-being of older ultra-Orthodox Jews.

  9. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults (United States)

    ... person to a bed or a wheelchair Emotional/Psychological Abuse : Intimidation or yelling Making threats Humiliating or ... and health problems. July 2017. © 2018 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  10. Elder Abuse in the Iberian Peninsula and Bolivia: A Multicountry Comparative Study. (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Carvalhal, Rosa; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Ruiz-Gandara, África; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, Mª Aurora


    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of abuse of vulnerable older persons in the family and community environment in the following regions-Spain (Andalusia-Córdoba), Portugal (Azores), and Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra)-and to identify risk factors and delineate a profile of abused older persons. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of people in the age group 65 years plus living in the catchment areas of health centers. The following were used as instruments to collect data: the medical record of the patients of relevant health centers, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), daily activities autonomy test, adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve (APGAR) familiar test, The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and the Social Work Evaluation Form. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with abuse. Suspected abuse was identified in 6.9% of the elderly who participated in the study in Spain, 39% in Bolivia, and 24.5% in Azores. In all areas, studied psychological abuse was the most common type of abuse. In conclusion, although the prevalence of abuse to older people in the family and community environment differs in the areas studied, it is present in all countries and the data are comparable with other developing and European countries. The profile of the abused older persons appears to be similar in all countries.

  11. Elderly Abuse Rates Within Family Among Members of Senior Social Clubs in Tehran

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    Majideh Heravi Karimoei


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine elderly abuse rates, subtypes and related factors in the members of senior social clubs in the city of Tehran. Methods & Materials: This was a cross-sectional survey including 379 elders 65 years and older (125 men and 254 women presenting to the senior social clubs in Tehran. A face-to-face interview was carried out with every participant either at home or in clubs. Initially, individuals' cognitive states were evaluated using the Iranian version of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score and if scores of 6 and over were obtained, they were included in the study after taking informed consent. Subsequently, the Domestic Elderly Abuse Questionnaire, the Activities of Daily Living Scale for elderly people and a questionnaire designed by the authors for collecting demographic and personal data were completed. The gathered data were analyzed using the Chi square and T tests. Results: The total frequency of elderly abuse was 25.9%. The most frequent subtypes were emotional neglect (17.4% and psychological abuse (17.2% and the least were related to abandonment (3.7% and physical abuse (4.7%. Some factors including sex (P<0.0001, health insurance (P<0.04, occupation (P<0.0001, sufficient financial resources (P<0.0001, drug abuse (P<0.017, mean age (P<0.026, number of children (P<0.03, functional status (P<0.0001 and re-hospitalization (P<0.0001 were significantly different between the abused and non-abused people. Conclusion: Given the high rates of elderly abuse, serious measures must be taken to prevent its long-term consequences.

  12. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

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    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review.Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation.The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1 addressed a response (e.g., an intervention to elder abuse, 2 contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3 were available in English.The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics.649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser;physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations.To address the lack of evidence to

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska; Figueira, Ivan; Maia, Deborah; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Quintana, Ines M; Mello, Marcelo F; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Andreoli, Sergio B


    To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Individuals aged 60 to 75. Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Abuse, Neglect, and Violence Against Elderly Women in Ghana: Implications for Social Justice and Human Rights. (United States)

    Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A


    This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.

  15. Elder Physical Abuse and Failure to Report Cases: Similarities and Differences in Case Type and the Justice System's Response (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.


    Treated initially as a social problem, elder abuse has only recently been criminalized. The criminalization of elder abuse involves penalizing offenders for actively abusing offenders as well as for violating mandatory reporting laws. Mandatory reporting laws exist to encourage professionals to report suspected cases of elder abuse. In this study,…

  16. The prevalence of elder abuse in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Mello dos Santos


    Full Text Available Abuse of the elderly is a form of violence to come to the public's attention. Dental professionals are in an ideal position to identify physical abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elderly abuse and analyze the database of injury reports that can be identified by dental teams. A documentary analysis study developed by the Elderly Protection Police Station of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, was carried out. The information used came from 2,304 complaints filed at the aforementioned institution between the years of 2004 and 2006. The records of abuse are categorized as injury, neglect, mistreatment, theft, financial abuse, threat, disturbing the peace, atypical fact, and others. The injuries that could be identified by the dental team were classified according to the injury's location in the area of the head, face, mouth and neck. Descriptive analysis was performed, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the distributions of the types of elder abuse in relation to sex and age. The most frequent of the different types of abuse was theft, with a prevalence of 17.8%, followed by disturbing the peace at 11.8%. Disturbing the peace, threat, and bodily injury were significantly associated with women. Elder abuse among women and men declines with age. The prevalence of head injury was 25% of the total injuries, most often in females, and in those aged < 70 years. Based on these results, it is necessary that the dental team observe the elderly person's appearance for suspicious physical signs.

  17. Abusive Relationships (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  18. Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug ...

  19. Safety and Security of Older Persons in Tehran, Iran: A Sociological Appraisal of Elder Abuse (United States)

    Sheykhi, Mohammad Taghi


    The article explores and evaluates the quality of life, safety, and security of elderly people in Tehran City in Iran. In that, different dimensions of material and social well-being, and abuse of people of the age 65 and above, are assessed. Besides the human rights, the dignity, and the gradual decline of the elderly's social security are…

  20. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model (United States)

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace


    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  1. Vulnerability to Elder Abuse and Neglect in Assisted Living Facilities (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Stephens, Mary


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the decision-making abilities of residents in assisted living regarding abuse and neglect. Design and Methods: Twenty-seven residents in assisted living facilities were recruited for this descriptive study. Participants were administered an interview to assess baseline knowledge of support…

  2. Substance Abuse by Elders and Self-Enhancement Bias (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane


    Human service professionals regularly do not recognize the symptoms of substance abuse in older populations and are unlikely to provide intervention. In this study, human service students (N = 242) were given one of three vignettes in which the main character was an 80-year-old man, an 80-year-old woman, or they were asked to imagine themselves at…

  3. Elder abuse in the community : prevalence and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H C; Pot, A M; Smit, J H; Bouter, L M; Jonker, C

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the prevalence and the consequences of chronic verbal aggression, physical aggression, financial mistreatment, and neglect in a community-based sample; (2) to investigate the circumstances that led to the abuse and the ways in which the victims handled the problem. DESIGN:

  4. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.


    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  5. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD


    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  6. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Heravi-Karimooi


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this methodological study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a new and specific questionnaire for assessing domestic elder abuse in the context of Iranian culture. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, phenomenology was applied to explore the meaning of domestic elder abuse phenomenon. In the second phase, a questionnaire was compiled, using the results of the qualitative research implemented in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third phase, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test- retest reliability were measured. 325 elderly people who were selected randomly participated in the last stage. Results: The initial 78 item questionnaire designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 49 items in the process of determining the face and content validity. The result of exploratory factor analysis showed that this questionnaire contains 8 factors including care neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, financial abuse, curtailment of personal autonomy, abandonment, financial neglect and emotional neglect. These 8 factors explained nearly 79.93% of the variance. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this questionnaire could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the indexes of re-hospitalization and functional status. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90–0.975. Test-retest reliability (ICC of the questionnaire with interval time of two weeks was 0.98 (P<0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that the Domestic Elder Abuse questionnaire with 49 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect abuse among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care

  7. Assessing Quality of Care and Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes via Google Reviews. (United States)

    Mowery, Jared; Andrei, Amanda; Le, Elizabeth; Jian, Jing; Ward, Megan


    It is challenging to assess the quality of care and detect elder abuse in nursing homes, since patients may be incapable of reporting quality issues or abuse themselves, and resources for sending inspectors are limited. This study correlates Google reviews of nursing homes with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) inspection results in the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) data set, to quantify the extent to which the reviews reflect the quality of care and the presence of elder abuse. A total of 16,160 reviews were collected, spanning 7,170 nursing homes. Two approaches were tested: using the average rating as an overall estimate of the quality of care at a nursing home, and using the average scores from a maximum entropy classifier trained to recognize indications of elder abuse. The classifier achieved an F-measure of 0.81, with precision 0.74 and recall 0.89. The correlation for the classifier is weak but statistically significant: = 0.13, P rating correlations approach approximately 0.65 when the effective average number of reviews per provider is increased by aggregating similar providers. These results indicate that an analysis of Google reviews of nursing homes can be used to detect indications of elder abuse with high precision and to assess the quality of care, but only when a sufficient number of reviews are available.

  8. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 “Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients” (United States)

    Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh


    Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460

  9. Detection of elder abuse: Exploring the potential use of the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index© by law enforcement in the field. (United States)

    Kurkurina, Elina; Lange, Brittany C L; Lama, Sonam D; Burk-Leaver, Erin; Yaffe, Mark J; Monin, Joan K; Humphries, Debbie


    There are no known instruments to aid law enforcement officers in the assessment of elder abuse (EA), despite officers' contact with older adults. This study aimed to identify: 1) officers' perceptions and knowledge of EA, 2) barriers in detecting EA in the field, 3) characteristics officers value in a detection tool, and to explore 4) the potential for officers to use the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI)©. Data was collected from 69 Connecticut officers who confirmed that barriers to effectively detecting EA included a lack of EA detection instruments, as well as a lack of training on warning signs and risk factors. Officers indicated that the important elements of a desirable tool for helping to detect EA included ease of use, clear instructions, and information on follow-up resources. Approximately 80% of respondents could see themselves using the EASI © in the field, and a modified version has been developed for this purpose.

  10. [The prevalence and influencing factors of abuse and negligence against elderly in rural areas of Anhui province]. (United States)

    Su, Pu-yu; Hao, Jia-hu; Xiong, Li-ming; Yu, Dan-dan; Cao, Yue-ting; Fang, Yun; Jiang, Xiu-ling; Qian, Qiao-xia; Tao, Fang-biao


    To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors related to abuse and negligence against the elderly in the rural areas. 975 elderly over 60 years from 41 counties in Anhui province were included. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire including items as: educational background, marital condition, income, child-discipline, rude action to parents, daily activities, physical functions, having chronic illness, abuse and negligence against the elderly, etc. In the last year, rates of common physical abuse, serious physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, negligence, overall abuse and negligence against the elderly were 4.5%, 1.5%, 26.9%, 4.9%, 7.2%, 29.9% respectively. Among the 281 victims, 80.4% reported that they were suffered more than 3 times of abuse and neglect episodes, and 34.9% reported that they were suffered more than 2 forms of abuse and negligence. The primary sadism was carried out by the daughter-in-law or son-in-law (43.2%) of the elderly. Low activity on daily life and having chronic illness were the risk factors causing common physical abuse while better education was the protective factor to it. Low ability in managing daily activity of living was the risk factor causing serious physical abuse. Less active on daily life and having rude action to parents were the risk factors to emotional abuse, but being strict with their children was the protective factor to emotional abuse. Less active on daily life, often beating their children and having rude action to parents were the risk factors related to financial exploitation. Less active on daily life, having rude action to parents and having bad physical functions were the risk factors causing negligence. Less active on daily life and having rude manner to parents were the risk factors of overall elderly abuse and negligence, but being strict with their children was protective factor to the abuse and negligence against the elderly. High prevalence on abuse and

  11. The psychedelic 1960s, hippies in their 60s: substance abuse in the elderly. (United States)

    Hoffman, Janice


    Individuals who attended the famous Woodstock concert--known collectively as hippies--were part of the "counterculture" of the late 1960s and well known for their use of illicit, sometimes psychedelic, drugs. Did they and other former hippies, who are now in their sixties and seventies, continue their substance abuse, and how are they presenting now? This case evaluates a 77-year-old man who was referred to the geriatric assessment clinic for evaluation of worsening cognition. This case illustrates the need to conduct a complete medication history, including substance abuse and dietary supplements, in elderly patients. Consultant pharmacists with knowledge of alcohol and substance abuse and the influence of this abuse on a patient's drug regimen can make improved quality-of-life recommendations for appropriate dosage adjustments as needed.

  12. Lifetime abuse and perceived social support among the elderly: a study from seven European countries. (United States)

    Eslami, Bahareh; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barros, Henrique; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Lindert, Jutta; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella


    Being a victim of abuse during one's life course may affect social relations in later life. The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the association between lifetime abuse and perceived social support and (ii) identify correlates of perceived social support among older persons living in seven European countries. A sample of 4467 women and men aged 60-84 years living in Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden was collected through a cross-sectional population-based study. Abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed through interviews or interviews/self-response questionnaire based on the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 and the UK study on elder abuse. Perceived social support was assessed by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Victims of lifetime abuse perceived poorer social support in later life. Multivariate analyses showed that high levels of perceived social support were associated with being from Greece and Lithuania (compared to Germany), being female, not living alone, consuming alcohol and physical activity. Poorer perceived social support was associated with being from Portugal, being old, having social benefits as the main source of income, experiencing financial strain and being exposed to lifetime psychological abuse and injuries. Our findings showed that exposure to psychological abuse and injuries across the lifespan were associated with low levels of perceived social support, emphasizing the importance of detection and appropriate treatment of victims of abuse during their life course. Future research should focus on coping strategies buffering the negative effects of abuse on social relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  14. Fetal Abuse. (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others


    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  15. Financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: mixed analysis of the role of culture on perception and help-seeking intention. (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Eaton, Charissa K


    This study aims to evaluate how elderly Korean immigrants perceive and respond to a hypothetical incident of financial abuse on the basis of their cultural background. By using a quota sampling strategy, 124 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited. A mixed-method approach was employed to explore the role of culture on elderly immigrants' view of financial abuse and the construct of independent and interdependent self-construal was adopted to theoretically guide the study. Mixed-method analysis confirmed considerable influence of culture, particularly in responding to the abusive situation. Although the vast majority of the elders (92%) perceived financial abuse as elder mistreatment, only two-thirds (64%) intended to seek help. Five major themes for not seeking help were produced. These are: (a) issues related to family problems, (b) tolerance of the abuse, (c) shame, (d) victim blame, and (e) mistrust toward third party intervention. A series of binary logistic regressions revealed (a) a lower likelihood of seeking formal types of help with those who had higher level of adherence to traditional values and (b) the profile of vulnerable elderly Koreans who are at higher risk of being financially abused: male and less educated. This article also discusses implications for social work practice and elder mistreatment policy, particularly focusing on how to work with elderly Korean immigrants who are vulnerable to this problem and who tend to use collectivistic cultural values in responding to financial abuse.

  16. Adolescent and Elderly Substance Abusers and Their Similarities: Considerations for Treatment. (United States)

    Frissell, Susan


    Contends that adolescent and elderly populations both exhibit attitudes, behavior, feelings, and reasons for alcohol and drug abuse that appear to be similar. Suggests that study of pediatrics can play role in development of geriatric movement by sharing common issues of both groups. Applies Erikson's stages of development to illustrate similarity…

  17. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential. (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.


    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  18. Other Drugs of Abuse (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  19. Physical Abuse of Elderly Adults: Victim Characteristics and Determinants of Revictimization. (United States)

    Friedman, Lee S; Avila, Susan; Rizvi, Tazeen; Partida, Renee; Friedman, Daniel


    To describe victim characteristics and determinants of recurrent physical abuse of elderly. Multicenter retrospective analysis of multiple data systems to study victims of elder mistreatment in the greater Chicago metropolitan area. Five teaching hospitals with Level 1 trauma centers. Individuals aged 60 and older treated for physical and sexual abuse between 2000 and 2011. History of revictimization was based on hospital admission histories, Adult Protective Services records, and self-report. Death records were also linked to participant files. Fifty-eight individuals (52.3%) out of 111 cases suffering physical abuse had documented histories of revictimization. Based on multivariable models, individuals who were female, widowed, diagnosed with dementia, and returning to the home where the perpetrator lived or visited were substantially more likely to be revictimized. Revictimized individuals were more likely to be assaulted through unarmed force by a proximal relative, in particular a husband, boyfriend, child, or child-in-law. Based on hospital records, only 57% of community-dwelling cases had their abuse reported to Adult Protective Services or the police, and only 26.6% had Adult Protective Services investigations on record. Better screening that connects victims of abuse with community services, police action, and alternative residential options is important in reducing the risk of revictimization and connecting individuals with resources that can improve their safety at home, regardless of whether it is in the community or a residential facility. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Inhalant Abuse (United States)

    ... Paper) paint thinner cleaning fluids nail polish remover rubber cement gasoline. Teenagers are the most common abusers ... severe cases, it can cause sudden death. Inhalants block oxygen flow to your brain and other organs. ...

  1. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.


    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  2. Abusive Relationships (United States)

    ... a big part of moving from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. Unfortunately, some people may find themselves in a relationship that involves abuse or violence. It can be especially hard for guys to ...

  3. Association Between Depression and Elder Abuse and the Mediation of Social Support: A Cross-Sectional Study of Elder Females in Mexico City. (United States)

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Ochoa-Laginas, Adriana; Gaitan-Rossi, Pablo


    We assessed the association between depression and elder abuse, and the mediation effect of social support among elder women in Mexico City. A total of 526 noninstitutionalized elder women, residing in Mexico City and attending public community centers were selected. Logistic regressions and structural equation models (SEM) were estimated. One fifth of the elderly women were at risk of depression, one third suffered some type of abuse in the past 12 months, and 82% reported low social support. Logistic models confirmed that depression was statistically associated with elder abuse and vice versa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97 and 1.96, respectively). In both models, social support significantly reduced the association between these variables leading to study these associations through SEM. This approach highlighted that social support buffers the association between depression and elder abuse. Findings underline the relevance of programs and strategies targeted at increasing social support among urban older adults.

  4. Research Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Elder Abuse Prevalence Studies. (United States)

    Yon, Yongjie; Mikton, Christopher; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Wilber, Kathleen H


    Elder abuse is an important public health and human rights issue, yet its true extent is not well understood. To address this, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of elder abuse prevalence studies from around the world. This protocol describes the methodological approach to be adopted for conducting this systematic review and meta-analysis. In particular, the protocol describes the search strategies and eligibility criteria to be used to identify and select studies and how data from the selected studies will be extracted for analysis. The protocol also describes the analytical approach that will be used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates and discusses the use of meta-regression to assess how studies' characteristics influence the prevalence estimates. This protocol conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis - or PRISMA - guidelines and has been registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews.

  5. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul


    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico


    Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez


    This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...

  7. Mortality among elder abuse victims in rural Malaysia: A two-year population-based descriptive study. (United States)

    Yunus, Raudah Mohd; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Sooryanarayana, Rajini; Ahmad, Sharifah Nor; Abdul Razak, Inayah; Peramalah, Devi; Abdul Aziz, Suriyati; Mohammad, Zaiton Lal; Mohamad, Rosmala; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Bulgiba, Awang


    Our study aims at describing mortality among reported elder abuse experiences in rural Malaysia. This is a population-based cohort study with a multistage cluster sampling method. Older adults in Kuala Pilah (n = 1,927) were interviewed from November 2013 to May 2014. Mortality was traced after 2 years using the National Registration Department database. Overall, 139 (7.2%) respondents died. Fifteen (9.6%) abuse victims died compared to 124 (7.0%) not abused. Mortality was highest with financial abuse (13%), followed by psychological abuse (10.8%). There was a dose-response relationship between mortality and clustering of abuse: 7%, 7.7%, and 14.0% for no abuse, one type, and two types or more, respectively. Among abuse victims, 40% of deaths had ill-defined causes, 33% were respiratory-related, and 27% had cardiovascular and metabolic origin. Results suggest a link between abuse and mortality. Death proportions varied according to abuse subtypes and gender.

  8. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...

  9. Understanding of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals in Malaysia: An exploratory survey. (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Choo, Wan-Yuen; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Illiani Jaafar, Siti Nur


    Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) is a hidden public health challenge for Malaysia. This cross-sectional survey studied the awareness of EAN among 148 doctors and nurses from two neighboring states in Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire exploring their knowledge, perceptions, practices, and experience concerning EAN. Both doctors and nurses demonstrated poor understanding of signs of EAN and exhibited misperceptions on reporting requirements. Both groups perceived EAN as a national burden and reporting it as their responsibility; but most felt they had not been trained to diagnose it. Many were unsure of procedures and whether their own intervention could be effective. Only four (nurses) of 41 participants who suspected abuse during the past year reported the cases. Targeted education and uniform protocols are mandatory to ensure best practice with regards to EAN. Further research is crucial to extend this inquiry into the broader health care workforce.

  10. Development of short-form measures to assess four types of elder mistreatment: Findings from an evidence-based study of APS elder abuse substantiation decisions. (United States)

    Beach, Scott R; Liu, Pi-Ju; DeLiema, Marguerite; Iris, Madelyn; Howe, Melissa J K; Conrad, Kendon J


    Improving the standardization and efficiency of adult protective services (APS) investigations is a top priority in APS practice. Using data from the Elder Abuse Decision Support System (EADSS), we developed short-form measures of four types of elder abuse: financial, emotional/psychological, physical, and neglect. The EADSS data set contains 948 elder abuse cases (age 60+) with yes/no abuse substantiation decisions for each abuse type following a 30-day investigation. Item sensitivity/specificity analyses were conducted on long-form items with the substantiation decision for each abuse type as the criterion. Validity was further tested using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, correlation with long forms and internal consistency. The four resulting short-form measures, containing 36 of the 82 original items, have validity similar to the original long forms. These short forms can be used to standardize and increase efficiency of APS investigations, and may also offer researchers new options for brief elder abuse assessments.

  11. Domestic Elder Abuse in Rural Area of Dezful, Iran and Its Relation With Their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mohebbi


    Conclusion: In spite of high emphasis on respecting elders in our culture, the elders experience different types of abuse. Hence, specific consideration and inducing sensitivity in relevant organizations and individuals is required to prevent the long-term consequences and effects of this issue.

  12. Elder Mistreatment Perpetrators with Substance Abuse and/or Mental Health Conditions: Results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study. (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L


    A large portion of persons who commit elder mistreatment have long been known to have indicators of substance abuse and/or mental health conditions (SAMHC). However, few studies have specifically examined elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC, preventing the development of specialized intervention strategies. Using results from the National Elder Mistreatment Study, the current article examines victim, perpetrator, and interaction characteristics between cases of emotional and physical elder mistreatment in which the perpetrator is reported to have vs. not have SAMHC. Chi square tests and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon non-parametric tests were performed. 210 perpetrators of emotional elder mistreatment were reported to have SAMHC with 412 perpetrators of emotional mistreatment reported to not have SAMHC. 57 perpetrators of physical elder mistreatment were reported to have SAMHC with 38 perpetrators of physical mistreatment not having SAMHC. Emotional elder mistreatment committed by persons with SAMHC was associated with the following characteristics: perpetrator-unemployment, history of involvement with police, and fewer friendships; victim-female gender, greater emotional problems, and greater occurrences of lifetime emotional mistreatment; interaction-co-residence, and reporting of mistreatment to authorities. Physical elder mistreatment committed by persons with SAMHC was associated with police involvement of the perpetrator and greater occurrences of lifetime physical mistreatment experienced by the victim. These findings indicate that victims of elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC are in particular need of intervention services as they have greater histories of mistreatment and experience greater emotional problems. Implications for effectively intervening in cases of elder mistreatment by persons with SAMHC are discussed.

  13. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  14. [Validation of a prevention and detection procedure for physical and economic abuse of the elderly]. (United States)

    Goikoetxea Iturregui, Marije; Moro Inchartieta, Alvaro; Martínez Rueda, Natxo

    The study carried out for the «Physical and economic abuse sign detection procedure for the elderly in the Basque Country» Pilotage and Validation is described. There barely exist appropriate and validated tools to assist the issue, and the existing ones are hardly adequate for people with cognitive deterioration; therefore, the issue's both visibility in our society and professional intervention are strained. The proposed procedure is a composed by screening tool that determines a likelihood of abuse and an evaluation of signs for determining the abuse practice. It is intended to be used in the social area as well as the sanitary one by any professional. It is composed of two questionnaires: one of risk-factor valuation and a second one concerning indicators based on three severity levels. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used. The sample was made of 649 elders: 596 evaluated by the risk-factor questionnaire, 138 by the indicators questionnaire, and 85 evaluated by both; 94 professionals from several backgrounds (sanitary, social and economic) participated. Eight of the detected cases were checked by the team of experts that elaborated the procedure; the sessions were analysed after their transcription. The procedure has been validated as sensitive for its goal, being equally valid for the social and health areas. It can be used by any professional, although some differences have been detected. As regards the ability to differentiate items and the final evaluation of the severity of the situation, some changes and corrections have been proposed. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  16. Counseling Abused Children. (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…

  17. Preventing Internal Computer Abuse (United States)


    Substance Abuse . The use -)i illegal drugs or the abuse of prescribed drugs and/or alcohol must be proscribed from the workplace . Also, substance abuse ...resolving their own personal problems. Their problems include money, family, drug or alcohol addiction , gambling, or work-related difficulties perhaps...Moonlighting * Organizational Property * Nonuse/nondisclosure * Substance Abuse * Gambling Employee Assistance Program "Whistle

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  19. Preventing Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    ... respect, and even their freedom. Guarding Against Child Sexual Abuse March 15, 2018 @ 9:58 AM | 9 Min ... Views You can help protect your children from sexual abuse by providing careful supervision, establishing open communication and ...

  20. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  1. Prescription Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  3. Drug abuse first aid (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  4. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Skin manifestations of child abuse


    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin


    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  6. Abuse of prescription drugs.


    Wilford, B B


    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  7. Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse? (United States)

    Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah


    Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.

  8. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  9. Emergency Medical Services Perspectives on Identifying and Reporting Victims of Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Self-Neglect. (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Lien, Cynthia; Stern, Michael E; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mysliwiec, Regina; McCarthy, Thomas J; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R; Ribaudo, Daniel S; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl; Flomenbaum, Neal E


    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers, who perform initial assessments of ill and injured patients, often in a patient's home, are uniquely positioned to identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. Despite this, few organized programs exist to ensure that EMS concerns are communicated to or further investigated by other health care providers, social workers, or the authorities. To explore attitudes and self-reported practices of EMS providers surrounding identification and reporting of elder mistreatment. Five semi-structured focus groups with 27 EMS providers. Participants reported believing they frequently encountered and were able to identify potential elder mistreatment victims. Many reported infrequently discussing their concerns with other health care providers or social workers and not reporting them to the authorities due to barriers: 1) lack of EMS protocols or training specific to vulnerable elders; 2) challenges in communication with emergency department providers, including social workers, who are often unavailable or not receptive; 3) time limitations; and 4) lack of follow-up when EMS providers do report concerns. Many participants reported interest in adopting protocols to assist in elder protection. Additional strategies included photographically documenting the home environment, additional training, improved direct communication with social workers, a dedicated location on existing forms or new form to document concerns, a reporting hotline, a system to provide feedback to EMS, and community paramedicine. EMS providers frequently identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, and self-neglect, but significant barriers to reporting exist. Strategies to empower EMS providers and improve reporting were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual abuse of boys. (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M


    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  11. Alternative drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E


    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  12. A cluster randomized trial on improving nurses' detection and management of elder abuse and neglect (I-NEED): study protocol. (United States)

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Choo, Wan Yuen; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Jaafar, Siti Nur Illiani; Tan, Maw Pin; Mohd Ali, Zainudin; Abdul Aziz, Suriyati; Ramli, Rohaya; Mohamad, Rosmala; Lal Mohammad, Zaiton; Hassan, Norlela; Brownell, Patricia; Bulgiba, Awang


    The aim of this study was to describe a trial protocol of an educational intervention for nurses to improve their awareness and practice in detecting and managing elder abuse and neglect. Knowledgeable and skilful nurses are crucial amidst the growing numbers of maltreated older patients. This trial is a multi-site, three-armed, community-based cluster randomized controlled trial with 6-months follow-up. This study will involve 390 community and registered nurses from government health clinics in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia (protocol approved in October 2013). This three-phased study, premised on the Precede-Proceed Model, comprises baseline focus group discussion and survey (Phase 1), development of training module (Phase 2) and implementation and evaluation of the training (Phase 3). Eligible participants will be randomized to the control group (continuous nursing education), intervention group A (face-to-face intensive training programme) or group B (face-to-face intensive training programme and an educational video). Outcome measures include improvement in knowledge and awareness on elder abuse and neglect and the number of cases identified and managed during follow-up. Data will be collected at baseline, immediate postintervention, 3- and 6-month follow-up. Findings from this study will provide empirical support for the development of a training module for nurses on the detection and management of elder abuse and neglect, towards improving healthcare delivery and the well-being of vulnerable older adults. This study is funded by the University of Malaya Research Grant (RP001C-13HTM), (FL002-13SBS) and University of Malaya Grand Challenge (PEACE) Grant (GC001C-14HTM) awarded in May 2013, July 2013 and September 2014. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the body. ... Abstract. This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. ... It discusses how the perception of the body has an impact on dealing with the body and potential sexual abuse.

  14. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  15. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... the following language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health ...

  16. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the risk that the child will develop serious problems ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make ...

  17. Opioid Abuse and Addiction (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  18. Battling Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan


    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  19. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  20. Antitussives and substance abuse. (United States)

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W


    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations.

  1. Recreational drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E


    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  2. Abuse of prescription drugs. (United States)

    Wilford, B B


    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  3. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton


    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  4. Child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Felzen

    Child sexual abuse is a worldwide concern. It is an insidious, persistent, and serious problem that, depending on the population studied and definition used, affects 2-62% of women and 3-16% of men as victims. Pain and tissue injury from child sexual abuse can completely heal in time, but psychological and medical consequences can persist through adulthood. Associated sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV) and suicide attempts can be fatal. All physicians who treat children should be aware of the manifestations and consequences of child sexual abuse, and should be familiar with normal and abnormal genital and anal anatomy of children. This aim is best accomplished through training and routine examination of the anus and genitalia of children. Because as many as 96% of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse will have normal genital and anal examinations, a forensic interview by a trained professional must be relied on to document suspicion of abuse.

  5. Adaptation, reliability, and validity study of the Hwalek-SengstockElder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST): a Turkish version (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Toprak Ergönen, Akça; Kartal, Mehtap; Baydur, Hakan


    Background/aim: The most important issues in elder abuse and neglect are lack of awareness and difficulties in determining the situation. Our aim is to determine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST).Materials and methods: The H-S/EAST (15-itemed, three-dimensional: direct abuse, characteristics of vulnerability, and potentially abusive situation) was translated according to the guidelines and experts evaluated it for content validity and cultural adaptation. Participants' (n = 252) mean age was 73.4 ± 6.4 years and 58.3% were female. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD) and the Barthel Index were used for validity. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis for content validity, t-test for construct validity, and discriminant ability were used. SPSS 15.0 was used for analysis and statistical significance was P test-retest reliability, internal consistency coefficient values for direct abuse, characteristics of vulnerability, and potentially abusive situation were 0.88, 0.73, and 0.80, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of the H-S/EAST was 0.741. Exploratory factor analysis obtained 5 factors, and explained variance was 61.8%. Cut-off value was 6, and sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve were 76.9%, 96.2%, and 0.938, respectively.Conclusion: The Turkish version of the H-S/EAST can be used as a reliable, valid clinical tool for the assessment of elder abuse.

  6. Workplace abuse: finding solutions. (United States)

    Christmas, Kate


    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  7. Opioid Abuse after TBI (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0373 TITLE: “Opioid Abuse after TBI” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Candace L. Floyd, Ph.D., and Katherine L. Nicholson...30Jun2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Opioid Abuse after TBI” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0373 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...secondly tested the hypothesis that moderate TBI increases the susceptibility for opioid abuse as measured by an alteration in the rewarding properties of

  8. Maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, Pernambuco Elder abuse in Camaragibe, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lopes de Melo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a situação de maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, na região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo de corte transversal com uma amostra representativa da população idosa do município, e submetida a questionário previamente elaborado conforme os objetivos do estudo. RESULTADOS: dos 315 idosos, 95,4% estavam na sexta e sétima década de vida, 65,2% eram mulheres e recebiam até dois salários mínimos (91,4%, 87,5% tinham casas próprias, com deficiente esgotamento sanitário (84,1% e baixo grau de escolaridade (97,1%. Sessenta e seis referiram sofrer maus-tratos. Desses, 65,2% eram do sexo feminino. O tipo de violência mais comum foi a psicológica (62,1%, seguida da física (31,8%, cometidas pelos próprios familiares dentro do próprio domicílio. As mulheres foram mais agredidas que os homens. 71,3% reagiram passivamente não sabendo a que órgão denunciar. No seu entendimento a comunidade era indiferente ao problema. CONCLUSÕES: os maus-tratos contra idosos apresentam-se como problema relevante para a saúde pública. Medidas educativas poderiam ser implementadas para esclarecê-los sobre direitos, facilitar a denúncia e a obtenção de apoio ou ajuda.OBJECTIVES: to describe the situation of abuse against the elderly in the municipality of Camaragibe, in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco. METHODS: cross sectional study with a representative sample of the elderly population in the municipality, subject to abuse and respondents to a previously designed questionnaire according to the objectives of the study. RESULTS: of the 315 elderly, 95.4% were in the sixth and seventh decade of life and 65.2% were women and received up to two minimum wages (91.4%, were house owners (87.5%, living in neighborhoods with deficient sewage systems (84.1% and low education level (97.1%. Seventy six claimed they were abused. Among these 65.2% were females. The most common type

  9. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa


    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  10. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Substance Abuse or Dependence - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Substance ...

  11. Sexual Abuse of Children. (United States)

    Csapo, Marg


    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  12. Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... version, located in the "Professional" section of our website: Child Sexual Abuse . Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page. ... PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...

  13. Leaving an Abusive Relationship (United States)

    ... agree on a secret location where they can pick you up. Keep an alternate cellphone nearby. Try ... 2017 by: Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) Staff Kathleen C. Basile, Ph.D., Lead Behavioral Scientist, ...

  14. Child abuse: underlying mechanisms


    Martínez, Gladys S.


    Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confi rmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I...

  15. The Child Abuse


    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi; Mozhganjalali


    While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single...

  16. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM


    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  17. Vaccines for Drug Abuse


    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.


    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future...

  18. Inflammasome in drug abuse. (United States)

    Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Wang, Xiaobei; Xiong, Huangui


    Drug abuse disorders refer to a set of related negative health implications associated with compulsive drug seeking and use. Because almost all addictive drugs act on the brain, many of them cause neurological impairments after long-term abuse. Neuropathological studies have revealed a widespread impairment of the cellular elements. As the key components to limit the damage of neural cells, CNS immune system is also found affected by these drugs, directly or indirectly. It has been shown that drugs of abuse alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling. Growing studies on neuroimmune factors further demonstrate their indispensable role in drugs-induced neurotoxicity. As an important proinflammatory intracellular receptor, inflammasome is activated in many neurodegenerative diseases in response to a broad range of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. In the cases of drug abuse, especially in those with comorbid of HIV infection and sustained pain, inflammasome activation significantly promotes the neuroinflammation-associated toxicities. To understand inflammasome in drug-associated neurotoxic activity, we reviewed the role played by inflammasome in drug abuse-induced microglial neurotoxicity and evaluated the potential of imflammasone as a therapeutic target for drug abuse disorders based on recent development of various selective small-molecular inflammasome inhibitors.

  19. [A Case of an Elderly Diabetic Patient Developing Wernicke Encephalopathy without Alcohol Abuse or an Unbalanced Diet]. (United States)

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tsurutani, Yuya; Sagawa, Naoko; Kondo, Mai; Sata, Akira; Miyao, Mariko; Azuma, Reo; Orimo, Satoshi; Mizuno, Yuzo


    A 70-year-old man with a 28-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted due to persistent vomiting and neurological abnormalities in Nov 2012. He had developed gait disturbance and diplopia for six months during antiplatelet therapy, which was initiated following the diagnosis of a cerebellar infarction in June 2012. He had nystagmus, truncal ataxia and an ocular motility disorder, and the MRI study showed increased FLAIR and DWI signals in the peri-third ventricle and periaqueductal region, in addition to the cerebellar vermis. Wernicke encephalopathy was suspected according to his symptoms, and thiamine administration dramatically improved his condition. He did not have a history of alcohol abuse or poor eating habits; however, various coexisting factors, including diabetes mellitus, pyloric stenosis and the use of antiulcer drugs and insulin, were considered to be responsible for Wernicke encephalopathy. This case demonstrates the importance of distinguishing Wernicke encephalopathy from cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.

  20. Pattern of buprenorphine abuse among opioid abusers in Nepal. (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Dhungana, Manoj; Khanal, Roshija


    Although buprenorphine abusers are a common clinical entity, literature on them is rare in Nepal. To assess whether injectable opioid abusers are any different a subgroup vis-a-vis brown sugar abusers in relation to their demographic and clinical profiles. Seventy-six opioid abusers, who were admitted over a period of one year, in our de-addiction center, were included in the present study. They were divided into two groups based on the history of the presence or absence of buprenorphine injection abuse in them. The demographic and clinical profiles of these two groups were studied and compared. The most characteristic opioid abuse pattern was the abuse of brown sugar through inhalation (chasing). A total of 32 (42.1%) among them had a history of injectable drug abuse (IDU). Most characteristic buprenorphine abuse pattern seen was an evolution from injectable buprenorphine to triple injection to brown sugar abuse (Reverse Transition). Injection buprenorphine abusers, who attended our clinic, were older in age and had a history of a longer duration of abuse than their counterparts who abused opioid drugs through the inhalational route only. Their lifetime diagnosis revealed a polysubstance abuse pattern. They were more unstable, impulsive, and disorganized in their behavior pattern, suggestive of the presence of inadequate personality traits. There were high instances of injection-related side effects in the form of the presence of thrombophlebitis, HIV positivity, and clinical AIDS in them. Findings of the current research indicate the presence of a subgroup of patient population among opioid abusers with a history of injectable buprenorphine abuse, with characteristic personality traits, pattern of drug abuse, and associated physical complications resulting from it.

  1. [Substance abuse in older adults]. (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen


    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  2. The Effect of Emotional Focused Intervention on Spousal Emotional Abuse and Marital Satisfaction among Elderly Married Couples: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hazrati


    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the impacts of an Emotional Focused Intervention on emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction among the elderly married couples. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was carried out in Shiraz-Iran, during September 2013-2014. The elderly couples were invited to join an emotional focused intervention, following the advertisement and announcement on bulletin boards in the elderly day clinic centers and all governmental primary health care centers. Then, 57 couples (114 participants who were eligible for study were assigned in two groups by block randomization (29 in the experimental and 28 in the control group(.The couples in the experimental group received intervention twice a week for four weeks. Each session lasted 90 minutes. The control group didn’t receive any intervention and the subjects were put in the waiting list. The outcome measures were evaluated by Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse Questionnaire (MMEAQ and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire for Older People (MSQFOP. Repeated measurement ANOVA was used to detect any significant changes between groups in their mean scores of emotional abuse behaviors and marital satisfaction from pre- to post-test, and 3 months after the intervention. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS, version 19, and P≤0.05 was measured as significant. Results: The mean duration of marriage was 39.56±9.64 years. In the experimental group, the abusive behaviors decreased significantly (P<0.001 at times 2 and 3 compared with time 1, and marital satisfaction improved significantly only at time 3 (P<0.001. These differences were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Emotion-focused couple-based interventions are helpful in reducing the spousal emotional abuse and improving marital satisfaction in among the elderly couples. Trial Registration Number: 2013111715426N1

  3. Emerging drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E


    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation. (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C


    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  5. Chronic time abuse. (United States)

    Berglas, Steven


    Anyone who has ever managed people who abuse time--whether they are chronic procrastinators or individuals who work obsessively to meet deadlines weeks in advance--knows how disruptive they can be to a business's morale and operating efficiency. But lessons in time management will have no impact on these employees. That's because real time abuse results from psychological conflict that neither a workshop nor a manager's cajoling can cure. Indeed, the time abuser's quarrel isn't even with time but rather with a brittle self-esteem and an unconscious fear of being evaluated and found wanting. This article describes four types of time abusers typically encountered in the workplace: Perfectionists are almost physically afraid of receiving feedback. Their work has to be "perfect," so they can increase their likelihood of earning a positive evaluation or at least avoid getting a negative one. Preemptives try to be in control by handing in work far earlier than they need to, making themselves unpopular and unavailable in the process. People pleasers commit to far too much work because they find it impossible to say no. Procrastinators make constant (and often reasonable-sounding) excuses to mask a fear of being found inadequate in their jobs. Managing these four types of people can be challenging, since time abusers respond differently from most other employees to criticism and approval. Praising a procrastinator when he is on time, for instance, will only exacerbate the problem, because he will fear that your expectations are even higher than before. In fact, some time abusers, like the perfectionist, may need professional treatment. This article will give you insight into why they are the way they are--and what can be done to help them manage their problems.

  6. Identifying elder abuse & neglect among family caregiving dyads: A cross sectional study of psychometric properties of the QualCare scale. (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Ridenour, Kimberly; Salaysay, Zachary; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Pierce, Steven J


    Universal screening for elder abuse and neglect is a current controversy in geriatrics, fueled by the lack of evidence on valid and reliable instruments. Since each U.S. State and many other countries have their own legal definitions of what constitutes elder abuse and neglect, this further complicates instrument development and clinical assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the sensitivity and specificity of the QualCare Scale, an instrument with utility in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older adults receiving care at home. Data used in this analysis were collected during a training program in which trainees completed assessments (N=80) of standardized case scenarios of caregiving dyads. Trainees completed the QualCare Scale during each assessment. This training program, including the assessments of the standardized case scenarios, was completed using a custom designed virtual-reality platform. Trainees were able to interact with the environment, older adult and caregiver within the case scenario. Thirty-six nurses and social workers from two Michigan Medicaid Waiver Sites participated in the training program. Each participant assessed between one and five scenarios, yielding the sample of 80 assessments used in this analysis. The research team designed each standardized case scenario to reflect whether or not the QualCare Scale subscale score should indicate reportable elder abuse and neglect per the State statute. Accordingly, the research team's QualCare Scale scores for each scenario were used as the gold standard criterion of clinical significance for comparison against the participant's assessment scores. Sensitivity and specificity for each of the six QualCare subscales was determined. Overall, the subscales had high sensitivity (≥0.811) but a wide range for specificity (0.167-1.000). The QualCare Scale can be an effective tool in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older

  7. Vaccines against drug abuse. (United States)

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R


    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  8. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  9. Substance abuse and child maltreatment. (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn


    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A K Aucamp, Ciba (Pty) Ltd - person:aI communication, 1997). (See Table I.) .... literature documenting abuse and its inherent dangers. In other words, patients are not going to acknowledge willingly that they are abusing methylphenidate.

  11. Workplace Abuse: Problems And Consequences


    Fred Ebeid; Tej Kaul; Kathleen Neumann; Hugh Shane


    Workplace abuse is a relatively recent phenomenon that affects millions of employee in all types of organizations and occupations. Most of the literature on workplace management deals with employment discrimination and due process. Workplace issues of emotional abuse inflicted on employees by supervisors or managers are seldom addressed. An organization becomes abusive when it permits or tolerates abusive employee treatment by supervisors or managers. In the news each day, the media regularly...

  12. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse


    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming


    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  13. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy. (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.


    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide (United States)

    ... incidence of both forcible and non-forcible sexual abuse. 3 “Sexual abuse is associated with changes in the metabolism of ... Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links to subsequent ...

  15. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  16. Child Abuse Potential: How Persistent? (United States)

    Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi


    Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…

  17. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  18. New drugs of abuse. (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth


    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Drug and Substance Abuse (United States)

    ... Basic Facts & Information What does “Drug and Substance Abuse” mean? Most drugs and other chemical substances are helpful when used ... medications, and pain medications. Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some ...

  20. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually abused children are anxiety disorders, depression, increased aggression and disturbance in sexual behaviour and gender roles. An American study found significantly higher rates .... counterparts with post-admission disclosure, this difference was not ... sense of psychic loneliness and internal crisis which follows.

  1. Mania following ketamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YY


    Full Text Available Yuan-Yuan Lu,1 Chieh-Hsin Lin,2,3 Hsien-Yuan Lane1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, 2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, 4Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: Ketamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, has multiple clinical uses. On the other hand, ketamine abuse or recreational use has been gaining increasing attention. Induction of mania and psychotic symptoms has been reported in a patient receiving IV ketamine therapy for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. We here report a 26 year-old man who abused ketamine by inhalation for 12 months and developed manic-like symptoms after ketamine use. This case suggests a possible relationship between manic symptoms and ketamine abuse. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first report regarding mania after recreational use of ketamine. Keywords: ketamine, mania, antidepressant, bipolar

  2. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes


    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  3. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL


    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  4. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.


    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  5. Visión del maltrato al anciano desde atención primaria Primary care doctors' and nurses' opinion of elder abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coma Montserrat


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar la opinión de los profesionales sanitarios de atención primaria (AP sobre el maltrato al anciano (MA y su abordaje, mediante un estudio cualitativo de grupos focales. Sujetos y métodos: Participaron 27 sanitarios de AP. Se llevó a cabo un análisis del contenido temático de los datos, la codificación, la segmentación y la creación de categorías del corpus textual. Resultados: Consideraron más frecuentes los abusos psicológicos y económicos. La negligencia se relacionó con el estilo de vida actual. Los abusos físicos y sexuales se consideraron anecdóticos, aunque posiblemente infradiagnosticados. Entre los factores de riesgo destacan la desestructuración familiar, la sobrecarga, la escasa formación del cuidador y la hostilidad del anciano. El maltratador se asoció con determinadas variables, como enfermedad mental, drogodependencia, violencia familiar previa en abusos físicos y económicos; no había un perfil definido en situaciones de negligencia o abandono. Los recursos sociales y sanitarios son insuficientes y limitan la intervención, haciendo infructuosa la detección. La formación, la supervisión y el asesoramiento de los profesionales respecto al MA se consideraron recursos necesarios puesto que, con apoyos externos y bien coordinados, la AP podría actuar eficazmente en estas situaciones. Conclusiones: Aunque los profesionales demostraron un buen conocimiento del problema, se puso de manifiesto la necesidad de disponer de pautas consensuadas de detección e intervención. Afloraron carencias de recursos y dificultades en la delimitación de responsabilidades en el abordaje del MA, que han de tenerse en cuenta a la hora de planificar estrategias. Los profesionales se consideraron a sí mismos un recurso de actuación sin rehuir su implicación.Objective: To identify primary care health professionals' opinion of elder abuse and its management. Qualitative study through focus groups. Participants

  6. Sex differences in drug abuse. (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming


    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  7. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena


    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  8. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa


    This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults' views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+) participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults. PMID:24455260

  9. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong


    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  10. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  11. Antitussives and substance abuse


    Boyer, Edward; Burns,Jarrett


    Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly ...

  12. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam


    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  13. Arousal and drug abuse. (United States)

    Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; Garcia-Rill, Edgar


    The reticular activating system (RAS) is not an amorphous region but distinct nuclei with specific membrane properties that dictate their firing during waking and sleep. The locus coeruleus and raphe nucleus fire during waking and slow wave sleep, with the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) firing during both waking and REM sleep, the states manifesting arousal-related EEG activity. Two important discoveries in the PPN in the last 10 years are, 1) that some PPN cells are electrically coupled, and 2) every PPN cell manifests high threshold calcium channels that allow them to oscillate at beta/gamma band frequencies. The role of arousal in drug abuse is considered here in terms of the effects of drugs of abuse on these two mechanisms. Drug abuse and the perception of withdrawal/relapse are mediated by neurobiological processes that occur only when we are awake, not when we are asleep. These relationships focus on the potential role of arousal, more specifically of RAS electrical coupling and gamma band activity, in the addictive process as well as the relapse to drug use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Pattern of buprenorphine abuse among opioid abusers in Nepal


    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Dhungana, Manoj; Khanal, Roshija


    Background: Although buprenorphine abusers are a common clinical entity, literature on them is rare in Nepal. Aim: To assess whether injectable opioid abusers are any different a subgroup vis-a-vis brown sugar abusers in relation to their demographic and clinical profiles. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six opioid abusers, who were admitted over a period of one year, in our de-addiction center, were included in the present study. They were divided into two groups based on the history of the p...

  15. Psychological Consequences of Wife Abuse | Chovwen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also showed that old abused women scored significantly lower on depression than young abused women, F(1,337)=P<.01. Likewise, high education abused women self-reported significantly higher on depression than low education abused women, t(2,337)= 5.44. On self-esteem, old abused women were ...

  16. Alcohol Abuse in the Elderly: Implications for Educational and Human Service Programming. (United States)

    Crossman, Lenard H.


    Suggests that although the elderly have not been well identified and assisted in most alcoholism services, they are an at-risk population. Discusses current programs and problems and implications for both alcoholism service providers and the broader spectrum of human, educational and social service providers. (JAC)

  17. Nurses' perceptions about child abuse


    Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh


    Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon. Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them. Methods: Data...

  18. Forensic aspects of animal abusing


    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub


    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  19. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)


    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  20. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, P.K.


    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  1. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe


    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  2. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori


    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  3. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.


    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  4. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Deborah A


    ...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...

  5. Accumulating experience in a child abuse clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    type uncertain' and no abuse. Training of other health personnel in child abuse ... abused children, registered nurses, social workers and psychologists. The patients and accompanying adults, usually parents, are interviewed by the sQQial ...

  6. Working on Memories of Abuse.... (United States)

    Horsman, Jenny


    Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

  7. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    ... with a child (by an adult or another child) is sexual abuse. It causes physical and emotional pain. It has long-term effects ... a watchful eye on any form of childhood abuse. These physical and behavioral signs should raise concern: When your child tells you he or she has been touched ...

  8. Observations on Substance Abuse Theory. (United States)

    Shaffer, Howard J.


    Applies a philosophy of science perspective to substance abuse theory to clarify these theories in general and peer cluster theory in particular. Examines the natural history of an illicit drug from a macroscopic level of analysis to illuminate some of the social-psychological factors that influence drug use and abuse patterns. (Author/KS)

  9. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    ... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...

  10. Drug Abuse in the Army. (United States)

    The essay discusses the growth of drug abuse in the Army, actions that have been taken to control the problem, and planned or proposed actions to...and supervisory personnel of the Drug Abuse Control Division in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, Headquarters, Department of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari


    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  12. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  13. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    understand the perceptions of older victims as they are among the most important groups to handle and report abuse. DESIGN: a qualitative study on the perceptions and experiences of victims of elder abuse was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. SETTING: abused individuals living...... independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. SUBJECTS: six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. RESULTS: the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social...... position of older persons. Effects of abuse included negative feelings, physical and psychological distress, a change of personal norms and values, changed perspectives on money and low self-efficacy. These differential effects depended upon the types of abuse experienced and the relationship...

  14. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz


    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  15. [Factors associated with non-institutional abuse in nursing homes]. (United States)

    Gómez Martínez, Carmelo; Hernández Morante, Juan José; Carrasco Martínez, Elena; García Belzunce, Agustín; Nicolás Alarcón, Virginia

    Abuse in elderly has dimensions not yet sufficiently explored. Particularly, little is known about the abuse or mistreatment suffered by old people in nursing homes, but where the origin is not, at least initially, institutional, since is perpetrated by external social agents not related to the nursing home. The lack of data in this area has led us to conduct this exploratory study, with the aim of assessing the prevalence of this non-institutional abuse. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index was administered to a total of 286 subjects belonging to the nursing homes from the «Mensajeros de la Paz» Association of Murcia. Cases of suspected abuse were referred to the social workers to confirm the diagnosis. Initially, 53 subjects (18.5%) suffered any kind of abuse, which was reduced to only 26 cases after one year. On the other hand, abuse appeared after admission in 20 subjects (7%). Precisely, this 7% might present what we called non-institutional abuse. Economic abuse was the most prevalent, followed by psychological, neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. The data showed a significant interaction between the different types of abuse. Our data provides evidence of a new scenario that must be addressed in a professional and social context, considering the environment where this mistreatment takes place. Health and social professionals must be sensitive to this reality, and should be informed and trained about the different ways to dignify the care of the elderly. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse. (United States)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda


    elder abuse greatly impacts the quality of life of older individuals. Prevalence rates range from 3 to 30% depending on the definition used. Only about a dozen studies have explored how older victims themselves experience and explain abuse. It is essential that healthcare professionals understand the perceptions of older victims as they are among the most important groups to handle and report abuse. a qualitative study on the perceptions and experiences of victims of elder abuse was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. abused individuals living independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social position of older persons. Effects of abuse included negative feelings, physical and psychological distress, a change of personal norms and values, changed perspectives on money and low self-efficacy. These differential effects depended upon the types of abuse experienced and the relationship with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated with the perpetrator involved. The effects and chosen coping strategies are influenced by these considerations and therewith also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to use these findings in practice to prevent, detect and intervene in elder abuse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis


    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  18. Abuse-deterrent Opioid Formulations. (United States)

    Litman, Ronald S; Pagán, Olivia H; Cicero, Theodore J


    Abuse-deterrent opioid formulations have been suggested as one way to decrease the abuse, addiction, and overdose of orally prescribed opioids. Ten oral opioid formulations have received abuse-deterrent labeling by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Their properties consist of physical and/or chemical means by which the pills resist manipulation and create a barrier to unintended administration, such as chewing, nasal snorting, smoking, and intravenous injection. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of abuse-deterrent technology, the types of premarketing studies required for FDA approval, the pharmacology of the currently approved abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, and the evidence for and against their influence on opioid abuse. We conclude that there is currently insufficient evidence to indicate that the availability of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations has altered the trajectory of opioid overdose and addiction; however, postmarketing studies are in their infancy, and novel deterrent formulations are continually being developed and submitted for marketing approval.

  19. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin


    a “Trauma Coding Manual” developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts...... and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  20. Meth abuse and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deviprasad Makonahally


    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series of cases of "meth" abuser for dental professionals to help ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.

  1. Drug abuse among the students


    Muhammad Zaman; Sobia Razzaq; Rabia Hassan; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ijaz; Muhammad Hanif; Fazal Rahman Chughtai


    ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...

  2. Dentistry and Child Abuse Diagnosis


    Doria Martínez, Ana Milena; Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Regional Noroccidente. Medellín, Colombia; Navarro Chong, Melissa Ivette; Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Panamá.


    Abstract. Background: Child abuse was first described in 1868 by pathologist Ambrosio Tardieu, but it was until the last century when the role of the dentist became relevant to early diagnose this syndrome. Several studies have shown that close to 50 % of head and face trauma is caused by physical abuse of which lips are the most commonly injured site (54 %), followed by oral mucosa, teeth, gums, and tongue. Complications of certain oral pathologies may be related to abuse for negligence. Bit...

  3. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women. (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  4. The Genesis of Pedophilia: Testing the "Abuse-to-Abuser" Hypothesis. (United States)

    Fedoroff, J. Paul; Pinkus, Shari


    This study tested three versions of the "abuse-to-abuser" hypothesis by comparing men with personal histories of sexual abuse and men without sexual abuse histories. There was a statistically non-significant trend for assaulted offenders to be more likely as adults to commit genital assaults on children. Implications for the abuse-to-abuser…

  5. Child neglect and emotional abuse (United States)

    ... that may be emotionally abused. They may have: Problems in school Eating disorders, leading to weight loss or poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ...



    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil


    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence fo...

  7. Drugs of abuse--opiates.


    Ling, W; Wesson, D R


    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...

  8. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani


    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  9. [On the relationship between emotional dependency and abuse]. (United States)

    Leemans, C; Loas, S


    Abuse is a complex psychosocial issue with multiple implications. This paper takes a look at the physical and psychological manifestations of domestic violence, i.e. between adult (romantic) partners as well as abuse of the elderly. Past studies have looked at the relationship between emotional dependency, the occurence and sustainability of abuse and the likehood that a victimized person will terminate a relationship. Indeed, individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) or with dependent characteristics present a higher risk of becoming abusive (both physically and mentally) as well as becoming a victim of abuse. Regarding the elderly, the concept of "reverse violence"--where the current abuser was the victim of the senior who is being abused-, also entails dependent relationships. We identified three concepts that are necessary in the understanding of how dependent relationships underpin abuse: Rusbult's model of commitment in intimate relationships, the notion of dependency-possessiveness and Murphy et al's notion of escalating affective dependency. Thus, it is imperative that future studies in the field of domestic violence look at the dynamics of dyads rather than the individuals alone.

  10. Behavioural consequences of child abuse (United States)

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay


    Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022

  11. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers. (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun


    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  12. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Jimmi


    Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. We included preclinical (n = 17), clinical (n = 19) and epidemiological (n = 13) studies addressing the abuse potential of pregabalin. We also reviewed case reports (n = 9) concerning abuse of pregabalin. The preclinical studies indicated that pregabalin possesses modulatory effects on the GABA and glutamate systems, leaving room for an abuse potential. Further, clinical studies reported euphoria as a frequent side effect in patients treated with pregabalin. The majority of case reports concerning abuse of pregabalin involved patients with a history of substance abuse and, similarly, epidemiological studies found evidence of abuse, especially among opiate abusers. Overall, the available literature suggests an important clinical abuse potential of pregabalin and prescribers should pay attention to signs of abuse, especially in patients with a history of substance abuse.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    Gateway, 2008). Forms of Child Abuse. Child abuse can be broadly categorized into five perspectives namely physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and child exploitation (child labour). Physical Abuse: Physical abuse may be seen as the inflicting of a non-accidental bodily injury on a child. The injury may ...

  14. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi


    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  15. Verbal learning and memory in alcohol abusers and polysubstance abusers with concurrent alcohol abuse. (United States)

    Bondi, M W; Drake, A I; Grant, I


    To define the combined effects of drug and alcohol abuse on verbal learning and memory, 70 alcoholic and 80 polysubstance abuse (PSA) individuals with concurrent alcohol abuse were compared on a list learning task, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Despite demonstrating similar learning strategies, response styles, and error patterns, the PSA group nontheless exhibited significantly greater recall deficits than the alcoholic group on the CVLT. These deficits were particularly evident in those who were heaviest abusers of cocaine. PSA participants did not, however, evidence greater recognition memory deficits. This pattern of greater deficits on recall than on recognition memory, as well as poor consolidation, is consistent with the initiation-retrieval difficulties of patient groups with subcortical dysfunction. It is concluded that the combined use of alcohol and drugs, cocaine in particular, may compound memory difficulties beyond what is typically observed in alcoholic individuals.

  16. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence. (United States)

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K


    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  17. Drug abuse in Prishtina region. (United States)

    Gashi, Sanije; Ramadani, Naser; Berisha, Merita; Gashi, Musli; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Hoxha, Rina


    Currently the drug abuse has become one of the most serious problems in many countries. The drugs abuse is also widespread in less developed societies. This problem is present in Kosova too with the tendency of rising. The of this research was to show the number of drug abusers in Prishtina region, the type of drugs used, the way of drug administration, then survey of the age, sex, marital status, residence of the drug abusers including their social status (employment, profession and economical status). During the surveyed period the number of hospitalized drug abusers in Neuropsychiatry clinic was 39. 25.5% of them were hospitalized more than ones, with 367 stay days with average treatment period of 7.5 days. Average age of those hospitalized for the first time was 27.9 years of age. 64.1% of them were 25-34 years old. 97.4% of the hospitalized were male. 32 (82.1%) patient were from Prishtina, 5 from Ferizaj and 1 from F. Kosova and Kacanik. During the surveyed period there was no patient hospitalized from other cities of Prishtina Region (Besiana, Drenas, Kastriot, Lipjan, Shtime and Shterpc).

  18. Relationship between Abuse Experience and General Health among Older Adults in Yazd City- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rezaeipandari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Elder abuse may increase the vulnerability of ageing people to disease and decrease their general health status, so addressing the issue is essential for promoting elderly quality of life. The study aimed to examine the relation between abuse experience and general health among elderly people in Yazd city- Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study carried out on 250 community-dwelling seniors in the city of Yazd who were selected with cluster random sampling. Data collection tools included, Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire and Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire 28. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: Mean scores of abuse experience and general health among the elders were 11.84±12.70 (range 0-100 and 21.82±10.84 (range 0-84 respectively. General health status was more undesirable among elders who had experienced abuse than those who had not. Elder abuse subscales accounted for 17.2 % changes in general health, which had only care neglect and physical abuse subscales with significant prediction effect. Conclusion: Abuse experience has negative effects on older adults' general health. care neglect and physical abuse play a more important role.

  19. Maltrato en los ancianos: un reto a la atención primaria de salud geriátrica Elderly abuse: a challenge to primary geriatric health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martínez Querol


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en la población de adultos mayores de un consultorio del Médico de Familia del Policínico "Ana Betancourt" del municipio Playa, clasificándose la muestra (93 pacientes por grupos de edades, sexo, nivel escolar, ocupacional, estado civil etc., y se les aplicó una encuesta formulario, en la que, además de sus datos generales, se investigó la estructura y funcionamiento de la familia, sus ingresos económicos y la ayuda recibida, su procedencia, así como también el trato recibido de familiares, amigos, allegados, etc. En la investigación se encontró que 41 (44 % eran objeto de abuso o maltrato en algunas de sus modalidades, siendo el perfil más frecuente el económico financiero con 19 casos (35 %, seguido del maltrato psicológico con 18 (33 %, la desatención en 15 (27 % y el maltrato físico en 3 (5 %. Se relacionó además el funcionamiento familiar de los hogares de donde proceden los ancianos maltratados.A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken in the population of older adults from a family physician's office of "Ana Betancourt" Polyclinic, in Playa municipality. The sample (93 patients was classified by groups according to age, sex, educational level, occupation, marital status, etc. In addition to their general data, the family structure and functioning, its incomes, the assistance received, its origin, the treatment given by close relatives and friends, etc., were also investigated by applying a questionnaire-survey. It was found that 41 (44 % were abused or mistreated in some way . The economic financial profile was the most frequent with 19 cases (35 %, followed by psychiological abuse with 18 (33 %, lack of attention in 15 (27 % and physical abuse in 3 (5 %. The family functioning of the houses where the elderly abused lived was also exposed.

  20. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations. (United States)

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K


    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  1. Brief interventions in substance abuse. (United States)

    Kumar, S; Malhotra, A


    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority.

  2. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne


    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  3. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R


    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  4. Prevalência de maus-tratos na terceira idade: revisão sistemática Prevalence of elder abuse: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybele Ribeiro Espíndola


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar estudos sobre prevalência de abuso na terceira idade e analisar a qualidade dos estudos. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática estudos de base populacional em bases de dados eletrônicos (PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, PsycInfo, referente aos anos de 1988 a 2005. Foram incluídos os estudos de base populacional e excluídos os estudos sem definição metodológica delineada e estudos realizados em clientela de serviços especializados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 440 artigos, mas apenas 11 artigos foram selecionados. A maioria dos artigos foi de corte transversal, apenas dois apresentaram desenho longitudinal. Os estudos foram conduzidos em diversas regiões do mundo, sobretudo dos Estados Unidos e da Europa. Observou-se variação nas definições de abuso. Os estudos de prevalência encontraram coeficientes de abuso físico entre 1,2% (Holanda e 18% (Finlândia. CONCLUSÕES: Existe substancial variação de prevalência entre os países, parecendo haver uma variável cultural importante. Como o número de idosos é crescente no mundo, são necessários mais estudos de base populacional representativos dessa faixa etária para melhor compreensão do fenômeno.OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalence studies of abuse among elderly and assess their quality. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed through PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, and PsycInfo, for the period between 1988 and 2005. Population-based studies were included and studies without clear methodological definition and with clinical and service samples were excluded. RESULTS: There were found 440 articles, but only 11 of them were selected. Most were cross-sectional designs and only two were longitudinal studies. These studies were conducted in various countries worldwide, mostly in US and Europe. They varied widely in terms of abuse definition. Prevalence of physical abuse ranged from 1.2% (Holland to 18% (Finland. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable prevalence

  5. Sexual Abuse of Older Nursing Home Residents: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Malmedal


    Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature related to elder abuse, sexual abuse of older persons in general and of vulnerable adults living in nursing homes in particular is still sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of knowledge on the subject of sexual abuse against older nursing home residents through a literature review. Systematic searches in reference databases including Cinahl, Medline, OVID Nursing Database, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and SveMed + were conducted. Through several phases of selection of the articles, using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, six articles were chosen for a deeper examination. Findings from the review show that sexual abuse occurs in nursing homes and that both older women and men are victims of sexual abuse. Perpetrators appear mainly to be staff and other residents and mainly to be men, but also women abuse both older men and older women. Findings from the literature review show that there is a need for knowledge and further research on the topic of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step in seriously addressing sexual abuse against older persons.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment. (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J.


    Assesses child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual, physical, and psychological abuse with a sample of 633 college women. Survivors of CSA experienced more instances of physical abuse and psychological maltreatment than nonvictims. They were more likely to report unwanted sexual intercourse both by acquaintances due to force, and by acquaintances…

  7. Moving beyond disrespect and abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michelle; Mario, Santos; Ruiz Buron, Dolores


    During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despite...... of obstetric violence, as it is being used in Latin American childbirth activism and legal documents, might prove to be a useful tool for addressing structural violence in maternity care such as high intervention rates, non-consented care, disrespect and other abusive practices...

  8. A case of drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pacini


    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance is one of the well-known harm reduction strategies for public health intervention in heroin addiction. The significance of methadone treatment in preventing needle sharing, which in turn reduces the risk of HIV and HCV transmission among injectors, has been demonstrated. Methadone maintenance is also considered gathering site where heroin addicts can effectively acquire knowledge on harm reduction and drug rehabilitation. We report a case of a 34-years-old patient with a history of heroin abuse. Therapy with methadone was essential for an adequate management of the case. The article describe difficulties and complexities of heroin abuse management and the therapeutic role of methadone.

  9. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser. (United States)

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others


    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  10. Drug and alcohol abuse: general physician's perspective. (United States)

    Basu, Debasish; Singh, Jaspreet


    Epidemiology, definitions, concepts and various other relevant aspects including management of drug and alcohol abuse are reviewed. The role of general/primary care physicians has been highlited in the persepctive of substance-abuse disorders.

  11. Self Concept of Adolescent Sexual Abuse Victims. (United States)

    Orr, Donald P.; Downes, Maureen C.


    To assess the self-concept and psychological profile associated with sexual abuse, 20 young female victims evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic completed the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. (Author/LMO)

  12. Abuse of rights in Community Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig


    The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights...

  13. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  14. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction (United States)

    ... Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen © KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too ... Ysbrand Cosijn Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read ...

  15. Neural Correlates of Craving in Methamphetamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanak Shahmohammadi


    Conclusion: This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse.

  16. Abused and Nonabused Women: MMPI Profile Differences. (United States)

    Gellen, Murray I.; And Others


    Compared abused women (N=10) with nonabused women (N=10) by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Results showed that when compared to a matched group of nonabused women, a significantly greater proportion of abused women evidenced pathological conditions. (LLL)

  17. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families. (United States)

    Davis, Norris; And Others


    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  18. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.


    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  19. Game Concept for Seual Child Abuse Anticipation


    Fajar As'ari; Ridwan Sanjaya; Ridwan Sanjaya; Hendra Prasetya; Hendra Prasetya


    Sexual child abuse are direct or indirect action from people who is older than children are. People whose close and known by children 90% of them are being sexual child abuse offenders. Sexual child abuse preventive measure delivered through sexual education by media such as pictures, comic, and video. Create this media as a tool to guide parents to teach their children to keep them safe from child sexual abuse. Parents could choose video that provide animation with stories detailing and ...

  20. Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder. (United States)

    Miller, F T; Abrams, T; Dulit, R; Fyer, M


    The impact of substance abuse on patients with borderline personality disorder was investigated. Substance abuse was common. Female patients preferred alcohol and sedatives. Male patients preferred stimulants. Substance abuse was associated with poor school performance, unemployment, and promiscuity. Depersonalization-derealization was common in nonsubstance using and alcohol-sedative using patients, but was rarely found in stimulant users. Substance abuse appears to be a devastating complication in the patient with borderline personality disorder.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic regression showed that the presence of suicidal symptoms and alcohol use are to some extent independently associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion. The problem of sexual abuse among South. African youth is confirrried by this study. The association between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms.

  2. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports (United States)

    Hartill, Mike


    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  3. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006


    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  4. Predicting Child Abuse Potential across Family Types. (United States)

    Burrell, Brenda; And Others


    This study examined whether stress, family resources, and social support are correlates of the child abuse potential of mothers. Stress in family functioning appeared to be an important predictor of child abuse potential. Mothers of children with disabilities may be more inclined than other mothers to have elevated child abuse potential.…

  5. Adderall abuse in Texas, 1998-2004. (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B


    Adderall is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of Adderall abuse calls received by several poison control centers in Texas during 1998-2004. Drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of all Adderall exposure calls, 12% involved abuse. The number of drug abuse calls received per year increased during the first part of 7-yr period but then declined. Male patients accounted for almost 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 69% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 66% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than nonabuse calls to involve exposures at another residence (6% vs. 3%), school (22% vs. 5%) and public areas (2% vs. 0.4%). Drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to be managed outside of a health care facility (18% vs. 51%) and to be classified as no adverse effect (23% vs. 48%). Adderall abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Adderall abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and involve more serious medical outcomes.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacob Mugumbate

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse (CSA) remains topical in. Zimbabwe. Statistics, literature and debate reflect not only increased scientific interest in child sexual abuse and its potential effects but also growing public concern about this form of child maltreatment. The sexual abuse of children crosses cultural and.

  7. Sexually abused girls and their Rorschach responses. (United States)

    Friedrich, W N; Einbender, A J; McCarty, P


    Exner's scoring (1990) was used on the responses by 46 sexually abused girls (6 to 14 years old) and 46 nonsexually abused girls (6 to 14 years old). Subjects were matched for age, race, family income, and family constellation. Sexually abused children exhibited significantly more unusual content, e.g., sex and blood, in their protocols as well as more frequent coping deficits.

  8. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse. (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  9. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide (United States)

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.


    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  10. child sexual abuse in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    beings on the other hand, are irrational. Thus, in light of the above incidences of child sexual abuse, what is being put to question is the rationality / irrationality perceptions which distinguish human beings from non –human beings. Questions which beg answers in view of. African Journal of Social Work, 4(1), June 2014. 29 ...

  11. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics. (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.


    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  12. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse. (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L


    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.


    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  14. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances]. (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi


    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  15. Clerical Child Abuse – The Irish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Murphy


    Full Text Available Ireland has been overwhelmed in the past two decades by what the Catholic Church itself has called ‘a tsunami’ of revelations of clerical child abuse – physical as well as sexual – of the meticulous concealment of abuse and abusers and of a long-established, and almost universal policy of protecting the assets and reputation of the Church, in preference to exposing the abusers.Between 2006 and 2009 Judge Yvonne Murphy chaired a Commission of Inquiry into the child sex abuse scandal in the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.

  16. Child Abuse: Abused all the way but determined not to abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a 14-year old girl who was abused right from infancy through childhood, pregnancy labour and immediate post-partum period, and management of both the child mother and her baby is presented. Information was obtained both retrospectively and prospectively. Tender loving care to the child mother and her ...

  17. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexual abuse of children happens not only in the church or in pastoral relationships, but also within families where ..... Feminist theology opposes the dualistic thinking of the body and soul and the objectification of the ... of the Christian tradition can generate a positive view of the body (Dillen. 2007:159). Such reflections of a ...

  18. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A


    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abuse in hospital-based birth settings? (United States)

    Hodges, Susan


    Are laboring and birthing women treated abusively in the hospital? Although seldom recognized as abuse or violence against women, bullying and medical treatments under false pretenses, even in a hospital, constitute abuse and a basic human rights issue that needs attention. Naming the problem is a first step. The power of medical authority, the lack of accountability in the hospital hierarchical system, policies and protocols, and expectations of compliancy all make an environment ripe for abuse and present obstacles for both women and staff to recognize or stop abuse. Learning to recognize abuse and take effective action, and understanding the legal requirements for "informed consent" can help, but ending abuse will require systemic change.

  20. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek


    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...

  1. Forensic odontology, part 5. Child abuse issues. (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J


    Child abuse, child maltreatment, non-accidental injury and child homicide: all terms that are hard to believe exist in the 21st civilised century, but non-accidental injury of children is a major problem, crossing all socioeconomic, ethnic and educational groups, and is happening all over the world. Available statistics on child abuse and deaths related to abuse are frightening, and as many cases are not reported, actual numbers are likely to be much higher. This paper aims to increase understanding of child abuse issues and encourage the dental team to be alert to the possibility of abuse, recognise the physical injuries and make referrals to the appropriate agency if necessary. In child abuse cases physical injuries to the head and facial area are common while other types of abuse are less visible but are damaging to a vulnerable child in other ways. Keeping children safe is a shared responsibility and a top priority for all of us.

  2. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity. (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel


    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pdepressive symptoms were significant (pdepression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie. (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle


    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  4. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri


    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  5. Update on abusive head trauma. (United States)

    Shaahinfar, Ashkon; Whitelaw, Kevin D; Mansour, Karim M


    This article provides an update on abusive head trauma (AHT), focusing on new developments most salient to the emergency medicine clinician, including epidemiology, clinical recognition, diagnostic work-up, management of neurologic injury, and public health implications. The recent literature has focused on honing the clinician's ability to recognize AHT and its immediate sequelae, to more accurately distinguish between abusive and accidental head injuries by patterns of neuroimaging and retinal hemorrhages, and to appreciate the long-term impacts. Specifically, both a clinical prediction rule and biomarker show promise, and new research advocates for the early identification of subclinical seizures as well as cervical spine injuries. The emergency medicine provider must be able to recognize and manage children who may have AHT and to appreciate when the diagnostic findings warrant consultation with a child protection team. These authors summarize the recent and notable advances in our understanding of AHT.

  6. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  7. Use and Abuse of Authority


    Bartling, Björn; Fehr, Ernst; Schmidt, Klaus M.


    Employment contracts give a principal the authority to decide flexibly which task his agent should execute. However, there is a tradeoff, first pointed out by Simon (1951), between flexibility and employer moral hazard. An employment contract allows the principal to adjust the task quickly to the realization of the state of the world, but he may also abuse this flexibility to exploit the agent. We capture this tradeoff in an experimental design and show that principals exhibit a strong prefer...

  8. Trace Amines and Cocaine Abuse


    Li, Jun-Xu


    Cocaine addiction remains a clinical challenge with no effective pharmacotherapy available. Trace amine associated receptor (TAAR) 1 represents a promising drug target for the modulation of dopaminergic system and stimulant abuse. This Viewpoint discusses the emerging data which strongly suggest that TAAR 1 functions as a molecular “brake” that controls the addiction-related effects of cocaine and could be a novel drug target for the development of efficacious pharmacothe...

  9. History of childhood abuse in Portuguese parents. (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bifulco, Antonia; Paiva, Carla; Maia, Angela; Fernandes, Eugénia; Matos, Raquel


    The study examines the self-reported prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in a large sample of Portuguese parents. Nearly 1,000 parents (506 mothers and 426 fathers) were selected through public primary schools from the Northern area of Portugal. All completed the Portuguese version of the Childhood History Questionnaire (CHQ) [Journal of Family Violence 5 (1990) 15]. Results show that the prevalence of abuse was 73%, but more severe physical abuse involving sequelae/injury was reported by 9.5%. Most physical abuses began prior to age 13, with half continuing after age 13. No gender differences were found for rates of physical abuse. However, among the milder physical abuse without sequelae/injury, those women who experienced "whipping" or "slapping/kicking" were more likely to do so from their mothers than fathers. Among men who were "slapped/kicked" this was more likely to be from their fathers. Low rates of sexual abuse were found at 2.6% with no gender or age differences. Lack of a supportive adult in childhood related to the more severe abuses, but only in adolescence. Portuguese rates of abuse were consistently lower than those reported in USA and Spanish studies using the CHQ. This is the first retrospective, self-report study of childhood abuse in a large sample of Portuguese parents and, even with a participation rate of 69%, shows lower rates than in US and Spanish samples.

  10. Cranial imaging in child abuse

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    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)


    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  11. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.


    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view. (U.K.)

  12. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G.; Casteels, I.


    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  13. [Urological dysfunction after sexual abuse and violence]. (United States)

    Berberich, H J; Neubauer, H


    Criminal statistics say that 300,000 children are sexually abused in the Federal Republic of Germany every year: 70-75% are abused by their own fathers or another psychological parent. Most victims are girls aged 7-12 years. Sexual abuse during childhood can lead to severe psychosomatic dysfunctions both in children and adults. Possible long-term results are depression, anxiety, emotional and cognitive problems, personal dysfunction, eating and sleeping disorders, alcohol or drug abuse, relationship problems, social maladaptation, and somatizations. Many urological dysfunctions without organic findings can be caused by sexual abuse. Among others, chronic pelvic pain (CPPS), enuresis, incontinence, and sexual dysfunction can occur. When children or adults see the urologist because of their symptoms there is always the danger of reproducing the abusive event by invasive diagnostic methods.Sometimes harming themselves the patients bring this situation about unconsciously. With the following article we want to heighten the awareness among urologists.

  14. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse. (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W


    Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications. (United States)

    Phillips, Janice


    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  17. Child Abuse and Emotional Stability among Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey data collected from 2,000 Senior Secondary Two (SS II) Students in Cross River State, Nigeria were analysed to determine the influence of child abuse on later emotional stability of the individual. Four dimensions of child abuse namely: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and child neglect were ...

  18. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  19. Parent education: an evaluation of STEP on abusive parents' perceptions and abuse potential. (United States)

    Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H


    To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.

  20. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women. (United States)

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony


    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender


    Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625

  2. Child abuse and mental disorders in Canada. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender


    Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23,395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose-response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. © 2014 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS


    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  4. Abuse in Hospital-Based Birth Settings?


    Hodges, Susan


    Are laboring and birthing women treated abusively in the hospital? Although seldom recognized as abuse or violence against women, bullying and medical treatments under false pretenses, even in a hospital, constitute abuse and a basic human rights issue that needs attention. Naming the problem is a first step. The power of medical authority, the lack of accountability in the hospital hierarchical system, policies and protocols, and expectations of compliancy all make an environment ripe for ab...

  5. Sexual abuse trauma among Chinese survivors. (United States)

    Tsun-Yin, E L


    As an initial effort to examine Chinese sexual abuse trauma in relation to the cultural construction of sexual victimization of women, this study applies Finkelhor and Browne's (1985) traumagenic dynamics model to examine post-abuse trauma among Chinese child and adolescent survivors in Taiwan. In analyzing sexual abuse trauma in the context of Chinese patriarchal familialism and cultural fetish for female chastity, this study attempts to explore cultural constructional process of sexual abuse in Chinese society. This study conducted in-depth interviews with 19 survivors of, and three social workers on, sexual abuse in Taiwan. These interviews were guided by a semi-structured questionnaire on sexual abuse incidents and post-abuse responses/concerns, and had generated a total of 84 pages of written reports, which serve as the text-data for the analysis. This study identifies sexual stigmatization and senses of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among Chinese sexual abuse survivors in Taiwan. This study found that, in addition to lowering self-esteem, sexual stigmatization results in polarized sexuality among adolescent survivors, as manifested in aversion to and preoccupation with sexuality. The abuse-induced disempowerment is manifested in the survivors' fear for personal safety and heightened sense of vulnerability to re-victimization. The sense of betrayal results in interpersonal difficulties as manifested in self-imposed isolation from others and/or suspicious attitudes toward others, which further impair the survivor's efficacy in meeting her abuse-induced clinging need. Overall, this study observes similar traumatic symptoms between Chinese survivors and their American counterparts as documented in the literature. Nevertheless, this study observes the sexual stigmatization represents the most prevailing post-abuse trauma among Chinese sexual abuse survivors, and reflects the patriarchal fetish for female chastity in the Chinese

  6. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study (United States)

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique


    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  7. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E


    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  8. Lifetime Alcohol Abuse in Institutionalized World War II Veterans. (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran


    The authors document the lifetime prevalence and etiological correlates of alcohol abuse in a sample of elderly World War II veterans. Subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residing in a veterans' long-term care facility were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. A second investigator gave the Modified Combat Exposure Scale and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse was 53%. There was no correlation between alcohol abuse and any other psychiatric diagnosis. There was a significant correlation between the severity of combat stress and subsequent alcohol abuse. Veterans with alcohol abuse also had significantly more wartime head injuries. There was also a trend for the alcoholic group to have experienced more pre-war stressors. Examination of pre-war variables and the severity of the combat stress might help to identify veterans at risk for development of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 1996 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abusive head trauma: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Narang, Sandeep; Clarke, Jennifer


    Abusive head trauma has a robust and interesting scientific history. Recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics has endorsed a change in terminology to a term that is more general in describing the vast array of abusive mechanisms that can result in pediatric head injury. Simply defined, abusive head trauma is "child physical abuse that results in injury to the head or brain." Abusive head trauma is a relatively common cause of childhood neurotrauma, with an estimated incidence of 16 to 33 cases per 100,000 children per year in the first 2 years of life. Clinical findings are variable; AHT should be considered in all children with neurologic signs and symptoms, especially if no or only mild trauma is described. Subdural and retinal hemorrhages are the most common findings. The current best evidence-based literature has identified some features--apnea and severe retinal hemorrhages--that reliably discriminate abusive from accidental injury. Longitudinal studies of outcomes in abusive head trauma patients demonstrate that approximately one-third of the children are severely disabled, one third of them are moderately disabled, and one third have no or only mild symptoms. Abusive head trauma cases are complex cases that require a rigorous, multidisciplinary team approach. The clinician can establish this diagnosis with confidence if he/she maintains a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis, has knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and risk factors of abusive head trauma, and reasonably excludes other etiologies on the differential diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Imaging and Diagnosis of Physical Child Abuse. (United States)

    Johnson, Marlene M


    Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  11. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi


    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  12. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida


    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  13. The Role of Race and Severity of Abuse in Teachers' Recognition or Reporting of Child Abuse (United States)

    Egu, Chizoma Linda; Weiss, David J.


    In the United States, reported child abuse rates vary dramatically with race. We employed a scenario methodology to examine whether teachers, whose professional obligations include reporting suspected instances of abuse, exhibit bias in evaluating a possibly abused child. Each teacher (180 White, 180 Black, and 180 Hispanic) read one of six…

  14. Imaging of Neonatal Child Abuse with an Emphasis on Abusive Head Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Spevak, Melissa R.


    Child abuse and neglect is a serious clinical and socioeconomic problem that is sometimes underestimated. One of the most devastating forms is abusive head trauma. This review addresses the radiological workup in cases of suspected child abuse. The use of all modalities, and their advantages and

  15. Motivational interviewing for substance abuse. (United States)

    Smedslund, Geir; Berg, Rigmor C; Hammerstrøm, Karianne T; Steiro, Asbjørn; Leiknes, Kari A; Dahl, Helene M; Karlsen, Kjetil


    There are 76.3 million people with alcohol use disorders worldwide and 15.3 million with drug use disorders. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred, semi-directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence. The intervention is used widely, and therefore it is important to find out whether it helps, harms or is ineffective. To assess the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for substance abuse on drug use, retention in treatment, readiness to change, and number of repeat convictions. We searched 18 electronic databases, 5 web sites, 4 mailing lists, and reference lists from included studies and reviews. Search dates were November 30, 2010 for Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and PsychINFO. Randomized controlled trials with persons dependent or abusing substance. Interventions were MI or motivational enhancement therapy. The outcomes were extent of substance abuse, retention in treatment, motivation for change, repeat conviction. Three authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, and two authors extracted data. Results were categorized into (1) MI versus no-treatment control, (2) MI versus treatment as usual, (3) MI versus assessment and feedback, and (4) MI versus other active treatment. Within each category, we computed meta-analyses separately for post-intervention, short, medium and long follow-ups. We included 59 studies with a total of 13,342 participants. Compared to no treatment control MI showed a significant effect on substance use which was strongest at post-intervention SMD 0.79, (95% CI 0.48 to 1.09) and weaker at short SMD 0.17 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.26], and medium follow-up SMD 0.15 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.25]). For long follow-up, the effect was not significant SMD 0.06 (95% CI-0.16 to 0.28). There were no significant differences between MI and treatment as usual for either follow-up post-intervention, short and medium follow up. MI did better than assessment and feedback for medium

  16. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment


    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis


    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use. 1 , 2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months. 3

  17. Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What to Ask (United States)

    ... Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask » Introduction Seeking Drug Abuse Treatment: Know What To Ask Email Facebook Twitter Introduction The goal of drug abuse treatment is to stop drug use and allow ...

  18. Missed opportunities to diagnose child physical abuse. (United States)

    Thorpe, Elizabeth L; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Wolford, Jennifer E; Berger, Rachel P


    This study aimed to determine the incidence of missed opportunities to diagnose abuse in a cohort of children with healing abusive fractures and to identify patterns present during previous medical visits, which could lead to an earlier diagnosis of abuse. This is a retrospective descriptive study of a 7-year consecutive sample of children diagnosed with child abuse at a single children's hospital. Children who had a healing fracture diagnosed on skeletal survey and a diagnosis of child abuse were included. We further collected data for the medical visit that lead to the diagnosis of child abuse and any previous medical visits that the subjects had during the 6 months preceding the diagnosis of abuse. All previous visits were classified as either a potential missed opportunity to diagnose abuse or as an unrelated previous visit, and the differences were analyzed. Median age at time of abuse diagnosis was 3.9 months. Forty-eight percent (37/77) of the subjects had at least 1 previous visit, and 33% (25/77) of those had at least 1 missed previous visit. Multiple missed previous visits for the same symptoms were recorded in 7 (25%) of these patients. The most common reason for presentation at missed previous visit was a physical examination sign suggestive of trauma (ie, bruising, swelling). Missed previous visits occurred across all care settings. One-third of young children with healing abusive fractures had previous medical visits where the diagnosis of abuse was not recognized. These children most commonly had signs of trauma on physical examination at the previous visits.

  19. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya


    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  20. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R


    significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  1. Plants and mushrooms of abuse. (United States)

    Spoerke, D G; Hall, A H


    The plants described earlier are only a few of those that can be misused. Most have effects similar to those of more popular synthetic drugs but can cause unpleasant side effects and unpredictable results. Identification of the offending botanic agent can be problematic. These plants are still used because most are legal to possess, and they do produce desired hallucinogenic and stimulant effects. Because the active ingredients are similar pharmacologically to agents such as LSD and amphetamine, required treatment is often similar. The challenge for the Emergency Department physician is to recognize the potential for abuse of these botanic agents, their probable side effects, and the need for appropriate, usually supportive, treatment. There are many more plants with abuse potential than can be discussed in detail in an article of this size. Table 1 lists a number of other agents that might be misused. Phenylamine hallucinogens occur in several species and include N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), N-monomethyltryptamine (MMT), 5-methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine (5-MeO-MMT), 5-hydroxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (bufotenine or 5-H-DMT), and N,N-dimethyltryptamine-N-oxide (DMT-N-oxide).

  2. Urethralism concomitant with amphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Ping Jiann


    Full Text Available Urethralism is a paraphilia disorder in which a person exhibits the habitual self-insertion of a foreign body into the urethra to achieve sexual gratification. We report a patient who habitually inserted a foreign body into his urethra and abused amphetamines to cope with stress. A 48-year-old man presented at the emergency room because of urine leakage from the penile base. Prior to this incident, he had been admitted to hospital 10 times from 2000 to 2005 for the removal of foreign bodies from the lower urinary tract. The patient also reported repeatedly inhaling a high dose of amphetamine to reach a “high” status prior to inserting a foreign body into his urethra. After the successful removal of the foreign bodies, the patient was referred to a psychiatrist for management in coping with stress and illicit drug withdrawal. Psychiatric support and treatment appeared to have a beneficial effect on his sexual behavior. In the management of a case involving recurrent insertion of a foreign body into the lower urinary tract, clinicians should enquire about a history of drug abuse and consult the psychiatry department regarding stress management and drug abstinence.

  3. [Drug abuse in nursing students]. (United States)

    Garrido-González, Iria; Bugarín-González, Rosendo; Machín-Fernández, Antonio Javier


    To determine the patterns of substance abuse of students attending the Lugo School of Nursing. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in the classroom carried out by survey research in April 2015. 61.5% of students participated (185), 83.2% of whom were females. The first addictive substance consumed by participants was tobacco (at 15 years old). In the last month cigarettes were consumed by 36.2% of students, while alcohol was consumed by 89.9% (58.4% of the total got drunk). 2.2% were consuming tranquilizers/hypnotics in the same time period. The most widely used illegal drug was cannabis (17.8%) and then cocaine (2.2%). There is a significant correlation between illegal drug consumption and being male, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol, living alone or with friends (not family), have poor academic performance and public drinking (botellón). There were no association between illegal drugs and sports or reading. Polydrug use was also studied: a 16.2% declared to have consumed alcohol and cannabis simultaneously, and a 4.9% alcohol and cocaine. Consumption patterns are similar compared to the general population in that age group, with some of them being higher. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures in order to prevent substance abuse at the university level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Jurors' Reactions to Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations. (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L.; Diviak, Kathleen R.; Davis, Suzanne L.


    Mock jurors (N=243) rendered judgment about a case involving childhood sexual abuse allegations made with or without allegations of satanic ritual abuse. Although jurors, especially nonreligious jurors, were less likely to believe the satanic ritual allegations than other case details, they were as likely to vote guilty and believe the victim in…

  5. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Alexander, Randell A.


    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  6. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)


    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  7. Some Demographic Predictors of Adolescent Sexual Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent sexual abuse with its adverse outcomes such as high risky sexual behavior, unintended pregnancies, early marriage, truancy and high school drop out rates threaten the maximum development of the potentialities of its victims. In relation to Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria, adolescent sexual abuse ...

  8. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.


    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  9. Sexually abusive youths’ moral reasoning on sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuizen, M.G.C.J.; Brugman, D.


    The Sociomoral Reflection Measure – Short Form Objective (SRM-SFO) with additional items related to sexual moral issues was applied to an incarcerated sexually abusive juvenile population. Sexually abusive youths were expected to show a lower level of moral development related to sexual issues when

  10. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention (United States)

    Anderson, David S.


    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  11. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.


    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  12. Domestic abuse in the household of God

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The article compares the victimization that takes place in a dysfunctional abusive household and that which takes place in the household of God (Eph 2:9) where the bride of Christ (2 Cor 11:2) is abused at the hands of individuals that constitute what we know as the church system. This is often directed at the poor, ...

  13. Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse? (United States)

    Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.


    Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

  14. psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 1, 2013 ... BACKGROUND: Arguably, the sexual abuse of children raises a number of important questions for researchers at different times. Thus, the present study was aimed to examine psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study compared the degree of ...

  15. Physical evidence of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Hobbs, Christopher J


    Child sexual abuse is increasingly recognised in all societies, affecting boys and girls alike in all age groups and often involving oral, anal and vaginal penetration. The presence of physical evidence following suspected child sexual abuse is important in confirming the diagnosis and providing legal corroboration that abuse has occurred. Whilst many children have no physical evidence, its presence should be carefully sought and documented by skilled examination, regardless of the time interval between any suspected abuse and the examination. When examination is close to the time of the abuse, forensic sampling may be required. Although many children have no physical findings, understanding the significance of physical findings has increased with both experience and research, although certainty and agreement is lacking in some areas. There are few case control studies of abused and non-abused children where standard terminology, examination method and description allow for meaningful comparison. Physical findings rarely provide conclusive evidence of sexual abuse in isolation but may offer important pieces of the diagnostic "jigsaw picture".

  16. Child sexual abuse and family outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.


    This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed

  17. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark W.


    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  18. Prediction and Explanation of Child Abuse. (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Wimberley, Ronald C.


    The Child Abuse Potential Inventory significantly discriminated between abusers and nonabusers. The factors were distress, rigidity, child with problems, problems from family and others, unhappiness, loneliness, and negative concept of child and of self. Rigidity, unhappiness, and distress factors were most meaningful in understanding why some…

  19. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.


    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  20. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri


    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  1. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam


    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  2. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  3. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.


    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  4. Sexual Abuse Trauma Among Chinese Survivors. (United States)

    Luo, Tsun-yin Echo


    This study conducted interviews with 19 survivors of sexual abuse and three social workers in Taiwan. It found sexual stigmatization and feelings of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among the abuse survivors. Effects of cultural attitudes toward sexual victimization of women and Chinese patriarchal familialism are…

  5. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  6. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  7. Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations. (United States)

    Mapes, Bruce E.

    Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…

  8. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.


    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  9. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment (United States)

    Watson, Donnie W.


    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  10. Child Abuse: Helping Children through Bibliotherapy. (United States)

    Karlin, Andrea; Bruneau, Odette

    Since children who have been abused much of their lives may be unaware that what is happening is unusual, it may be necessary for teachers to take the initiative in educating young children to recognize that abuse is not normal and to talk with someone if and when they realize they are a victim. This education can take place through the use of…

  11. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers. (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.


    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  12. Tipping Points and the Accommodation of the Abuser: Ongoing Incestuous Abuse during Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Middleton


    Full Text Available Until recently the widespread reality of ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood had attracted no systematic research. The scientific literature was limited to the occasional case study and brief anecdotal references. This minimal literature was supplemented by biographical works written by or about victims of this form of abuse, and by press reports. With the advent of the Josef Fritzl case there was a very marked increase in the press reporting of such abuse, which in turn provided a reference point for more fine-grained data collection and scientific reporting. This paper introduces the subject of prolonged incest via the lens of organised abuse, summarises research on incestuous abuse and draws on multiple clinical examples to elucidate the mechanisms by which such abuse merges with, or develops into, variations of organised abuse, including that centred on the family, on prostitution, or on that involving abuse networks. The abuse practices, the net-working, and the ploys used to avoid prosecution practiced by the father perpetrating ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood have much in common with other variants of organised sexual abuse.

  13. Cutaneous Findings Mistaken for Physical Abuse: Present but Not Pervasive. (United States)

    Schwartz, Kimberly A; Metz, James; Feldman, Kenneth; Sidbury, Robert; Lindberg, Daniel M


    Incorrect diagnoses during child abuse evaluations are serious. Because skin lesions are common in abuse, it is important to consider cutaneous mimics of physical abuse. The current study prospectively identified cutaneous mimics in a cohort of children evaluated for possible physical abuse. This is a secondary analysis of data from the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse research network's prospective, observational, cross-sectional study involving 20 U.S. child abuse teams. Subjects were younger than 10 years old and were evaluated by child abuse physicians (CAPs) for concerns of physical abuse. CAPs prospectively documented whether mimics were identified during their physical abuse evaluations. Details of each patient with cutaneous mimics were evaluated to determine the types of mimics, which part of the evaluations identified mimics, and the perceived abuse likelihood. Of 2,890 children evaluated for physical abuse, 137 had at least one mimic identified and 69 had some cutaneous mimic components. Although 985 of 2,753 (39%) subjects without mimics had high levels of abuse concern, only 9 of 137 (6%) children with mimics had high levels of abuse concern (p physical examination. Cutaneous abuse mimics were identified in 2.4% of children evaluated for physical abuse. Although it was eventually determined that there was little or no concern for abuse in 84% of children with cutaneous mimics, a small number were physically abused. CAP evaluation may be valuable in recognizing children with cutaneous mimics who also were abused. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse]. (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa


    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  15. Drug abuse control and the Salvation Army. (United States)

    Gauntlett, S L


    The Salvation Army has been involved in the control of drug abuse since it was founded over 120 years ago, when alcohol was the predominant concern. Today, alcohol is still the most commonly abused substance, but the Salvation Army is increasingly tackling other forms of substance abuse as well. High priority is given to prevention of all levels and by all means through a network of over 200 specialized rehabilitation centres throughout the world, in addition to programmes within hostels for the homeless, where there is a high proportion of alcohol and other substance abusers. The Salvation Army endeavours to help drug-dependent persons to abstain from using drugs and achieve a healthy and happy life. It is of the view that, as drug dependence is usually a manifestation of deeper needs, the spiritual component is vital in dealing with drug abuse of all types.

  16. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena


    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult....... DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden) recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records...... and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24). Women...

  17. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin


    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...

  18. Cranial MR imaging of abused children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.D.; Heier, L.A.; Johnson, C.E.; Weingarten, K.; Kelly, A.B.; Deck, M.D.F.


    The diagnosis of intracranial sequelae of child abuse has important clinical and legal implications. CT findings are often subtle or nonspecific. Acutely, a small interhemispheric subdural hematoma (IHSDH) is seen, which may be difficult to distinguish from the falx. In chronic or recurrent abuse, ventricular dilatation and extracerebral fluid collections are encountered that may be difficult to distinguish from atrophy. Four abused children underwent MR imaging and, in each case, MR demonstrated the nature and extent of abnormalities with greater accuracy than CT. In acute abuse (two cases), the IHSDH was diagnosed with greater confidence than on CT, and convexity subdural collections were identified which could not be detected on CT. In chronic abuse (two cases) the subdural location of extracerebral collections and the extent of parenchymal damage was better appreciated on MR than CT

  19. Comparing Women In Substance Abuse Treatment Who Report Sexual And/Or Physical Abuse With Women Who Do Not Report Abuse History


    Boots, Sabine


    This descriptive study explored whether women in substance abuse treatment who report a history of sexual and/or physical abuse have different drug use profiles than women who do not report such abuse. The data originated from a NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) study designed to evaluate the effects of different treatment modalities in inpatient substance abuse treatment for women. The study compared the drug profiles of women in four areas: drug of choice, frequency of use, pr...

  20. Child abuse and physical health in adulthood. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael; Cheung, Kristene; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Sareen, Jitender


    A large literature exists on the association between child abuse and mental health, but less is known about associations with physical health. The study objective was to determine if several types of child abuse were related to an increased likelihood of negative physical health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Data are from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (n = 23,395). The study sample was representative of the Canadian population aged 18 or older. Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to self-perceived general health and 13 self-reported, physician-diagnosed physical conditions. All child abuse types were associated with having a physical condition (odds ratios = 1.4 to 2.0) and increased odds of obesity (odds ratios = 1.2 to 1.4). Abuse in childhood was associated with arthritis, back problems, high blood pressure, migraine headaches, chronic bronchitis/emphysema/COPD, cancer, stroke, bowel disease, and chronic fatigue syndrome in adulthood, even when sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and obesity were taken into account (odds ratios = 1.1 to 2.6). Child abuse remained significantly associated with back problems, migraine headaches, and bowel disease when further adjusting for mental conditions and other physical conditions (odds ratios = 1.2 to 1.5). Sex was a significant moderator between child abuse and back problems, chronic bronchitis/emphysema/COPD, cancer, and chronic fatigue syndrome, with slightly stronger effects for women than men. Abuse in childhood was associated with increased odds of having 9 of the 13 physical conditions assessed in this study and reduced self-perceived general health in adulthood. Awareness of associations between child abuse and physical conditions is important in the provision of health care.

  1. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence. (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G


    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Cook, Designated Federal Official, DTAB, Division of Workplace Programs, Center for Substance Abuse... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse...

  3. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.


    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.


    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century...

  4. The Pattern of Drug Abuse in Anonymous Adidcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Maryam Vahdat-Shariat-Panahi


    Full Text Available Objective: Having the information about pattern of substance abuse in the community and its epidemiological features is one of the most important protocols for evaluation, follow–up and control of the use of these substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of substances abuse among narcotic anonymous (N. A. addicted patients. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, three hundred patients from narcotic abusers anonymous (N. A. association who were referred to a treatment center in Tehran were participated consecutively. The information about demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, type of drug and the patterns of substance abuse of all cases were collected by researcher made questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square test. Results: 80% of the patients were male. Almost 65. 2% of cases aged less than 40 years. More than two–third of cases had free jobs and 21. 2% of them were unemployed. Also, 32% of patients had college degrees. The most common types of abused substance were opium (88%, cigarette (76.7%, and alcohol (63% and 34% of them used substances intravenously. The use of alcohol (P=0.033, cannabis (P<0.001, cocaine (P=0.009 and ecstasy (P<0.001 was more prevalent significantly in the cases less than 40 years old than the elderly. Conclusion: It seems that the trend of substance abuse has been changed to younger population. The pattern of drug abuse in young adults is more toward psychosis drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy.

  5. Sources of prescription opioids among diagnosed opioid abusers. (United States)

    Shei, Amie; Rice, J Bradford; Kirson, Noam Y; Bodnar, Katharine; Birnbaum, Howard G; Holly, Pamela; Ben-Joseph, Rami


    Diversion and abuse of prescription opioids are important public health concerns in the US. This study examined possible sources of prescription opioids among patients diagnosed with opioid abuse. Commercially insured patients aged 12-64 diagnosed with opioid abuse/dependence ('abuse') were identified in OptumHealth Reporting and Insights medical and pharmacy claims data, 2006-2012, and required to have continuous eligibility over an 18 month study period surrounding the first abuse diagnosis. We examined whether abusers had access to prescription opioids through their own prescriptions and/or to diverted prescription opioids through family members' prescriptions obtained prior to the abuser's first abuse diagnosis. For comparison, we examined access to prescription opioids of a reference population of non-abusers. Sensitivity analyses focused on patients initially diagnosed with opioid dependence and, separately, abusers not previously treated with buprenorphine. Of the 9291 abusers meeting the selection criteria, 79.9% had an opioid prescription prior to their first abuse diagnosis; 20.1% of abusers did not have an opioid prescription prior to their first abuse diagnosis, of whom approximately half (50.8%) had a family member who had an opioid prescription prior to the abuser's first abuse diagnosis (compared to 42.2% of non-abusers). Similar results were found among patients initially diagnosed with opioid dependence and among abusers not previously treated with buprenorphine. The study relied on the accuracy of claims data to identify abusers, but opioid abuse is often undiagnosed. In addition, only prescription claims that were reimbursed by a health plan were included in the analysis. While most abusers had access to prescription opioids through their own prescriptions, many abusers without their own opioid prescriptions had access to prescription opioids through family members and may have obtained prescription opioids that way. Given the study design and

  6. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.


    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [de

  7. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala


    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  8. Medications Development for Opioid Abuse (United States)

    Negus, S. Stevens; Banks, Matthew L.


    Here we describe methods for preclinical evaluation of candidate medications to treat opioid abuse and dependence. Our perspective is founded on the propositions that (1) drug self-administration procedures provide the most direct method for assessment of medication effects, (2) procedures that assess choice between opioid and nondrug reinforcers are especially useful, and (3) the states of opioid dependence and withdrawal profoundly influence both opioid reinforcement and the effects of candidate medications. Effects of opioid medications on opioid choice in nondependent and opioid-dependent subjects are reviewed. Various nonopioid medications have also been examined, but none yet have been identified that safely and reliably reduce opioid choice. Future research will focus on (1) strategies for increasing safety and/or effectiveness of opioid medications, and (2) continued development of nonopioids such as inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes or inhibitors of opioid-induced glial activation. PMID:23125072

  9. Prevalence of physical and sexual abuse among substance abuse patients and impact on treatment outcomes. (United States)

    Pirard, Sandrine; Sharon, Estee; Kang, Shimi K; Angarita, Gustavo A; Gastfriend, David R


    More than half of substance abusers entering addiction treatment report a history of physical or sexual abuse. It is unclear if such a history impacts treatment outcomes. This one-year follow-up study of 700 substance abusers sought to clarify the relationship between lifetime physical and/or sexual abuse and addiction treatment outcome to help address the specific needs of this population. To achieve this goal, baseline characteristics, no-show for treatment status, post-treatment clinical outcomes, and treatment history were studied for subjects with lifetime history of abuse (47.3%) versus without. Abused subjects, predominantly women, were significantly more impaired at baseline on clinical dimensions including family/social severity and psychiatric severity as measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and general level of functioning. The two groups endorsed different drugs as primary, with the abused group less frequently endorsing heroin and cocaine in favor of alcohol and polydrug use. Abused subjects reported more prior medical and psychiatric treatments. Abuse history was not a predictor of no-show for treatment. Over the 1-year follow-up, lifetime physical and/or sexual abuse was significantly associated with worse psychiatric status and more psychiatric hospitalizations and outpatient treatment despite receiving similar intensive addiction treatment.

  10. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction. (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F


    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, paddiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood Abuse and Current Health Problems among Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy. (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Medley, Amanda N; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Taylor, John


    OBJECTIVES: Child abuse has negative consequences on health functioning and the self-concept. Prior studies have garnered support for these relationships in younger adults; yet few studies have looked at the effects of abuse on health in older adults and the psychosocial variables, specifically self-efficacy, that may influence the abuse-health relationship. METHODS: Data obtained from the Physical Health and Disability Study were used to explore the impact of child abuse on current medical problems among older adults who were screened on physical disability status (N=1396, Mean age = 67, SD = 10.2). The study was conducted in South Florida and employed a multiethnic sample that is representative of the general population in this area. RESULTS: Child abuse was associated with the number of current medical problems and disability. Child abuse was also related to lower self-efficacy, and self-efficacy explained the relationship between abuse and the number of health problems. CONCLUSIONS: There are far reaching effects of child abuse on older adults' health and self-concept. Health care providers and gerontologists need to be aware that child abuse is a life-long risk factor for increased disability and specific health problems, especially among the elderly. Future research should examine treatments designed to increase self-efficacy, especially among those who experienced child abuse, and observe any positive effects on health functioning.

  12. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora. (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S


    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  13. Frequency of childhood abuse in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Zeren


    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

  14. Anogenital Warts in Children and Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Karateke


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the sexual abuse in children with anogenital warts (AGW together with their mothers by testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV typing. Material and Method: A total of 10 children with their mothers were included. HPV typing was performed in children and their mothers. Smear sample was taken from mothers. Child sexual abuse test was performed for 4 children in whom sexual abuse was suspected. Results: AGW was found in one of the mothers of 10 children with AGW. While HPV typing was positive in 4 children, 3 mothers was detected as %u201Ccompatible%u201D with HPV typing of their children. Two of those were type 6 and the remaining was type 11. While sexual abuse was identified to be %u201Cdefinite%u201D in 2 children and %u201Cprobable%u201D in 1 child. Other was identified as %u201Cpossible%u201D. Discussion: The diagnosis of sexual abuse in children with AGW and suspected sexual abuse can be facilitated by performing HPV typing in mothers of children. This requires professional teamwork to prevent any possible harm against the potential child victim of suspected sexual abuse. As other transmission routes of AGW are possible, accusing falsely innocent family before comprehensive examination should be avoided.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence, Childhood Abuse, and In-Law Abuse Among Women Utilizing Community Health Services in Gujarat, India. (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ganta, Vikas; Myers, Kyl; Thomas, Tomi


    Previous studies in India suggest high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws. Yet few studies examined IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws together. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws, and types of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) among women utilizing community health services for the economically disadvantaged in India. This study contributes to expanding the literature on abuse experience and providing knowledge for developing intervention programs and research projects to improve health and safety of economically disadvantaged women. The data were collected from women aged 18 years old or older at 18 community health centers that are primarily for the economically disadvantaged in Gujarat, India, in October and November 2013. Of the 219 women who completed a self-administered survey, 167 participants, who had ever been married and indicated whether they had been abused by their spouse or not, were included in analysis. More than 60% of the participants experienced IPV, childhood abuse, and/or abuse from in-laws, often with multiple types of abuse. Physical abuse is a major issue for IPV, childhood abuse, and in-law abuse. Emotional abuse potentially happens along with physical and/or sexual abuse. Abuse from in-laws requires greater attention because all types of abuse from in-laws were associated with IPV. Community health centers should provide abuse prevention and intervention programs that have involvement of family members as well as women who are at risk of being abused. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Evaluation of suspected child physical abuse. (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy D


    This report provides guidance in the clinical approach to the evaluation of suspected physical abuse in children. The medical assessment is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate ancillary testing. The role of the physician may encompass reporting suspected abuse; assessing the consistency of the explanation, the child's developmental capabilities, and the characteristics of the injury or injuries; and coordination with other professionals to provide immediate and long-term treatment and follow-up for victims. Accurate and timely diagnosis of children who are suspected victims of abuse can ensure appropriate evaluation, investigation, and outcomes for these children and their families.

  17. Physical Child-Abuse in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sayyari


    Full Text Available Objective: Child-abuse (physical, mental and sexual is considered as one of the important problems faced by persons specialized in behavioral Sciences and Forensic Medicine, physicians and pediatricians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the status of physical child-abuse in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Forty-five pediatric residents, trained for this purpose, conducted this ten-day study in three teaching hospitals (Children's Medical Center, Bahrami Hospital, Hazrat Ali-Asghar Hospital. A questionnaire on physical child-abuse, designed and proposed by the WHO, was completed for 3019 children (male=1578, 52.3% female=1441, 47.7% less than 18 years of age, who attended the emergency department of the above hospitals. The children and their parents were interviewed and physical examination was performed for the children. Results: A total of 347 children (male=14.5%, female =9.6%, which is 12.2% of the total number of children studied, were physically abused. Injuries were mostly present on the face, upper extremities, back and lower extremities, among which 12.8% of the cases were severe and 87.2% were moderate in intensity. Fathers and mothers were responsible for 51.2% and 34.1% of the cases of child-abuse respectively. Among the persons responsible for causing child-abuse, 34.1% had themselves been physically abused during their childhood period and 26.4% had physically abused children before. Hyperactivity, bed-wetting and an unwanted child were among the most common causes of child-abuse. Conclusion: Factors precipitating child-abuse included: large numbers of children in the family drug addiction of one of the family members, and acute or severe psychological stress during the past 6 months. Using the Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P value=0.00l was found to exist between physical child-abuse and demographic factors such as age, sex, site of residence, history of divorce or separation of the parents and

  18. "Dangerous relationships": asthma and substance abuse. (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Alamo, Angela; Campagna, Davide; Demma, Shirin; Polosa, Riccardo


    Commonly abused drug are cocaine, marijuana, cigarettes, heroin, and alcohol. The review emphasizes the importance for clinicians to be alert to the possibility of this substance as a precipitating factor for acute asthma. Substance use disorders to characterize illnesses associated with drug use. The use of drugs of abuse increases risk of developing more severe symptoms, higher frequency of exacerbations and having and significant effect on care resources due to clinicians visits and frequent hospital admissions. Abused drug has been shown to accelerate the decline in lung function and to increase numbers of life-threatening asthma attacks, and greater asthma mortality.

  19. Identifying Potential Child Abuse through Oral Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian N. Printz


    Full Text Available Limited reports of oropharyngeal trauma exist in the literature even though this type of injury is extremely common in pediatric populations. There are no widely agreed upon diagnostic and management tools for such injuries in abuse cases, emphasizing the importance of reporting rare cases of orofacial trauma. This case report of a soft palate laceration demonstrates an instance of initially unrecognized potential child abuse. We aim to clarify understanding of such injuries. Furthermore, the report highlights the need for recognition of oral signs of child abuse in order to promote early detection, reporting, and appropriate management.

  20. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim


    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Brain MR imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Ellerbroek, C.J.; Alexander, R.; Kao, S.C.S.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Smith, W.L.


    Intracranial injuries represent the most severe manifestation of child abuse. CT of the brain is the current standard for evaluation of these infants; however, MR imaging offers several potential advantages. MR imaging and CT were performed in ten infants who suffered intracranial trauma owing to child abuse. CT was slightly better at demonstrating subarachnoid hemorrhage and had definite advantages for defining fractures. MR imaging was superior in the demonstration of subacute extraaxial hemorrhage, deep brain injuries owing to shearing effects from shaking, and anoxic injuries. MR imaging has a definite complementary role in the evaluation of acute intracranial trauma in child abuse victims

  2. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Carlin


    Full Text Available Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser.

  3. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.


    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  4. A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women. (United States)

    Carlson, Bonnie E.


    Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)

  5. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.


    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  6. Physical and Emotional Abuse of Primary School Children by Teachers (United States)

    Theoklitou, D.; Kabitsis, N.; Kabitsi, A.


    The existence of child abuse is unfortunately a reality of contemporary society. Although various organizations and researchers have been making progress in the struggle against abuse, it has not been decisively dealt with thus far. Most of the research on abuse has focused on the abuse of children in their family environment. Objective: The aim…

  7. Counseling Abused Children. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest. (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This digest familiarizes counselors with the four major types of child maltreatment: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect. A definition is provided for each, along with relevant symptoms and statistics. The subsequent discussion focuses on identifying maltreatment and on counseling abused children.…

  8. Substance abuse and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that 61.9% of the patients did not use any substance of abuse, 38.1% either abused one substance or a combination of substances. Substance abuse were (p = 0.0001), alcohol abuse (p = 0.003) and educational status (p = 0.0001) significantly associated with non-adherence to ART while, age (p ...

  9. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As... promise for too many young Americans. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our... abuse every year. A strong and well-informed family unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and...

  10. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol


    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  11. 76 FR 19261 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 (United States)


    ... Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our... responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse... our Nation. Although a strong family unit is the best deterrent to child abuse, effectively...

  12. Child Abuse Hysteria and the Elementary School Counselor. (United States)

    Spiegel, Lawrence D.


    Describes child abuse phenomenon and history of current public hysteria concerning child abuse. Discusses trend of high numbers of false reports of child abuse and neglect and need for counselors to be cognizant of problems of overzealous reporting, professionals looking for abuse in otherwise innocuous situations, and parents using accusations of…

  13. Risk factors for child abuse: quantitative correlational design. (United States)

    Ben-Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Barbashov, Polina; Minasyan, Yulia; Hanukayev, Isabella; Kajdan, David; Klein-Kremer, Adi


    The aim of this research study is to identify risk factors typical of different types of suspected child abuse reported at a hospital. The study was based on 114 cases of children for whom some type of abuse was reported. Physical abuse was the most frequently reported of all types of suspected child abuse. Most victims of sexual abuse were female and at least half the cases of neglect and physical abuse were attributed to parents. Most cases were identified in the emergency room by nurses. Children older than 10 were more susceptible to physical abuse and neglect. © 2014.

  14. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect. (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina


    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  15. Recurrent concerns for child abuse: repeated consultations by a subspecialty child abuse team. (United States)

    Martindale, Jennifer; Swenson, Alice; Coffman, Jamye; Newton, Alice W; Lindberg, Daniel M


    Physically abused children may be repeatedly reported to child protection services and undergo multiple medical evaluations. Less is known about recurrent evaluations by hospital-based child abuse teams for possible abuse. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of repeated consultations by child abuse teams and to describe this cohort in terms of injury pattern, perceived likelihood of abuse, disposition plan, and factors related to repeat consultation. This was a prospectively planned, secondary analysis of data from the Examining Siblings to Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) research network. Subjects included children younger than 10 years of age who were referred to child abuse subspecialty teams at one of 20 U.S. academic centers. Repeat consultations occurred in 101 (3.5%; 95% CI 2.9-4.2%) of 2890 subjects. The incidence of death was 4% (95% CI 1-9%) in subjects with repeated consults and 3% (95% CI 2-3%) in subjects with single consults. Perceived likelihood of abuse from initial to repeat visit remained low in 33% of subjects, remained high in 24.2% of subjects, went from low to high in 16.5%, and high to low in 26.4% of subjects. Themes identified among the subset of patients suspected of repeated abuse include return to the same environment, failure to comply with a safety plan, and abuse in foster care. Repeated consultation by child abuse specialists occurs for a minority of children. This group of children may be at higher risk of subsequent abuse and may represent an opportunity for quality improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlates of partner abuse in male same-sex relationships. (United States)

    Bartholomew, Kim; Regan, Katherine V; Oram, Doug; White, Monica A


    We investigated correlates of partner abuse in male same-sex relationships in a randomly selected community sample (N = 186). We included factors associated with abuse in heterosexual relationships, as well as factors of relevance to gay relationships. We assessed perpetration and receipt of partner abuse to examine whether variables were associated independently with abuse perpetration and/or receipt. Correlates of same-sex partner abuse were largely parallel to established correlates of heterosexual abuse. Income, education, and attachment orientation were associated with bidirectional partner abuse, and family violence and substance use were uniquely associated with victimization. Further, there were factors unique to same-sex partner abuse; HIV status and public outness were associated with bidirectional partner abuse, and internalized homophobia was uniquely associated with abuse perpetration.

  17. Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes. (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A


    Child abuse pediatricians have multiple roles in caring for abused children, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and, when needed, expert legal opinion. The child physical abuse consultation differs from the traditional medical consultation in that it has medical, investigative and legal audiences, all of whom have different information needs. How child abuse pediatricians approach their cases and how they document their initial inpatient consultations that will be used by such a diverse audience is currently unexplored. We used content analysis to examine 37 child physical abuse consultation notes from a national sample of child abuse pediatricians in order to understand physicians' approaches to these consultations. Three commonly used models of child physical abuse consultation were identified in the data that we named the base model, the investigative model, and the family-dynamic model. While model types overlap, each is distinguished by key features including the approach used to gather information, the information recorded, and the language used in documentation. The base model most closely mirrors the traditional medical approach; the investigative model concentrates on triangulation of sources of information; and, the family-dynamic model concentrates on physician perceptions of family relationships. The three models of consultations for child physical abuse mirror the areas of child abuse pediatrics: diagnostic, forensic and therapeutic. These models are considered in relationship to best practice from other medical specialties with forensic components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of prescription opioids with abuse-deterrent technology to address opioid abuse. (United States)

    Michna, Edward; Kirson, Noam Y; Shei, Amie; Birnbaum, Howard G; Ben-Joseph, Rami


    The development of new formulations of extended-release (ER) opioids with abuse-deterrent technology attempts to deter prescription opioid abuse while maintaining appropriate access to care for pain patients. This study examined the degree to which some patients may avoid switching to reformulated ER opioids with abuse-deterrent technology and the extent to which those patients are more likely to be abusers. We analyzed Truven MarketScan pharmacy and medical claims data following the introduction of two reformulated ER opioids with abuse-deterrent technology. Adults aged 18-64 who were continuous users of extended-release oxycodone HCl (ER oxycodone) or extended-release oxymorphone HCl (ER oxymorphone) in a 6 month period prior to the introduction of the respective reformulations of those products were identified and categorized based on whether they switched to the reformulation, switched to other ER/long-acting (LA) opioids (without abuse-deterrent technology), or discontinued ER/LA opioid treatment in a 6 month post-reformulation period. Abusers were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for opioid abuse/dependence. Pearson's chi-squared tests and Fisher's exact tests were then used to compare rates of abuse between patients who avoided switching to a reformulated ER opioid. Sensitivity analyses examined several definitions used in this analysis. ER/LA opioid utilization; rates of diagnosed opioid abuse. A total of 31%-50% of patients avoided switching to reformulated ER opioids. Rates of diagnosed opioid abuse were higher among these patients compared to patients who transitioned to the reformulated ER opioids. Due to the observational research design, caution is warranted in causal interpretation of the findings. The study was conducted among commercially insured continuous ER oxycodone or ER oxymorphone users; future research should consider additional patient populations, such as non-continuous users and those without commercial insurance (i.e., Medicare

  19. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics (United States)

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale


    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  20. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available...

  1. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.


    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  2. Causes of child abuse and neglect. (United States)

    Ney, P G; Fung, T; Wickett, A R


    This paper is a study of child abuse and neglect from the perspective of the child. Generally, the mistreatment of children was associated with "poor care" from parents, attributed mainly to immaturity, marital problems, alcohol abuse, unemployment, drug abuse and lack of money. Differences in attribution are noted between males and females, and some differences are noted by the age of the child. When factors other than the causes given by the children were taken into account, mistreatment was significantly related to family break-up, as well as long-term disinterest and lack of affection from the parents. When the children were asked for their "worst experience in life," the most common responses were "abuse" "family break-up," and for the juvenile offenders "getting charged with a crime."

  3. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C


    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  4. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  5. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  6. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  7. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva


    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  9. Sexual abuse and the problem of embodiment. (United States)

    Young, L


    In this paper, trauma, sexual abuse, and some of the potential resulting long-term effects, are explored in terms of the problem of embodiment and the formation of personal identity and psychological integrity. That is, what effect does severe sexual abuse have on an individual's, particularly a child's, sense of living in his or her body and, by extension, living in the world? First, trauma and dissociation are analyzed and linked to the development and maintenance of a "posttraumatic" sense of personal identity. Then, several disorders associated with sexual abuse--dissociation, multiple personality disorder, eating disorders, somatization disorder, self-mutilation, suicide, and suicide attempts--are examined in terms of their phenomenological coherence and relation to the problem of embodiment. This conceptual framework may be of use to clinicians and researchers assessing and treating the survivors of sexual abuse.

  10. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article ... Learn the facts about the harmful effects of drugs. Talk with your child about the negative effects ...

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Substance Abuse or Dependence - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Substance ...

  12. Dealing with alcohol abuse in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . They are then faced with further guilt, and drink again in response. Patients should be assisted to break this cycle. Alcohol abuse is a chronic disease, and relapse is part of the condition. Patients should be encouraged to seek help.

  13. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk? (United States)

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant use and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. Perry H. Inhalant abuse in children and adolescents. ...

  14. Recurrent encephalic hemorrhage associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumar, J.; Otero, E.; Castineira, A.; Arrojo, L.; Linares, M.; Castineira, J.A.; Vidal, J.


    We report a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to cocaine abuse in a patient with no other predisposing factors. The hemorrhages were located both supra- and infratentorially. (orig.)

  15. Ischial apophyseal fracture in an abused infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bixby, Sarah D.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Child Protection Program, Department of Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States); Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)


    We report a previously healthy 4-month-old who presented to the hospital with leg pain and swelling and no history of trauma. Radiographs demonstrated a comminuted left femur fracture. Given the concern for child abuse, skeletal survey was performed and revealed four vertebral compression deformities. Although abuse was suspected, the possibility of a lytic lesion associated with the femur fracture and multiple spinal abnormalities raised the possibility of an underlying process such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Subsequently 18F-NaF positron emission tomographic (PET) scintigraphy revealed increased tracer activity in the ischium, and MRI confirmed an ischial apophyseal fracture. Pelvic fractures, particularly ischial fractures, are extremely rare in the setting of child abuse. This case report describes the multimodality imaging findings of an ischial fracture in an abused infant. (orig.)

  16. Sexual abuse in children - what to know (United States)

    ... the bathroom, or vaginal itch or discharge Headaches Sleep problems Stomach aches Sexually abused children may also: Use alcohol or drugs Engage in high-risk sexual behaviors Get poor grades in school Have a lot of fears Not ...

  17. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  18. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  19. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  20. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  1. Ischial apophyseal fracture in an abused infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, Sarah D.; Kleinman, Paul K.; Wilson, Celeste R.; Barber, Ignasi


    We report a previously healthy 4-month-old who presented to the hospital with leg pain and swelling and no history of trauma. Radiographs demonstrated a comminuted left femur fracture. Given the concern for child abuse, skeletal survey was performed and revealed four vertebral compression deformities. Although abuse was suspected, the possibility of a lytic lesion associated with the femur fracture and multiple spinal abnormalities raised the possibility of an underlying process such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Subsequently 18F-NaF positron emission tomographic (PET) scintigraphy revealed increased tracer activity in the ischium, and MRI confirmed an ischial apophyseal fracture. Pelvic fractures, particularly ischial fractures, are extremely rare in the setting of child abuse. This case report describes the multimodality imaging findings of an ischial fracture in an abused infant. (orig.)

  2. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  3. Sexual Abuse of Children: Current Concepts. (United States)

    Jones, Jerry G.


    Acts of pedophilia, rape, and incest are uncomfortable subjects that are underdiagnosed and underreported. Effective management involves a multidisciplinary approach that is difficult to achieve without a special program for sexually abused children. Journal availability: see EC 143 201. (Author)

  4. An Overview of Alcohol Use Abuse, and Alcoholism (United States)


    D.C.: National Defense University, 1989. 2 ibid. 3 Wrich, James. "The Impact of Substance Abuse at the Workplace ". Corporate Strategies for...25 ibid. 26 Axel, Helen. " Drugs of Abuse : Public Attitudes, Politics and Business". Corporate Strategies for Controlling Substance Abuse . 1986...Programming". Drug Abuse Services Research Series: Extent and Adeauacy of Insurance Coverage for Substance Abuse Services. Vol 2:154-165. Washington, D. C

  5. Screening for abuse and neglect of people with dementia. (United States)

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Mulnard, Ruth; Liao, Solomon; Gibbs, Lisa; Fitzgerald, William


    To investigate characteristics of people with dementia and their caregivers (CGs) that are associated with mistreatment in order to inform clinicians about screening for mistreatment. A convenience sample of CG-care recipient (CR) dyads were assessed for literature-supported factors associated with mistreatment, and evidence of mistreatment for the prior year was collected. An expert panel considered the evidence and decided on occurrences of psychological abuse, physical abuse, and neglect based on criteria adopted before data collection. Participants' homes. One hundred twenty-nine persons with dementia and their CGs. CG and CR characteristics (demographic, health, and psychosocial variables), relationship characteristics, and three elder abuse and neglect detection instruments. Mistreatment was detected in 47.3%. Variables associated with different kinds and combinations of mistreatment types included the CG's anxiety, depressive symptoms, social contacts, perceived burden, emotional status, and role limitations due to emotional problems and the CR's psychological aggression and physical assault behaviors. The combination of CR's physical assault and psychological aggression provided the best sensitivity (75.4%) and specificity (70.6%) for elder mistreatment as defined by the expert panel. This finding has potential to be useful as a clinical screen for detecting mistreatment. The findings suggest important characteristics of older adults with dementia and their CGs that have potential for use in a clinical screening tool for elder mistreatment. Potential screening questions to be asked of CGs of people with dementia are suggested.

  6. Drug abuse among workers in Brazilian regions


    Silva,Ovandir Alves; Yonamine,Mauricio


    OBJECTIVE: Many business organizations in Brazil have adopted drug testing programs in the workplace since 1992. Rehabilitation, rather than layoff and disciplinary measures, has been offered as part of the Brazilian employee assistance programs. The purpose study is to profile drug abuse among company workers of different Brazilian geographical regions. METHODS: Urine samples of 12,700 workers from five geographical regions were tested for the most common illicit drugs of abuse in the countr...

  7. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.


    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect in India. (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev


    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  9. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment


    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.


    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from ...

  10. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis


    Jadidi, Nadjme; Nakhaee, Nouzar


    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centre...

  11. Child abuse. Non-accidental head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, Dirk; Schaper, Joerg


    Knowledge of the radiological appearances that are the result of child abuse is an integral part of prevention of further, potentially life-threatening, injury. Radiologists must have un understanding of typical injury patterns of the skeletal system, visceral and intra-cranial structures, which should ideally be ordered chronologically. Necessary radiological investigations follow guidelines with specific criteria that are pointed out in this review. In equivocal cases of abuse, the opinion of a second (paediatric) radiologist should be sought. (orig.)

  12. Ethical issues in research with abused children. (United States)

    Kinard, E M


    This paper discusses sensitive ethical issues encountered in conducting research with abused children and the potential consequences of various methods of handling these dilemmas. Important ethical questions arise at three stages of the research: (1) obtaining consent for participation in the research; (2) conducting interviews with or administering tests to the subjects; and (3) providing information about test results to parents or others outside the research team. Concern with children's rights has been extended to the question of who can give consent for children to participate in research. In the case of abused children, the consent issue is complicated by the potential adversarial relationship between abusing parent and abused child. Procedures for interviewing or testing abused children must include provisions for three special situations: (1) when a child is distressed by the interviewing or testing; (2) when a child's answers or test results indicate emotional problems; and (3) when a child's answers or comments indicate that the child is being abused. Decisions concerning whether to inform parents or others about an individual child's answers must balance the parents' right to know against the child's right to privacy. All these circumstances require serious deliberation concerning the role and responsibility of the research investigator.

  13. Neurological Manifestations of Medical Child Abuse. (United States)

    Doughty, Katharine; Rood, Corey; Patel, Anup; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Brink, Farah W


    Medical child abuse occurs when a child receives unnecessary and harmful, or potentially harmful, medical care at the instigation of a caretaker through exaggeration, falsification, or induction of symptoms of illness in a child. Neurological manifestations are common with this type of maltreatment. We sought to review common reported neurological manifestations that may alert the clinician to consider medical child abuse. In addition, the possible sequelae of this form of child maltreatment is discussed, as well as practice recommendations for establishing the diagnosis and stopping the abuse once it is identified. A review of the medical literature was conducted regarding the reported neurological presentations of this entity. Neurological manifestations of medical child abuse include false reports of apparent life-threatening events and seizures and reports of induction of symptoms from poisoning. Failure to correlate objective findings with subjective complaints may lead to unnecessary and potentially harmful testing or treatment. This form of child maltreatment puts a child at significant risk of long-term morbidity and mortality. A wide variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in cases of medical child abuse. It is important for the practicing neurologist to include medical child abuse on the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents. (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A


    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  15. Abuse of prescription medicines in southwestern France. (United States)

    Baumevieille, M; Haramburu, F; Bégaud, B


    Few quantitative data are available concerning abuse of medicine in the general population, although dependence on prescription medicines involves a significant proportion of the population. Falsified prescription forms can be used as an indicator of abuse. Community pharmacists in a representative network were asked to report any falsified prescription form presented over a 1-year period. Sales data were used to express results as abuse rate and abuse rate ratio. Two-thirds of the 130 pharmacies in the network reported at least 1 falsified prescription. The reported incidence of falsified prescriptions was 2.3 per 10 000 inhabitants. A total of 392 falsified prescription forms was collected. The abuse rate ratios were 171 (95% CI 140 to 210) for dextroamphetamine-phenobarbital in combination, 168 (95% CI 131 to 216) for fenozolone, 67 (95% CI 53 to 84) for buprenorphine, and 40.5 (95% CI 33 to 50) for clobenzorex. These results show the efficiency of a method for detecting falsified prescriptions forms using community pharmacists. The abuse of medicines already known for their addictive potential can be estimated and alerts can also be detected.

  16. Uses and abuses of macropinocytosis. (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gareth; Kay, Robert R


    Macropinocytosis is a means by which eukaryotic cells ingest extracellular liquid and dissolved molecules. It is widely conserved amongst cells that can take on amoeboid form and, therefore, appears to be an ancient feature that can be traced back to an early stage of evolution. Recent advances have highlighted how this endocytic process can be subverted during pathology - certain cancer cells use macropinocytosis to feed on extracellular protein, and many viruses and bacteria use it to enter host cells. Prion and prion-like proteins can also spread and propagate from cell to cell through macropinocytosis. Progress is being made towards using macropinocytosis therapeutically, either to deliver drugs to or cause cell death by inducing catastrophically rapid fluid uptake. Mechanistically, the Ras signalling pathway plays a prominent and conserved activating role in amoebae and in mammals; mutant amoebae with abnormally high Ras activity resemble tumour cells in their increased capacity for growth using nutrients ingested through macropinocytosis. This Commentary takes a functional and evolutionary perspective to highlight progress in understanding and use of macropinocytosis, which is an ancient feeding process used by single-celled phagotrophs that has now been put to varied uses by metazoan cells and is abused in disease states, including infection and cancer. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Abuse notation of improper integrals (United States)

    Arfi, E.; Wiryanto, L. H.


    In the definition of \\int_ab {f(x)dx} , it was assumed that the interval [a, b] was finite. However, in many application in physics, engineering, economics, and probability we wish to allow a or b (or both) to be infinite or for the other case when f has an infinite discontinuity in [a, b]. In either case the integral is called improper integral. Definition of improper integral is the limit of a definite integral as an endpoint of the interval of integration approaches either a specified real number or ∞ or -∞ or, in some cases, as both endpoints approach limits. Many of the first-year students in ITERA learning about improper integrals make an abuse notation like written improper integral just like standard definite integral. Based on this situation, we tried to change the habits of the students in the writing of improper integrals by providing sufficient understanding and considerable exercises. It turns out this way gives good result, based on the percentage of the value of the midterms to the problem of improper integrals give a fairly good percentage value.

  18. Abuse in Mexican Older Adults with Long-Term Disability: National Prevalence and Associated Factors. (United States)

    Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Mino-León, Dolores


    To determine the prevalence of self-reported abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities and to identify associated risk factors. Secondary analysis of the Perception of Disability in Mexican Population 2010 survey. Mexico. Individuals aged 60 and older with long-term disabilities without cognitive decline (N = 1,089). The elder abuse variable was constructed from the 21 questions included in the survey that assessed the presence of physical, psychological, sexual, and financial exploitation. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, self-rated health, disability (number of functional domains or basic activities), multimorbidity, emotional symptoms, health resources used, and informal help. The prevalence of elder abuse was 32.1%. The most frequent type of abuse was psychological (28.1%). Nearly 58% of respondents reported one type of abuse, 34% reported two types, and 8% reported more than three types. The most common combination of two types of abuse was psychological with financial exploitation. Variables associated with the presence of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse (conflict abuse) were age 80 and older, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. Financial exploitation was associated with age 80 and older, being married or living with a partner, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, living in an urban area, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. The prevalence of abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities is high. Associated factors were level of education, number of disabilities, and health status. Further studies should explore the applicability of these results to other populations. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Revictimization: Child Demographics, Familial Psychosocial Factors, and Sexual Abuse Case Characteristics. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail; Fischer, Beth A

    The purposes of this study were to describe child demographics, familial psychosocial factors, and sexual abuse case characteristics in children experiencing sexual abuse revictimization before the age of 18 years, and to compare them with children not identified as experiencing revictimization. A retrospective chart review was conducted from both the revictimization group and the one-assessment group and reviewed for child sexual abuse case characteristics, familial psychosocial characteristics, and child demographic information. Children in the revictimization group were younger and more likely to possess a developmental delay and mental health diagnosis when compared with children in the one-assessment group. Higher proportions of parents in the one-assessment group were supportive and believed their child's sexual abuse allegation when compared with parents of the revictimization group. Families in the revictimization group were more likely to report multiple psychosocial risk factors when compared with the one-assessment group, including domestic violence, substance abuse concerns, mental health, parental history of sexual abuse, and financial concerns. This study suggests that children most at risk for sexual abuse revictimization often present with multiple familial psychosocial concerns and have parents/caregivers who are not supportive of them or their sexual abuse allegations.

  20. Intergenerational Transmission of Abuse of Incarcerated Fathers: A Study of the Measurement of Abuse (United States)

    Ball, Jeremy D.


    Research on the intergenerational transmission of abuse hypothesis often only examined the "existence" of abuse. The current study utilizes retrospective recalls of incarcerated male defendants (N = 414), using questions formulated from the modified Conflict Tactics Scales. Five logistic regression models are run, representing a different physical…

  1. Authority as Coercion: When Authority Figures Abuse Their Positions To Perpetrate Child Sexual Abuse. (United States)

    Weiss, Karen


    Discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority. Tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes and that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts.…

  2. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta


    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  3. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS) (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling


    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  4. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny


    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  5. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse (United States)

    Sköld, Johanna


    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect. (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  7. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert


    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  8. Links between nutrition, drug abuse, and the metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Virmani, Ashraf; Binienda, Zbigniew; Ali, Syed; Gaetani, Franco


    Nutritional deficiency in combination with drug abuse may increase risk of developing the metabolic syndrome by augmenting cell damage, excitotoxicity, reducing energy production, and lowering the antioxidant potential of the cells. We have reviewed here the following points: effects of drugs of abuse on nutrition and brain metabolism; effects of nutrition on actions of the drugs of abuse; drug abuse and probability of developing metabolic syndrome; role of genetic vulnerability in nutrition/drug abuse and brain damage; and the role of neuroprotective supplements in drug abuse. Nutrition education is an essential component of substance abuse treatment programs and can enhance substance abuse treatment outcomes. The strategies available, in particular the nutritional approach to protect the drug abusers from the metabolic syndrome and other diseases are discussed.

  9. Talking matters: abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. METHODS: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  10. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.S.L.; Römkens, R.R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    Objective: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. Methods: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  11. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul


    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  12. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers. (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, Km; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K


    Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  13. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers. (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley


    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  14. Evaluation of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA) program: A community intervention for child abuse victims. (United States)

    Ray, Dee C; Lilly, J P; Gallina, Nancy; MacIan, Paula; Wilson, Brittany


    Children who have experienced physical abuse benefit from a multitude of community interventions including support programs to address emotional and behavioral stability. This pilot study evaluated the services of Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA), a community of bikers lending intervention to abused children, using a pre/post exploratory design. Participants (N=154) were children who had been referred by parents/guardians for current or past physical and/or sexual abuse. Parents/guardians of children were interviewed four times over a course of one year. Results indicated children demonstrated substantial improvements in their overall levels of emotional distress, conduct concerns, hyperactivity, and behavioral and emotional functioning. Overall, results support the premise that services provided by BACA may serve as a unique intervention for children who have experienced abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing the "Sexually Abused-Abuser Hypothesis" in Adolescents: A Population-Based Study. (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun


    A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths.

  16. Drugs of Abuse Can Entrain Circadian Rhythms

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    Ann E. K. Kosobud


    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms prepare organisms for predictable events during the Earth's 24-h day. These rhythms are entrained by a variety of stimuli. Light is the most ubiquitous and best known zeitgeber, but a number of others have been identified, including food, social cues, locomotor activity, and, most recently drugs of abuse. Given the diversity of zeitgebers, it is probably not surprising that genes capable of clock functions are located throughout almost all organs and tissues. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse can directly entrain some circadian rhythms. We have report here that entrainment by drugs of abuse is independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the light/dark cycle, is not dependent on direct locomotor stimulation, and is shared by a variety of classes of drugs of abuse. We suggest that drug-entrained rhythms reflect variations in underlying neurophysiological states. This could be the basis for known daily variations in drug metabolism, tolerance, and sensitivity to drug reward. These rhythms could also take the form of daily periods of increased motivation to seek and take drugs, and thus contribute to abuse, addiction and relapse.

  17. Oral manifestations of drug abuse disorders

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    Nursyamsi Nursyamsi


    Full Text Available Narcotics is a highly addictive drug that acts as a stimulant or depresant for the central nervous system. The prevalence of various diseases found to be higher in the group of drug users then those who not use drugs such as endocarditis, hepatitis and HIV. Further evidence that the drug effects the oral health which includes the effect of the hard tissues by increased incidence of caries and periodontitis and the effect of the soft tissues in the form of leukoplakia and oral mucosal fibrosis, reduced production, especially the parotid salivary glands in amphetamine and cannabis users. In addition to the drug is a predisposing of oral infections such as candidiasis and gingivitis. Reduced volume of saliva on abusers may result in reduced immune function of saliva in maintaining oral health. Consequently the drug abusers increased number of bacteria and fungi in the oral cavity, including anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans, especially in cases of abuse of cannabis. Gingival plaque formation and the growing colonies of anaerobic bacteria may increase the occurrence of gingivitis in the drug abusers. Lack of awareness of drug abusers in oral hygiene causing the gingivitis develops into periodontitis followed by alveolar bone loss.

  18. Preferred communication methods of abused women. (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John


    To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Typological and Integrative Models of Sexual Abuse

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    Demidova L.Y.,


    Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children

  20. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt. (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A


    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  1. Substance abuse among Iranian high school students. (United States)

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard


    In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. There is a serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role modeling by parents - mainly fathers - and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4 and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use - mostly opium - was between 1.2 and 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level.

  2. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

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    B. Haji Moradi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  3. Testing the assumption of measurement invariance in the SAMHSA mental health and alcohol abuse stigma assessment in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, B.L.; Oort, F.J.; Lynn, N.; Schonfeld, L.


    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  4. Testing the Assumption of Measurement Invariance in the SAMHSA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Oort, Frans J.; Lynn, Nancy; Schonfeld, Lawrence


    This study examined the assumption of measurement invariance of the SAMSHA Mental Health and Alcohol Abuse Stigma Assessment. This is necessary to make valid comparisons across time and groups. The data come from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health for Elderly trial, a

  5. A child abuse research network: Now what? (United States)

    Lindberg, Daniel M; Scribano, Philip V


    As foundational work in preparation for a sustainable, multi-center network devoted to child abuse medical research, we recently used a combination of survey and modified Delphi methodologies to determine research priorities for future multi-center studies. Avoiding missed diagnoses, and improving selected/indicated prevention were the topics rated most highly in terms of research priority. Several constructive commentaries in this issue identify the key challenges which must be overcome to ensure a successful network. Indeed, as with the clinical work of child abuse pediatrics, a scientific network will also require constant collaboration within and outside the community of child abuse pediatricians, the wider medical community, and even non-medical professions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An update on zolpidem abuse and dependence. (United States)

    Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Gérardin, Marie; Rousselet, Morgane; Guerlais, Marylène; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale


    In 2004, the health authorities (French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety-ANSM) modified the summary of zolpidem characteristics. Particularly it now includes the sentence "a pharmacodependence may materialize." The current article aims to show that despite this modification, zolpidem continues to be associated with problematic drug use, as the official system (Center for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence-Addictovigilance network) providing information on the abuse and dependence potential of drugs informs us. The authors reviewed the literature on this topic and analyzed French data from zolpidem's postmarketing period that were collected by the Addictovigilance network from 2003 to 2010. Postmarketing data and the 30 case reports yielded from the literature review highlight a significant dependence and abuse potential for zolpidem. This survey led to propose in stronger additional rules in France to try to mitigate the abuse potential of zolpidem.

  7. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Lori


    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  8. [Physical and psychological abuse: follow-up of abused and delinquent adolescents]. (United States)

    Zeiller, B


    Physical and Psychological Abuse: A Follow-up of Abused Delinquent Adolescents. This is a follow-up study of abused, very aggressive adolescent boys who had to be placed in an institution. A group of 252 boys were admitted between 1950 and 1977 in a limited freedom institution near Paris (France) because of delinquency or very difficult behaviour. Thirty-three of them had been abused either in their family or in other institutions during childhood. These adolescents proved to be three times more aggressive (i.e., they were involved in aggression episodes three times more often) as compared with their schoolmates who had not been abused previously. An inquiry about the subsequent life course of 22 of these 33 adolescents, made 3 to 30 years following their discharge, revealed that officially unlawful behaviour was recorded twice as often as in the life of their peers. The abused aggressive adolescents are therefore more difficult to rehabilitate than other non-abused adolescent with difficult behaviour. The author stresses this difference, which seems to be linked with a strong feeling of abandonment, and with an extreme difficulty to establish affective contacts with adults. The relationship with adults is always very fragile, and requires a large amount of tolerance regarding their aggressive behaviour.

  9. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter


    Full Text Available Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ in important aspects, this paper highlights the prominence of colonial ideologies of civilisation and barbarism in the investigation and media coverage of the two cases and the sublimation of the issue of child welfare. There are important cultural and normative antecedents to sexual violence but these have been misrepresented in debates over organised abuse as racial issues and attributed to ethnic minority communities. In contrast, the colonialist trope promulgating the fictional figure of the rational European has resulted in the denial of the cultural and normative dimensions of organised abuse in ethnic majority communities by attributing sexual violence to aberrant and sexually deviant individuals whose behaviours transgress the boundaries of accepted cultural norms. This paper emphasises how the implicit or explicit focus on race has served to obscure the power dynamics underlying both cases and the continuity of vulnerability that places children at risk of sexual and organised abuse.

  10. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad


    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  11. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles? (United States)

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel


    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and the Media


    Lee, J.


    This is the first book to explore child sexual abuse within global religious and media organisations. Termed here the dual narrative, there is, on the one hand, the view that everyone is a potential paedophile, and, on the other, the notion of a witch-hunt falsely accusing people. Beginning with a re-examination of historic claims of satanic ritual abuse, the author moves on to investigate global celebrity culture, the global religious context as well as an analysis of technology. The interna...

  13. Peer counseling: Drug and alcohol abuse prevention. (United States)

    Oster, R A


    A peer counseling program was developed as a method for preventing drug and alcohol abuse among high school juniors and seniors. The program was implemented and the results were monitored to evaluate the impact of the program on the students. An analysis of the data showed that the students were able to learn and utilize peer counseling skills but that the prevention of drug abuse could not be documented in this study. Subjective reports, however, were found to support the effects of the program.

  14. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse. (United States)

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J


    The purpose of this study is to review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called 'designer', drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. In this review, we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them.

  15. Perception of sexual abuse in school children


    Elizalde Bravo, Roger; Dávila Noriega, Nebel; Bulnes Bedón, Mario; Sarria Joya, César


    This study explorer the problem of the sexual abuse in 391 scholars of sex both, proceeding of centers state educative of primary level, of socioeconomic stratum short and of wich ages to fluctuate between the 7 or 14 ages. Initialy be constructed a questionary of 32 items and chip sociodemographic for to determínate the characterístics of the sample. Be to find different significative in function to sex the boys to considerate ages of rísk or abuse sex between 3 or 5 ages, and the girls the ...

  16. Epidemiologic status of drug abuse in Mexico. (United States)

    Medina-Mora, M E; Tapia, C R; Rascón, M L; Solache, G; Otero, B R; Lazcano, F; Mariño, M C


    Abuse of alcoholic beverages and tobacco appear to constitute priority public health problems in Mexico, while abuse of other drugs is sufficiently widespread to justify concern. More specifically, a recent national survey (11) found that over 10% of the male subjects 18 to 65 years old met established international criteria for alcohol dependence, while about a quarter of those surveyed were active smokers. A total of 4.3% said they had used one or more drugs other than tobacco or alcohol at some time in their lives.

  17. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)


    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  18. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe; Chabrol, Brigitte


    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  19. Domestic abuse against minors: A victomological study

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    Full Text Available The study presents the main findings of the secondary analysis conducted by the author on the statistics of the Prosecutors' Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice in the period between 2005 and the first semester of 2007, regarding domestic physical and sexual abuse against minors. The study emphasizes the increase or decrease trends in the number of victims of domestic abuse according to the category of crime (for example manslaughter, battery resulting in death, battery and other types of violence, rape, incest, sexual corruption, etc. as well as in relation to aggressors and victims.

  20. Drug and alcohol abuse by bulimic women and their families. (United States)

    Bulik, C M


    The author studied patterns of drug and alcohol abuse in 35 bulimic women, 35 healthy control subjects, and their first- and second-degree relatives. The bulimic women and their families had significantly higher rates of substance abuse disorders.

  1. Nationally recognized alcohol abuse prevention speaker on campus Dec. 10


    Williams, Meghan


    Alcohol abuse prevention is a hot topic on college campuses across the nation and Virginia Tech's Division of Student Affairs and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Task Force is committed to addressing the issue as it relates to Virginia Tech campus community.

  2. Protecting Children through Mandated Child-Abuse Reporting. (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel; McQuillan, Kathleen


    Explains legal reporting requirements for child abuse and neglect. Describes legal standards for reasonable suspicion and indicators of various types of abuse. Details what should be included in a report and discusses implications for school personnel. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  3. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary (United States)

    ... Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, 2000 Types: ... the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from both the ...

  4. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.


    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  5. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary (United States)

    ... navigation Search form Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  6. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offiah, Amaka; van Rijn, Rick R.; Perez-Rossello, Jeanette Mercedes; Kleinman, Paul K.


    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse

  7. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  8. Fractures in the Pediatric Emergency Department: Are We Considering Abuse? (United States)

    Lavin, Lindsay R; Penrod, Cody H; Estrada, Cristina M; Arnold, Donald H; Saville, Benjamin R; Xu, Meng; Lowen, Deborah E


    Approximately one fourths of infant fractures are due to abuse. Recognition of abuse is important to avoid further morbidity/mortality. There is limited knowledge regarding how frequently pediatric emergency department clinicians consider abuse in infants with fractures. Our primary objective was to estimate the percentage of infants with fractures for whom abuse was considered, and to examine characteristics associated with abuse consideration. We performed a retrospective review of infants <1 year of age presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Our primary outcome variable was consideration of abuse. Our secondary outcome measures were identification of predictor variables associated with consideration of abuse. We identified 509 infants meeting study criteria. Pediatric emergency physicians considered abuse in approximately two thirds of infants with fractures. Consideration was more likely to occur in younger infants, in the presence of no history or unwitnessed injury mechanism, when evaluated by male physicians, and emergency department encounters from 12 am to 6 am.

  9. Unique Problems in Prosecuting Child Abuse Cases Overseas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Musetta T


    .... Child abuse statistics bear this out. The thesis postulates that the reason why the identification, treatment, and prosecution of child abuse is more difficult in the ROK is partially due to cultural attitudes toward childrearing and Korean law...

  10. Supervisor's HEXACO personality traits and subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; de Vries, Reinout Everhard


    Abusive supervision is detrimental to both subordinates and organizations. Knowledge about individual differences in personality related to abusive supervision may improve personnel selection and potentially reduce the harmful effects of this type of leadership. Using the HEXACO personality

  11. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse. (United States)

    Gabaeff, Steven C


    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  12. The relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences


    Liebschutz, Jane; Savetsky, Jacqueline B.; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H.


    This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past PhySexAbuse, starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively...

  13. Contributions of Neuroimaging to Understanding Sex Differences in Cocaine Abuse


    Andersen, ML; Sawyer, EK; Howell, LL


    A consistent observation in drug abuse research is that males and females show differences in their response to drugs of abuse. In order to understand the neurobiology underlying cocaine abuse and effective treatments, it is important to consider the role of sex differences. Sex hormones have been investigated in both behavioral and molecular studies, but further evidence addressing drug abuse and dependence in both sexes would expand our knowledge of sex-differences in response to drugs of a...

  14. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bowman, Robin M. [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)


    Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

  15. Association between childhood abuse and psychiatric morbidities among hospitalized patients


    Kshirod Kumar Mishra; Ramdas Ransing; Praveen Khairkar; Sakekar Gajanan


    Background: Childhood abuse has been linked with increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders including major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, only a few from India attempted to study long-term consequences of childhood abuse. Our study aimed to understand the role of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse along with psychiatric co-morbidities in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to...

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy


    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.


    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a spe...

  17. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali; Bowman, Robin M.


    Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

  18. Systematic screening for child abuse at emergency departments


    Louwers, Eveline (Eefje)


    textabstractChild abuse is a serious problem and has serious consequences for the victim, his or her environment and for society itself. It has been estimated that one in every 30 Dutch children is exposed to child abuse.1 While preventable morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in childhood is enormously reduced over the past decades, unfortunately this has not been the case for the staggering statistics surrounding child abuse.2 Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotion...

  19. Wife Abuse and Its Affecting Factors among the Married Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shams-Esfandabad


    Full Text Available Objective: The incindence of wife abuse and its impacts on psychological as well as physical health of the women and in its ultimate negative effects on the health of the family have been presented in many researches. The purpose of the present study was to investigate physical and psychological wife abuse among the married women living in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Study sample (N=1000 consisted of two group of married women (18-45 years: those who did not refere to domestic curts (n= 800, and those who had problem with their husbands and therefore refered to domestic curts (n=200. Moffir et al. (15 Questionnaire has been applied. Results: Data analysis revealed that: psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the first group were 87/9 and 47/9 respectively. Psychological and physical wife abuse among subjects in the second group were 99/5 and 91 respectively. Wife abuse was significantly related to the age of the couples and duration of their marriage the older the couples and the longer the marriage, the higher the wife abuse. There was a significant negative relationship between education of the couples and wife abuse. The higher the education, the lesser the wife abuse. Those husbands who consumed alcohol or drug, abused their wives significantly more than those husbands who did not consume alcohol or drug. Husbands with psychological problems abused their wives significantly more than husbands without psychological problems. Psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the second group were higher than psychological and physical wife abuse among the subjects in the first group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that there are relationships among the variables of age, education, alcohol or drug consumption, husbands psychological disorders and wife abuse. Legislation of a low wich forbids husbands to abuse their wives and increament of the general knowledge about wife abuse by means of mass media may have

  20. Typology of abuse and harassment in domestic work in Portugal


    Figueiredo, M. C.; Suleman, F.; Botelho, M.C.


    Using an original dataset, our study explores types of abuse and harassment suffered by a sample of domestic workers in Portugal (n=684). Empirical evidence based on multiple correspondence and cluster analyses pointed to three segments of domestic workers: victims of labour abuse related to contract and wages, victims of multiple abuse including mistreatment and also psychological and sexual harassment, and a segment with no occurrence of abuse. Descriptive statistics suggest migrants, es...