WorldWideScience

Sample records for abundant energy source

  1. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2009-01-01

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of f...

  2. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations of...... integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA).......Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching this...

  3. Molecular hydrogen: An abundant energy source for bacterial activity in nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, M.; Bildstein, O.; Esnault, L.; Jullien, M.; Sellier, R.

    A thorough understanding of the energy sources used by microbial systems in the deep terrestrial subsurface is essential since the extreme conditions for life in deep biospheres may serve as a model for possible life in a nuclear waste repository. In this respect, H 2 is known as one of the most energetic substrates for deep terrestrial subsurface environments. This hydrogen is produced from abiotic and biotic processes but its concentration in natural systems is usually maintained at very low levels due to hydrogen-consuming bacteria. A significant amount of H 2 gas will be produced within deep nuclear waste repositories, essentially from the corrosion of metallic components. This will consequently improve the conditions for microbial activity in this specific environment. This paper discusses different study cases with experimental results to illustrate the fact that microorganisms are able to use hydrogen for redox processes (reduction of O 2, NO3-, Fe III) in several waste disposal conditions. Consequences of microbial activity include: alteration of groundwater chemistry and shift in geochemical equilibria, gas production or consumption, biocorrosion, and potential modifications of confinement properties. In order to quantify the impact of hydrogen bacteria, the next step will be to determine the kinetic rate of the reactions in realistic conditions.

  4. Uranium: inexhaustible energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exist two social worries in reference with the use of energy, to know, the first is the availability of energy resources for the near future, in terms that the main energy sources at the present, petroleum has a foreseeable limit, and the other, the possible negative effects that the use of fossil fuels, coal among them could have on the environment, the ecology and the life conditions for the human being in general. This two worries take us to consider the availability of uranium, as an alternate energy source for the future of the mankind, considering its lesser ecological impact, since it can be controlled. in this study, the results of several investigations concerning to the abundance, energetic content, extraction costs and the appropiate use of the uranium existing in the earth crust determining the period of time that this fuel can be used as energy source to satisfy the demand of a growing population of human beings on the eart, are re-examined. It is concluded that the utilization of this fuel in the so caled breeder reactors, could satisfy the energy demand for the whole humanity for a long period of time comparable to the life of the sunas a yellow star. (Author)

  5. Energy efficiency and energy management: an abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As France has just published a decree on the energy audit for large companies, and has thus been among the first countries to comply with an article of the European directive on energy efficiency, a set of articles discusses various aspects of these issues of energy efficiency and energy management. A first one presents this mandatory energy audit as a tool for a better energy efficiency, and illustrates the relationship between this commitment and the ISO 50001 standard for French large companies. A second article outlines the tools and standards of application of this energy audit in different legal texts. A third one comments the introduction of four new European arrangements on the labelling of products (indication of energy performance by retailers, objective of reduction of energy consumption, information displayed on site and on-line for various household appliances, current legislation). The next article comments the new German legislation on renewable energies which implements environmental requirements higher than European objectives, and tries to boost the carbon market. The presence of the ISO 50001 certification in the German law is also briefly addressed. Then, an article proposes an overview of a bill project, opinions of experts, and way to go for the new arrangement for energy saving certificates (CEE, certificat d'economie d'energie) launched by the French ministry of Ecology, and which aims at a 700 TWh saving. The content of each article of the bill project is presented and explained, and the relationship between certificate application and some standards is highlighted. The last article comments the decision of the European Court of Justice on the compatibility of Flemish Green Certificates with the European law

  6. Thermonuclear fusion in the UK: towards a new abundant and durable energy source; La fusion nucleaire au Royaume-Uni: vers une nouvelle source d'energie abondante et durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The ITER treaty (International thermonuclear experimental reactor) was signed in Paris on November 21, 2006, by the European Union, China, the USA, Japan and Russia. This treaty is devoted to the construction and exploitation of the biggest thermonuclear facility ever, capable to generate 500 MW during a reaction of 10 minutes. ITER is a priori the last experimental step before the construction of a fusion power plant for power generation at the industrial scale. The goal of ITER is to obtain a quasi-unexhaustible and less polluting energy source by the mid-21. century. The British research work has largely contributed to the development of this technology through a large number of projects that have preceded ITER but also through its present day involvement in the creation of the future reactor of Cadarache. This document presents: the UK fusion program, the projects carried out at the Culham science centre (Compass-D, Joint European Torus (JET), Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START), Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST), EASY-2005 (European activation system)), the British involvement in ITER project and the transfer of technologies, and the nuclear fusion research in British universities (PPRG Imperial College London, CFSA Warwick university, Dalton nuclear institute (DNI), department of physics York university). (J.S.)

  7. Lambda Boo Abundance Patterns: Accretion from Orbiting Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M

    2015-01-01

    The abundance anomalies in lambda Boo stars are popularly explained by element-specific mass inflows at rates that are much greater than empirically-inferred bounds for interstellar accretion. Therefore, a lambda Boo star's thin outer envelope must derive from a companion star, planet, analogs to Kuiper Belt Objects or a circumstellar disk. Because radiation pressure on gas-phase ions might selectively allow the accretion of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and inhibit the inflow of elements such as iron, the source of the acquired matter need not contain dust. We propose that at least some lambda Boo stars accrete from the winds of hot Jupiters.

  8. Testing Relationships between Energy and Vertebrate Abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding what drives variation in the abundance of organisms is fundamental to evolutionary ecology and wildlife management. Yet despite its importance, there is still great uncertainty about the main factors influencing variation in vertebrate abundance across taxa. We believe valuable knowledge and increased predictive power could be gained by taking into account both the intrinsic factors of species and the extrinsic factors related to environmental surroundings in the commonly cited RQ model, which provides a simple conceptual framework valid at both the interspecific and the intraspecific scales. Approaches comparing studies undertaken at different spatial and taxonomic scales could be key to our ability to better predict abundance, and thanks to the increased availability of population size data, global geographic datasets, and improved comparative methods, there might be unprecedented opportunities to (1) gain a greater understanding of vertebrate abundance patterns and (2) test existing theories on free-ranging animals.

  9. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  10. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  11. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Hydrogen energy - An inexhaustible abundant clean energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, M. G.

    1981-04-01

    A review is presented of various hydrogen production processes from possible primary energy resources. The processes covered are nuclear coal gasification, thermochemical hydrogen production, and hydrogen production by electrolysis, which includes solid polymer electrolyte-based electrolyzers, high-temperature electrolyzers, and photoelectrochemical decomposition of water. Attention is given to hydrogen transport and storage (in metal hydride systems) and to its application as an automotive fuel. Hydrogen as a secondary energy source is also discussed, and its uses as an off-peak power storage medium and as an energy transmission medium are described. Costs, flow diagrams and chemical formulas are analyzed in detail.

  13. A New Energy Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign energy companies are flocking to China to participate in the development of a potentially meaningful new energy source, coalbed methane, which is found in coal deposits. China United Coalbed Methane Co. Ltd. signed a contract with U.S.-based Orion Energy International Inc. on April 5 to jointly exploit the resource in the Sanjiao region of coal-rich Shanxi Province. Covering an area of some 462 square km, Sanjiao is home to rich coalbed methane reserves with thick, multi-level coalbeds that have ...

  14. What are the Sources of Solar Energetic Particles? Element Abundances and Source Plasma Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Reames, Donald V

    2015-01-01

    We have spent 50 years in heated discussion over which populations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated at flares and which by shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association of the large "gradual" SEP events with shock acceleration is supported by the extensive spatial distribution of SEPs and by the delayed acceleration of the particles. The relative abundances of the elements in these gradual events are a measure of those in the ambient solar corona, differing from those in the photosphere by a widely-observed function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. SEP events we call "impulsive", the traditional "3He-rich" events with enhanced heavy-element abundances, are associated with type III radio bursts, flares, and narrow CMEs; they selectively populate flux tubes that thread a localized source, and they are fit to new particle-in-cell models of magnetic reconnection on open field lines as found in solar jets. These models help explain ...

  15. Accurate Enthalpies of Formation of Astromolecules: Energy, Stability and Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Etim, Emmanuel E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate enthalpies of formation are reported for known and potential astromolecules using high level ab initio quantum chemical calculations. A total of 130 molecules comprising of 31 isomeric groups and 24 cyanide/isocyanide pairs with atoms ranging from 3 to 12 have been considered. The results show an interesting, surprisingly not well explored, relationship between energy, stability and abundance (ESA) existing among these molecules. Among the isomeric species, isomers with lower enthalpies of formation are more easily observed in the interstellar medium compared to their counterparts with higher enthalpies of formation. Available data in literature confirm the high abundance of the most stable isomer over other isomers in the different groups considered. Potential for interstellar hydrogen bonding accounts for the few exceptions observed. Thus, in general, it suffices to say that the interstellar abundances of related species are directly proportional to their stabilities. The immediate consequences of ...

  16. Elemental abundance anomalies in the late Cenomanian extinction interval: a search for the source(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, C.J.; Attrep, M.; Quintana, L.R.; Elder, W.P.; Kauffman, E.G.; Diner, R.; Villamil, T.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental abundances have been measured by neutron activation methods across the Cenomanian-Turonian (late Cretaceous) extinction interval in samples collected from sixteen sites in the Western Interior Basin of North America and from twelve widely separated locations around the globe, including six ODP/DSDP sites. In most Western Interior Basin sites, in Colombia, and in western Europe (weaker), two closely spaced elemental abundance peaks occur in the upper Cenomanian (??? 92 m.y.), spanning the ammonite zones of Sciponoceras gracile through Neocardioceras juddii. Elements with anomalously high concentrations include Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Ir, Pt and Au. The lower peak coincides with the disappearance (extinction) of the foraminifer Rotalipora cushmani. In North American sections R. greenhornensis also disappears at or just below this horizon, but in Europe it disappears considerably earlier than R. cushmani. A series of molluscan extinction and speciation or migration events also begins near the stratigraphic level of the lower elemental abundance peak. The well-documented positive ?? 13C excursion begins just before the extinctions and the elemental anomalies, and continues into the lower Turonian, well above the upper anomaly. This carbon isotope excursion has been observed in East European sections where we find little or no evidence of the elemental anomalies, suggesting that the two phenomena may not be tightly coupled. Elemental abundance ratios in the anomalies closely resemble those of Mid-Atlantic Ridge basalt or Hawaiian lava (tholeiitic), but not those of C1 chondrite, black shale, average crustal rocks, or lamproite and kimberlite of roughly similar age in southeastern Kansas. The excess Ir and other siderophiles hint at possible large-body impact(s) for the source. However, we have not located microspherules (other than biogenic calcispheres) or shocked mineral grains in any of our samples. Furthermore, Sc, Ti, V and Mn are not enriched in

  17. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded.

  18. Energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source, wherein said electrochemical energy source comprises at least one assembly of a first electrode, a second electrode, and an intermediate solid-state electrolyte separating said first electrode and said second elec

  19. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  20. Economics and energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2013-01-01

    Energy-based instrumentation has not only facilitated the rapid adoption of laparoscopic surgery, but could be considered essential for the completion of abdominal and pelvic procedures under endoscopic guidance. For decades, relatively simple and generic reusable monopolar and bipolar systems were the only options available. More recently, the available options for energy-based surgical instrumentation have become more crowded with the introduction of ultrasound-based cutting and sealing instruments and proprietary, impedance monitoring radiofrequency coagulation devices. Such instrumentation is presented as being easier to use as well as providing greater safety and efficacy. However, these new instruments typically require the expenditure of capital for proprietary energy generators and are usually designed to be for single use, a circumstance that increases per case costs, a circumstance that begs the question of value. Do the additional costs expended for the more expensive devices translate into reduced complications, faster operating time, or even wider access to minimally invasive procedures because they enable more surgeons to offer the service? Herein is explored the complex economic issues associated with the use of energy-based surgical devices as they apply to minimal access surgery in general and to laparoscopic procedures specifically. PMID:23659752

  1. Economy of Alternative Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Pincová, Olga

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is about electricity production generated from renewable energy sources and their relation to investors and to the objectives of Czech Republic set by European Union. First part of this theses introduces renewable energy sources and conditions for their usage. Second part evaluates, by means of econometrics and three predefined scenarios, whether it is possible to meet objectives given by Strategy Europe 2020. In the third part, these scenarios are evaluated by mi...

  2. Modeling unobserved sources of heterogeneity in animal abundance using a Dirichlet process prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, R.M.; Mukherjee, B.; Zhang, L.; Ghosh, M.; Jelks, H.L.; Jordan, F.

    2008-01-01

    In surveys of natural populations of animals, a sampling protocol is often spatially replicated to collect a representative sample of the population. In these surveys, differences in abundance of animals among sample locations may induce spatial heterogeneity in the counts associated with a particular sampling protocol. For some species, the sources of heterogeneity in abundance may be unknown or unmeasurable, leading one to specify the variation in abundance among sample locations stochastically. However, choosing a parametric model for the distribution of unmeasured heterogeneity is potentially subject to error and can have profound effects on predictions of abundance at unsampled locations. In this article, we develop an alternative approach wherein a Dirichlet process prior is assumed for the distribution of latent abundances. This approach allows for uncertainty in model specification and for natural clustering in the distribution of abundances in a data-adaptive way. We apply this approach in an analysis of counts based on removal samples of an endangered fish species, the Okaloosa darter. Results of our data analysis and simulation studies suggest that our implementation of the Dirichlet process prior has several attractive features not shared by conventional, fully parametric alternatives. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  4. The Abundance of X-Shaped Radio Sources: Implications for the Gravitational Wave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David H.; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Coalescence of super massive black holes (SMBH's) in galaxy mergers is potentially the dominant contributor to the low frequency gravitational wave background (GWB). IIt was proposed by Merritt and Ekers (2002) that X-shaped radio galaxies are signposts of such coalescences, and that their abundance might be used to predict the magnitude of the gravitational wave background. In Roberts et al. (2015) we present radio images of all 52 X-shaped radio source candidates out of the sample of 100 se...

  5. Detailed atmospheric abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS 16559-2957

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, R E

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a detailed abundance analysis of the optical counterpart of the IR source IRAS16559-2957 with the aim of confirming its possible post-AGB nature. The star shows solar metallicity and our investigation of a large number of elements including CNO and 12C/13C suggests that this object has experienced the first dredge-up and it is likely still at RGB stage.

  6. Termite Nests as an Abundant Source of Cultivable Actinobacteria for Biotechnological Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Sujada, N.; Sungthong, R.; Lumyong, S.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 118 actinobacterial isolates were collected from the three types of termite nests (mound, carton, and subterranean nests) to evaluate their potential as a source of bioactive actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity. The highest number (67 isolates) and generic abundance (7 known genera) of actinobacterial isolates were obtained from carton nests. Streptomyces was the dominant genus in each type of termite nest. In the non-Streptomyces group, Nocardia was the dominant genus detec...

  7. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  8. Possible sources of the Population I lithium abundance and light-element evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    One-zone numerical models of Galactic chemical evolution of the light elements (lithium, beryllium, boron, and deuterium) with a broad sample of possible stellar lithium production sites and star formation histories, including the multiple merger model of Mathews and Schramm (1992), are examined. Models with high primordial lithium are constrained by observations of lithium and potassium in the interstellar medium of the LMC to have Li abundances close to the Population I value of about 10 exp -9. Li-7 production in intermediate- or high-mass stars (greater than 4 solar masses) is found to fit observations somewhat better than production in low-mass (1-5 solar masses) stars. Since elevated levels of lithium are commonly observed in intermediate-mass stars in the LMC, it is argued that this is indeed the major source of the Population I Li-7 abundance.

  9. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  10. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  11. Benthic marine litter in four Gulfs in Greece, Eastern Mediterranean; abundance, composition and source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Papatheodorou, George; Kougiourouki, Ourania; Georgiadis, Michalis

    2008-04-01

    The types, abundance, distribution and sources of benthic marine litter found in four Greek Gulfs (Patras, Corinth, Echinades and Lakonikos) were studied using bottom trawl nets. Mean distribution and weight densities range between 72-437 Item/km 2 and 6.7-47.4 kg/km 2. Litter items were sorted into material and usage categories. Plastic litter (56%) is the most dominant material category followed by metal (17%) and glass (11%). Beverage packaging (32%) is the dominant usage category followed by general packaging (28%) and food packaging (21%). Based on the typological results three dominant litter sources were identified; land-based, vessel-based and fishery-based. Application of factor analysis (R- and Q-mode) conducted on both material and usage litter datasets confirmed the existence of the three dominant litter sources. Q-mode analysis further resulted in the quantification of the litter sources; land-based ones provided the majority (69%) of the total litter items followed by vessel-based (26%) and fishery-based (5%) sources. Diverse environmental parameters influence significantly these amounts among the four Gulfs.

  12. Massive binaries as the source of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Izzard, R G

    2009-01-01

    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We propose massive binaries as an alternative source. We compute the evolution of a 20 Msun star in a close binary and find that it sheds about 10 Msun. The ejecta are enriched in He, N, Na, and Al and depleted in C and O, similar to the abundance patterns observed in gobular cluster stars. In contrast to the fast, radiatively driven winds of massive stars, this material is typically ejected with low velocity. We expect that it remains inside the potential well of a globular cluster and becomes available for the formation or pollution of a second generation of stars. We estimate that the amount of processed low-velocity material ejected by massive binaries is greater than the contribution of AGB stars and spin stars combined, assuming that the majority of ...

  13. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  14. Abundances, energy and LET spectra of HZE particles in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter reviews knowledge of the composition and energy spectra of HZE (high Z and energy) particles in space and present experimental results of LET spectra measured in several manned satellites

  15. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  16. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  17. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  18. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  19. Scheduling under non-reversible energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ngueveu, Sandra Ulrich; Artigues, Christian; Lopez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address a preemptive scheduling problem involving multiple non-reversible energy sources. To the classical scheduling issue, an additional decision level is added regarding the selection of the energy source used to satisfy the total power demand of tasks processed at each instant. Different non-reversible energy sources are available, with different characteristics in terms of efficiency and power range. The objective is to identify the best combination between scheduling a...

  20. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  1. Possibility of accumulation of energy from renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Hanuš, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses issues of renewable sources energy accumulation. The first part describes possibilities of gaining energy from renewable sources, especially in our climatic conditions. In the second part a summary of energy accumulation methods is presented. The last part in detail analyses energy accumulation process at a pumped-storage power plant in conditions of the Czech Republic.

  2. Thorium is an ultimate source of energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, HungGeun; Lee, Sangcheol

    2013-01-01

    This article is written for readers to help the understanding of thorium as an alternative source of nuclear energy. Thorium (Thorium) can be applied for reactor fuels and thorium energy development such as ADSR; Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor. This particle explains the thorium as a possible choice to replace of uranium to supply enormous energy could be the energy source. A Korean article published in "Science Times" in South Korea. The article is based on an interview ...

  3. Sustainable Energy Sources and Developing Clean Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, A. Heitor; Miguel, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    Energy and sustainability are issues in the global agenda. The concern for the impacts of energy use, which adds to the alarm for the scarcity of primary sources of energy has triggered new research on sustainable primary energy sources and on clean and efficient energy systems and processes. Due to the current global warming, the link between energy and environment becomes inescapable in such a way that researchers have to deal both with efficiency and environmental impacts.

  4. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  5. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  6. Brown carbon aerosol in the North American continental troposphere: sources, abundance, and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Ziemba, L. D.; Thornhill, K. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Devi, J. J.; Bergin, M.; Perring, A. E.; Markovic, M. Z.; Schwarz, J. P.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Chemical components of organic aerosol (OA) selectively absorb light at short wavelengths. In this study, the prevalence, sources, and optical importance of this so-called brown carbon (BrC) aerosol component are investigated throughout the North American continental tropospheric column during a summer of extensive biomass burning. Spectrophotometric absorption measurements on extracts of bulk aerosol samples collected from an aircraft over the central USA were analyzed to directly quantify BrC abundance. BrC was found to be prevalent throughout the 1 to 12 km altitude measurement range, with dramatic enhancements in biomass-burning plumes. BrC to black carbon (BC) ratios, under background tropospheric conditions, increased with altitude, consistent with a corresponding increase in the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) determined from a three-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). The sum of inferred BC absorption and measured BrC absorption at 365 nm was within 3 % of the measured PSAP absorption for background conditions and 22 % for biomass burning. A radiative transfer model showed that BrC absorption reduced top-of-atmosphere (TOA) aerosol forcing by ~ 20 % in the background troposphere. Extensive radiative model simulations applying this study background tropospheric conditions provided a look-up chart for determining radiative forcing efficiencies of BrC as a function of a surface-measured BrC : BC ratio and single scattering albedo (SSA). The chart is a first attempt to provide a tool for better assessment of brown carbon's forcing effect when one is limited to only surface data. These results indicate that BrC is an important contributor to direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  7. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  8. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puzzle is prepared for primary-school students aiming at teaching of energy sources as a supplementary source. In the mean time, the puzzle we prepared reveals the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and fossil energy sources. Here, the student’s aim is to complete the puzzle by answering the questions respectively. .

  9. Sustainable Sources of Energy and the Expected Benefits to Nigerian Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Anowor, Oluchukwu F.; Achukwu, Innocent I.; Ezekwem, Ogochukwu S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development entails conservation, preservation, accessibility and affordability. When it comes to energy usage, Nigeria relies mostly on conventional source of energy with quite high opportunity cost making it cost-wise comparatively inaccessible for the poor population. In this work, renewable energy sources like solar radiation which is abundantly present in Nigeria was found to offers a much cheaper alternative in meeting the energy demands since they are derived from natural p...

  10. Renewable Energy Sources on the Polish Electrical Energy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Bućko

    2014-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources in Poland is presented in the paper. The mechanism of energy origin certificates market and the proposal of mechanism modification are discussed. Perspectives of electricity production from renewable energy sources are indicated and discussed.

  11. Green Certificates – the Symbol Renewable Energy Sources (Clean Energy)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Ghicajanu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper present one alternative solution as regards of the suplimentary power generation - renerawable energy sources. Are present a few words about renewable energy sources and green certificates; policy European Union of the renewable energy power and situation green certificates market on Romania.

  12. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash; Young, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Energy from fossil fuels have become dominant in the industrialised and industrialising economies of the world. However, fossil fuels are also recognised as heavily polluting and responsible for a range of modern environmental and health problems. Nuclear power is a similar conventional energy source in that it relies upon depletion of a limited stock resource and is associated with a range of social and environmental problems. However, the alternative energy sources relying upon flow reso...

  13. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indica...

  14. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  15. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions.

  16. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  17. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

  18. Evaluation of solar radiation abundance and electricity production capacity for application and development of solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Mustamin Rahim, Jun Yoshino, Takashi Yasuda

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze solar radiation abundance to ascertain the potential of solar energy as an electrical energy resource. Local weather forecasting for predicting solar radiation is performed using a meteorological model MM5. The prediction results are compared with observed results obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency for verification of the data accuracy. Results show that local weather forecasting has high accuracy. Prediction of solar radiation is similar with o...

  19. Relationship between fluvial clastic sediment and source rock abundance in Rapti river basin of central Nepal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many tributaries from carbonate sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Lesser Himalayan and clastic sedimentary rocks of the Sub-Himalayan Ranges carry gravelly sediments to the Rapti River. River bar sediments were analyzed for composition and texture to evaluate downstream changes in properties, and to establish relationship between proportion of clasts and the abundance of rock types in the source areas. Percent quartzite clast or granite clast increases whereas that of carbonate, schist or slate decreases along downstream. The largest grain size decreases downstream, whereas fatness index and sphericity tend to increase. Despite of little diminish in relative abundance of rock types in source areas along the river, the relative proportion of corresponding clast type shows rapid reduction (e.g. slate or phyllite or carbonate clasts) or rapid enhancement (e.g. granite clast). The relationships of quartzite clast and schist clasts with their corresponding source rocks are statistically significant suggesting that these clasts can provide clue to source rock abundance. About 85 to 94% of the gravel clasts represent rock types of the Lesser Himalayan Range suggesting that this range has been contributing enormous amount of sediments.

  20. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Peter [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Under the umbrella of RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren (Ibbenbueren, Federal Republic of Germany), the RAG Montan Immobilien (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Mining Solutions (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) are unified. With their activities in the German coal mining industry RAG contributes to the national energy security and create employment effects far beyond the mining regions.

  1. Renewable energy sources in CR

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorný, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá klasifikací obnovitelných zdrojů energie a jejich porovnáním s ostatními energetickými zdroji. Vyjmenovává a charakterizuje zdroje sluneční, vodní, větrné, geotermální energie a biomasy, tedy energie vyráběné z obnovitelných zdrojů. Popisuje využití těchto jednotlivých zdrojů v rámci České republiky. Další část se zabývá legislativou a to zejména zákonem 180/2005 sb. Na závěr jsou uvedeny další zákony a vyhlášky, které s výrobou elektřiny z obnovitelných zdrojů a její dis...

  2. Renewable energy sources '91. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, out of which 3 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and with the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector. (M.D.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

  3. GASAHOL: a potential energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, R.J.

    1978-04-01

    The production of GASOHOL and/or a synthetic fuel using any agricultural product as a portion of a mixture with gasoline is presently held in a fanaticism/mania context by both the proponents and opponents. There is a tremendous interest in GASOHOL throughout the country as shown by the enormous amount of material that has been written on the subject both pro and con. In addition, a variety of legislation at the state and Federal levels concerning an ethanol-gasoline mix either has been passed or is pending. This extensive amount of activity has been going on for the past 3 or 4 years and yet nothing really positive has happened. One reason is the lack of capital to get started. Congress is working on this problem and, coupled with some of the state legislatures, this hurdle should soon be overcome. Another reason and/or reasons are often vociferously pointed out by the opponents - those being the poor economics of such an advanture and a negative input-output energy ratio in producing ethanol. On the economics both sides will agree that a public subsidy, probably in the form of tax credits, is necessary in order for GASOHOL to be competitive with gasoline. The amount of this subsidy varies under different assumptions and by region. Whether the production of ethanol from grain is energy-efficient or not remains a question of debate, and it is in this area that the pros and cons are in most disagreement. There are regional exceptions to the energy balance - Hawaii being one of them. Current plans in the State of Hawaii consist of utilizing molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, to product ethanol. Since molasses is a byproduct, one can supposedly start the distilling process with a zero energy input. It is generally agreed that the mixing of ethanol and gasoline is technically possible. Thus, it seems likely, that there is or will be some Federal and state money available for plant construction, and that one or more demonstration projects will be undertaken.

  4. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  5. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  6. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  7. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  8. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  9. High Energy Sources Monitored with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Alfonso-Garzon, J; Mas-Hesse, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera on-board INTEGRAL (OMC) provides Johnson V band photometry of any potentially variable source within its field of view. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL capabilities allowing the simultaneous observation of different kind of objects in the optical, X and gamma rays bands, we have performed a study of the optical counterparts of different high-energy sources. Up to now, OMC has detected the optical counterpart for more than 100 sources from the High Energy Catalog (Ebisawa et al., 2003). The photometrically calibrated light curves produced by OMC can be accessed through our web portal at: http://sdc.laeff.inta.es/omc

  10. THE ABUNDANCE OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES. I. VLA SURVEY OF 52 SOURCES WITH OFF-AXIS DISTORTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, David H.; Cohen, Jake P.; Lu, Jing [Department of Physics MS-057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-0911 (United States); Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi, E-mail: roberts@brandeis.edu [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Cheung identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here, we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1″. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, 7 were observed at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and 1 was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey red images for 48 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% of sources might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that could have formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following an interruption and axis flip. The remaining 20% are in neither of these categories. The implications of this result for the gravitational wave background are discussed in Roberts et al.

  11. Biogas, energy in abundance; Le biogaz, de l'energie a revendre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, M.; Quesne, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2009-01-15

    In France, a more favorable legal framework and more attractive financial incentives are making the transformation of organic wastes to energy a real market. The methanation process is adaptable to various sources of waste supply: industrial, agricultural, and domestic. In France methanation is an emerging market and is attracting both the giants of environment services and a multitude of specialized start-ups. In 2008, the construction market of municipal waste methanation units was evaluated to 262 Meuros. The management of wastes generated by municipal waste methanation units is a delicate task and requires a costly and specific know-how. Therefore, most actors prefer to concentrate on small-capacity facilities for the valorization of agricultural wastes. (J.S.)

  12. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun SECKEN

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing. In spite of it, renewable energy sources are renewed and never run out. In addition there are many benefits of renewable energy. In this study a puz...

  13. The Abundance of X-Shaped Radio Sources I. VLA Survey of 52 Sources With Off-Axis Distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, David H; Lu, Jing; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Cheung (2007) identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1 arcsec. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, seven were observed at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz, and one was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the SDSS red images for 41 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterparts have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% sources might...

  14. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the

  15. Action plan for renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Finnish Energy Strategy, approved by the Finnish Government in 1997, the emphasis is laid on the importance of bioenergy and other renewable energy sources for the creation of such prerequisites for the Finnish energy economy that the supply of energy can be secured, the price on energy is competitive and the emissions from energy generation are within the limits set by the international commitments made by Finland. In 1998, the European Union Meeting of the Ministers of Energy adopted a resolution taking a positive attitude to the Communication from the Commission 'Energy for the future: Renewable sources of energy' - White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan. National measures play a key role in the achievement of the objectives set in the White Paper. This Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources is a national programme in line with the EU's White Paper. It comprises all renewable sources of energy available in Finland. It encompasses even peat, which in Finland has traditionally been considered to be a solid biofuel but is internationally classified as one of the non-renewable sources of energy. In the Action Plan, objectives are set for the volume of renewable energy sources used in the year 2010 including a prognosis on the development by the year 2025. The goal is that by the year 2010 the volume of energy generated using renewable energy sources has increased by 50% compared with the year 1995. This would mean an increase by 3 Mtoe, which is about 1 Mtoe more than anticipated in the outlook based on the Finnish Energy Strategy. A further goal is to double the use of renewable energy sources by the year 2025. The aggregate use of renewable energy sources depends to a large extent both on the development of the price on energy produced using other energy sources and on possible changes in the production volume of the Finnish forest industry. The most important objective stated in the Action Plan is to improve the competitiveness of renewable

  16. Sources of carbon and the evolution of the abundance of CNO elements

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Y. C.; Zhao, G.; Shi, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Using the standard infall model of Galactic chemical evolution, we explore the origin of carbon and calculate the abundance evolution of CNO elements for 8 different models of stellar nucleosynthesis yields. The results show that, in the early stage of the Galaxy, massive stars are the main producer of carbon, and that as our Galaxy evolves to the late stage, the longer lived intermediate- and low-mass stars play an increasingly important role, while at the same time, metal-rich Wolf-Rayet st...

  17. Extra galactic sources of high energy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the construction of large volume, high energy neutrino telescopes is the detection of extra-Galactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by observations of ultra-high energy, >10^{19} eV, cosmic-rays (UHECRs), the origin of which is a mystery. The observed UHECR flux sets an upper bound to the extra-Galactic high energy neutrino intensity, which implies that the detector size required to detect the signal in the energy range of 1 TeV to 1 PeV is >=1 giga-ton, and much larger at higher energy. Optical Cerenkov neutrino detectors, currently being constructed under ice and water, are expected to achieve 1 giga-ton effective volume for 1 TeV to 1 PeV neutrinos. Coherent radio Cerenkov detectors (and possibly large air-shower detectors) will provide the >> 1 giga-ton effective volume required for detection at ~10^{19} eV. Detection of high energy neutrinos associated with electromagnetically identified sources will allow to identify the sources of UHECRs, will provide a uniq...

  18. Influence of Biofield Energy Treatment on Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Aniline Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi; Gopal Nayak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 15N/14N ≡ (PM+1)/PM in aniline; and (PM+1)/PM and 81Br/79Br ≡ (PM+2)/PM in 4-bromoaniline using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Aniline and 4-bromoaniline samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control part remained as untreated, while the treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The ...

  19. Nuclear energy - a source of sustainable, clean and safe energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses various factors which make nuclear energy an attractive source of cheap, reliable and clean power in Indian scenario, with a special reference to Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP)

  20. Open Source Energy Simulation for Elementary School

    CERN Document Server

    Lye, Sze Yee

    2012-01-01

    With the interactivity and multiple representation features, computer simulations lend itself to the guided inquiry learning. However, these simulations are usually designed for post-elementary students. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate how the use of guided inquiry approach with customized energy simulation can improve students' understanding of this topic. In this ongoing research, the case study is adopted. In the first phase of the study, we have modified open source energy simulation based on principles for reducing extraneous processing, existing energy simulation and guided inquiry approach. The modified simulation is sent to teachers for evaluation and the feedback is encouraging. In the next phase of the study, the guided inquiry lesson package involving the energy simulation would be designed and deployed in an elementary classroom. Multiple data sources would be collected to seek a deeper understanding on how this learning package can possibly impact students' understanding of the phys...

  1. New renewable energy sources: Strategies and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the technological reliability, and environmental and economic benefits of biomass, wind and photovoltaic energy sources in meeting the world's ever increasing demand for electric power. This assessment favours R ampersand D investment for the commercialization of processes involving the production of hydrogen through photovoltaic energy conversion. These plants are especially recommended for oil importing third world countries located in tropical areas

  2. Olive cake used as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce global warming, biomass is expected to become one of the key energy resources. The solid wastes of olives are called as olive cake. This has been in use as an energy source. After the oil crisis in 1970s, there has been increase in studies of alternative and renewable energy resources as well as fuel technologies. However fossil fuels still preserve the predominant position satisfying 90% of the world energy consumption. On the basis of the sustainable development principle and suggestions of Kyoto protocol, their has been an emphasis on the urgent need for reduction of the emission of green house gases the generates negative impact on ozone and replacing current energy resources with renewable energy

  3. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  4. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed. (topical review)

  5. Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druxman, Lee Daniel

    2007-09-01

    As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

  6. Energy source possibilities in underwater technics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Juho

    1991-04-01

    Underwater energy source possibilities are treated. The power demand of underwater vehicles is restricted to approximately 0.5 MW. Besides well known primary and secondary batteries as well as conventional diesel engines and closed cycle diesels, fuel cells, radio nuclear isotopes and small nuclear reactors have already been installed or tested in conditions representative of underwater.

  7. CIVIL REGULATION OF USING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with civil regulation of using renewable energy sources. To deal with such items we need to understand a clear definition of this concept and to consider the specifics of Public-Private Partnership in such claims

  8. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  9. Energy sources for future. Change to a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can Germany give up gasoline and power from coal or nuclear energy and how much does it cost? The book does away with all common misunderstandings due to renewable energy sources and describes a compatible model for a sustainable energy mixing in future. Nevertheless fossil fuels are not denounced but seen as a platform for the advanced system. The author explains first why objections to renewable energy sources base on bad information, and pursues quite an other argumentation as such authors emphasizing the potential of these energy sources. Than he shows in detail the possibility of the optimal energy mixing for biomass, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower and energy efficiency. The environment will reward us for this and instead buying expensive resources from foreign countries we will create work places at home. The number of big power plants - taking into account safety risks - will decrease and small units of on-site power generation feeded with this renewable sources will play more and more an important role. (GL)

  10. Hydrogen is an energy source for hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jillian M; Zielinski, Frank U; Pape, Thomas; Seifert, Richard; Moraru, Cristina; Amann, Rudolf; Hourdez, Stephane; Girguis, Peter R; Wankel, Scott D; Barbe, Valerie; Pelletier, Eric; Fink, Dennis; Borowski, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Dubilier, Nicole

    2011-08-11

    The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in 1977 revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity on Earth. Hydrothermal vent ecosystems are dominated by animals that live in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria. So far, only two energy sources have been shown to power chemosynthetic symbioses: reduced sulphur compounds and methane. Using metagenome sequencing, single-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, shipboard incubations and in situ mass spectrometry, we show here that the symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge use hydrogen to power primary production. In addition, we show that the symbionts of Bathymodiolus mussels from Pacific vents have hupL, the key gene for hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, the symbionts of other vent animals such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata also have hupL. We propose that the ability to use hydrogen as an energy source is widespread in hydrothermal vent symbioses, particularly at sites where hydrogen is abundant. PMID:21833083

  11. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U.S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer.

  12. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  13. Singly- and doubly-negative carbon clusters in sputtering: Energy spectra, abundance distributions and unimolecular fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of singly- and doubly-charged negative cluster ions in sputtering of graphite by 14.5 keV Cs+ ion bombardment was investigated by mass spectrometry. Specifically, for anionic Cn- (n≤23) and CsCn- (n≤11) and dianionic Cn2- (n≤39) species the emission-energy spectra were recorded and their abundance distributions as a function of cluster size n were determined. The energy spectra provided evidence for cluster decomposition in the ion accelerating region of the spectrometer corresponding to a time scale from some 10-10 s to several 10-8 s. The abundance of these fragment ions are similar to those of the parent ions in terms of the dependence on the size n and their absolute magnitudes converge with increasing cluster size. Due to energetic ejection events, the clusters are sputtered with high internal energies; they cool by unimolecular decomposition. The most probable fragmentation process for Cn- appears to be by evaporation of a neutral C2 molecule. For these decay reactions, the fragmentation-time distributions were derived from the appropriate parts of the energy spectra; they were found to scale exponentially with time. From these data the average lifetimes τ for these unimolecular decompositions were determined. For Cn- the lifetimes slightly increase with n: τ ∼ 8 x 10-9 s at n=6 to τ ∼ 5 x 10-8 s at n=25. Similar values are found for CsCn-, whereas for the dianionic clusters Cn2- they are shorter, τ ∼ (5-7) x 10-9 s for n=12-18. Estimates of internal energies, Eint, of sputtered Cn- clusters were derived from these lifetimes, employing statistical theories of unimolecular decomposition. Values of Eint increase with cluster size n for 5≤n≤25, whereas the average internal energy per constituent atom, Eint/n amounts to ∼1 eV in that range

  14. Use of renewable energy sources in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonia has made success in the implementation of energy conservation programme and bio fuel programmes. The basis for promoting the use of biofuels and peat are identified in the first National Energy Conservation Programme (approved by the government in 1992) and in the National Long Term Energy Development Programme (approved by the parliament in 1998). The first National Energy Conservation Programme has set up the following goals: reduction of the share of imported fuels in national primary energy balance through implementation of energy conservation projects and through conversion from imported fuels to local fuels (peat and wood); solving the ownership problems of heating enterprises; financial support for implementation of energy conservation and fuel conversion projects; to stop the subsidies of energy tariffs; promotion of energy conservation awareness campaign. The National Long Term Energy Development Programme identified the promotion of the use of biofuels and peat as one of the main tasks of national energy policy. According to the development plan, the share of renewable energy sources in national primary energy balance shall reach the percentage of 13 in the year 2010. The government approved the new National Energy Conservation Programme in January 2000. One part of the programme is the analyses of the results of the first programme. The conclusion is that the main tasks of the first energy conservation programme (from 1992) are fulfilled: the total use of primary energy has decreased from 1991 to 1998 from 390,6 PJ to 214 PJ; the total amount of imported fuels has decreased from 173 PJ in 1991 to 80 PJ in 1998; the total share of peat and wood in primary energy balance has increased from 14,8 TJ in 1991 to 24,3 TJ in 1998. This is from 3,6 % to 11,3 % accordingly. Since the annual growth of peat resources is bigger than the annual consumption, in Estonian conditions, peat could be considered as renewable energy source. The increase of the share

  15. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  16. Conventional versus Alternative Energy Sources and their Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jirková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis is to deliver a complex and understandable knowledge about the issue of renewable sources of energy and its comparison to conventional sources of energy. For that reason the first part of this work contains theoretical background about renewable energy: definition of alternative sources of energy and conventional sources of energy, different options of alternative energy, pros and cons of alternative energy, analysis of the situation on the market with alternativ...

  17. Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

  18. Arsenic mineralization, source, distribution, and abundance in the Kutahya region of the western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Meral; Dogan, A Umran

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in the Kutahya region of the western Anatolia, Turkey has been reported to cause various types of arsenic-associated skin disorders (Dogan, Dogan, Celebi, & Baris, 2005). A geological and mineralogical study was conducted to find the sources and distribution of the As. Geogenic (background) levels were measured in samples collected from various sources in the Gediz, Simav, Tavsanli, Emet, Yoncali, Yenicekoy, and Muratdagi areas of the Kutahya region. Based on this analysis, we determined that natural sources are a domineering factor affecting the distribution of As, which was found: (1) mainly in evaporitic minerals, including colemanite (269-3900 ppm) and gypsum (11-99,999 ppm), but also in alunite (7-10 ppm) and chert (54-219 ppm); (2) in secondary epithermal gypsum, which has a high concentration of As in the form of realgar and orpiment along fracture zones of Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate aquifers; (3) in rocks, including limestone/dolomite (3-699 ppm) and travertine (5-4736 ppm), which are relatively more enriched in As than volcanics (2-14 ppm), probably because of secondary enrichment through hydrological systems; (4) in coal (1.9-46.5 ppm) in the sedimentary successions of the Tertiary basins; (5) in thermal waters, where As is unevenly distributed at concentrations varying from 0.0-0.9 mg/l. The highest As concentrations in thermal water (Gediz and Simav) correlate to the higher pH (7-9.3) and T (60-83 degrees C) conditions and to the type of water (Na-HCO3-SO4 with high concentration of Ca, Mg, K, SiO2, and Cl in the water). Changes in pH can be related to some redox reactions, such as the cation exchange reactions driving the dissolution of carbonates and silicates. Fe-oxidation, high pH values (7-9.3), presence of other trace metals (Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Al), increased salinity (Na, Cl), high B, Li, F, and SiO, high Fe, SO4 (magnetite, specularite-hematite, gypsum), and graphite, and the presence of U, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn

  19. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  20. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which...

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THIRD GENERATION UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, entrepreneurs are able to use the innovations at the universities in order to set up their own business. That collaboration is part of the concept of the “Third Generation University”. The aim of this paper is to outline some possibilities for innovative business development in the Ruse region, Bulgaria that are aimed at supporting technostarters who use biomass for energy production. It describes the need of renewable energy sources in EU context, giv...

  2. Will greater shrub abundance greatly impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, E.; Lafleur, P.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing deciduous shrub abundance, productivity, and range in the Arctic comes with the potential for both negative and positive feedbacks to the climate system. This study presents six seasons of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and latent and sensible heat fluxes along a shrub gradient in Canada's Low Arctic. Three flux tower sites with 17, 45, and 64% dwarf birch cover were established within a few kilometers of each other to investigate differences in microclimate, energy and carbon exchanges. As expected, there was greater winter snow depth but less summer soil thaw with greater shrub cover. However, snowmelt timing and speed were usually similar among sites. Despite a reduction in albedo in spring and greater leaf area through summer, latent heat fluxes were consistently lower with greater shrub cover. Offset by small differences in sensible heat fluxes, total seasonal atmospheric heating (combined sensible and latent heat fluxes) was similar among sites. We anticipated greater net uptake of CO2 through the growing season with greater shrub cover. However, that was only the case in some years. There was much more week-to-week and year-to-year variability in CO2 fluxes at the shrubbiest site suggesting photosynthesis and respiration processes were more sensitive to weather variations. Shrub abundance does impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon but these observations also highlight the complexity involved in predicting the net climate feedback effect of current and future Arctic vegetation change.

  3. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M.; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; BERRY, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic ...

  4. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  5. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The Fourth International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held at Prague Technical University from 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, of which 2 were inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants.

  6. Propagation and Source Energy Spectra of Cosmic-Ray Nuclei at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M; Hoeppner, C; Marshall, J; Müller, D

    2008-01-01

    A recent measurement of the TRACER instrument on long-duration balloon has determined the individual energy spectra of the major primary cosmic-ray nuclei from oxygen (Z=8) to iron (Z=26). The measurements cover a large range of energies and extend to energies beyond 10^14 eV. We investigate if the data set can be described by a simple but plausible model for acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays. The model assumes a power-law energy spectrum at the source with a common spectral index alpha for all nuclear species, and an energy dependent propagation pathlength (Lambda proportional to E^-0.6) combined with an energy-independent residual pathlength Lambda_0. We find that the data can be fit with a fairly soft source spectrum alpha=2.3-2.4), and with a residual pathlength Lambda_0 as high as 0.3 g cm^-2. We discuss this model in the context of other pertinent information, and we determine the relative abundances of the elements at the cosmic-ray source.

  7. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  8. Use of abundance ratios of somatic coliphages and bacteriophages of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron GA17 for microbial source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Maite; Lucena, Francisco; Blanch, Anicet R; Payán, Andrey; Jofre, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Water contaminated with human faeces is a risk to human health and management of water bodies can be improved by determining the sources of faecal pollution. Field studies show that existing methods are insufficient and that different markers are required. This study proposes the combined use of two microbial indicators, the concentrations of which are presented as ratios. This provides a more reliable approach to identifying faecal sources as it avoids variation due to treatment or ageing of the contamination. Among other indicators, bacteriophages have been proposed as rapid and cheap indicators of faecal pollution. Samples analysed in this study were derived from wastewater treatment plants (raw sewage, secondary and tertiary effluents and raw sewage sludge) river water, seawater and animal related wastewater. The abundance ratios of faecal coliforms and Bacteroides phages, either strain RYC2056 (non-specific for faecal origin) or strain GA17 (specific for human pollution), and among somatic coliphages and phages infecting both Bacteroides strains, were evaluated. The results indicate that the ratio of somatic coliphages and phages infecting Bacteroides strain GA17, which is specific to human faecal sources, provides a robust method for discriminating samples, even those presenting different levels and ages of pollution, and allows samples polluted with human faeces to be distinguished from those containing animal faecal pollution. This method allows the generation of numerical data that can be further applied to numerical methods for faecal pollution discrimination. PMID:23039916

  9. Effect of ''outer'' sources and dissipative processes on abundance of inert gases in atmospheres of the Earth group planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of abundance of inert gases in atmospheres of the Earth group planets is discussed. It is shown that introduction of He, Ne and 36Ar into the Mars and Mercury atmospheres with interplanetary dust and from other external sources require the presence of special mechanisms of losses for these gases. For the Mars atmosphere dissipation on atmosphere interaction with solar wind during the periods of anomalously low temperatures is a probable mechanisms of Ne and 36Ar losses. For the Mercury thermal dissipation for He and polar wind for other inert gases are possible. For all the planets of the Earth group dissipation on interaction with solar wind and introduction with interplanetary dust could play an important role at the early stages of evolution of planets

  10. Meta-analysis: abundance, behavior, and hydraulic energy shape biotic effects on sediment transport in streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, L K; Allen, D C

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of studies have emphasized the need to bridge the disciplines of ecology and geomorphology. A large number of case studies show that organisms can affect erosion, but a comprehensive understanding of biological impacts on sediment transport conditions is still lacking. We use meta-analysis to synthesize published data to quantify the effects of the abundance, body size, and behavior of organisms on erosion in streams. We also explore the influence of current velocity, discharge, and sediment grain size on the strength of biotic effects on erosion. We found that species that both increase erosion (destabilizers) and decrease erosion (stabilizers) can alter incipient sediment motion, sediment suspension, and sediment deposition above control conditions in which the organisms were not present. When abundance was directly manipulated, these biotic effects were consistently stronger in the higher abundance treatment, increasing effect sizes by 66%. Per capita effect size and per capita biomass were also consistently positively correlated. Fish and crustaceans were the most studied organisms, but aquatic insects increased the effect size by 550 x compared to other types of organisms after accounting for biomass. In streams with lower discharge and smaller grain sizes, we consistently found stronger biotic effects. Taken collectively, these findings provide synthetic evidence that biology can affect physical processes in streams, and these effects can be mediated by hydraulic energy. We suggest that future studies focus on understudied organisms, such as biofilms, conducting experiments under realistic field conditions, and developing hypotheses for the effect of biology on erosion and velocity currents in the context of restoration to better understand the forces that mediate physical disturbances in stream ecosystems.

  11. Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial consortium through reciprocal feeding. By screening a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples, we reveal that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microorganisms, and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate in cycling of nitrogen compounds in the environment.

  12. Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

  13. Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial consortium through reciprocal feeding. By screening a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples, we reveal that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microorganisms, and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate in cycling of nitrogen compounds in the environment. PMID:26222031

  14. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, ATALAY; Vardar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are incr...

  15. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance. PMID:22214524

  16. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance.

  17. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  18. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs.

  19. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  20. Evaluation of solar radiation abundance and electricity production capacity for application and development of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Mustamin [Department of Architecture, Khairun University, Ternate (Indonesia); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Yoshino, Jun; Yasuda, Takashi [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze solar radiation abundance to ascertain the potential of solar energy as an electrical energy resource. Local weather forecasting for predicting solar radiation is performed using a meteorological model MM5. The prediction results are compared with observed results obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency for verification of the data accuracy. Results show that local weather forecasting has high accuracy. Prediction of solar radiation is similar with observation results. Monthly average values of solar radiation are sufficiently good during March–September. Electrical energy generated by photovoltaic cells is almost proportional to the solar radiation amount. Effects of clouds on solar radiation can be removed by monthly averaging. The balance between supply and demand of electricity can be estimated using a standard curve obtained from the temporal average. When the amount of solar radiation every hour with average of more than 100 km radius area does not yield the standard curve, we can estimate the system of storage and auxiliary power necessary based on the evaluated results of imbalance between supply and demand.

  1. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  2. Spherical explosion with central energy source

    CERN Document Server

    Masuyama, Miyu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution describing the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements to satisfy boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus derived applicable range, and compare with the semi-analytic solutions.

  3. Spherical explosion with a central energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Miyu; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution that describes the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements needed to satisfy the boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus-derived applicable range, and compare the results with the semi-analytic solutions.

  4. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  5. Status of geothermal energy amongst the world's energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world primary energy consumption is about 400 EJ/year, mostly provided by fossil fuels (80%), The renewables collectively provide 14% of the primary energy, in the form of traditional biomass (10%), large (>10 MW) hydropower stations (2%), and the ''new renewables''(2%). Nuclear energy provides 6%. The World Energy Council expects the world primary energy consumption to have grown by 50-275% in 2050, depending on different scenarios. The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the primary energy in 2050 and 30-80% in 2100. The technical potential of the renewables is estimated at 7600 EJ/year, and thus certainly sufficiently large to meet future world energy requirements. Of the total electricity production from renewables of 2826 TWh in 1998, 92% came from hydropower, 5.5% from biomass, 1.6% from geothermal and 0.6% from wind. Solar electricity contributed 0.05% and tidal 0.02%. The electricity cost is 2-10 UScents/kWh for geothermal and hydro, 5-13 UScents/kWh for wind, 5-15 UScents/kWh for biomass, 25-125 UScents/kWh for solar photovoltaic and 12-18 UScents/kWh for solar thermal electricity. Biomass constitutes 93% of the total direct heat production from renewables, geothermal 5%, and solar heating 2%. Heat production from renewables is commercially competitive with conventional energy sources. Direct heat from biomass costs 1-5 UScents/kWh, geothermal 0.5-5 UScents/kWh, and solar heating 3-20 UScents/kWh. (author)

  6. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  7. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M.; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 on cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, which is a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and CO2 by this archaeon using a cyanase that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade that also contains cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite-oxidizers supply ammonia-oxidizers lacking cyanase with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this consortium through reciprocal feeding. Screening of a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples revealed that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microbes and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate for N-cycling in the environment. PMID:26222031

  8. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  9. Positive and Negative Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Vezmar, Stanislav; Spajić, Anton; Topić, Danijel; Šljivac, Damir; JOZSA, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, positive and negative impacts of renewable energy sources are presented. Impacts of solar power, biomass power, fuel cells, hydro power, wind power and geothermal power are described. Ecological, social and political impacts of different renewable energy sources are described. Impacts of power plants using different renewable energy sources on the power grid are also described.

  10. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.;

    2013-01-01

    Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal......-related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas....... Gaseous emissions of SO2 can therefore be cleaned up with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, an energy store or carrier, which provides an economic offset to the overall cost of this potential remediation process. This process forms part of the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle as well as the once...

  11. Target technology of high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a facility of high energy neutron source for materials research and development, Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT) is a strong candidate. The FMIT is designed to study the irradiation effect of fusion neutron on a fusion reactor materials. The FMIT generates a high-flux, high-energy neutron, which is produced in a stripping reaction by impinging a 3.5 MeV-0.1A beam of deuterons on a flowing lithium target. Target technology obtained in the FMIT will be useful for Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test Facility (ESNIT) and IFMIF of D-Li stripping reaction facility. In the first report (I), the flowing lithium target of the FMIT was reviewed, and some technical considerations in design were pointed out. In the second report (II), the target assembly and target material were proposed as the option of the HEDEL reference design of FMIT in order to improve the hazard and economy for the Li system: Firstly, the exchangeable target back wall and the measures to minimize the outside device damage in case of back wall breaking, and secondly, the option of molten fluoride salt as target material were proposed. (M.T.)

  12. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  13. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  14. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  15. Economic impulses to the implementation of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors are considered of macroeconomic regulation and microeconomic incentives of the implementation of alternative energy sources in condition of prevailing utilization of conventional energy sources. The analysis concludes that both state regulation and microeconomic incentives shift a time horizon of effective implementation of alternative sources nearer to the present. (author) 6 figs

  16. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay ÇETİN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are increasingly continue around theworld. As a matter of fact, when it is compared to the 2011 rates, the consumption rate of hydro-electricity and other renewable energy sources has increased to 4.3% and % 15.2 respectively in 2012 in the world, is verifying that view.The aim of this study is to investigate the present potential and sufficiency of the main sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal andbiomass at Turkey. In this regard, even Turkey has a remarkable potential especially in hydro, wind, solar and geothermal energies among Europe, renewable energy sources ratio in Turkey’s total energy consumption is not rising at desired level. Furthermore becauseTurkey hasn’t got a rich fossil fuel reserves, it needs to import fossil energy sources to meet its rapidly growing energy needs. In related to this, Turkey’s current deficit has beengrowing due to the increase in fossil fuel sources prices at international energy markets. On the other side Turkey’s Green House Gases (GHGs emission has grown more thantwo times as a result of its rapidly using of fossil fuel sources due to its growing economy, industrialization and urbanization process since 1990. Within this context, as a foreigndependent country on fossil fuel energy sources (especially on crude oil and natural gas, Turkey should rapidly change its energy policy from fossil fuels to renewable energysources which are domestic, clean and much more cheaper

  17. A Comparison of ACE Measurements of Galactic Cosmic-Ray Abundances and Energy Spectra for Two Successive Solar Minima

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lavé; Binns, W. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R.A; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using current solar minimum measurements from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we report the observed elemental abundances and energy spectra for C, O, Si, and Fe in the energy range of ~50-500MeV/nucleon. These measurements are compared to prior CRIS observations for the 1997-98 solar minimum period, when the solar magnetic field was of the opposite polarity. By April 2009, the current solar minimum intensities for each of the ...

  18. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  19. Space Solar Power and Other Renewable Energy Sources: Understanding the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAuley, Molly K.

    2002-01-01

    fossil fuels. In addition, a ground-based electricity generation system is now increasingly realized as also vulnerable to disruption. What advantages does space solar power (SSP) offer over other renewable energy sources (wind, terrestrial photovoltaics, biopower, and geothermal) in addressing these concerns? What are disadvantages? This paper discusses the economics of renewable energy in the United States' market in two geographic regions (the west coast and the north central regions) where renewable energy resources are abundant and relatively low cost (thus, aggressively competitive with SSP), but where the security and reliability advantages of SSP may indeed outweigh any generation cost advantage of the terrestrial technologies.

  20. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  1. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge...

  2. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources. Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  3. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zupa; Ivan Herec

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  4. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion

  5. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  6. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    OpenAIRE

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method o...

  7. Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology 2006. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 25 contributions, which were held on the 13th symposium ''Use of regenerative energy sources and hydrogen technology'' in Stralsund (Germany). Separate documentation items analysing 16 of the contributions have been prepared for the ENERGY database

  8. Geothermal energy resource: an alternative to energy source in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogala, J.S. [Nairobi Univ., Faculty of Science, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1999-07-01

    Kenya energy potential lies in the use of geothermal resources. Currently the country relies heavily on imported petroleum fuels and biomass. Electricity is derived from hydropower which is currently 570 MW with an additional 30MW imported from Uganda; thermal 136MW and geothermal 45MW. Geothermal potential in Kenya currently stands at 2000MW. Other potential areas include Suswa, Longonot, Menengai, Korosi, Paka, Silai, Emurungogolak, Namarunu, Barrier and Homa Hill. Geothermal exploration is taking place at Olkaria, Eburru and L. Bogoria, all in the Kenya rift valley. Other potential areas include the Nyanza rift. Exploitation of this potential would meet the current and future electricity needs of the country. Geothermal resources is a relatively environmentally friendly source of energy. The technology of production is well developed to minimise gas and water vapour emissions into the atmosphere. For example, at Olkaria Geothermal Station, the production system has a cooling tower where hot water steam mixture is cooled. Only 5% of the water, representing 70% of the condensed steam is lost from the cooling tower through evaporation. The cooled water, at a temperature of 23degC is injected back into the well for the recharge of the steam reservoir. (Author)

  9. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  10. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  11. Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  12. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE PROSPECTS OF SOLAR ENERGY AND OTHER ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  14. On the Dynamics of Competing Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the dynamics of energy markets in which energy is derived from polluting (fossil) and clean (solar) resources. The analysis is based on geometric optimal control considerations. An important feature of solar energy technologies is that their cost of supply is predominantly due to upfront investment in capital infrastructure (rather than to actual supply rate) and this feature has important implications for the market allocation outcome. In particular, it gives rise to a thresh...

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  16. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia Filippini; Marta Molinas; Eneko Olea Oregi

    2015-01-01

    A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of th...

  17. The Effects of Renewable Portfolio Standards on Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ohler, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs have experienced increased popularity at the state level with twenty-three states adopting policies. Policy makers implement these programs in the hopes of stimulating renewable energy generation and lessening the states reliance on nonrenewable sources, by requiring utility companies to provide a specified amount of electricity from renewable sources. I examine the use of renewable energy sources caused by the implementation of these programs, and ...

  18. Intermediate energy light sources and the SSRF project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Advances in insertion device technology, top-up operation and superconducting RF cavities make it possible to generate high brightness X-ray with intermediate energy light sources, which leads a new trend in designing and constructing third generation light sources around the world. The development status and the remarkable technical features of intermediate energy light sources are reviewed, and the main SSRF properties are described in this paper.

  19. The development of renewable energy sources must change its scale.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French orientation law on energy should be adopted very soon. It fixes ambitious objectives to develop renewable energy sources, in particular a 50% increase of the renewable heat by 2010. Despite an evident acceleration in the development of these energy sources, the path remains long before reaching the orientation law and Kyoto protocol objectives. In particular, several brakes remain to be released for the development of collective facilities (renewable heat networks). This article presents the objectives of the French government in terms of renewable energy sources development (solar thermal and photovoltaic, wood fueled and cogeneration systems) and the problems encountered so far in the implementation of this policy. (J.S.)

  20. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  1. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Department of Food and Resource Economics; Parsons, George R. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). College of Marine and Earth Sciences and Department of Economics

    2007-06-15

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic ''green energy'' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources. (author)

  2. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  3. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems

  4. Hybrid energy sources for electric and fuel cell vehicle propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, N; Yap, H T; Bingham, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Given the energy (and hence range) and performance limitations of electro-chemical batteries, hybrid systems combining energy and power dense storage technologies have been proposed for electric vehicle propulsion. The paper will discuss the application of electro-chemical batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells in single and hybrid source configurations for electric vehicle drive-train applications. Simulation models of energy sources are presented and used to investigate the design optimi...

  5. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    OpenAIRE

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-01-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerob...

  6. Decarbonizing electricity generation with intermittent sources of energy

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, Stefan; Crampes, Claude

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of public policies that aim to decarbonate electricity production by replacing fossil fuel energy by intermittent renewable sources, namely wind and solar power. We consider a model of energy investment and production with two sources of energy: one is clean but intermittent (e.g. wind), whereas the other one is reliable but polluting (e.g. coal). A carbon tax decreases electricity production while simultaneously increasing investment in wind power. This tax may however ...

  7. Barriers for renewable energy sources development in Poland on the example of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is one of main priorities of energy policy in Poland. Wind energy is one of the most dynamically developing sectors within renewable energy segment. The installed capacity of wind installations in Poland in 2014 was twice as big as in 2010. Despite such a dynamic growth, wind energy sector constantly faces obstacles of various kind in its development. The article presents the current state, barriers and development perspectives of wind energy in Poland and its share in the renewable energy sources sector. Key words: Poland, Renewable Energy Sources, wind energy, electricity

  8. Imaging of granular sources in high energy heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Huo, Lei; Zhang, Jing-Bo

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the source imaging for a granular pion-emitting source model in high energy heavy ion collisions. The two-pion source functions of the granular sources exhibit a two-tiered structure. Using a parametrized formula of granular two-pion source function, we examine the two-tiered structure of the source functions for the imaging data of Au+Au collisions at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We find that the imaging technique introduce...

  9. Comparing nuclear power with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of electric generation of nuclear, hydro, oil and gas origin are compared. A similar comparison is also made from the health and environment standpoint for the fossil, nuclear, solar and wind generation. A risk assessment for energies of different origin is outlined and the significance of the greenhouse effect is emphasised. A comprehensive economic and environmental evaluation is recommended for the energy planning

  10. Energy Harvesting from Hydraulic and Vibration Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad pour, Nima

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis, is divided in two main parts. The former is about load optimisation for a hydraulic energy harvester while the latter focuses on the design and fabrication of piezoelectric energy harvesters for the single supply pre-biasing circuit. An abstract for each part is reported below: � Part I: The hydraulic power available in water pipes is usually wasted while it could be harvested and used to supply low power systems. To address this shortcoming, this study presents how load...

  11. A new energy source originating from extra dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bi-Xiu; Ji Shi-Yin; Li Fang-Qiong

    2004-01-01

    In this work the Einstein gravitational field equations and the Lichnerowicz boundary formalism in the extra dimensions are used to build up our black hole model from 6-dimensional space-time. From the internal stress-energy tensor the solutions with energy levels and semiclassical space-quantization are obtained, which combines with only one metric condition outside the defect. We show a new type of energy source, which originates from extra dimensions. A part of the energy source of quasi-stellar object (QSO) maybe come from extra dimensions in that way. The theoretical arithmetic upper limit is identical to that of the output energy of QSO.

  12. Prospective energy sources and their comparison with current supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, B. V.

    1980-10-01

    The comparative physical-technical and economic characteristics of renewable energy sources are analyzed. The significant advantages of wind energy for future use over oil, gas, and coal are demonstrated. Costs of wind electrical energy are compared in the U.S., Denmark, and the U.S.S.R.

  13. Comparison of prospective energy sources with those in use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, B. V.

    1981-03-01

    The comparative physical-technical and economic characteristics of renewable energy sources are analyzed. The significant advantages of wind energy for future use over oil, gas, and coal are demonstrated. Costs of wind electrical energy are compared in the U.S., Denmark, and the U.S.S.R.

  14. Preliminary Results of Detailed Chemical Abundance Analysis of Milky Way Satellite Galaxy Reticulum II Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Li, Ting; Dark Energy Survey Milky Way Science Group

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from abundance analysis of stars in Milky Way satellite galaxies found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES has discovered 16 candidate satellite galaxies of the Milky Way in its first two years of operation. Since January 2015, three candidates have subsequently been revealed to be dark matter-dominated by spectroscopic follow-up studies of their kinematics, confirming their status as satellite galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up of the remaining 13 candidates is underway. We have analyzed high resolution VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of member stars in one of these satellite galaxies, Reticulum II. Using equivalent width measurement and spectral synthesis methods, we measure the abundances of Iron and other species in order to begin to understand the chemical content of these Milky Way satellites.

  15. New Strong Line Abundance Diagnostics for \\HII Regions: Effects of $\\kappa$-Distributed Electron Energies and New Atomic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Nicholls, David C; Kewley, Lisa J; Vogt, Frédéric P A

    2013-01-01

    Recently, \\citet{Nicholls12}, inspired by \\emph{in situ} observations of solar system astrophysical plasmas, suggested that the electrons in \\HII regions are characterised by a $\\kappa$-distribution of electron energies rather than by a simple Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Here we have collected together the new atomic data within a modified photoionisation code to explore the effects of both the new atomic data and the $\\kappa$-distribution on the strong-line techniques used to determine chemical abundances in \\HII regions. By comparing the recombination temperatures ($T_{\\rm rec}$) with the forbidden line temperatures ($T_{\\rm FL}$) we conclude that $ \\kappa \\sim 20$. While representing only a mild deviation from equilibrium, this is sufficient to strongly influence abundances determined using methods which depend on measurements of the electron temperature from forbidden lines. We present a number of new emission line ratio diagnostics which cleanly separate the two parameters determining the optical spe...

  16. ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Тітлова, О.А.

    2015-01-01

    Today humanity is beginning to understand the consequences of ill-considered use of energy resources. In the last decade  a new direction of the economy is actively developing – «The Blue Economy». Its aim is to find innovative solutions that are safe for the environment and society. Bioenergy is one of the directions of the «Blue Economy» which is actively developing lately. The article discusses the possibility, advisability and examples of the algae use as a feedstock for the energy resour...

  17. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  18. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  19. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  20. Phenomenology of extragalactic high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The course is divided in two main bodies: Chapters 1 and 2 deal with some of the fundamental properties of the production of high energy radiation, while chapter 3 is devoted to the observations of active galaxies; chapter 4 presents the X-ray emission of clusters of galaxies and the sky background

  1. Marketing of renewable energy sources in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union has a leading role in the world due to its strong commitment to increase renewable energy sources as for the energy system change. Success of such long term project requires first of all a stable political framework, well-tailored support system of finances, technical background and administrative, and by this way it can overcome the obstacles existing in distorted energy markets. Regardless their high potential, renewable energy resources are insufficiently exploited in Europe. The aim of the contribution is to bring characteristic of particular sources of energy and technologies of exploitation in the geographic area Hnilec valley. We obtained detailed summary of positive and negative aspects and the reason of further survey in this field. Overall result of the thesis is the complex of knowledge of possibility of exploitation of sustainable sources of the energy in the region Hnilec valley and determination of the best possible variant of it. (authors)

  2. Energy-Efficient Sensing and Communication of Parallel Gaussian Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xi; Erkip, Elza

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a key requirement in the design of wireless sensor networks. While most theoretical studies only account for the energy requirements of communication, the sensing process, which includes measurements and compression, can also consume comparable energy. In this paper, the problem of sensing and communicating parallel sources is studied by accounting for the cost of both communication and sensing. In the first formulation of the problem, the sensor has a separate energy budget for sensing and a rate budget for communication, while, in the second, it has a single energy budget for both tasks. Assuming that sources with larger variances have lower sensing costs, the optimal allocation of sensing energy and rate that minimizes the overall distortion is derived for the first problem. Moreover, structural results on the solution of the second problem are derived under the assumption that the sources with larger variances are transmitted on channels with lower noise. Closed-form solutions are als...

  3. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  4. Future prospects for renewable energy sources in a global frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study has been to evaluate the possibilities of some new energy sources (solar, wind) in the future world energy supply. We intend to prepare future projections accounting for limitations in infrastructure, time and material inputs. One underlying assumption in the analyses is that new technologies will see an early market introduction in the near future which would continue up to year 2020. During these 30 years, there will still be technological developments leading to a much better manufacturability, mass production, and hence reduced costs. In year 2020, the industrial and economic infrastructure of new energy sources would be mature for a major penetration into the world energy market starting to substitute existing energy sources mainly for environmental reasons. This scenario will be suported by more factual information and data in the following chapters. Each new energy technology will be handled separately. (Quittner)

  5. Analysis of Different Methods for Computing Source Energy in the Context of Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A.; Bonnema, Eric; Goldwasser, David; Pless, Shanti

    2016-08-26

    Building energy consumption can only be measured at the site or at the point of utility interconnection with a building. Often, to evaluate the total energy impact, this site-based energy consumption is translated into source energy, that is, the energy at the point of fuel extraction. Consistent with this approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) definition of zero energy buildings uses source energy as the metric to account for energy losses from the extraction, transformation, and delivery of energy. Other organizations, as well, use source energy to characterize the energy impacts. Four methods of making the conversion from site energy to source energy were investigated in the context of the DOE definition of zero energy buildings. These methods were evaluated based on three guiding principles--improve energy efficiency, reduce and stabilize power demand, and use power from nonrenewable energy sources as efficiently as possible. This study examines relative trends between strategies as they are implemented on very low-energy buildings to achieve zero energy. A typical office building was modeled and variations to this model performed. The photovoltaic output that was required to create a zero energy building was calculated. Trends were examined with these variations to study the impacts of the calculation method on the building's ability to achieve zero energy status. The paper will highlight the different methods and give conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied.

  6. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico;

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only...... organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family...

  7. Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy- deficient and has to rely heavily on imports to satisfy its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities, because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan obtains its energy requirements from a variety of traditional and commercial sources. Share of various primary energy-sources in energy-supply mix remained during last few years as oil: 43.5%, gas: 41.5%, LPG: 0.3%, coal: 4.5%, hydro-electricity: 9.2%, and nuclear electricity: 1.1%. The electric-power generation included 71.9% thermal, 25.2% hydel and 2.9% nuclear. While there is no prospect for Pakistan to reach self-sufficiency in hydrocarbons, a good option is the exploitation and utilization of the huge coal-reserves of Thar and the other renewable energy sources. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional as well as non-conventional, which have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. 'Thus, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge. Present observations, based on reviewing the geological setup, geographical position, climatological cycles and the agricultural/industrial/ urbanization activities, reveal that there are bright prospects for the exploitation of various renewable-energy sources, which include mega and macro/micro-hydel, biomass, biogas, wind, solar, co-generation, city and other solid wastes, utilization of low-head canal levels, sea wave and tide and geothermal energies etc. Technologically, all these renewable-energy sources are viable and consequently suited to efforts for poverty alleviation and cleaner

  8. A problem of stand-off energy sources for MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D D

    1999-04-09

    Fusion devices based on the adiabatic (or shock) compression of the plasma by electromagnetically driven liner need specific energy sources capable of delivering a high current (~10 MA) in the pulses 0.1 - 1 microsecond long. In the present experimental facilities, the plasma load is situated very close to the pulse-power energy source. In the future fusion devices, one would have to place a plasma load at a considerable distance from the energy source (to avoid strong neutron and thermo-mechanical damage to the source). Several versions of the stand-off energy sources are considered. All are based on the idea of an "assembly" - an object where the plasma load is nested and which contains all necessary circuitry that allows conversion of the energy delivered to the assembly into the magnetic energy. Such "assemblies" will be dropped (or inserted) into the reaction chamber at a desired rate and energized by a stand-off energy source. Four specific concepts have been mentioned.

  9. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  10. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-01-01

    Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation s...

  11. Marine energies, the new wave of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-kinetic power, wave energy, thermal energy of seawater, all these techniques have a low notoriety for the moment but are progressively gaining ground thanks to technological progress, to public support, but first of all to the mobilization of companies and regions in concern. This article shows that France is still within the time to build up its renewable marine energies industry

  12. Does the source of carbon influence the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ functional genes in laboratory denitrification bioreactors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Maria; Fenton, Owen; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Healey, Mark G.

    2014-05-01

    Biological denitrification in soil is the main producer of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrifying soil microbes are capable of reducing nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) to N2O and di-nitrogen gas (N2). One third of these denitrifers possess a truncated functional gene pathway, which may lack the nosZ gene and emit N2O as a final emission product instead of the more benign N2. A carbon rich environment, specific to certain types of carbon sources, has been shown to foster an anaerobic environment, which positively impacts microbial denitrification rates. The present study examined the effect of varying carbon sources in laboratory-scale denitrification bioreactors on NO3- removal and also correlated performance with the abundance of the denitrifying microbial consortia possessing the denitrifying functional genes nirK, nirS and nosZ in each bioreactor. The bioreactors comprised either lodgepole pine woodchips (LPW), lodgepole pine needles (LPN), barley straw (BBS), or cardboard (CCB), each mixed with soil in a 1:1 ratio (by volume) and subject to sequentially increasing hydraulic loading rates of 3, 5 and 10 cm d-1 for a total operation period of up to 744 days. A reactor containing soil only (CSO) was used as the study control. The abundance of denitrifers was determined by targeting nirK, nirS, nosZ functional genes and the overall microbial population was determined by targeting bacterial and archaeal 16sRNA genes. Nitrate removal from all bioreactors was > 99.7%, but when pollution swapping was considered, this ranged from 67% for LPW to 95% for the CCB ; this was also mirrored in the average nirk/nirS/nosZ gene abundance (CCB, c. 94% (c. 108); LPN, 75% (c. 107); BBS, c. 74% (c. 106/107); LPW, 70% (c. 105). Bacterial 16sRNA gene abundance was similar in all reactors including the control (P=0.0362). The abundance of nosZ genes and the genetic potential for N2 emissions varied in all reactors in comparison to the control CSO, BBS (P=0.0051); CCB (P=0

  13. Chemical energy sources transformations by remote experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tkáč, Lukáš; Schauer, František; Gerhátová, Žaneta

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the first experience with the set up, functioning and data evaluation of the remote experiment "Energy transformation" accessible via Internet (http://remotelab10.truni.sk ) as a part of the e-laboratory at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Trnava University in Trnava, Slovakia. The remote experiment control and data acquisition is based on the system ISES (Internet School Experimental System) and its control program and www page are built using the environm...

  14. Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.)

  15. Financial incentives for renewable energy sources: how much?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is assessed the costs and effectiveness of financial incentives policies to stimulate the development of renewable energy sources for electricity production in view of the European goals for the year 2020

  16. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  17. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  18. Energy sources and power plants; Energiequellen und Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ. / Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Schulz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [German] Energie wird aus verschiedenen Energietraegern gewonnen (Kohle, Erdoel, Erdgas, Kernbrennstoffe, Windenergie, Solarenergie, Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Geothermie). Diese unterscheiden sich jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Verfuegbarkeit, der Methoden ihrer Gewinnung und der benoetigten Kraftwerkstechnologien. Als Zukunftstechnologien werden Brennstoffzellen und Kernfusion gehandelt.

  19. SINGLE - PHASE INVERTER CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR INTERFACING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    C.Nallasivam

    2015-01-01

    A novel current control technique is proposed to control power flow from a renewable energy source feeding a microgrid system through a three - phase parallel - connected inverter. The parallel - connected inverter ensures that the power flow from the grid with low - current total harmonic distortion even in the presence of nonlinear load. The renewable energy sources ar e paralleled, and the average of this constant sup...

  20. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    and solar power production and their co-fluctuation at small time scales. The multi-scale nature of the variability is less studied, i.e., the potential adverse or favorable co-fluctuation at intermediate time scales involving water scarcity or abundance, is less present in the literature.Our review points out that it could be especially interesting to promote research on how the pronounced large-scale fluctuations in inflow to hydropower (intra-annual run-off) and smaller scale fluctuations in wind- and solar-power interact in an energy system. There is a need to better represent the profound difference between wind-, solar- and hydro-energy sources. On the one hand, they are all directly linked to the 2-D horizontal dynamics of meteorology. On the other hand, the branching structure of hydrological systems transforms this variability and governs the complex combination of natural inflows and reservoir storage.Finally, we note that the CRE production is, in addition to weather, also influenced by the energy system and market, i.e., the energy transport and demand across scales as well as changes of market regulation. The CRE production system lies thus in this nexus between climate, energy systems and market regulations. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk)

  1. Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra; Branton, Alice; Trivedi, Dahryn; Nayak, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (P 18O/16O (P M+1/PM) and ...

  2. Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 2H, 13C, 18O, and 37Cl in Biofield Energy Treated Dichlorophenol Isomers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) are two isomers of dichlorophenols, have been used as preservative agents for wood, paints, vegetable fibers and as intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals and dyes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H or 13C/12C, and 18O/16O or 37Cl/35Cl, in dichlorophenol isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 2,4- DCP and 2,6-DC...

  3. Optimum target source term estimation for high energy electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M. K.; Sahu, T. K.; Nair, Haridas G.; Nandedkar, R. V.; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R. M.; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2016-05-01

    Optimum target for bremsstrahlung emission is defined as the thickness of the target material, which produces maximum bremsstrahlung yield, on interaction of electron with the target. The bremsstrahlung dose rate per unit electron beam power at a distance of 1 m from the target material gives the optimum target source term. In the present work, simulations were performed for three different electron energies, 450, 1000 and 2500 MeV using EGSnrc Monte-Carlo code to determine the optimum thickness. An empirical relation for optimum target as a function of electron energy and atomic number of the target materials is found out from results. Using the simulated optimum target thickness, experiments are conducted to determine the optimum target source term. For the experimental determination, two available electron energies, 450 MeV and 550 MeV from booster synchrotron of Indus facility is used. The optimum target source term for these two energies are also simulated. The experimental and simulated source term are found to be in very good agreement within ±3%. Based on the agreement of the simulated source term with the experimental source term at 450 MeV and 550 MeV, the same simulation methodology is used to simulate optimum target source term up to 2500 MeV. The paper describes the simulations and experiments carried out on optimum target bremsstrahlung source term and the results obtained.

  4. Intracluster Supernova as a Possible Extra Energy Source of Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Shin

    2000-01-01

    The observed luminosity -- temperature relation of clusters is considerably steeper than that expected from a simple scaling relation. Although extra energy input is a likely solution, its source has not been identified. We propose intracluster supernova as a possible source, and also predict the supernova rate in intracluster space as a critical test.

  5. Strategy on renewable energy sources in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key to successful development of renewable energies in Romania requires a combination of political commitment and decision making as well as support mechanism including well defined government targets, technological advances and public acceptance. Overall short, medium and long term targets and required funding are recommended while expected benefits are estimated. Public funds in the form of grants and subsidies to promote and support RES constitute one of the best investments in the national economy. Commercial investments in RES will contribute to the country's balance of payments as well as towards the environmental protection. Therefore these actions may be supported through a special fund, in particular designed for RES and energy conservation investments. As a first step towards the commercialization of RES a short term action plan needs to be implemented for achieving the set forth long term objectives. This plan includes promising projects for the demonstration of technologically and economically viable applications in each RES sector as well as institutional and other soft measures .The RES promotional policy measures have to be translated into concrete legislation providing the necessary framework into which the sector will operate with transparency and open competitiveness. One of the key policies for RES strategy is to organize a flexible and efficient scheme for the implementation of the policy adopted by the government. The total rural population, together with the urban population living in medium sized towns will be considered as the primary market segment for RES applications (about 61 % of total population). (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 18 refs

  6. High-energy Neutrinos from Sources in Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by the accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structures, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic-ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters, including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and γ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  7. High-energy neutrinos from sources in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structure, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and $\\gamma$ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  8. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  9. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Santini, P; Wuyts, S; Rosario, D; Brisbin, D; Cooray, A; Franceschini, A; Gruppioni, C; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hwang, H S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Popesso, P; Pozzetti, L; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) Far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PEP and HerMES programs is combined with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields. Based on this rich dataset, we reproduce the restframe UV to FIR ten-colors distribution of galaxies using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. The median SED of each mode is then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an AGN. The defined Gaussian grouping is also used to identify rare sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, an...

  10. Development of a high-energy distributed energy source electromagnetic railgun with improved energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vought Corporation in cooperation with the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas (CEM-UT) has developed under sponsorship by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) a high-energy distributed energy source (DES) electromagnetic (EM) railgun accelerator. This paper discusses the development and current status of the DES railgun which has the design capability to launch projectile masses up to 60 grams to the 3-4 km/sec velocity regime with energy conversion efficiencies above 35 percent. These goals are being accomplished through utilization of scaled-energy CEM-UT railgun experiments for sequenced timing/staging and a full energy (575 kJ) design at Vought for high efficiency capability. The operational Vought single-pulse railgun forms the baseline for the full energy testing

  11. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée;

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...

  12. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan;

    2013-01-01

    management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  13. Preparatory assistance project alternative energy sources. Summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the forest areas and the artificial forest wood survey carried out in the alternative energy sources framework project. The use of wood as fuel in Uruguay requires specific actions of the State to ensure the balanced management of natural energy resources

  14. New, more effective methods of exploiting energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares Huici, E.

    1986-01-01

    The energy crisis has made it necessary both to rationalise and improve old technology and to seek new sources of energy. This article reviews new, more efficient methods of using conventional fuels, new combustion technology, fluidised beds, use of heat produced by residual water processing plant, etc.

  15. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.;

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  16. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  17. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  18. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  19. Prioritization of renewable energy sources for Turkey by using a hybrid MCDM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper proposes a hybrid model to prioritize RE sources for Turkey. • The hybrid model based on BOCR and ANP is proposed under linguistic values. • Strategic criteria are economy, security, wellbeing, technology and global effects. • Nineteen criteria are used to evaluate hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biomass. - Abstract: Developing countries such as Turkey, with their fast growing population and economy, are facing an increasing demand for energy. Turkey does not possess a sufficient quantity of domestic oil and natural gas resources to support this growing demand. On the other hand, the country does have abundant reserves of renewable energy that can be a major component in providing part of the overall energy supply. The country plans to explore its renewable energy (RE) sources and increase the renewable energy share in near future. With this in mind, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on BOCR (Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) to determine Turkey’s energy status and prioritize alternative RE sources. BOCR analysis provides a strategic analysis and detailed overview of the country’s energy issues. ANP is a practical multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method and offers the advantages of decision making models, based on tangible and intangible factors. 19 criteria are used to evaluate five alternative RE sources (Hydro, Geothermal, Solar, Wind and Biomass). The subsequent results show that the most important strategic criterion is economy; other criteria include security, human wellbeing, technology and global effects. Their weights are 0.485, 0.235, 0.130, 0.097 and 0.053, respectively. In the conclusion of this paper, the authors propose hydro power as the optimal RE source for the country

  20. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  1. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  2. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of selected springs, and the abundance and health of associated endemic anuran species in the Mojave network parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Martin, Peter; Flint, Alan L.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrological and biological investigations were done during 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. National Park Service to investigate the source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of selected springs and the abundance and health of endemic anuran (frog and toad) species at Darwin Falls in Death Valley National Park, Piute Spring in Mojave National Preserve, and Fortynine Palms Oasis in Joshua Tree National Park. Discharge from the springs at these sites sustains isolated riparian habitats in the normally dry Mojave Desert. Data were collected on water quantity (discharge) and quality, air and water temperature, and abundance and health of endemic anuran species. In addition, a single survey of the abundance and health of endemic anuran species was completed at Rattlesnake Canyon in Joshua Tree National Park. Results from this study were compared to limited historical data, where they exist, and can provide a baseline for future hydrological and biological investigations to evaluate the health and sustainability of the resource and its response to changing climate and increasing human use.

  3. Energy-dependent Charge States and Their Connection with Ion Abundances in Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFabio, R.; Guo, Z.; Möbius, E.; Klecker, B.; Kucharek, H.; Mason, G. M.; Popecki, M.

    2008-11-01

    Impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events show substantial enhancements of heavy ions and 3He over the composition in the Sun's atmosphere. Mass per charge dependent acceleration mechanisms have been proposed to account for this preferential acceleration. However, a problem emerged for all the preferential acceleration models with the measurement of ionization states near 1 MeV nucleon-1, which showed that ions from C to Mg are fully stripped, a challenge that had been recognized early on. Since all models relied on differences in the charge-to-mass ratio to enable preferential acceleration, the proposed mechanisms were incompatible with this observation. Recent observations of the ionic charge states at lower energies have revealed a dependence on energy, with the charge states decreasing for lower energy ions. This raises the possibility that the low-energy charge states reflect the plasma conditions at the acceleration site, while the high-energy charge states are due to stripping low in the solar corona. In a survey of impulsive events we show that the increase of the Fe charge states with energy is highly significant for the sample of events and thus most likely a general feature of impulsive events. To see whether there is a connection between the enhancements and charge states, we extended the ACE SEPICA charge-state observations to lower energies and combined them with the ion fluxes from ACE ULEIS for impulsive events observed between 1997 and 2000. We find a positive correlation between the abundance ratios and the charge states at low energy, while the charge states at the highest energy do not demonstrate such dependence. This supports the idea that the higher mass particles are preferentially accelerated before being stripped.

  4. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  5. Energising Africa: 'Leapfrogging' energy technologies can help, and so can more investment and partnerships for developing Africa's abundant resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of modern energy provision in African development cannot be over-emphasised, as it is the nucleus of socio-economic development worldwide. However, large numbers of Africans depend instead on firewood and charcoal, reflecting the comparatively low level of industrialisation on the continent. Moving out of this stage requires a substantial increase in cost-effective and affordable energy sources, while minimising environmental hazards and ensuring social equitability and sustainability. For Africa to be competitive, its per capita primary energy needs to be increased. In comparison with the rest of the world, Africans are among the smallest consumers of primary energy. In addition, Africa has multiple energy technologies to satisfy the needs of 30% of the population, in urban areas. The rural areas, where the remaining 70% live, have limited energy choices. It must be a priority for African governments to ensure that the rural majority has access to the same choices as those who live in urban areas

  6. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  7. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  8. The Abundance of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Boron and Nitrogen Nuclei Measured at Voyager 1 Beyond the Heliopause, Where Do They All Come From? An Interpretation Using a Leaky Box Galactic Propagation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, W R

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in the Voyager data itself as well as the cross sections for production of these secondaries at these low energies are an important limitation on the estimates of the amount of matter traversed. We also attempt a fit to the B observations at low energies by considering a source component of B generated in 1.0 g/cm2 of matter near the sources but after acceleration. This would be equivalent to a Nested LBM. In this model the V1 data below 40 MeV/nuc is now well fit. For Nitrogen, which is dominated by a source component at these low energies, a fit to the data between 10-130 MeV/nuc can be obtained with a N/O source ratio = 6.3 + 1.0% and a path length compatible with the H and He propagation as noted above. This Voyager observation confirms earlier measurements of a low N abundance in the cosmic ray source relative to what is found for solar abundances, for example, where the N/O ratio is found to be ~12%.

  9. Relative and contextual contribution of different sources to the composition and abundance of indoor air bacteria in residences

    OpenAIRE

    Miletto, Marzia; Lindow, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of the microbial communities in the built environment is of critical importance as humans spend the majority of their time indoors. While the microorganisms in living spaces, especially those in the air, can impact health and well-being, little is known of their identity and the processes that determine their assembly. We investigated the source-sink relationships of airborne bacteria in 29 homes in the San Francisco Bay Area. Samples taken in the sites expected to be sou...

  10. Energy Economics and Policy of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim Strielkowski; Štěpán Krška; Evgeny Lisin

    2013-01-01

    European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In ...

  11. THE PLACE OF RENEWABLE SOURCES AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE ENERGY POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Cvetanović , Miljan Jovanović

    2014-01-01

    The increasing renewable source usage and energy efficiency enhancement represent the key aims of the energy sector's development in EU countries. The purpose of their implementation is at the same time the creation of the renewable sources concept as a new development paradigm.Thus, this points to the conclusion that all the projects of renewable source usage and energy efficiency enhancement must be viewed from the perspective of the manifestation of economic, environmental and social effec...

  12. Solar Energetic Particles: Sampling Coronal Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1998-05-01

    In the large solar energetic particle (SEP) events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shock waves out through the corona that accelerate elements of the ambient material to MeV energies in a fairly democratic, temperature-independent manner. These events provide the most complete source of information on element abundances in the corona. Relative abundances of 22 elements from H through Zn display the well-known dependence on the first ionization potential (FIP) that distinguishes coronal and photospheric material. For most elements, the main abundance variations depend upon the gyrofrequency, and hence on the charge-to-mass ratio, Q/A, of the ion. Abundance variations in the dominant species, H and He, are not Q/A dependent, presumably because of non-linear wave-particle interactions of H and He during acceleration. Impulsive flares provide a different sample of material that confirms the Ne:Mg:Si and He/C abundances in the corona.

  13. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation should be targeted to deliver sustainability, biodiversity and economic growth. Romanian has a high potential and can develop energy forestry in order to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure an alternative energy solution and an energy reserve. This paper aims to analize the challenges and opportunities the biomass energy industry creates in the context of climate change mitigation which must be seen from an entrepreneurial perspective in Romania.

  14. A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

  15. Constraining High-Energy Cosmic Neutrino Sources: Implications and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    We consider limits on the local ($z=0$) density ($n_0$) of extragalactic neutrino sources set by the nondetection of steady high-energy neutrino sources producing $\\gtrsim30$ TeV muon multiplets in the present IceCube data, taking into account the redshift evolution, luminosity function and neutrino spectrum of the sources. We show that the lower limit depends weakly on source spectra and strongly on redshift evolution. We find $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-7}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for standard candle sources evolving rapidly, $n_s\\propto{(1+z)}^3$, and $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-5}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for nonevolving sources. The corresponding upper limits on their neutrino luminosity are $L_{{\

  16. Abundances, charge states, and energy spectra of helium and heavy ions during solar particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1975-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen energy spectra observed during several solar events indicate a systematic deviation of these spectra from a simple power law: the spectra bend down below about 100 keV/nuc and the amount of this bending is highly correlated with the size of the flare, as measured by the 'event averaged' flux of 130-220 keV protons. The energy spectra of helium computed for the same time periods do not show a similar feature. A large variability of the alpha/CNO ratio is found from event to event (from 2 to about 20 at 40 keV/nuc), and in all cases examined the carbon and oxygen nuclei are nearly fully stripped. These results are interpreted as evidence for storage of energetic ions in hot coronal regions, followed by strong adiabatic deceleration.

  17. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  18. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  19. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  20. Changes in body size, abundance, and energy allocation in rockfish assemblages of the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Chris J; Tolimieri, Nick; Levin, Phillip S

    2006-08-01

    Fish body size, a key driver of many aspects of fish population biology and ecology, is affected by fisheries that deplete the largest individuals. Rockfish (genus Sebastes) are a diverse group that has been heavily fished on the U.S. West Coast in recent decades. We examined trawl survey data from 1980 to 2001 to determine spatial and temporal trends in body size and density of 16 shelf rockfish species, including six that are considered overfished. Mean individual mass and maximum observed mass declined in the majority of species in one or more zoogeographic regions between central California and Washington. Density changes were far more variable in time and space, but in all regions, density declines were most often associated with large-bodied rockfish. We next estimated the impact of size and density changes on energy consumption and fecundity in a five-species rockfish assemblage that includes bocaccio (S. paucispinis), a large-bodied, overfished species. Indexes of both consumption and fecundity by the assemblage increased in the southern portion of the study area between 1980 and 2001 but decreased in the northern portion. Allocation of energy and reproductive potential within the assemblage shifted dramatically: relative to bocaccio, total energy consumption and fecundity indexes for the other four species increased by orders of magnitude from 1980 to 2001. These changes in community structure may affect the ability of bocaccio and other large rockfish species to recover from overfishing, especially in light of long-term declines in zooplankton production that may also be affecting rockfish size and production. Addressing these issues may require a regional, multispecies management approach.

  1. Low-energy point source searches with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the overwhelming background of atmospheric muons, the traditional IceCube point source search in the Southern Hemisphere is mainly sensitive to neutrinos with energies above 100TeV. A new approach focuses on events starting inside the instrumented volume. By utilizing different veto techniques we are able to significantly reduce the energy threshold and can now for the first time explore the entire Southern Hemisphere at neutrino energies as low as 100GeV. We present the results of two analyses targeting slightly different energy ranges. Both use one year of data taken with the completed IceCube detector in 2011/12.

  2. Note: Localization based on estimated source energy homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Eriksen, Fredrik Kvalheim; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic signal localization is a complex problem with a wide range of industrial and academic applications. Herein, we propose a localization method based on energy attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison (termed estimated source energy homogeneity, or ESEH). This inversion is tested on both synthetic (numerical) data using a Lamb wave propagation model and experimental 2D plate data (recorded with 4 accelerometers sensitive up to 26 kHz). We compare the performance of this technique with classic source localization algorithms: arrival time localization, time reversal localization, and localization based on energy amplitude. Our technique is highly versatile and out-performs the conventional techniques in terms of error minimization and cost (both computational and financial).

  3. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  4. Energy-Based Collaborative Source Localization Using Acoustic Microsensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensor network source localization method based on acoustic energy measurements is presented. This method makes use of the characteristics that the acoustic energy decays inversely with respect to the square of distance from the source. By comparing energy readings measured at surrounding acoustic sensors, the source location during that time interval can be accurately estimated as the intersection of multiple hyperspheres. Theoretical bounds on the number of sensors required to yield unique solution are derived. Extensive simulations have been conducted to characterize the performance of this method under various parameter perturbations and noise conditions. Potential advantages of this approach include low intersensor communication requirement, robustness with respect to parameter perturbations and measurement noise, and low-complexity implementation.

  5. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O. Olotuah; Olabosipo I Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

    Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research metho...

  6. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  7. Diversification of Energy Supply: Prospects for Emerging Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Michael M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Asia’s burgeoning energy demand has stimulated interest in photovoltaics, wind power, and unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, coal-bed methane, and coal-mine methane). For each of these, the resource, current status, future prospects, environmental implications, investment and infrastructure requirements, and risks are examined. Shale gas has revolutionized North American gas supply, but may develop slowly in Asia due to challenging geological conditions, lack of geological data, dense ...

  8. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs

  9. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  10. Prices and costs of energy sources; Les prix et les couts des sources d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    An evaluation of the complete social energy cost should result from the sum of the production marginal cost, of the external marginal cost and of the marginal cost of substitution of non-renewable energy sources. This last parameter is difficult to estimate because of theoretical and methodological obstacles. The two others are evaluated for different energy sources, in the present day situation, and in the perspective of a probable evolution. Today, fossil fuels have the lowest internal costs whatever their use. Thus, in 'business as usual' energy scenarios, fossil fuels represent more than 80% of the energy supply at the 2050 prospects. However, several uncertainties can affect the future evolution of these costs, some are of geopolitical origin (political fragility of some exporting countries), and some are of environmental origin (internalized costs of CO{sub 2} emissions). Finally, the depletion of some resources should be anticipated. (J.S.)

  11. Interaction between Musca domestica L. and its predator Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae: effects of prey density and food source abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between Musca domestica L. and its predator Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae: Effects of prey density and food source abundance. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of prey density and food source abundance on the predatory behavior of Muscina stabulans over M. domestica. Three predator/prey proportions were evaluated (1:1, 1:3 and 1:6, using 100 third instar predator larvae against second instar prey larvae. Each proportion was maintained using three different levels of food substrate (25, 50 and 100 g. The experiments were carried out in triplicate in BOD incubators (25ºC, UR 70% ± 10% and 12 h photoperiod. The mortality of the M. domestica larvae was 100% under all conditions, except in the 1:6 predator/prey proportion, at the 50g and 100g food substrate levels, where it was 99.99% and 99.22%, respectively. There was a significant increase in the development period of M. stabulans in relation to the increase in prey density and decrease in quantity of food substrate. An increase in the proportion of individuals and a reduction in the amount of resource slowed down larval development. Muscina stabulans pupal weight was proportional to the increase in prey density and the amount of food substrate. The proportion or the density influenced the survival of M. stabulans, with no difference in relation to the amount of food source and consequently in the interaction of the factors. There was no difference between the 1:1 and 1:3 predator-prey densities, with both differing from the 1:6 density.

  12. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole

  13. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  15. A source of energy : sustainable architecture and urbanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestvik, Harald N.

    2011-07-01

    An update on the environmental challenges. Meant to inspire and be a source of energy.Tearing down myths and floodlighting paradoxes. Particularly relevant for students of architecture, architects and concerned citizens. Training tasks, recommendations for further source books and web sites, are included. From the content: Climate change and consensus, Population growth, Food production, The sustainable city, Transportation myths and facts, A mini history of environmental architecture, Architects' approach to sustainable design, The failure of western architects; a case study; China, The passive, zeb and plus energy building, Natural ventilation, Sustainable materials, Plastics in building, Nuclear energy, Solar energy, The grid of the future, Indoor climate and health. The sick building syndrome, Radon, Universal design, Paradoxes, Bullying techniques, Trust yourself, Timing, Which gateway will you choose?, On transience. (au)

  16. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82 %. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  17. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  18. A Novel Source of Tagged Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Tenzing H. Y.

    2011-01-01

    For sufficiently wide resonances, nuclear resonance fluorescence behaves like elastic photo-nuclear scattering while retaining the large cross-section characteristic of resonant photo-nuclear absorption. We show that NRF may be used to characterize the signals produced by low-energy nuclear recoils by serving as a novel source of tagged low-energy nuclear recoils. Understanding these signals is important in determining the sensitivity of direct WIMP dark-matter and coherent neutrino-nucleus s...

  19. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  20. Methane as an energy source for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Nakicenovic, N.

    2002-01-01

    Today, fossil fuels supply about 80% of global primary energy. The consequences are severe for human health from indoor and regional air pollution, acidification due to sulphur and nitrogen oxide emissions and climate change due to rapidly growing greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the efficiency and the environmental compatibility of fossil technologies, shift to fossil energy sources with lower environmental impacts such as natural gas, or shift awa...

  1. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  2. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  3. Mantle in the Manihiki Plateau source with ultra-depleted incompatible element abundances but FOZO-like isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowin, R.; Hoernle, K.; Portnyagin, M.; Hauff, F.; Gurenko, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Werner, R.

    2014-12-01

    The ~120Ma Manihiki Plateau basement consists of high-Ti tholeiitic basalts with EM-I type isotopic signatures, similar to the Singgalo basalts at Ontong Java, and low-Ti tholeiitic basalts with FOZO (Kwaimbaita/Kroenke) to HIMU-type isotopic compositions, similar to late stage volcanism on Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus (Hoernle et al. 2010; Timm et al. 2011). The low-Ti basalts have affinities to boninites and have been interpreted to be derived from residual mantle wedge mantle (Ingle et al. 2007). New major, volatile and trace element and radiogenic isotope data have been generated from fresh low-Ti glass samples recovered during R/V Sonne cruises SO193 and SO225. The low-Ti samples have distinctly lower Ti/V ratios compared to lavas from Ontong Java Plateau (Kwaimbaita-Kroenke and Singgalo), but similar to boninitic rocks. Glasses and melt inclusions in olivine have low volatile contents (0.12-0.25 wt% H2O). Olivine chemistry points to derivation from peridotite source. Therefore we interpret the low-Ti lavas to have formed through melting of dry and depleted peridotite at high temperatures, consistent with Timm et al (2011). The low-Ti group is characterized by U-shaped trace element patterns. The glass samples form linear mixing arrays on radiogenic isotope diagrams, pointing to the involvement of two components: 1) a component ultra-depleted in highly incompatible elements (UDC) but with intermediate Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, being similar to Kwaimbaita/Kroenke lavas from Ontong Java, and 2) an enriched component with HIMU-type incompatible element and isotopic characteristics, similar to late-stage volcanism on Manihiki, Hikurangi and Ontong Java (e.g. Hoernle et al. 2010). The ultra-depleted, FOZO-like mantle component could represent second stage melting of FOZO type mantle or re-melting of young recycled oceanic lithosphere within the plume head. Enrichment with HIMU type melts is required to explain the enrichment in the most incompatible

  4. TAXONS OF CHICKEN CECUM MICROBIOM ARE ABUNDANT, AND INFLUENCED BY THE COMBINED FEED COMPOSITION AND DECREASED METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. IL’INA; E.A. YILDIRIM; I.N. NIKONOV; V.A. FILIPPOVA; G.Yu. LAPTEV; N.I. NOVIKOVA; A.A. GROZINA; T.N. LENKOVA; V.A. MANUKYAN; V.I. FISININ; I.A. EGOROV

    2015-01-01

    Currently the processed sunflower products as the cheapest source of vegetable protein are considered an alternative to soybean cake and meal in the poultry diet. However, in sunflower meal the energy value is lower, lysine rate is less than required, and the level of non-starch polysaccharides not digestible in poultry gut because of absence of specific enzymes (i.e., amylases, cellulases, etc.) are rather high. Digestion of these components is possible due to microbial enzymes. Gut content ...

  5. Nitrification and Anammox with urea as the energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliekers, A.O.; Haaijer, S.C.M.; Schmid, M.C.; Harhangi, R.H.; Verwegen, K.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Urea is present in many ecosystems and can be used as an energy source by chemolithotrophic aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Thus the utilization of urea in comparison to ammonia, by AOB as well as anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (Anammox) bacteria was investigated, using enrichments cultures,

  6. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  7. Strategy for regenerative energy sources. Status and development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without doubt, in the future, we shall have to cover a growing proportion of our energy requirements by utilizing regenerative energy sources such as the sun, wind, water and biomass. The indisputable advantages of inexhaustibility and environment friendliness are, however, compared with the disadvantages of non-uniform demand as well as partially small potential and high costs. In spite of these facts, there are, in the minds of the public, high expectations and great demands on the electricity supply industry in relation to the further development of regenerative power generation. In the future, RWE Energie AG will strongly intensify its efforts towards improving the economics of regenerative power generation. (orig.)

  8. Efficiency of utilization of various sources of energy for growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Donato, K.; Hegsted, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The relative efficiency of dietary sucrose, protein sources, and fats in depositing body protein and fat (total energy) was directly estimated in young rats by feeding graded levels of each as supplements to a fixed amount of a basal diet that was presumably adequate in all essential nutrients except for energy. Under these conditions, the net gain in total body energy was a linear function of the amount of supplement added and the data fulfill the criteria of a valid slope-ratio bioassay. Th...

  9. Renewable Energy Sources in International and EU Legal Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róża Miklaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues relating to international and EU regulations in the field of renewable energy sources (RES. It discusses in a comprehensive manner the most important acts specific for the both regulatory platforms. Also presented are the most important objectives and premises, which these acts implement. The RES development, at both the international and Community levels, is presented in the context of activities undertaken within the energy policy framework at each of the concerned platforms. The description of the characteristics of international and EU legislation also refers to their significant impact on Polish legislation on renewable energy.

  10. Search for high energy cosmic neutrino point sources with ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is the search for high energy cosmic neutrinos emitted by point sources with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The detection of high energy cosmic neutrinos can bring answers to important questions such as the origin of cosmic rays and the γ-rays emission processes. In the first part of the thesis, the neutrino flux emitted by galactic and extragalactic sources and the number of events which can be detected by ANTARES are estimated. This study uses the measured γ-ray spectra of known sources taking into account the γ-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light. In the second part of the thesis, the absolute pointing of the ANTARES telescope is evaluated. Being located at a depth of 2475 m in sea water, the orientation of the detector is determined by an acoustic positioning system which relies on low and high frequency acoustic waves measurements between the sea surface and the bottom. The third part of the thesis is a search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data. The search algorithm is based on a likelihood ratio maximization method. It is used in two search strategies; 'the candidate sources list strategy' and 'the all sky search strategy'. Analysing 2007+2008 data, no discovery is made and the world's best upper limits on neutrino fluxes from various sources in the Southern sky are established. (author)

  11. THE NEED FOR THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals main reasons for developing tendencies to the using of new types of energy, which are limited supply of traditional fuels and environmental problems associated with its processing. It is shown that new forms of energy plays an important role in the energy supply of many countries of the world, and in the future they can become the main sources of energy to meet the growing needs of the global economy. We reveal main reasons of the increasing interest in renewable energy, and we show the obvious prospects of their use, due to two factors. First, according to experts, the global reserves of traditional fuels are limited, and secondly, this was evidenced by the investments of leading countries in this promising industry. The article lists reasons for the need for the use of renewable energy sources in Russia. Increased consumption of natural resources has become a real threat to the security of the life of human society. The basis of solving modern social and environmental problems is a transition to a regulated process of safe use of natural energy potential to meet the vital needs of people not only in the coming decades, but in the long run. It is concluded, that the determining condition for the development of the human civilization at present and in the future would be the level of natural resources which ensures the needs of the population without making harm to the environment

  12. High energy neutron source for materials research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements for neutron source for nuclear materials research are reviewed and ESNIT, Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test facility proposed by JAERI is discussed. Its principal aims of a wide neutron energy tunability and spectra peaking at each energy to enable characterization of material damage process are demanding but attractive goals which deserve detailed study. It is also to be noted that the requirements make a difference in facility design from those of FMIT, IFMIF and other high energy intense neutron sources built or planned to date. Areas of technologies to be addressed to realize the ESNIT facility are defined and discussed. In order to get neutron source having desired spectral characteristics keeping moderate intensity, projectile and target combinations must be examined including experimentation if necessary. It is also desired to minimize change of flux density and energy spectrum according to location inside irradiation chamber. Extended target or multiple targets configuration might be a solution as well as specimen rotation and choice of combination of projectile and target which has minimum velocity of the center of mass. Though relevant accelerator technology exists, it is to be stressed that considerable efforts must be paid, especially in the area of target and irradiation devices to get ESNIT goal. Design considerations to allow hands-on maintenance and future upgrading possibility are important either, in order to exploit the facility fully for nuclear materials research and development. (author)

  13. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  14. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  15. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  16. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  17. Current state and utilization of nontraditional and renewable energy sources in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Daniela; Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Justyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse and assess the use of renewable energy sources in the Polish energy balance for the period 2006-2010. In Poland, in according to the Energy Law (1997), renewable energy sources are sources using the processing power: wind energy, solar radiation, geothermal energy, waves power, energy of currents and tides, energy of river gradient, biogas and biomass. Biomass could be divided into forest biomass, agricultural biomass (mainly energy crops, but also consumer ...

  18. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  19. New impetus to the economy through renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows that the renewable energy sources offer a unique chance: to replace the 'deus ex machina' philosophy by the 'deus ex sole' approach. The reasons why the energy industry refuses to consider exploitation of renewable energy sources are quite obvious. Any deep-cutting change in energy policy priorities would imply likewise deep cuts in the utilities' returns from investments made for existing, conventional power generation systems and transmission infrastructure, which would entail losses in a branch of industry never seen before. It is high time, however, to demand a basic switch in policy and to pave the way for solar energy by appropriate political and economic incentives now, as Germany as one of the highly industrialised countries must not turn a blind eye to its responsability for the global environment. Even if there were not the risk of a global environmental crisis as a consequence of current resource squandering, good economic reasoning and a sense of responsability for the developing economies of the world be reason enough to alter the energy policy approach without hesitation. (orig./CB)

  20. A Source of Energy for Any Kind of Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a recently predicted mechanism whereby energy is produced by the background space non-holonomic field (the global space rotation in Thomson dispersion of light in free electrons. We compare the mechanism to the relations of observational astrophysics — the mass-luminosity relation and the stellar energy relation. We show that by such a mechanism generating energy in a star, the luminosity of a star L is proportional to its volume, with a progression associated with increasing radius. The obtained relation L ≈ R^3.4 explains why there are no stars of a size close to that of the bulky planets. This also explains the extremely high thermal flow from within Jupiter, which most probably has the same energy sources as those within a star, but with a power much less than that required to radiate like a star. The theory, being applied to a laboratory condition, suggests new energy sources, working much more effectively and safely than nuclear energy.

  1. Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basis of theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, description of the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources, reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesis is reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the company is implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air), the mission of the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic side of it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes t he questionnaire offer for effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance (benefits) from the government and EU funds. (authors)

  2. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  3. Evidence for Seismogenic Hydrogen Gas, a Potential Microbial Energy Source on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sean; Parnell, John; Blamey, Nigel J. F.

    2016-09-01

    The oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) is thought to be a major source of metabolic energy for life in the deep subsurface on Earth, and it could likewise support any extant biosphere on Mars, where stable habitable environments are probably limited to the subsurface. Faulting and fracturing may stimulate the supply of H2 from several sources. We report the H2 content of fluids present in terrestrial rocks formed by brittle fracturing on fault planes (pseudotachylites and cataclasites), along with protolith control samples. The fluids are dominated by water and include H2 at abundances sufficient to support hydrogenotrophic microorganisms, with strong H2 enrichments in the pseudotachylites compared to the controls. Weaker and less consistent H2 enrichments are observed in the cataclasites, which represent less intense seismic friction than the pseudotachylites. The enrichments agree quantitatively with previous experimental measurements of frictionally driven H2 formation during rock fracturing. We find that conservative estimates of current martian global seismicity predict episodic H2 generation by Marsquakes in quantities useful to hydrogenotrophs over a range of scales and recurrence times. On both Earth and Mars, secondary release of H2 may also accompany the breakdown of ancient fault rocks, which are particularly abundant in the pervasively fractured martian crust. This study strengthens the case for the astrobiological investigation of ancient martian fracture systems.

  4. A high intensity dc H- source for low energy injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T.; Baartman, R.; Dutto, G.; Hahto, S.; ńrje, J.; Liukkonen, E.

    2002-02-01

    While a 20 mA dc H- source system at 25-30 keV beam energy has been developed at TRIUMF several years ago, another recent demand on the system is to provide a 4 to 5 mA H- at the 4-6 keV energy range. We found that at this low energy range, the existing source/extraction system can only give ˜1 mA with poor emittance due to strong space-charge effect. Fortunately, a very special source/extraction mechanism together with the use of neutralization was discovered and developed to overcome this difficulty. Up to 4 mA with a normalized rms emittance of 0.15 π mm mr has been achieved at 6 keV. This performance finds its usefulness for injection systems where lower beam energy and higher beam intensity are required. A copy of the TRIUMF system was constructed and successfully tested in the summer of 2000 for the "H- Acceleration Project" for the K130 cyclotron at Jyväskylä University, Finland.

  5. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  6. Energy Management Policies for Energy-Neutral Source-Channel Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglione, Paolo; Erkip, Elza; Zemen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In cyber-physical systems where sensors measure the temporal evolution of a given phenomenon of interest and radio communication takes place over short distances, the energy spent for source acquisition and compression may be comparable with that used for transmission. Additionally, in order to avoid limited lifetime issues, sensors may be powered via energy harvesting and thus collect all the energy they need from the environment. This work addresses the problem of energy allocation over source acquisition/compression and transmission for energy-harvesting sensors. At first, focusing on a single-sensor, energy management policies are identified that guarantee a maximal average distortion while at the same time ensuring the stability of the queue connecting source and channel encoders. It is shown that the identified class of policies is optimal in the sense that it stabilizes the queue whenever this is feasible by any other technique that satisfies the same average distortion constraint. Moreover, this class...

  7. Low power energy harvesting and storage techniques from ambient human powered energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    Conventional electrochemical batteries power most of the portable and wireless electronic devices that are operated by electric power. In the past few years, electrochemical batteries and energy storage devices have improved significantly. However, this progress has not been able to keep up with the development of microprocessors, memory storage, and sensors of electronic applications. Battery weight, lifespan and reliability often limit the abilities and the range of such applications of battery powered devices. These conventional devices were designed to be powered with batteries as required, but did not allow scavenging of ambient energy as a power source. In contrast, development in wireless technology and other electronic components are constantly reducing the power and energy needed by many applications. If energy requirements of electronic components decline reasonably, then ambient energy scavenging and conversion could become a viable source of power for many applications. Ambient energy sources can be then considered and used to replace batteries in some electronic applications, to minimize product maintenance and operating cost. The potential ability to satisfy overall power and energy requirements of an application using ambient energy can eliminate some constraints related to conventional power supplies. Also power scavenging may enable electronic devices to be completely self-sustaining so that battery maintenance can eventually be eliminated. Furthermore, ambient energy scavenging could extend the performance and the lifetime of the MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems) and portable electronic devices. These possibilities show that it is important to examine the effectiveness of ambient energy as a source of power. Until recently, only little use has been made of ambient energy resources, especially for wireless networks and portable power devices. Recently, researchers have performed several studies in alternative energy sources that could provide

  8. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks using asymmetric distributed source coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Murlidhar

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of sensor nodes deployed over a geographical area to perform a specific task. WSNs pose many design challenges. Energy conservation is one such design issue. In literature a wide range of solutions addressing this issue have been proposed. Generally WSNs are densely deployed. Thus the nodes with the close proximity are more likely to have the same data. Transmission of such non-aggregated data may lead to an inefficient energy management. Hence the data fusion has to be performed at the nodes so as to combine the edundant information into a single data unit. Distributed Source Coding is an efficient approach in achieving this task. In this paper an attempt has been made in modeling such a system. Various energy efficient codes were considered for the analysis. System performance in terms of energy efficiency has been made.

  9. The energetic playground : A feasibility study applying energy sources on a Playground: Green Energy alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rey-Siso, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the feasibility of using energy generated by the physical activity of children playing in playgrounds. More particular, the goal is to generate clean energy by playing games and showing them the effort about how energy is produced. The ease of turning on lights or using electrical appliance by simply pushing one button causes unawareness of the actual effort and negative impacts of the generation, transmission and distribution behind energy sourcing. The idea of t...

  10. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pucar Mila; Nenković-Riznić Marina

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy poli...

  11. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  12. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  13. Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

  14. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  15. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices: An Alternative Energy Source for Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action Nechibvute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in ultralow power device integration, communication electronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology have fuelled the emerging technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The spatial distributed nature of WSNs often requires that batteries power the individual sensor nodes. One of the major limitations on performance and lifetime of WSNs is the limited capacity of these finite power sources, which must be manually replaced when they are depleted. Moreover, the embedded nature of some of the sensors and hazardous sensing environment make battery replacement very difficult and costly. The process of harnessing and converting ambient energy sources into usable electrical energy is called energy harvesting. Energy harvesting raises the possibility of self-powered systems which are ubiquitous and truly autonomous, and without human intervention for energy replenishment. Among the ambient energy sources such as solar energy, heat, and wind, mechanical vibrations are an attractive ambient source mainly because they are widely available and are ideal for the use of piezoelectric materials, which have the ability to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical energy. This paper presents a concise review of piezoelectric microgenerators and nanogenerators as a renewable energy resource to power wireless sensors.

  16. THE INVESTMENT PROBLEMATIC FOR PRODUCING ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Gavriletea; Mihaela Gavriletea

    2009-01-01

    The higher energy consumption, the increasing of the price for primary energy sources and the continuous worldwide debates for carbon emission in the atmosphere determined the reorientation to energy production from renewable sources (biomass, solar energy, wind, hydro, geothermal etc). Taking into account the low capacity that produce energy from renewable sources, we conclude that there are needed important investment in this sector.

  17. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  18. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  19. Biomass as an energy source: an Asian-Pacific perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is the most commonly used renewable source of energy in the region covered by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, making up an average of 50% of energy supplies in the developing countries. However, experience over the past one and a half decades in rural energy supply in the ESCAP region suggests that biomass resources are unlikely to compete with conventional supplies in meeting expanded rural energy needs for fuel, electricity and fertilizers. Nevertheless, biomass, especially wood and agricultural residues, will remain the main energy source in most countries of the region for the next two decades. The development of biomass energy systems in the ESCAP region is at different stages for different types of biomass resources. Efforts have been concentrated in six areas: direct combustion, gasification, co-generation, anaerobic digestion, densification and dendrothermal processes. Among the biomass technologies presently being promoted in the region, biogas and cooking stove programmes are the largest in terms of scale, operations and coverage. Co-generation is promising as its economic advantages make it attractive to industrial consumers, particularly the booming food and fibre production and processing industries, which produce enough biomass feedstock to warrant installing co-generation facilities. Despite its potential, the production of liquid fuel from energy crops is presently taking place in only a few countries. The major constraints on extending the use of biomass include the difficulty of assessing resources, poor local acceptance of technology (mainly for social and economic reasons), lack of financial resources and manpower, environmental concerns, the absence of up-to-date local technology and the lack of after-sales services. Appropriate technologies to develop and harness the region's vast biomass resource base to augment energy supplies, particularly in rural areas, has been a major issue in the developing

  20. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  1. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  2. Consumption dynamics of primary-energy sources: The century of alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Matias, Joao Carlos de; Devezas, Tessaleno Campos [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, P-6201-001 Covilha (Portugal)

    2007-07-15

    The present article characterizes economically and socially the two past centuries, focusing the consumption development of several primary-energy sources, linking it with this century's reality. The main objective is to demonstrate the relationship between the substitution process of primary-energy sources and the socio-economic development. Our analysis focuses on four technological transformations that have already occurred, emphasizing some aspects of present technological transformations. Thus, the role of primary-energy sources in the development of each long economic wave is analysed, as well as its geopolitical, commercial and social importance. Finally, bearing in mind the past dynamics associated with long structural waves, and making use of technological forecasting tools (Logistic Substitution and Delphi Technique), a future perspective is presented in which the substitution process points toward alternative-energy sources. (author)

  3. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  4. Materials and neutronic research at the Low Energy Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, David V.

    2016-04-01

    In the decade since the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter (CEEM) produced its first neutrons, the facility has made important contributions to the international neutron scattering community. LENS employs a 13MeV proton beam at up to 4kW beam power onto one of two Be targets to produce neutrons for research in fields ranging from radiation effects in electronics to studies of the structure of fluids confined in nanoporous materials. The neutron source design at the heart of LENS facilitates relatively rapid hands-on access to most of its components which provides a foundation for a research program in experimental neutronics and affords numerous opportunities for novel educational experiences. We describe in some detail a number of the unique capabilities of this facility.

  5. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, L. [La Ferla Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  6. Did high energy astrophysical sources contribute to Martian atmospheric loss?

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Mars is believed to have had a substantial atmosphere in the past. Atmospheric loss led to depressurization and cooling, and is thought to be the primary driving force responsible for the loss of liquid water from its surface. Recently, MAVEN observations have provided new insight into the physics of atmospheric loss induced by ICMEs and solar wind interacting with the Martian atmosphere. In addition to solar radiation, it is likely that its atmosphere has been exposed to radiation bursts from high-energy astrophysical sources which become highly probable on timescales of ~Gy and beyond. These sources are capable of significantly enhancing the rates of photoionization and charged particle-induced ionization in the upper atmosphere. Here, we explore the possibility of damage from Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts, nearby supernovae, encounter with dense interstellar clouds and extreme solar events. We use Monte Carlo simulations to model the interaction of charged particles and photons from astrophysical sources in th...

  7. Optimization of Gas Supply of CHP Sources of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Odiņeca, T; Zēbergs, V

    2008-01-01

    The article contains reviews the method of optimization of gas supply of CHP sources of energy - the method of calculation of permissible IRR. It is effective for analyzing the projects of CHP plants’ gasification (also in reconstruction of existing boiler houses). IRR is an effective criterion of profitability of gasification, if the forecast of the consumption of gas is precise. Using the method of calculation of permissible IRR it is possible to find the load limits in which CH...

  8. Impact of Renewable Energy Sources Penetration in a Microgrid

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ravi,; Y. Sumanth

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several types of Distributed Generators (DGs) have been connected together to form a small power system called a microgrid (MG). MG usually operates in normal connecting mode and is connected to the main grid. This paper presents the performance enhancement of microgrid with RES (Renewable Energy Sources) penetration in grid connected and islanded operation, and also shows the effect of wind and solar penetration individually and as well as coupled along with backup ...

  9. Prioritizing Energy Sources to Generate Electricity (Application of Fuzzy Logic)

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Hashemlou; Hossein Sadeghi; Arashk Masaeli; Mohammadhadi Hajian; Shima Javaheri

    2015-01-01

    Organizations, institutions, and different sectors of manufacturing, services and agriculture are constantly making decisions. Each of the aforementioned sectors, have strategies, tactics, and various functions that play a basic role in reaching the objectives. On the other hand, energy demand in developing countries is increasing day by day. The exact calculation of the cost per unit of electricity generated by power plants is not easy. Therefore, this study according to four sources of natu...

  10. Influence of Renewable Energy Sources on Distribution Network Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulec, Ana; Mikuličić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of production facilities from renewable energy sources which especially influence the power system with variable production. The paper describes some basic ways of connection and technical data relevant for the design of production plants, as well as the most important influences on the power system, especially with respect to the following: voltage, short circuit current, operation of the system, losses and power quality. Basic concepts of reliability, mathe...

  11. High-energy gamma radiation from extragalactic radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.; Mastichiadis, A.

    1992-01-01

    We propose that the important relationship between 3C 273 and 3C 279, the first two extragalactic sources detected at over 100 MeV energies, is their superluminal nature. In support of this conjecture, we propose a kinematic focusing mechanism, based on Compton scattering of accretion-disk photons by relativistic nonthermal electrons in the jet, that preferentially emits gamma rays in the superluminal direction.

  12. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Batalin, V A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Kulevoy, T V; Kolomiets, A A; Pershin, V I; Petrenko, S V; Rudskoy, I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Gushenets, V I; Litovko, I V; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M; Poole, H J; Storozhenko, P A; Svarovski, A Ya

    2008-02-01

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P(2+) [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P(3+) (1.9 pmA), and P(4+) (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb(3+)Sb(4+), Sb(5+), and Sb(6+) respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  13. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  14. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  15. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, R.; Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5—50125 Firenze (Italy); Berezinsky, V., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: berezinsky@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), viale F. Crispi 7, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate X{sub max}(E) and dispersion σ(X{sub max}) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ∼ E{sup -γ} with γ∼ 1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ∼ 5Z× 10{sup 18} eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ∼ E{sup -2.7}). In this sense, at the ankle E{sub A}≈ 5× 10{sup 18} eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

  16. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy policy in Serbia and their achievement are also given by that strategy. Serbia's energy policies are designed to allow new legislative, structural, organizational, institutional, and economic frames and visions of unification of Serbian energetics into regional and Pan-European integrations. One of the key factors is the inclusion of sustainable development and energy efficient design concerned policies. Application of these, almost completely neglected, energy sources, for which there is high potential in Serbia, would allow preservation of primary energy sources and local environment. This potential hasn't seen significant research, and therefore, neither the technical improvement. Apart from that, one of the goals of wider application of renewable energy sources is lowering the poverty level. This helps avoiding the already used “dirty development” method. .

  17. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  18. Energy sources for the next 35-50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next 35-50 years will be a period of great change around the world with respect to energy resources. Problems such as global warming, the loss of forests, the growth of the population and the availability of energy in various forms will become more urgent and will have to be faced. There is a vocal group which raises doubts regarding the overall effects of adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in large quantities in terms of global warming and are therefore not taking seriously the commitments made at the 1992 Rio Summit on the Environment and Development. These attitudes need to be challenged. Forests continue to be destroyed in certain areas to provide farmland and fuel for 1.25 billion people. The need for a strong reforestation programme is evident. The world population now at 5.3 billion, continues to grow and is predicted to reach 8.3 billion by 2030. Where will the additional 3 billion people find living space, fuelwood and food? There is also the need for much more energy, but the emphasis needs to be on sources which are renewable so that global warming is not enhanced. There is steady progress being made in the development of photovoltaic sources, their costs closely approaching traditional generating methods. A rapid acceleration in the application of these devices in the next decade is to be expected. Wind power is playing a larger role and hydropower continues to provide a significant portion of society's needs for energy along with nuclear power. The relative amounts of the total energy 'pie' which will be required will depend on the availability of power from each of these sources and the political pressures brought to bear as a result of environmental, sociological and resource availability factors

  19. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  20. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios de Postrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Coyoacan (Mexico); Ruiz, B.J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electrical sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided in three parts. The first part consists of a chronology of institutional background related to RES. The second part is an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electrical sector, which can facilitate the promotion of RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (orig.)

  1. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  2. Prioritizing Energy Sources to Generate Electricity (Application of Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Hashemlou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Organizations, institutions, and different sectors of manufacturing, services and agriculture are constantly making decisions. Each of the aforementioned sectors, have strategies, tactics, and various functions that play a basic role in reaching the objectives. On the other hand, energy demand in developing countries is increasing day by day. The exact calculation of the cost per unit of electricity generated by power plants is not easy. Therefore, this study according to four sources of natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy and other fossil fuels other than natural gas that are used in a variety of electricity production plants is trying to clarify the ranking of generation electricity approach using "fuzzy preference relations" analysis. Accordingly, three models were used and the results showed that natural gas, with regard to the four criteria of low investment cost, low power, lack of pollution and the safety and reliability of electrical energy has priority over other alternatives. Full preferred model results also suggested that the energy of natural gas, renewable energies, nuclear and other fossil fuels should be considered in a priority for power generation. Sensitivity analysis results moreover demonstrated that the above models are not affected by the threshold values ​​and the full stability of the models is observed.

  3. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  4. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  5. OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model. - Highlights: → OSeMOSYS is a new free and open source energy systems. → This model is written in a simple, open, flexible and transparent manner to support teaching. → OSeMOSYS is based on free software and optimizes using a free solver. → This model replicates the results of many popular tools, such as MARKAL. → A link between OSeMOSYS and LEAP has been developed.

  6. OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, Mark, E-mail: mark.i.howells@gmail.com [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden); Rogner, Holger [Planning and Economic Studies Section, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria); Strachan, Neil [Energy Institute, University College London (United Kingdom); Heaps, Charles [Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI) (United States); Huntington, Hillard [Stanford University (United States); Kypreos, Socrates [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Hughes, Alison [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Silveira, Semida [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden); DeCarolis, Joe [North Carolina State University (United States); Bazillian, Morgan [United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (Austria); Roehrl, Alexander [United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model. - Highlights: > OSeMOSYS is a new free and open source energy systems. > This model is written in a simple, open, flexible and transparent manner to support teaching. > OSeMOSYS is based on free software and optimizes using a free solver. > This model replicates the results of many popular tools, such as MARKAL. > A link between OSeMOSYS and LEAP has been developed.

  7. Environmental impacts of energy utilization and environmental energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited and lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Due to increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Because of this and the fact that it has limited fossil fuel resources, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewables seems to be serious and the sole alternative for Turkey. This article presents a review of the present energy situation and sustainability, technical and economical potential of renewable energy sources and future policies for energy sector in Turkey. Throughout the paper several problems relating to energy sources, environment and sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. (author)

  8. Panorama 2012 - Marine renewable energy sources: their place in energy policy, projects and players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine energy sources are now a reality in the scientific landscape and, from now on, will be an increasingly important feature of the industry. Driven by public policy and renewable energy development targets, projects are multiplying, and industry players are jostling for maximum advantage in the first bidding rounds. (author)

  9. Energy sources and energy generation in the future; Fuentes de energia y la generacion del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2001-07-01

    With this article, that gathers the conference imparted inside of the cycle Technologies and Power Supply Development: Gas or Coal, complementary alternatives, organized by the Spanish Club of the Energy (ENERCLUB), the author plants a series of questions over the sources of energy and the its generation in the future, in order to wake the reflections over the theme. (Author)

  10. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...

  11. The new Greek legislation about electricity production from renewable energy sources and national policies and activities in the sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its geophysical morphology and temperate climate Greece is a country which possesses abundant reserves of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Indeed climate conditions are ideal for the exploitation of solar and wind energy. The current status is that in 1994, RES contributed only 3.9% to total consumption (22 Mtoe), despite the fact that the exploitable potential has been estimated to be twenty times higher. The main reasons for the slow development of the sector stem from the restrictive measures embodied in law No. 1559/85 regarding the development of RES. Today, three main axes define energy policy, working towards the ultimate objectives of guaranteeing security of supply and reducing energy costs. These axes include the new legislative framework as defined by law No. 2244/94 (which incorporates institutional regulations and the definition of a tariff policy for production) and financial mechanisms to support investments in the energy sector. (author)

  12. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  13. Cyanate - An overlooked energy and nitrogen source in soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Palatinszky, Márton; Herbold, Craig; Han, Ping; Daims, Holger; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Cyanate (NCO-) is a reduced nitrogen compound that is toxic to organisms due to its reactivity with nucleophilic groups in proteins. To lower cyanate concentrations within cells, a wide range of microorganisms possess a cyanase, which catalyzes the conversion of cyanate to ammonium and carbon dioxide. However, cyanate can also be useful for microbes by serving as a nitrogen source for cyanase-encoding microorganism, such as marine cyanobacteria (Kamennaya et al., 2008). Unexpectedly, we could recently demonstrate that at least one ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote as well as nitrite-oxidizers thriving in consortia with ammonia-oxidizers can grow aerobically on cyanate as only energy and nitrogen source (Palatinszky et al., 2015). Furthermore, published metagenomes revealed that cyanase-encoding genes closely related to those of nitrifiers (ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers) are widespread in the environment and encompass also cyanases affiliated with anammox organisms. Therefore, cyanate presumably presents an alternative nitrogen and also energy source for many microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, cyanate concentrations and fluxes in natural environments are largely unknown, and environmental cyanate concentrations have only been studied in seawater so far, where it occurs in the nanomolar-range (Widner et al. 2013). No information about the importance of cyanate in soils is available, although urea that spontaneously decomposes to cyanate is the most used agricultural fertilizer on a global scale. Cyanate can have many fates in soils - it can be (1) used as nitrogen and/or energy source by cyanase-encoding microorganisms, (2) abiotically hydrolysed to ammonium and carbon dioxide, (3) adsorbed to soil particles, or (4) complexed with other compounds. Here we present the first measurements of cyanate concentrations in natural soils and results of experiments designed to differentiate between biotic and abiotic degradation of cyanate in

  14. Three-source partitioning of soil respiration by 13C natural abundance and its variation with soil depth in a plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenchen Song; Xiaojuan Tong; Jinsong Zhang; Ping Meng

    2016-01-01

    Partitioning soil respiration into three compo-nents is vital to identify CO2 sink or source and can help us better understand soil carbon dynamics. However, knowl-edge about the influences of soil depth and the priming effect on soil respiration components under field has been limited. Three components of soil respiration (root respi-ration, rhizomicrobial respiration and basal respiration) in a plantation in the hilly area of the North China were sepa-rated by the 13C natural abundance method. The results showed that the average proportions of rhizomicrobial respiration, root respiration and basal respiration at the 25–65 cm depths were about 14, 23 and 63%, respec-tively. Three components of soil respiration varied with soil depth, and root respiration was the main component of soil respiration in deeper soil. The priming effect was obvious for the deep soil respiration, especially at the 40–50 cm depth. Thus, depth and priming effect should be taken into account to increase the accuracy of estimations of soil carbon flux.

  15. Potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia are discussed. This presentation was part of the research project entitled "Opportunities and Methods for Energy Substitution, Savings and Efficiency Improvements in the Hotel Industry" funded by the University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia. It was prsented at the joint workshop between University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia and the Bashkent Un...

  16. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  17. A Comparison of ACE/CRIS Measurements of Galactic Cosmic-Ray Abundances and Energy Spectra for Two Successive Solar Minima

    OpenAIRE

    Lave, K. A.; Binns, W. R.; Cummings, A. C.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R.A; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using current solar minimum measurements from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we report the observed elemental abundances and energy spectra for C, 0, Si, and Fe in the energy range of ~50-500 MeV/nucleon. These measurements are compared to prior CRIS observations for the 1997-98 solar minimum period, when the solar magnetic field was of the opposite polarity. By April 2009, the current solar minimum intens...

  18. A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2007-01-08

    A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.

  19. Multi-wavelength identification of high-energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2009-01-01

    The nature of most of the ~300 high-energy gamma-ray sources discovered by the EGRET instrument aboard the Gamma-ray Observatory (GRO) between 1991 and 1999 is one of the greatest enigmas in high-energy astrophysics. While about half of the extragalactic sources have been optically identified with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), only a meagre 10% of the galactic sources have a reliable identification. This low success rate has mainly to be ascribed to the local crowding of potential optical counterparts and to the large gamma-ray error boxes (of the order of one degree in radius) which prevented a straightforward optical identification. Indeed, a multi-wavelength identification strategy, based on a systematic coverage of the gamma-ray error boxes, has been the only do-able approach. The situation is now greatly improving thanks to the observations performed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope which, thanks to the LAT instrument, provides a factor of 50 improvement in sensitivity and a factor of 10 improvemen...

  20. Testing SPI imaging of high-energy and extended sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vunderer, C.B.; Schonfelder, V.; Strong, A.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Connell, P. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Hammer, J.W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenphysik

    2003-11-01

    INTEGRAL's main instruments employ coded apertures to obtain directional information on the incoming radiation. In order to experimentally better determine the imaging capabilities of the spectrometer SPI, the SPI Imaging Test Setup (SPITS) has been built at MPE. It consists of the SPI coded mask and two SPI-identical Ge detectors on an XY-table which allows us to move them to cover the 19 Ge detector positions. The SPI flight model imaging calibration only covered the energy range up to 2.7 MeV and did not include extended emission. SPITS was used to explore the performance of such a coded aperture system - combined with the SPI image analysis software - for higher-energy point sources and extended sources. We find that a 2.4 degrees diameter disk emitting 511 keV emission is reconstructed well. For the high signal-to-noise ratios of laboratory measurements, positions of point sources above 4 MeV could be reconstructed to better than 0.1 degrees. (authors)

  1. Can renewable and unconventional energy sources bridge the global energy gap in the 21st century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy experts project that global oil supplies will only meet demand until global oil production has peaked sometime between 2013 and 2020. Declining oil production after peak production will cause a global energy gap to develop, which will have to be bridged by unconventional and renewable energy sources. Nuclear, solar and hydrogen are destined to become major energy sources during the 21st century, but only if their enabling technologies improve significantly to ensure affordability and convenience of use. This paper will argue that global oil production will probably peak between 2004 and 2005, causing a serious energy gap to develop sometime between 2008 and 2010 rather than 2013-2020 as the energy experts projected. It will also argue that a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is inevitable. The paper will conclude, however, that fossil fuels with a growing contribution from nuclear energy, will still be supplying the major part of the global energy needs for most, perhaps all, of the 21st century. (author)

  2. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  3. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  4. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  5. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  6. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  7. A retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distributions of liquid metal ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the setup and use of a retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distribution of LMIS will be presented. An introduction in the technology and mechanism of LMIS will be given in chapter 2. The experimental configuration of the retarding field energy analyser, together with an error estimation and a computer program, to control the energy analyser and to calculate the energy distribution, will be discussed in chapter 3. To test the energy analyser an electron source, consisting of a tungsten thermoionic cathode, will be used. Energy distribution measurements of a gallium LMIS will be presented in chapter 4. Finally in chapter 5, the accuracy of the energy analyser and suggestions for improvement will be presented. (orig.)

  8. Status report on the Low Energy Neutron Source for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, D. V.; Rinckel, T.

    2016-11-01

    The Low Energy Neutron Source at Indiana University first produced cold neutrons in April of 2005. Ten years after first reaching this milestone, the facility has three instruments in operation on its cold target station, and a second target station is devoted to thermal and fast neutron physics offers capabilities in radiation effects research (single-event effects in electronics) and radiography. Key elements in our success over these last ten years have been the diversity of activities we have been able maintain (which often involves using each of our instruments for multiple different activities), the close relationship we have developed with a number of major sources, and the focus we have had on innovation in neutron instrumentation. In this presentation, we will introduce some of the highlights from our most recent activities, provide an update on some of our technical challenges, and describe some of our ideas for the future.

  9. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described. PMID:26932065

  10. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  11. Synergistic microbial consortium for bioenergy generation from complex natural energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor Bochuan; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chua, Song-Lin; Zhang, Qichun; Cao, Bin; Chye, Joachim Loo Say; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species have evolved diverse mechanisms for utilization of complex carbon sources. Proper combination of targeted species can affect bioenergy production from natural waste products. Here, we established a stable microbial consortium with Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to produce bioenergy from an abundant natural energy source, in the form of the sarcocarp harvested from coconuts. This component is mostly discarded as waste. However, through its usage as a feedstock for MFCs to produce useful energy in this study, the sarcocarp can be utilized meaningfully. The monospecies S. oneidensis system was able to generate bioenergy in a short experimental time frame while the monospecies E. coli system generated significantly less bioenergy. A combination of E. coli and S. oneidensis in the ratio of 1:9 (v:v) significantly enhanced the experimental time frame and magnitude of bioenergy generation. The synergistic effect is suggested to arise from E. coli and S. oneidensis utilizing different nutrients as electron donors and effect of flavins secreted by S. oneidensis. Confocal images confirmed the presence of biofilms and point towards their importance in generating bioenergy in MFCs.

  12. Computational methods for high-energy source shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computational methods for high-energy radiation transport related to shielding of the SNQ-spallation source are outlined. The basic approach is to couple radiation-transport computer codes which use Monte Carlo methods and discrete ordinates methods. A code system is suggested that incorporates state-of-the-art radiation-transport techniques. The stepwise verification of that system is briefly summarized. The complexity of the resulting code system suggests a more straightforward code specially tailored for thick shield calculations. A short guide line to future development of such a Monte Carlo code is given

  13. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  14. Quasars as Sources of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented that were obtained by analyzing arrival directions for cosmic rays that the Yakutsk array for studying extensive air showers recorded between 1974 and 2002 in the energy region E0 ≥5x1017 eV for zenith angles in the region θ ≤60 deg. . It is shown that quasars for which the redshift lies in the region z≤2.5 can be sources of these cosmic rays. Ordered structures are observed in the disposition of quasars and in the cosmic-ray arrival directions. These structures can be associated in one way or another with the large-scale structure of the Universe

  15. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs

  16. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  17. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Helbra Tenrini; Sidiq Suryo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  18. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility...

  19. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  20. The Spatial Planning for the Renewable Energy Sources in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, E.

    2009-04-01

    This work defines the Special Framework for the Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development for the Renewable Energy Sources(RES) in Greece. This planning is very important for the development of the renewable energy because - Identifies criteria and guidelines for the location of RES projects, per RES category and type of geographic area, with emphasis on wind systems and hydropower units. - seeks to provide a clear framework to the competent authorities and the companies concerned, so be oriented suitably in terms of spatial installation areas and thus limit the ambiguities on land uses conflicts. - Determines the key prerequisites for the harmonisation and coherence between all other spatial and urban plans subject to the Special Framework for RES, contributing to the achievement of the targets set under national and EU policies with a further increase of RES participation to power supply.

  1. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  2. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier. PMID:25836452

  3. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  4. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs

  5. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

  6. Laticiferous taxa as a source of energy and hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, S.; Subramanian, R.B.; Kothari, I.L.; Inamdar, J.A. (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India))

    Twenty-nine laticiferous taxa of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Sapotaceae were screened for suitability as alternative sources of renewable energy, rubber, and phytochemicals and to select the most promising ones for large-scale cultivation. Of these, Allamanda violacea (14.9% protein, 13.8% polyphenol, 8.6% oil, 3.2% hydrocarbon), Catharanthus roseus (15.4% protein, 10.4% polyphenol, 11.5% oil, 1.9% hydrocarbon), and Holarrhena antidysenterica (14.2% protein, 16.4% polyphenol, 5,4% oil, 4.8% hydrocarbon) of Apocynaceae; Asclepias curassavica (19.3% protein, 6.5% polyphenol, 3.9% oil, 2.0% hydrocarbon), Calotropis gigantea (18.5% protein, 6.8% polyphenol, 7.0% oil, 2.8% hydrocarbon) of Asclepiadaceae; Mimusops elengi (11.3% protein, 9.7% polyphenol, 7.2% oil, 4.0% hydrocarbon) of Sapotaceae show promising potential for future petrochemical plantations; of all these taxa, Holarrhena antidysenterica yielded an unusually high percentage (4.8%) of hydrocarbon fraction followed by Mimusops elengi (4.0%). NMR spectra confirmed the presence of cis-polyisoprene in all species studied except Nerium indicum (white-flowered var.). These data indicate that the majority of the species under investigation may be considered for large-scale cultivation as an alternative source of rubber, intermediate energy, and other phytochemicals.

  7. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NOx and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 deg. C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources.

  8. Feasibility and impact analysis of a renewable energy source (RES)-based energy system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we analyze the feasibility and impacts of a renewable energy source (RES)-based electricity supply system of future Korea. To achieve this goal, we first developed different scenarios for increasing the contribution of RES by lowering the rate of i) nuclear power, ii) thermal power, iii) both nuclear and thermal power, and iv) these scenarios with real-world constraints. Based on the generated scenarios, we then specified the established systems with practical strategies which encourage different renewable sources (wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass, and waste). Finally, we analyzed the impacts of the established RES-based systems according to various criteria: the total required cost, the dependence on imported energy, CO2 emissions, and land use. The results show that the RES-based system that utilizes wind energy as its main source by steadily decreasing the rate of thermal power for electricity generation is the most affordable for future Korean electricity system. We also identify the merits and drawbacks of the analyzed systems and provide relevant recommendations for the establishment of a sustainable energy system for Korea. These findings will support policy makers in integrating quantitative assessments into energy-related policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • We model and analyze RES-based electricity supply system in Korea. • Impact analysis includes: economic, energy security, environmental protection aspects. • We also evaluate different strategies to establish RES-based system. • We show that wind energy-based system is the most affordable for Korea

  9. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  10. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  11. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  12. MARKAL Application for Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Economic Activities of the Republic of Moldova and Feasible use of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Robu S.; Bicova E.; Siakkis P.; Giannakidis G.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of analyses of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources implementation in the Republic of Moldova using MARKAL model. Detailed analyses of four scenarios are presented for: Reference Scenario; Energy Efficiency Scenario; Renewable Energy Sources Scenario; Energy Efficiency&Renewable Energy Scenario. Energy savings and costs are identified for implementation of renewable energy sources and Energy efficiency measures.

  13. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators – Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further

  14. Ground source energy in crystalline bedrock - increased energy extraction by using hydraulic fracturing in boreholes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Randi Kalskin

    2004-01-01

    The use of improved equipment and methodology can result in considerable reductions in the drilling costs for medium- to large sized ground source heat pump system in crystalline bedrock. The main point has been to use special techniques within hydraulic fracturing to create a larger heat exchange area in the bedrock, and thus a greater energy extraction per borehole. The energy extraction is based on circulating groundwater.Stimulation with hydraulic fracturing is a well known technique in o...

  15. Renewable Energy Sources in the Frame of New Croatian Energy Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreseen changes in the market of network energy systems in the Republic of Croatia, that include restructuring, privatisation and changes in the whole energy sector are going to have significant influence on the possibilities of introduction and use of renewable energy sources (RES). After recognition of Energy Law and three laws on markets (electric energy, gas, oil and oil derivatives) and Energy Activities Regulation Law, there is still a demanding job to be undertaken regarding numerous sub law acts, that are to define precisely all instruments of the state policy considering RES. The application of new laws and sub laws on RES projects in Croatia will create stabile and complete framework through incentive measures that are going to evaluate environmental and all other positive outcomes from RES. In accordance with other European countries Croatia will create a transparent platform to accommodate expected increase in the RES sector.(author)

  16. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  17. Portal. Making a portal site. INIS Web Services and energy information sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) provides links to useful nuclear related information sources in Internet by the name of 'INIS Web Services' and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) also provides links to useful energy related information sources in Internet by the name of Energy Information Source'. This paper outlines these two services. (author)

  18. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  19. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  20. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  1. Usage of Unconventional Energy Sources against Reducing Impact on Environment. Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubnicu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyse the building reducing environmental impact by using unconventional energy sources (in this case solar energy) will calculate the annual energy necesary for the studied building (annual energy needs for heating and will add one for hot water and household electric consumers). Then it is calculated the energy consumption and CO2 emissions when using conventional energy sources (solid fuel boiler and the national energy system). Due to excessive amount of produced surplus ene...

  2. Evaluation of Economic, Energy-Environmental and Societal Effects of Non-Renewable Energy Substitution with Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Kozioł; Barbara Mendecka

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of effects of non-renewable energy (reference fuel) substitution with renewable energy sources of interest (RES) was conducted with the use of social indicator for each effect arising from production of a given utility product in communal and living power industry. The aforementioned effect may be of energy-environmental, economic or social nature, etc. This means it affects elements of living standard ratios. Reference fuel should be the most common one in the area in terms o...

  3. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  4. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  5. Health and economic costs of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National energy policy requires realistic totalling of costs in assessing energy alternatives. The Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division (BEAD) at Brookhaven is estimating health and environmental costs of energy production and use. It was estimated that the production of electric power from all sources in the USA in 1975 was associated with 2000-19,000 deaths and 29,000-48,000 disabilities; this is roughly 0.2-2% of total deaths in the USA for ages 1-74. The estimated health effects associated with a total fuel cycle standardized to produce 1010kWh electric power were: from coal, estimated deaths 10-200, estimated disabilities 300-500; from oil, estimated deaths 3-150, estimated disabilities 150-300; from gas, estimated deaths 0.2, estimated disabilities 20; from nuclear power, estimated deaths 1-3, estimated disabilities 8-30. The differences in the year 2000 between health impacts of the US energy system under normal growth expectations and under conditions of a nuclear moratorium were estimated. On the assumption that the nuclear moratorium would require 200 additional 1000-MW(e) coal-fired power plants and that, with improved control technology, sulphur emissions were equivalent to 0.5% sulphur coal (12,500Btu/lb), additional estimated deaths were 1500-18,000 annually. By the same assumptions, it turns out that a nationwide nuclear moratorium could lead to low economic losses initially that would rise rapidly after the year 2000, so that the cost to the USA in 2010 would be US $109x109. Summing the costs for 1975 through 2050, the present value of these losses would be US $77x109 or US $595x109, depending on whether public decisions are to be based on a 10% or 5% discount rate. (author)

  6. Renewable energy sources at decisive turning; Le energie rinnovabili a una svolta decisiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, S.

    2000-11-01

    The renewable energy sources will be very important for planetary environmental emergency and for technological evolution. [Italian] Marginali da molti anni, le rinnovabili diverranno di primaria importanza grazie all'emergenza ambientale planetaria e all'evoluzione tecnologica. Siamo giunti finalmente a una vera svolta epocale?.

  7. Capitalization of renewable energy sources: Romanian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major challenges of the recent integration of Romania in the European Union is the extension of use, at national scale, of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Targeting private operators and municipalities, authors have as objective to deliver an investigation on the interesting 'Acquis' in financing and implementing RES projects in Romania. Using as method of investigation the accurate screening of their experience as well as the extended international experience in the field, authors have reviewed in the present paper different possibilities in RES investment financing, frequent obstacles and barriers, and ways for overcoming them. Recent results are motivating authors to consider the national experience of an encouraging success and to act towards the capitalization of such investments replication potential to a national and regional scale. (authors)

  8. HIGH INTENSITY LOW-ENERGY POSITRON SOURCE AT JEFFERSON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkan Golge, Bogdan Wojtsekhowski, Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-01

    We present a novel concept of a low-energy e{sup +} source with projected intensity on the order of 10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s. The key components of this concept are a continuous wave e{sup -} beam, a rotating positron-production target, a synchronized raster/anti-raster, a transport channel, and extraction of e{sup +} into a field-free area through a magnetic plug for moderation in a cryogenic solid. Components were designed in the framework of GEANT4-based (G4beamline) Monte Carlo simulation and TOSCA magnetic field calculation codes. Experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the magnetic plug is presented.

  9. Impact of Renewable Energy Sources Penetration in a Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ravi,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several types of Distributed Generators (DGs have been connected together to form a small power system called a microgrid (MG. MG usually operates in normal connecting mode and is connected to the main grid. This paper presents the performance enhancement of microgrid with RES (Renewable Energy Sources penetration in grid connected and islanded operation, and also shows the effect of wind and solar penetration individually and as well as coupled along with backup protection. To analyze the effect of RES penetration into micro grid a synchronous speed wind turbine equipped with SCIG (Squirrel cage Induction Generator and solar system with MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking are used. A modified Benchmark micro grid is used and simulations are performed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  10. High-energy gamma-ray sources of cosmological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Pierre; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The current generation of instruments in gamma-ray astrophysics launched a new era in the search for a dark matter signal in the high-energy sky. Such searches are said indirect, in the sense that the presence of a dark matter particle is inferred from the detection of products of its pair-annihilation or decay. They have recently started to probe the natural domain of existence for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the favorite dark matter candidates today. In this article, we review the basic framework for indirect searches and we present a status of current limits obtained with gamma-ray observations. We also devote a section to another possible class of cosmological gamma-ray sources, primordial black holes, also considered as a potential constituent of dark matter. xml:lang="fr"

  11. Current Source Converter Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir Kouro; Jing-ya DAI; Bin WU

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the installed capacity of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has triggered the development of more demanding grid codes and additional requirements on performance.In order to meet these requirements the industry trend has shifted to full-scale power converter interfaces in modern multi-megawatt WECS.As consequence,a wide variety of new power converter topologies and WECS configurations have been introduced in recent years.Among them,current source converter(CSC) based configurations have attracted attention due to a series of advantages like:simple structure,grid friendly waveforms,controllable power factor,and reliable grid short-circuit protection.This paper presents the latest developments in CSC interfaces for WECS and related technologies such as modulation methods,control schemes and grid code compatibility.

  12. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  13. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  14. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  15. The Role of CHP Plants in the Integration of Fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The paper is an Expression of Interest to the European Commission about renewable energy sources and their integration in a energy system......The paper is an Expression of Interest to the European Commission about renewable energy sources and their integration in a energy system...

  16. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear fuel: sustainable source of energy or burden on society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, the question concerning the sustainability of a resource primarily addressed its finite nature. Accordingly, electricity production using renewable energies was clearly sustainable. Contrasting this are systems based on oil, gas, coal or uranium. However, from the perspective of 'neo-sustainability' being analyzed today, this assessment appears less clear-cut, especially in light of the definition of sustainability as provided by the Brundtland report. Nowadays, the depletion time of fuel resources is thus not the only significant aspect, but factors such as efficiency, ecofriendliness and social responsibility also figure in. The nuclear fuel supply is analyzed from a sustainability perspective. After a short description of the supply chain, each of the most important aspects of sustainability are related to the individual stages of the supply chain and evaluated. This method aims at answering the question concerning to what extent nuclear fuel is a sustainable source of energy. Although the recycling of fissile materials from reprocessing and the deployment of advanced reactors are key factors as regards the issue of sustainability, these topics are deliberately only touched on. The main focus lies on the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle as it is currently utilized in light water reactors, without discussing the subject of reprocessing. (orig.)

  18. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusche, C., E-mail: tusche@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät II, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He{sup +} ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He{sup 2+} operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*{sup +} (2s) ions.

  19. Centaurus X-3 A Source of High Energy $\\gamma$ Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, P M; Dipper, N A; Kendall, T R; McComb, T J L; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Rayner, S M; Roberts, I D; Shaw, S E; Turver, K E

    1998-01-01

    Centaurus X-3 is a well-studied high-mass accreting X-ray binary and a variable source of high energy gamma rays with energies from 100 MeV to 1 TeV. Previous results have suggested that the origin of the gamma rays is not the immediate vicinity of the neutron star but is sited in the accretion disc, perhaps in an accretion wake. The Durham Mark 6 gamma ray telescope has been used to measure the gamma ray flux from Centaurus X-3 with much higher sensitivity than previous ground-based measurements. The flux above ~ 400 GeV was measured to be (2 +/- 0.3) x 10^-11 cm^-2 s^-1 and appears constant over a period of 2 - 3 months. In 10 hours of observations there is no evidence for periodicity in the detected gamma rays at the X-ray spin period either from a site in the region of the neutron star, or from any other potential site in the orbit.

  20. Low energy electron point source microscopy: beyond imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Andre; Goelzhaeuser, Armin [Physics of Supramolecular Systems and Surfaces, University of Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    Low energy electron point source (LEEPS) microscopy has the capability to record in-line holograms at very high magnifications with a fairly simple set-up. After the holograms are numerically reconstructed, structural features with the size of about 2 nm can be resolved. The achievement of an even higher resolution has been predicted. However, a number of obstacles are known to impede the realization of this goal, for example the presence of electric fields around the imaged object, electrostatic charging or radiation induced processes. This topical review gives an overview of the achievements as well as the difficulties in the efforts to shift the resolution limit of LEEPS microscopy towards the atomic level. A special emphasis is laid on the high sensitivity of low energy electrons to electrical fields, which limits the structural determination of the imaged objects. On the other hand, the investigation of the electrical field around objects of known structure is very useful for other tasks and LEEPS microscopy can be extended beyond the task of imaging. The determination of the electrical resistance of individual nanowires can be achieved by a proper analysis of the corresponding LEEPS micrographs. This conductivity imaging may be a very useful application for LEEPS microscopes. (topical review)

  1. The EIB and the financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a financial institution o the European Union, The European Investment Bank is working and to add substance to the commitments made by the Union and its Member States at Kyoto and subsequently at Johannesburg. Over the last two years, renewable energy sources have attracted funding of more than 1.1 billion from the bank, equivalent to 14% of the total loans granted to the energy sector 7.8 billion), compared to an average o 7.9 % over the previous five years. In order to obviate the detrimental characteristics presented by these investments from a financial viewpoint, in March, 2004 the bank set up a 'CCFF' (Climate Change Financing Facility) of 500 million. Additionally, along with the other financial institutions, the EIB is looking into he possibility of supporting the establishment of European carbon credit trading hubs. Where the economic assessment of these projects is concerned, the bank has decided to take account of external environmental and technological factors when calculating the internal profitability levels for renewable energy projects. Moreover, in order to deal with the problem of who exactly should bear the related risks, the bank is able to offer structured financing. For projects located outside the European Union, venture capital and technical assistance instruments make it possible to promote the emergence of innovative projects. Although we are witnessing the sustained growth of loans from the EIB in this sector, additional efforts still need to be made by the legislature in order to strengthen the framework for such projects including emissions quotas, mechanisms for ensuring the solvency of environmental on-costs and international trading rules adapted to take account of the possible distortion of competition, etc. (author)

  2. THE HARNESSING OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES POTENTIAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru SIMONOV

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring energy needs has turned into a major topic of all socio-economic systems worldwide. Against this background, renewable energy sources become a powerful part of the national, regional and global security. Given the current global trends and the major dependence on imports of energy resources in Moldova, a new strategy must be adopted by upgrading existing energy infrastructure, internal energy market analysis, diversification of the existing renewable energy sources and permanent coor...

  3. Investigation the Annual Inflation Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Inflation Rate of each Energy Source on the optimized design of Hybrid Power System (HPS in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization HPS. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for HPS and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of HPS construction.

  4. Nuclear energy, its social impact to the environment. The renewable energy sources, a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present arguments against nuclear energy and pro renewable energy sources. Thus, the water used in Uranium mining and primary ore processing becomes contaminated in long lived radioisotopes and so a threat for local ecosystems and communities. Then, during the fabrication, enrichment, and handling of nuclear fuel the workers are exposed to radiations and dangerous accidental radioactive leaks can occur. But, by far, the most menacing aspect of nuclear power exploitation remains the human errors in operating the nuclear plants which can result in major accidents like that from Chernobyl which spread radioactivity all over the Europe. The equipment used in nuclear facilities which is highly contaminated as well as the burned fuel implies transportation and long term storage which also present high risks. The major advantage of the nuclear energy consists in its very low environment impact and its null contribution to the greenhouse effect. In contrast, the renewable energy sources appear to be both increasingly cheaper and more safe for man and environment. The authors present a list of twelve major advantages pleading in favour of development of renewable energy technology

  5. Aspects Regarding Implementation of Renewable Energy Sources in Romania up to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel Dusmanescu

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the tendencies in the implementation of renewable energy sources in Romania until 2050. It is presented some arguments to justify the necessity to implement the renewable energy sources. Using the potential of renewable sources previously estimated for Romania are presented two scenarios with the necessary considerations.

  6. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  7. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations

  8. BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

  9. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO

  10. ARC technology turns animal manure into new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golka, V.

    2003-09-30

    Bio-based fertilizers, reusable water and reduced greenhouse gas emissions are the results of the Integrated Manure Utilization System (IMUS) began some five years ago at the Alberta Research Council. The process incorporates anaerobic digestion that produces biogas, which is then used to generate electricity, while the nutrient byproducts of the process are used to produce bio-based fertilizer and water, which is reusable for applications like irrigation. A pilot-scale IMUS plant was constructed at Highland Feeders in Vegreville, which will produce one MW of electricity from the manure produced by 7,500 head of cattle. Commercialization of the technology is underway as a joint venture involving the Alberta Research Council, industry, the federal and provincial governments and non-governmental agencies. Because IMUS is designed to overcome the challenges associated with high-solid manure typical of most outdoor feedlots in North America, the technology is adaptable to other biomass sources, including liquid manure, food processing waste and municipal waste; a significant development in the field of renewable energy technologies. The demonstration project is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 740,000 tonnes annually based on cattle manure only; more when other livestock, such as poultry and dairy are included.

  11. Valuation of flexible solutions with alternative fuel cell energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haahtela, T.; Surakka, T.; Malinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    Fuel cells are an emerging technology with high potential, but also with significant market uncertainty. Fuel cells are currently in the transition from field trials to commercial introduction, and firms need to consider whether the technology fulfils the reliability and cost requirements of their current and upcoming products. This paper presented a framework to assist managers in finding the suitable valuation method for comparing different alternatives with emerging fuel cell technology. The dynamic valuation approaches of decision tree analysis, real options and system dynamics were discussed as they help in choosing the optimal timing and product structure over a long time period. Three examples of applications with fuel cells were briefly presented. The paper also addressed how the suggested valuation methods could be applied to them. These applications included maritime buoys; removable crisis management energy source container; and electrification of public transportation. It was concluded that the fuel cell technology has already become economically feasible in certain application areas. Improving technical reliability and cost reductions will make fuel cells even more competitive alternatives in new application areas. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Identifying barriers in the diffusion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity power sector is crucial if the EU wants to fulfill its 2050 CO2 reduction commitments. For this reason, identifying and alleviating all barriers that hinder the development of RES is necessary to the successful deployment of these technologies. This paper discusses the main barriers in the diffusion of wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar power in the Greek electricity sector by drawing on the literature of technological innovation systems and system functions. Furthermore, we provide an explanation of the different diffusion rates between the two technologies. Inadequate financial resources, low grid capacity, delays in the issuance of building permits, opposition from local communities to the construction of wind farms and the lack of a stable institutional framework are among the most important barriers that inhibit the diffusion of the wind and PV solar power. The nature of the barriers identified in this study calls for policy intervention. - Highlights: • Firms in the Greek wind and solar power sectors assess RES barriers. • Lack of financial resources is the most important RES barrier. • Lack of a stable institutional framework negatively affects RES deployment. • The support of the public sector is crucial to the diffusion of RES. •Wind power faces strong legitimization barriers

  13. Ceramics research in a high-energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the irradiation effect to ceramics have added much to the basic understanding of their behavior, for example, the amorphous state of ceramics related to radiation-induced metamictization, the radiation-induced strengthening and toughening due to ultrafine defect aggregates, the in situ degradation of electrical resistivity, the role of radiation-induced defects on thermal conductivity and so on. Most of the irradiation testing on ceramics in the fields of structural and thermal properties have been carried out by using fast fission neutrons of about 1 MeV, but if this energy could be significantly changed, the size and nature of damage cascade and the quantity of transmutation gases produced would change. The significance of neutron source parameters, the special test requirement for ceramics such as the use of miniature specimens, the control of test environment, the transient reduction of electrical resistivity and so on are discussed. A special case of ceramic studies is that on new oxide superconductors. These materials can be made into amorphous state at about 1 dpa using 1 MeV electrons, and are considered to be fairly damage-sensitive. (K.I.)

  14. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  15. Energy source perceptions and policy support: Image associations, emotional evaluations, and cognitive beliefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper represents the most in-depth effort conducted to date to assess affective, emotional and cognitive perceptions of coal, natural gas, nuclear, and wind energy and the relationship between these perceptions and support for the energy sources. U.S. residents, recruited from a consumer panel, completed surveys assessing image associations, emotional reactions, and cognitive beliefs about energy sources and support for increased reliance on energy sources and local siting of energy facilities. The content of images produced by participants when evaluating energy sources revealed several interesting findings. Additionally, analysis of the image evaluations, emotions, and beliefs about each energy source showed that coal and nuclear energy were viewed most negatively, with natural gas in the middle, and wind viewed most positively. Importantly, these affective, emotional, and cognitive perceptions explained significant amounts of variance in support for each of the energy sources. Implications for future researchers and policy makers are discussed. - Highlights: ► Image associations, emotions, and beliefs about energy sources were measured. ► A dual-process model of energy support was proposed and tested. ► Coal and nuclear were viewed most negatively and wind was viewed most positively. ► The cognitive-affective model predicted support for each energy source.

  16. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  17. Energy loss caused by shielding effect of steel cage outside source tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The energy loss, produced by shielding effect of steel cage outside the source tube, is quite considerable.With PENELOPE software package, MC results have been obtained based on the simulation of different source conformations. The result illustrates that the naked source tubes can improve the utilization ratio of the cobalt facilities. It demonstrates the applied value of the naked source tube in engineering.

  18. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELING FOR ASSESSING COMPLEMENTARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramirez Camargo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  19. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  20. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  1. Design, fabrication and measurement of a novel cooling arm for fusion energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shui-Dong; Jing-quan LIU; Mei, Jia-Bin; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The issues of energy and environment are the main constraint of sustainable development in worldwide. Nuclear energy source is one important optional choice for long term sustainable development. The nuclear energy consists of fusion energy and fission energy. Compared with fission, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a kind of clean fusion energy and can generate large energy and little environmental pollution. ICF mainly consists of peripheral driver unit and target. The cooling arm is an ...

  2. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  3. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  4. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  5. Reprint of : Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  6. Analysis of combined cooling, heating, and power systems based on source primary energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumo, Nelson; Chamra, Louay M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, 210 Carpenter Engineering Building, P.O. Box ME, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5925 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) is a cogeneration technology that integrates an absorption chiller to produce cooling, which is sometimes referred to as trigeneration. For building applications, CCHP systems have the advantage to maintain high overall energy efficiency throughout the year. Design and operation of CCHP systems must consider the type and quality of the energy being consumed. Type and magnitude of the on-site energy consumed by a building having separated heating and cooling systems is different than a building having CCHP. Therefore, building energy consumption must be compared using the same reference which is usually the primary energy measured at the source. Site-to-source energy conversion factors can be used to estimate the equivalent source energy from site energy consumption. However, building energy consumption depends on multiple parameters. In this study, mathematical relations are derived to define conditions a CCHP system should operate in order to guarantee primary energy savings. (author)

  7. Energy Spectra of Abundant Nuclei of Primary Cosmic Rays from the Data of ATIC-2 Experiment: Final Results

    CERN Document Server

    Panov, A D; Ahn, H S; Bashinzhagyan, G L; Watts, J W; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Ganel, O; Guzik, T G; Zatsepin, V I; Isbert, I; Kim, K C; Christl, M; Kouznetsov, E N; Panasyuk, M I; Seo, E S; Sokolskaya, N V; Chang, J; Schmidt, W K H; Fazely, A R

    2011-01-01

    The final results of processing the data from the balloon-born experiment ATIC-2 (Antarctica, 2002-2003) for the energy spectra of protons and He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe nuclei, the spectrum of all particles, and the mean logarithm of atomic weight of primary cosmic rays as a function of energy are presented. The final results are based on improvement of the methods used earlier, in particular, considerably increased resolution of the charge spectrum. The preliminary conclusions on the significant difference in the spectra of protons and helium nuclei (the proton spectrum is steeper) and the non-power character of the spectra of protons and heavier nuclei (flattening of carbon spectrum at energies above 10 TeV) are confirmed. A complex structure of the energy dependence of the mean logarithm of atomic weight is found.

  8. Virtual monochromatic imaging in dual-source dual-energy CT: Radiation dose and image quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lifeng; Christner, Jodie A.; Leng, Shuai; Wang, Jia; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the image quality of virtual monochromatic images synthesized from dual-source dual-energy computed tomography (CT) in comparison with conventional polychromatic single-energy CT for the same radiation dose.

  9. CAS institute, US national lab ink MOU on renewable energy sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Amemorandum of understanding (MOU) for cooperation on renewable energy sources was signed between the CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE) and the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on 11 November,2008, in Beijing.

  10. Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

    2003-08-15

    This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

  11. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  12. Summarizing an abundance of factors into one: Practical implementation of energy labelling for existing buildings in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, Dries; Desmedt, Johan; Vekemans, Guy [Vito - Flemish Inst. for Technological Research, Mol (Bulgaria); Cantaert, Madeleine [Univ. of Louvain-la-Neuve (Bulgaria)

    2005-07-01

    In the light of the European Directive on Energy Performance of Building, Vito participated in the conception of the official method for the evaluation of energy performance of existing buildings by order of the Belgian authorities. The present residential sector in Belgium has some very specific difficulties. Because of the high average age of the buildings and the typical personal construction culture, there is an enormous diversity of the existing houses. A labelling procedure should therefore take into account all possible aspects and construction data in order to allow a useful comparison. 41 existing houses have been evaluated with this new procedure. To ensure a thorough test, the diversity of the participating houses and installations has been chosen as large as possible. As a surplus value for the occupants of the house, the evaluation resulted in energy-saving recommendations for the building envelope, the heating installation and preparation of domestic hot water. The results are first of all a view on the applicability of this new procedure. Despite of the difficulties of comparison at first sight, the actual results give clear indications about the performance of the house in terms of energy consumption and energy savings potential. In order to further evaluate the procedure,, the actual implementation of the recommendations has been followed up. The procedure has been evaluated by means of questionnaires and qualitative sociological interviews. The results show important advantages and problems for future public acceptance of energy savings, once the European directives will be fully implemented.

  13. SIMULATION OF THE SYSTEMS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES USING HOMER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRINCĂ S.D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates by using the Homer software, distributed energy systems with capacity below 1 MW. Among the renewable energy sources are used wind and solar energy. For photovoltaic panels, we are considering two situations: fixed panels, oriented at 45 ° and panels with tracking system with two axis. Simulation results contain information regarding operation hours of the system throughout the year, energy produced from the renewable energy sources, energy consumption for the load, and excess of electrical energy. The Homer software also allows an economic analysis of these systems.

  14. Investigation the Interest Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research the effect of variation of interest rate of each energy source on optimal results are investigated. This study presents an optimized design of Hybrid Power System in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank. In this study, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization Hybrid Power System. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for Hybrid Power System and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of Hybrid Power System construction.

  15. TBEE: Tier Based Energy Efficient Protocol Providing Sink and Source Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Siddhartha Chauhan; Lalit Awasthi

    2011-01-01

    In resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) it is important to utilize energy efficiently. Data dissemination is mainly responsible for the consumption of energy in sensor nodes (SNs). The data dissemination protocols for WSNs should reduce the energy consumption of the SNs. Sink and source mobility is the major challenge for data dissemination protocols. In this paper, a Tier based Energy Efficient protocol (TBEE) providing sink and source mobility in WSNs has been proposed. TBEE...

  16. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  17. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author)

  18. Interstellar Atomic Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, E B

    2003-01-01

    A broad array of interstellar absorption features that appear in the ultraviolet spectra of bright sources allows us to measure the abundances and ionization states of many important heavy elements that exist as free atoms in the interstellar medium. By comparing these abundances with reference values in the Sun, we find that some elements have abundances relative to hydrogen that are approximately consistent with their respective solar values, while others are depleted by factors that range from a few up to around 1000. These depletions are caused by the atoms condensing into solid form onto dust grains. Their strengths are governed by the volatility of compounds that are produced, together with the densities and velocities of the gas clouds. We may characterize the depletion trends in terms of a limited set of parameters; ones derived here are based on measurements of 15 elements toward 144 stars with known values of N(H I) and N(H2). In turn, these parameters may be applied to studies of the production, de...

  19. Changes in abundance and nature of microimpact craters on the surfaces of Australasian microtektites with distance from the proposed source crater location

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Roy, S.K.; Gupta, A.

    to show distinct variations with distance from the source crater. The total number of microcraters on each microtektite decreases drastically from North to South indicating systematic decrease in the spatial density of the ejecta, and decrease...

  20. Valuation of environmental and societal trade-offs of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of renewable energy sources is one solution to decrease green house gas emissions and the use of polluting fossil fuels. Renewables differ in their environmental and societal impacts, and to design sound renewable energy policy, societies need to assess the trade-offs between alternative sources. To enable the evaluation and comparison of renewable energy production alternatives in Finland, this paper applies the choice experiment to elicit the monetary information on people's preferences for four renewable energy sources: wind power, hydro power and energy from crops and wood, and considers four impacts of energy production: effects on biodiversity, local jobs, carbon emissions and household's electricity bill. The nested logit analysis reveals that higher income, male gender, young age, and pro-environmental attitude increase the probability to choose renewable energy instead of the current energy mix. Wind power is, on average, the most popular renewable energy technology, but regional differences exist. Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided. The national aggregate willingness to pay, based on stated preferences rather than preferences revealed by actual market behavior, for a combination of renewable energy technologies that corresponds to Finland's climate change and energy policy is over 500 million Euros. - Highlights: • Preferences for renewable energy sources are elicited with choice experiment. • Wind power is the most popular source in general. • Regional differences exist: energy from wood is favored in rural areas. • Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided

  1. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential, development and large-scale, market-driven deployment of solar energy technologies worldwide still has to overcome a number of technical and financial barriers. Unless these barriers are overcome, maintaining and increasing electricity supplies from solar energy will require continuation of potentially costly policy support. Indexing terms/

  2. Some successful financing mechanisms for energy efficiency projects (EE) and projects using renewable energy sources (RES) - the experience of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper analysis some of the most promising financial mechanisms for energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy sources (RES) projects in Bulgaria - the TPF mechanism, the KIDS Fund, delivered by the EBRD fund the EE fund of the WB, established on the floor of the EE act, as well as a number of some of the pre accession and European energy programs used for financing this area. All data its rich intensive international and in -home work in the are of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (Author)

  3. Comparison of the Total Costs of Renewable and Conventional Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejguš, Mirko; Aschbacher, Christine; Sablik, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources can be characterised as inexhaustible. The question is to what extent they are available and the complementary limit issue is technology. Renewable energy sources are theoretically available to the whole world, but their limit factor is more or less the volatility of storage.

  4. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  5. Analysis of petroleum company investments in nonpetroleum energy sources. Book II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P. Jr.; Ryan, T.C.

    1979-12-12

    Financial data from the analysis of investment strategies of US oil companies and the depth of their present and future investments in nonpetroleum energy sources are tabulated in these appendices. The nonpetroleum energy sources included in the study are: coal, oil shale, geothermal, and solar.

  6. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress...

  7. Effects of postweaning dietary energy source on reproductive traits in primiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of major dietary energy source fed from weaning to ovulation or from ovulation to d 35 of pregnancy on reproductive traits in primiparous sows. Dietary energy sources were used to manipulate the plasma insulin concentration. One hundred thirteen sows

  8. New fusion method offers hope of new energy source

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Scientists from Sandia National Laboratories have reported that they have acheived thermonuclear fusion using the Z accelerator. It is the first observation of fusion using a pulsed power source (1 page).

  9. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  10. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  11. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3oC to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60oC by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  12. Dynamic Compression-Transmission for Energy-Harvesting Multihop Networks with Correlated Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Tapparello, Cristiano; Rossi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Energy-harvesting wireless sensor networking is an emerging technology with applications to various fields such as environmental and structural health monitoring. A distinguishing feature of wireless sensors is the need to perform both source coding tasks, such as measurement and compression, and transmission tasks. It is known that the overall energy consumption for source coding is generally comparable to that of transmission, and that a joint design of the two classes of tasks can lead to relevant performance gains. Moreover, the efficiency of source coding in a sensor network can be potentially improved via distributed techniques by leveraging the fact that signals measured by different nodes are correlated. In this paper, a data gathering protocol for multihop wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting capabilities is studied whereby the sources measured by the sensors are correlated. Both the energy consumptions of source coding and transmission are modeled, and distributed source coding is assumed...

  13. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 7450C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 9450C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of 238Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass

  14. Proceedings of condensed papers on alternate energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The conference covers the results of research and developments which have taken place during the last 2 years. It includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or waste, hydrogen production and uses. The volume of the Proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by their subjects under 40 technical sessions. Condensed papers are presented for the 336 presentations; abstracts have previously appeared in the DOE Energy Data Base for 33 of the full-length papers.

  15. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    Revol J.-P.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, which produces no green house gases and no air pollution, should be a leading candidate. How nuclear energy, based on thorium rather than uranium, could be an acceptable solution is discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. The thorium conference, organized by iThEC at CERN in October 2013, has shown that thorium is seriously considered...

  16. Solar energy: an environment friendly reliable and sustainable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid enhancement in consumption of fossil fuels in order to meet the day-to day increasing energy requirements has blown a danger sign for all nations. Global warming effect has compelled researchers to discover other techniques of energy generation instead of traditional ways in order to reduce adverse effects on global terrain. Renewable energy resources have got attention of global entrepreneurs due to their long lasting availability and environment friendliness. Solar technology is finding increased application in both domestic and military application. This paper discusses the ideas behind the art of design of solar cells and their historical developments. It also covers the kind of techniques/ methodologies used for solar energy conversion into electrical energy with comparison between different renewable technologies and solar technology. This paper gives the brief review of world energy resources and their consumption v/s Solar energy production percentage. Researchers in the field of energy generation have impressed by the Prodigious results of Renewable Energies. Today's most of the high ranked international universities of developed countries in collaboration with government/ industries have been carrying on advance researches in the field of renewable technologies. (author)

  17. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data. PMID:27681901

  18. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data.

  19. Energy balance in the solar transition region. III - Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1993-01-01

    In our previous papers we described the mathematical formalism and the computed results for energy-balance hydrostatic models of the solar transition region. In this paper we discuss in some detail the limitations of the hydrostatic and one-dimensional assumptions used. Then we analyze the determination of helium emission when diffusion is included. We use transport coefficients estimated from kinetic theory to determine the helium departures from local ionization balance. We calculate the helium spectra for each of our models and evaluate the role of helium in the energy transport. Also, we investigate the effects of coronal illumination on the structure of the transition region and upper chromosphere, and show how coronal illumination affects various EUV lines and the He I 10830 A line. Comparing with both absolute intensities and detailed line profiles, we show that our models are consistent not only with the observed hydrogen spectra but also with the available helium spectra.

  20. Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

  1. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, J.-P.

    2015-08-01

    To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, which produces no green house gases and no air pollution, should be a leading candidate. How nuclear energy, based on thorium rather than uranium, could be an acceptable solution is discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. The thorium conference, organized by iThEC at CERN in October 2013, has shown that thorium is seriously considered by some major developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. However, developed countries do not seem to move fast enough in that direction, while global cooperation is highly desirable in this domain. Thorium is not fissile. Various possible ways of using thorium will be reviewed. However, an elegant option is to drive an "Accelerator Driven System (ADS)" with a proton accelerator, as suggested by Nobel Prize laureate Carlo Rubbia .

  2. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revol J.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. Nuclear energy, which produces no green house gases and no air pollution, should be a leading candidate. How nuclear energy, based on thorium rather than uranium, could be an acceptable solution is discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. The thorium conference, organized by iThEC at CERN in October 2013, has shown that thorium is seriously considered by some major developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. However, developed countries do not seem to move fast enough in that direction, while global cooperation is highly desirable in this domain. Thorium is not fissile. Various possible ways of using thorium will be reviewed. However, an elegant option is to drive an “Accelerator Driven System (ADS” with a proton accelerator, as suggested by Nobel Prize laureate Carlo Rubbia .

  3. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  4. Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets

    CERN Document Server

    Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

  5. Ionic and electronic behaviors of earth-abundant semiconductor materials and their applications toward solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Matthew T.

    Semiconductor devices offer promise for efficient conversion of sunlight into other useful forms of energy, in either photovoltaic or photoelectrochemical cell configurations to produce electrical power or chemical energy, respectively. This dissertation examines ionic and electronic phenomena in some candidate semiconductors and seeks to understand their implications toward solar energy conversion applications. First, copper sulfide (Cu2S) was examined as a candidate photovoltaic material. It was discovered that its unique property of cation diffusion allows the room-temperature synthesis of vertically-aligned nanowire arrays, a morphology which facilitates study of the diffusion processes. This diffusivity was found to induce hysteresis in the electronic behavior, leading to the phenomena of resistive switching and negative differential resistance. The Cu2S were then demonstrated as morphological templates for solid-state conversion into different types of heterostructures, including segmented and rod-in-tube morphologies. Near-complete conversion to ZnS, enabled by the out-diffusion of Cu back into the substrate, was also achieved. While the ion diffusion property likely hinders the reliability of Cu 2S in photovoltaic applications, it was shown to enable useful electronic and ionic behaviors. Secondly, iron oxide (Fe2O3, hematite) was examined as a photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Its energetic limitations toward the water electrolysis reactions were addressed using two approaches aimed at achieving greater photovoltages and thereby improved water splitting efficiencies. In the first, a built-in n-p junction produced an internal field to drive charge separation and generate photovoltage. In the second, Fe 2O3 was deposited onto a smaller band gap material, silicon, to form a device capable of producing enhanced total photovoltage by a dual-absorber Z-scheme mechanism. Both approaches resulted in a cathodic shift of the photocurrent onset

  6. The Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays Cannot be Dominantly Protons from Steady Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays could be light or heavier elements, and originate from an either steady or transient population of sources. This leaves us with four general categories of sources. Energetic requirements set a lower limit on single source luminosities, while the distribution of particle arrival directions in the sky sets a lower limit on the source number density. The latter constraint depends on the angular smearing in the skymap due to the magnetic deflections of the charged particles during their propagation from the source to the Earth. We contrast these limits with the luminosity functions from surveys of existing luminous steady objects in the nearby universe, and strongly constrain one of the four categories of source models, namely, steady proton sources. The possibility that cosmic rays with energy $> 8\\times 10^{19}\\,$eV are dominantly pure protons coming from steady sources is excluded at 95\\% confidence level, under the safe assumption that protons experience less ...

  7. Two-Pion Interferometry for the Granular Source in Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹洪杰; 安飞; 张卫宁

    2012-01-01

    The space-time characters of the pion-emitting sources produced in the heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies are investigated in a granular source model of quark-gluon plasma droplets. The results of two-pion interferometry indicate that the longi- tudinal interferometry radius is sensitive to the initial breakup time of the system. For a larger breakup time the values of the longitudinal interferometry radius for the LHC source are larger than that of the source produced in the collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider's (RHIC) top energy. However, the values of the longitudinal radius are smaller if the source fragments at a smaller breakup time with a higher initial temperature of the droplets. The values of the transverse interferometry radius in the "side" direction for the LHC sources are larger than those for the RHIC source. The imaging analyses for the characteristic quantities of the granular sources are consistent with the interferometry radii.

  8. Influence of pregnancy in mid-to-late gestation on circulating metabolites, visceral organ mass, and abundance of proteins relating to energy metabolism in mature beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-12-01

    In mid-to-late gestation, nutrient demand increases to meet the growth requirements of the conceptus and cows may alter metabolism in response to energy demands of pregnancy. By better understanding the metabolic role of pregnancy, there may be opportunities to better understand maintenance energy costs and improve overall feed efficiency. Eighteen mature Simmental/Angus crossbred cows, pregnant (PREG; n = 9) and nonpregnant (OPEN; n = 9), were used to investigate the effect of pregnancy on BW change, carcass traits, visceral organ mass, and circulating serum metabolites. Cows were blocked by day of expected parturition such that each block was slaughtered 4 to 5 wk before parturition. Cows were individually fed for ad libitum intake using Calan gates for 89 to 105 d. Cows were weighed, ultrasounded for rib (over the 12th and 13th rib) and rump fat, and a serum sample obtained at d 1, 56, and 3 to 5 d before slaughter. At slaughter, organs were removed, trimmed of fat, and weighed. Serum was analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), NEFA, glucose, urea, total cholesterol, and triiodothyronine (T3). Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papillae, pancreas, and small intestinal mucosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na(+)/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS as a replicated randomized complete block. Liver weights (actual, relative to BW, relative to HCW) were heavier (P ≤ 0.02) in OPEN. Rumen mass and kidney fat weight, both relative to BW, were also greater (P ≤ 0.04) in OPEN. On d 56

  9. Energy use in Kenya: advancement of alternative energy sources to mitigate climate change through Activities Implemented Jointly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogola, J.S.; Omulo, M.A. [Climate Network Africa, Nairobi (Cayman Islands)

    1998-08-01

    The main energy sources in Kenya are biomass, hydropower and geothermal. The source of biomass fuel includes fuelwood, crop residues and animal waste; woodfuel processed through carbonization; biogas from animal waste processed through fermentation; power alcohol and waste-wood from industries. Woodfuel in 1992 provided about 70% of Kenya`s total energy supply. The annual energy consumption in Kenya is about 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent. The main consumers of energy are domestic household, 60%; transport and manufacturing, 13% each, agriculture, 10%; and commercial sector, 6%. Petroleum fuels account for about 20% of the net energy and meets about 86% of the industrial energy demand. The ability to produce hydropower is sensitive to climate-induced water supply changes as power generation turbines operates within a small range of water level variability. Global warming is likely to increase precipitation in the highlands of Kenya. This is bound to affect the five hydropower generating plants along Tana River which contribute about 78% to the national electricity grid. However, increased exploitation of the geothermal resources at Olkaria, Eburru and Lake Bogoria could alleviate the situation once the targeted output of 1000 MW is achieved. The paper carries out a review of the potential energy sources in the country and proposes a country study on the use of renewable sources of energy particularly among the rural population who currently rely heavily on fuelwood as a source of energy. The paper finally proposes specific projects for the AIJ undertaking. (author)

  10. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  11. Clean Energy Innovation: Sources of Technical and Commercial Breakthroughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, T. D., IV; Miller, M.; Fleming, L.; Younge, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2011-03-01

    Low-carbon energy innovation is essential to combat climate change, promote economic competitiveness, and achieve energy security. Using U.S. patent data and additional patent-relevant data collected from the Internet, we map the landscape of low-carbon energy innovation in the United States since 1975. We isolate 10,603 renewable and 10,442 traditional energy patents and develop a database that characterizes proxy measures for technical and commercial impact, as measured by patent citations and Web presence, respectively. Regression models and multivariate simulations are used to compare the social, institutional, and geographic drivers of breakthrough clean energy innovation. Results indicate statistically significant effects of social, institutional, and geographic variables on technical and commercial impacts of patents and unique innovation trends between different energy technologies. We observe important differences between patent citations and Web presence of licensed and unlicensed patents, indicating the potential utility of using screened Web hits as a measure of commercial importance. We offer hypotheses for these revealed differences and suggest a research agenda with which to test these hypotheses. These preliminary findings indicate that leveraging empirical insights to better target research expenditures would augment the speed and scale of innovation and deployment of clean energy technologies.

  12. Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Mamatha Sandhu; Dr.Tilak Thakur

    2014-01-01

    The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy h...

  13. The current state of nonconventional sources of energy and related perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of world and Colombian energy sources, including distribution, production and consumption by fuel and end-user sectors, respectively, as well as a brief description of some non-conventional energy sources (NCES), pointing out those classified as bioenergy and used as non-conventional fuels in the transport and electricity generating sectors. Colombian policies for promoting the rational use of energy (RUE) and NCES are presented and their targets are compared...

  14. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be use...

  15. Analysis of the Types of Subsidies for Renewable Energy Sources in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Kristýna

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with renewable energy sources (RES) in the Czech Republic. The theoretical part of the work describes the most widely used renewable energy sources in the Czech Republic, especially their history technology, advantages and disadvantages. It also deals with the legislation of the European Union and the Czech Republic, describes the laws and mentions the State Energy Policy of the CR and the National Action Plan of the CR, which are essential to the operation and d...

  16. Green Minefield. Renewable sources of energy have both advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite being more expensive, renewable energy sources have profound advantages - they are more environment-friendly and help decrease Europe's dependence on foreign energy producers. As a result, the European Union set a target to cover 20% of its energy demand with renewable sources by 2020. Slovakia's target is 14% with the current proportion being barely 7%. Half of this green energy comes from conventional water power plants. The other half is covered by biomass. Other than that, Slovakia is housing some new facilities producing bio fuels from corn and rapeseed. Other energy sources are more expensive. So far, geothermal springs have been used mostly for recreation. Solar and wind energy have hardly shown any development. Some investments have been announced in biogas heating and electricity production. Renewable energy sources are typically subsidized as early as the construction phase. Up to half of the investment costs can be covered by taxpayers' money. Other incentives include tax exemption or guaranteed higher purchase prices. In this area, last year's change in legislation, guaranteeing energy prices for renewable for the next fifteen years, has been crucial. The disadvantage is that higher prices for renewable energy have to be paid by the consumers. In addition, solar and wind energies are highly volatile - depending on weather conditions. This jeopardizes the stability of the national electricity grid and, if left unregulated, could lead to blackouts. Slovakia registers applications for up to 3,500 MW worth of new renewable energy sources. (authors)

  17. An investigation on piezoelectric energy harvesting for MEMS power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J.W.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, D.Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-04-15

    This paper presents the feasibility of using piezoelectric materials in a power source for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) devices. The finite element method (FEM) is adopted to evaluate the power generations of commercially available piezofilms that are subjected to a fluctuating pressure source (blood pressure). The accuracy of the results obtained from the FEM is verified by comparing with the corresponding results obtained from a theoretical analysis. In addition, an experiment is undertaken in order to evaluate the power generation of two different shapes of the piezofilms: square and circle. Finally, a brief discussion is made on the storage of experimentally harvested power and use of the MEMS applications. (author)

  18. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  19. Interferometry imaging for the evolving source in heavy ion collisions at HIRFL-CSR energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hong-Jie; M. J. Efaaf; ZHANG Wei-Ning

    2012-01-01

    Imaging analysis of two-pion interferometry is performed for an evolving particle-emitting source in heavy ion collisions at HIRFL-CSR energy.The source evolution is described by the relativistic hydrodynamics in (2+1) dimensions. The model-independent characteristic quantities of the source are investigated and compared with the interferometry results obtained by the usual Gaussian formula fit.It is found that the firstorder source function moments can describe the source sizes.The ratio of the normalized standard deviation (O) to the first-order moment (R),(O)/(R),is sensitive to the shape of the source function.

  20. Interferometry imaging for the evolving source in heavy ion collisions at HIRFL-CSR energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging analysis of two-pion interferometry is performed for an evolving particle-emitting source in heavy ion collisions at HIRFL-CSR energy. The source evolution is described by the relativistic hydrodynamics in (2+1) dimensions. The model-independent characteristic quantities of the source are investigated and compared with the interferometry results obtained by the usual Gaussian formula fit. It is found that the first- order source function moments can describe the source sizes. The ratio of the normalized standard deviation a to the first-order moment R-tilde, σ-tilde/R-tilde, is sensitive to the shape of the source function. (authors)

  1. Public support for energy sources and related technologies: The impact of simple information provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing public awareness and understanding of alternative energy sources and related technologies is an essential component of informed decision-making regarding new options of generating energy for a low carbon future. The current study examined the influence of psychological factors (i.e., pro-environmental beliefs, and subjective norms) and the provision of factual information on public support for a range of energy sources and related technologies. A representative sample of 1907 Australians completed an on-line survey that measured perceptions of a range of climate change and energy issues. Results showed that support for renewables is stronger than support for traditional fossil-fuel based energy sources (i.e., coal or gas) or nuclear energy. The provision of factual information about generation cost and emissions significantly changed support ratings, particularly when cost information was provided. Regression analyses revealed that pro-environmental beliefs were significantly related to support ratings for alternative energy sources. Subjective norms, however, were the strongest positive explanatory factor, suggesting that social mechanisms may be key drivers of support for new and emerging energy sources and related technologies. - Highlights: • We examine support for a wide range of energy sources and technologies. • Support changes when information on cost and emissions is provided. • Pro-environmental beliefs and social norms positively relate to support

  2. Nuclear fusion - Inexhaustible source of energy for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general description of nuclear fusion as an energy option for the future and to clarify to some extent the various issues - scientific, technological, economic and environmental - which are likely to be relevant to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Section 1 describes the world energy problem and some advantages of nuclear fusion compared to other energy options. Sections 2 and 3 describe the fundamentals of fusion energy, plasma confinement, heating and technological aspects of fusion researches. Some plasma confinement schemes (tokamak, stellarator, inertial confinement fusion) are described. The main experimental results and parameter devices are cited to illustrate the state of the art as of 1989. Various engineering problems associated with reactor design, magnetic systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, environment, economics and safety are discussed. A description of both bilateral and multilateral efforts in fusion research under the auspices of the IAEA is presented in Section 4. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Thorium: An energy source for the world of tomorrow ?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    To meet the tremendous world energy needs, systematic R&D has to be pursued to replace fossil fuels. The ThEC13 conference organized by iThEC at CERN last October has shown that thorium is seriously considered by developing countries as a key element of their energy strategy. Developed countries are also starting to move in the same direction. How thorium could make nuclear energy (based on thorium) acceptable to society will be discussed. Thorium can be used both to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste. As thorium is not fissile, one elegant option is to use an accelerator, in so-called “Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)”, as suggested by Carlo Rubbia. CERN’s important contributions to R&D on thorium related issues will be mentioned as well as the main areas where CERN could contribute to this field in the future.

  4. Creating Prospective Value Chains for Renewable Road Transport Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Wessberg, Nina; Leinonen, Anna; Tuominen, Anu; Eerola, Annele; Bolwig, Simon

    2014-01-01

    If the Nordic energy and transport sectors are to meet the 2050 energy and climate policy targets, major systemic chang-es are necessary. The transition requires cooperation between public and private actors. The approach outlined in the paper combines elements from the fields of system level changes (transitions), value chain analysis and forward looking policy design. It presents a novel, policy relevant application with a set of practical tools to support development of im-plementation str...

  5. Renewable Energy Sources in Romania: A Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta CARAGEA; Alexandru, Ciprian Antoniade

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity is in decline globally and major ecosystems are placed under increasing pressure. Global poverty persists; the Millennium Development Goals would need major efforts to be achieved. This paper will explore the perspective for a new energy sector economy in relation to climate change and the sustainable development objectives. All renewable energy technologies are not appropriate to all applications or locations, however. This paper identifies some of the key environmental and ...

  6. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  7. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  8. Strategic Importance of Energy Sources of Middle East Region for the 21st Century World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Altay, Hüseyin; Nugay, Ulaş

    2013-01-01

    The importance of energy sources which started to become the most strategic input for the countries in the 20th century gradually increases. De-spite of the increase of demand and dependence to the energy at this ratio, energy resources speedily decrease. This situation caused that all the atten-tions focused on energy regions. Middle East is one of the most important of these regions. Within this framework, this study aims to explain the impor-tance of Middle East energy sources of 21st cent...

  9. The use of natural abundance carbon-13 to identify and quantify sources of emitted carbon dioxide in a calcareous southern Ontario Luvisolic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Meaghan

    Three studies Were conducted at the Elora Research Station (ERS) on a Luvisolic soil to investigate the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) components contributing to the CO2 flux (FC) using natural 13C abundance. SIC contributed to the FC in intact soil incubations. Soil disruption exacerbated the release of CO2 from both pedogenic and lithogenic carbonates. Field and laboratory techniques to obtain the delta13C of respired CO2 (delta13CR) were compared. Short-term deployment of non flow-through non steady-state chambers and the use of the simple two-ended mass balance approach to derive delta 13CR were found acceptable to apply to the ERS site. The delta13CR from a corn field at ERS with a history of multiple C4 and C3 crop rotations was partitioned into SIC and SOC components using two approaches. Root respiration contributed 2% - 64% and carbonates contribute up to 20% to the FC.

  10. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69Ga+, Ga++ and Ga2+ ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  11. A Study of the Energy Sources of Herbig-Haro Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We make a statistical study of the energy sources of high-velocity phenomena, Herbig-Haro (HH) objects. IRAS counterparts of HH objects are identified.Their colors, brightness, geometric relation to the HH objects and SED are analysed. The sources are found to be concentrated in a band-shaped region in the IRAS color-color diagram. We suggest an explanation of thick surrounding material for this distribution. We propose a new method for identifying the energy sources based on color and brightness. This method is applied to more than 200 HH objects whose energy sources are still unknown. Finally, a group of very young stellar object candidates which have similar properties to the HH energy sources is picked out.Their large-scale distribution is discussed.

  12. Influence of some factors on alpha energy spectrum of 241Am fire alarm source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Several primary factors influencing the alpha energy spectrum of 241Am fire alarm source have been studied in order to get betteralpha energy spectrum.The results show that the homogeneity andthe thickness of metal surface coat and the size of active area of thesource have considerable influence on the alpha energy spectrum of thesource.

  13. A strategy to unveil transient sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami Hajime

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transient generation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs has been motivated from promising candidates of UHECR sources such as gamma-ray bursts, flares of active galactic nuclei, and newly born neutron stars and magnetars. Here we propose a strategy to unveil transient sources of UHECRs from UHECR experiments. We demonstrate that the rate of UHECR bursts and/or flares is related to the apparent number density of UHECR sources, which is the number density estimated on the assumption of steady sources, and the time-profile spread of the bursts produced by cosmic magnetic fields. The apparent number density strongly depends on UHECR energies under a given rate of the bursts, which becomes observational evidence of transient sources. It is saturated at the number density of host galaxies of UHECR sources. We also derive constraints on the UHECR burst rate and/or energy budget of UHECRs per source as a function of the apparent source number density by using models of cosmic magnetic fields. In order to obtain a precise constraint of the UHECR burst rate, high event statistics above ∼ 1020 eV for evaluating the apparent source number density at the highest energies and better knowledge on cosmic magnetic fields by future observations and/or simulations to better estimate the time-profile spread of UHECR bursts are required. The estimated rate allows us to constrain transient UHECR sources by being compared with the occurrence rates of known energetic transient phenomena.

  14. Answers to energy crisis: energy efficiency, rational use of energy and renewable sources; Respostas para crise de energia eletrica: eficiencia energetica, uso racional de energia e fontes renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Menezes, Taciana de V.; Perrone, Fernando Pinto Dias; Lepetitgaland, Karla Kwiatkowski [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the main advances in energy efficiency of Brazil, the results of the electrical energy alternatives sources incentive program until May of 2007, and examples of using energy in a reasonable way. In our point of view, these three initiatives are essentials in any energetic planning and must be considered with seriousness, mainly at moments of energy crisis. (author)

  15. 238U series isotopes and 232Th in carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: implications to dissolved uranium abundances in Ganga-Indus source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Dalai, Tarun K; Krishnaswami, S

    2003-01-01

    238U and (232)Th concentrations and the extent of (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th radioactive equilibrium have been measured in a suite of Precambrian carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya. These measurements were made to determine their abundances in these deposits, their contributions to dissolved uranium budget of the headwaters of the Ganga and the Indus in the Himalaya and to assess the impact of weathering on (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th radioactive equilibrium in them. (238)U concentrations in Precambrian carbonates range from 0.06 to 2.07 microg g(-1). The 'mean' U/Ca in these carbonates is 2.9 ng U mg(-1) Ca. This ratio, coupled with the assumption that all Ca in the Ganga-Indus headwaters is of carbonate origin and that U and Ca behave conservatively in rivers after their release from carbonates, provides an upper limit on the U contribution from these carbonates, to be a few percent of dissolved uranium in rivers. There are, however, a few streams with low uranium concentrations, for which the carbonate contribution could be much higher. These results suggest that Precambrian carbonates make only minor contributions to the uranium budget of the Ganga-Indus headwaters in the Himalaya on a basin wide scale, however, they could be important for particular streams. Similar estimates of silicate contribution to uranium budget of these rivers using U/Na in silicates and Na* (Na corrected for cyclic and halite contributions) in river waters show that silicates can contribute significantly (approximately 40% on average) to their U balance. If, however, much of the uranium in these silicates is associated with weathering resistant minerals, then the estimated silicate uranium component would be upper limits. Uranium concentration in black shales averages about 37 microg g(-1). Based on this concentration, supply of U from at least approximately 50 mg of black shales per liter of river water is needed to balance the average river water U concentration, 1.7 microg L

  16. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the European Union

  17. The role of local renewable energy sources in regional energy production: The case of South-East Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laihanen, A. Karhunen, T. Ranta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper was on discussing the challenges and possibilities of promoting and utilising various renewable energy sources at the regional level. National obligations and the rising prices of fossil fuels have put pressure on energy producers and end users to start utilising renewable energy sources. South-East Finland has one of Europe’s highest forest industry concentrations, and renewable energy sources such as wood fuels are utilised widely. The study utilises earlier regional studies and statistics as well as new results from this study. These results are combined into regional potentials which are presented by regional energy balance. The analyses provide important background information for decision making. The various regions of Finland have different operational environments and local participants need motivation and activation regarding these local possibilities.

  18. Lowering IceCube's Energy Threshold for Point Source Searches in the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Burgman, A; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hansmann, T; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Pollmann, A Obertacke; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schimp, M; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wickmann, S; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-01-01

    Observation of a point source of astrophysical neutrinos would be a "smoking gun" signature of a cosmic-ray accelerator. While IceCube has recently discovered a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos, no localized point source has been observed. Previous IceCube searches for point sources in the southern sky were restricted by either an energy threshold above a few hundred TeV or poor neutrino angular resolution. Here we present a search for southern sky point sources with greatly improved sensitivities to neutrinos with energies below 100 TeV. By selecting charged-current $\

  19. RF broad-beam low-energy ion source with electron compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zykov A. V.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of single-grid RF ion source with 250 mm beam diameter and 1A beam current have been studied. Energy distribution functions of electrons and ions emitted by the source have been measured. It is shown that the emitted electron current is sufficient for full ion beam current compensation. The technique of ion to electron current ratio control allowing to change this ratio in wide range is proposed. Using the ICP in the source allows to rich high current density in the low ion energy range with the possibility of independent control of ion energy and current density.

  20. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used......This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...