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Sample records for abundant endogenous lipid

  1. N-arachidonoyl glycine, an abundant endogenous lipid, potently drives directed cellular migration through GPR18, the putative abnormal cannabidiol receptor

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    Vogel Zvi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia provide continuous immune surveillance of the CNS and upon activation rapidly change phenotype to express receptors that respond to chemoattractants during CNS damage or infection. These activated microglia undergo directed migration towards affected tissue. Importantly, the molecular species of chemoattractant encountered determines if microglia respond with pro- or anti-inflammatory behaviour, yet the signaling molecules that trigger migration remain poorly understood. The endogenous cannabinoid system regulates microglial migration via CB2 receptors and an as yet unidentified GPCR termed the 'abnormal cannabidiol' (Abn-CBD receptor. Abn-CBD is a synthetic isomer of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD and is inactive at CB1 or CB2 receptors, but functions as a selective agonist at this Gi/o-coupled GPCR. N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly is an endogenous metabolite of the endocannabinoid anandamide and acts as an efficacious agonist at GPR18. Here, we investigate the relationship between NAGly, Abn-CBD, the unidentified 'Abn-CBD' receptor, GPR18, and BV-2 microglial migration. Results Using Boyden chamber migration experiments, yellow tetrazolium (MTT conversion, In-cell Western, qPCR and immunocytochemistry we show that NAGly, at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and Abn-CBD potently drive cellular migration in both BV-2 microglia and HEK293-GPR18 transfected cells, but neither induce migration in HEK-GPR55 or non-transfected HEK293 wildtype cells. Migration effects are blocked or attenuated in both systems by the 'Abn-CBD' receptor antagonist O-1918, and low efficacy agonists N-arachidonoyl-serine and cannabidiol. NAGly promotes proliferation and activation of MAP kinases in BV-2 microglia and HEK293-GPR18 cells at low nanomolar concentrations - cellular responses correlated with microglial migration. Additionally, BV-2 cells show GPR18 immunocytochemical staining and abundant GPR18 mRNA. qPCR demonstrates that

  2. Complex links between dietary lipids, endogenous endotoxins and metabolic inflammation.

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    Laugerette, Fabienne; Vors, Cécile; Peretti, Noël; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic diseases such as obesity are characterized by a subclinical inflammatory state that contributes to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Recent reports also indicate that (i) there are alterations of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases and (ii) absorption of endogenous endotoxins (namely lipopolysaccharides, LPS) can occur, particularly during the digestion of lipids. The aim of the present review is to highlight recently gained knowledge regarding the links between high fat diets, lipid digestion, intestinal microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia & inflammation.

  3. The role of endogenous lipids in the emulsifying properties of cocoa

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    Joanne Marie Gould

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study in which the emulsifying properties of cocoa material with and without its lipid fraction were explored. This study was motivated by the commercial interest in naturally-occurring particulate emulsifiers as opposed to the chemically modified emulsifying particles presently available for commercial use. The hypothesis was that endogenous lipids from cocoa were responsible for driving the formation of stable oil-in-water (o/w emulsions. The data presented includes relative quantification of phospholipids from different commercially available cocoa material using 31P NMR spectroscopy and analyses of the emulsifying power of delipidified cocoa material. The commercially available cocoa material comprised several phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most abundant in all samples. Dispersions of delipidified cocoa material were found to drive the formation of o/w emulsions despite the absence of lipids. We therefore concluded that the emulsifying behaviour of cocoa material is not entirely reliant upon the endogenous lipids. This suggests that cocoa material may have a new and potentially widespread use in industrial food preparation and may inform manufacturing strategies for novel food grade emulsifiers.

  4. The role of endogenous lipids in the emulsifying properties of cocoa

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    Gould, Joanne; Furse, Samuel; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a study in which the emulsifying properties of cocoa material with and without its lipid fraction were explored. This study was motivated by the commercial interest in naturally-occurring particulate emulsifiers as opposed to the chemically modified emulsifying particles presently available for commercial use. The hypothesis was that endogenous lipids from cocoa were responsible for driving the formation of stable oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The data presented includes relative quantification of phospholipids from different commercially available cocoa material using 31P NMR spectroscopy and analyses of the emulsifying power of delipidified cocoa material. The commercially available cocoa material comprised several phospholipids, with phosphatidylcholine being the most abundant in all samples. Dispersions of delipidified cocoa material were found to drive the formation of o/w emulsions despite the absence of lipids. We therefore concluded that the emulsifying behaviour of cocoa material is not entirely reliant upon the endogenous lipids. This suggests that cocoa material may have a new and potentially widespread use in industrial food preparation and may inform manufacturing strategies for novel food grade emulsifiers.

  5. An increase in lipoprotein oxidation and endogenous lipid peroxides in serum of obese women.

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    Mutlu-Türkoğlu, U; Oztezcan, S; Telci, A; Orhan, Y; Aykaç-Toker, G; Sivas, A; Uysal, M

    2003-02-01

    Endogenous malondialdehyde and diene conjugate levels, the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to copper-induced lipid peroxidation, and antibody titer against oxidized low-density lipoproteins were increased, but serum antioxidant activity was unchanged in obese women. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoproteincholesterol, and trigliceride levels were also elevated, but high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels remained unchanged in obese women. In vitro, oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and levels of antibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlated with body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol levels in obese women. These results indicate that obesity is associated with increases in endogenous lipid peroxides, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and lipids in serum.

  6. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

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    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols, the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils.

  7. [Study of the processes of lipid peroxidation in patients with endogenous psychoses using gas chromatography].

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    Kovaleva, E S; Orlov, O N; Bogdanova, E D; Beliaev, B S; Tsutsul'kovskaia, M Ia

    1989-01-01

    The processes of lipid peroxidation were studied in healthy subjects and patients with manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenia using a non-invasive method based on chromatographic determination of endogenic pentane in the expired air. In patients with circular psychosis pentane concentration in the expired air did not differ from the norm, yet with advancing age it decreased (in contrast to an elevation in normal subjects). In schizophrenic patients pentane levels were significantly higher than in age-matched normal subjects. The level of the studied parameter was not correlated with the duration of the disease but showed a definite correlation with the severity of adverse disturbances in schizophrenia.

  8. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

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    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins.

  9. Lipid-Conjugation of Endogenous Neuropeptides: Improved Biotherapy against Human Pancreatic Cancer.

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    Gopalakrishnan, Gopakumar; Lepetre, Sinda; Maksimenko, Andrei; Mura, Simona; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptides are small neuronal signaling molecules that act as neuromodulators for a variety of neural functions including analgesia, reproduction, social behavior, learning, and memory. One of the endogenous neuropeptides-Met-Enkephalin (Met-Enk), has been shown to display an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, a novel lipid-modification approach is shown to create a small library of neuropeptides that will allow increased bioavailability and plasma stability after systemic administration. It is demonstrated, on an experimental model of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, that lipid conjugation of Met-Enk enhances its tumor suppression efficacy compared to its nonlipidated counterparts, both in vitro and in vivo. More strikingly, the in vivo studies show that a combination therapy with a reduced concentration of Gemcitabine has suppressed the tumor growth considerably even three weeks after the last treatment.

  10. Can endogenous lipid molecules serve as predictors and prognostic markers of coronary heart disease?

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    Das Undurti N

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyslipidemia, and inflammatory markers: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, myeloperoxidase (MPO, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2(Lp-PLA2, and lipid peroxides (LP are insufficient to predict the onset, extent, and prognosis of CHD. Lipoxins (LXs, resolvins, and protectins are derived from ω-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and ω-6 arachidonic acid in the presence of aspirin; whereas nitrolipids are formed due to the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids and nitric oxide (NO. LXs, resolvins, protectins, and nitrolipids are endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid molecules that inhibit production of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α, suppress free radical generation, enhance NO generation; and accelerate tissue repair. Thus, beneficial actions of EPA/DHA and aspirin in CHD could be attributed to the formation of LXs, resolvins, protectins, and nitrolipids and suggest that their plasma levels aid in the prediction and prognosis of CHD.

  11. FadD is required for utilization of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids.

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    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M

    2011-11-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a Δ5-desaturase (Δ5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by β-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth.

  12. The distribution and abundance of archaeal tetraether lipids in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

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    Julienne J. eParaiso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs are core membrane lipids of many archaea that enhance the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes in extreme environments. We examined the iGDGT profiles and corresponding aqueous geochemistry in 40 hot spring sediment and microbial mat samples from the U.S. Great Basin with temperatures ranging from 31 to 95°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 10.7. The absolute abundance of iGDGTs correlated negatively with pH and positively with temperature. High lipid concentrations, distinct lipid profiles, and a strong relationship between polar and core lipids in hot spring samples suggested in situ production of most iGDGTs rather than contamination from local soils. Two-way cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS of polar iGDGTs indicated that the relative abundance of individual lipids was most strongly related to temperature (r2 = 0.546, with moderate correlations with pH (r2 = 0.359, nitrite (r2 = 0.286, oxygen (r2 = 0.259, and nitrate (r2 = 0.215. Relative abundance profiles of individual polar iGDGTs indicated potential temperature optima for iGDGT-0 (≤70°C, iGDGT-3 (≥55°C, and iGDGT -4 (≥60°C. These relationships likely reflect both physiological adaptations and community-level population shifts in response to temperature differences, such as a shift from cooler samples with more abundant methanogens to higher-temperature samples with more abundant Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol was widely distributed across the temperature gradient, which is consistent with other reports of abundant crenarchaeol in Great Basin hot springs and suggests a wide distribution for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA.

  13. The distribution and abundance of archaeal tetraether lipids in U.S. Great Basin hot springs.

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    Paraiso, Julienne J; Williams, Amanda J; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A; Dong, Hailiang; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (iGDGTs) are core membrane lipids of many archaea that enhance the integrity of cytoplasmic membranes in extreme environments. We examined the iGDGT profiles and corresponding aqueous geochemistry in 40 hot spring sediment and microbial mat samples from the U.S. Great Basin with temperatures ranging from 31 to 95°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 10.7. The absolute abundance of iGDGTs correlated negatively with pH and positively with temperature. High lipid concentrations, distinct lipid profiles, and a strong relationship between polar and core lipids in hot spring samples suggested in situ production of most iGDGTs rather than contamination from local soils. Two-way cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of polar iGDGTs indicated that the relative abundance of individual lipids was most strongly related to temperature (r (2) = 0.546), with moderate correlations with pH (r (2) = 0.359), nitrite (r (2) = 0.286), oxygen (r (2) = 0.259), and nitrate (r (2) = 0.215). Relative abundance profiles of individual polar iGDGTs indicated potential temperature optima for iGDGT-0 (≤70°C), iGDGT-3 (≥55°C), and iGDGT-4 (≥60°C). These relationships likely reflect both physiological adaptations and community-level population shifts in response to temperature differences, such as a shift from cooler samples with more abundant methanogens to higher-temperature samples with more abundant Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol was widely distributed across the temperature gradient, which is consistent with other reports of abundant crenarchaeol in Great Basin hot springs and suggests a wide distribution for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA).

  14. Effects of colchicine on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and radiochemical studies in fasting rats

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    Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-03-01

    The involvement of microtubules in the transepithelial transport of exogenous lipid in intestinal absorptive cells has been suggested. Using electronmicroscopic, biochemical, and radiochemical methods, researchers have studied the effects of the antimicrotubular agent colchicine on the intestinal mucosa and on the intestinal transport of endogenous lipid of rats in the fasting state. After colchicine treatment, the concentration of triglycerides in intestinal mucosa of rats fasted for 24 h doubled, and electron microscopic studies showed a striking accumulation of lipid particles in absorptive epithelial cells of the tips of jejunal villi. These findings suggest that colchicine interferes with the intestinal transepithelial transport of endogenous lipoproteins. Additional studies, using an intraduodenal pulse injection of (/sup 14/C)linoleic acid, showed that colchicine does not affect the uptake of fatty acids by intestinal mucosa. However, it had divergent effects on fatty acid esterification, enhancing their incorporation into triglycerides relative to phospholipids, and caused a significant accumulation of endogenous diglycerides, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters within the absorptive intestinal epithelium. Detailed ultrastructural and morphometric studies revealed a decrease of visible microtubules, and a displacement of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, it is shown that after colchicine treatment, microvilli appear at the lateral plasma membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, a change not previously reported to our knowledge. Thus, our study shows that colchicine causes significant changes in enterocyte ultrastructure and colchicine perturbs the reesterification of absorbed endogenous fatty acids and their secretion in the form of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the enterocyte.

  15. CD1d-mediated Presentation of Endogenous Lipid Antigens by Adipocytes Requires Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein*

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    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Gijzel, Sanne M. W.; Siersbæk, Rasmus; Broekema, Marjoleine F.; de Haar, Colin; Schipper, Henk S.; Boes, Marianne; Mandrup, Susanne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction results in a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, the AT-resident immune cell profile alters to create a pro-inflammatory state. Very recently, CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes that are reactive to so called lipid antigens, were implicated in AT homeostasis. Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are up-regulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally controlled by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β and -δ. Moreover, adipocyte-induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine release by iNKT cells also occurred in the absence of exogenous ligands, suggesting the display of endogenous lipid antigen-D1d complexes by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, we identified microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which we show is also under the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and –δ, as a novel player in the presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes. Overall, our findings indicate that adipocytes can function as non-professional lipid antigen presenting cells, which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis. PMID:24966328

  16. CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

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    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Gijzel, Sanne M W; Siersbæk, Rasmus; Broekema, Marjoleine F; de Haar, Colin; Schipper, Henk S; Boes, Marianne; Mandrup, Susanne; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2014-08-08

    Obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction results in a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, the AT-resident immune cell profile alters to create a pro-inflammatory state. Very recently, CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes that are reactive to so called lipid antigens, were implicated in AT homeostasis. Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are up-regulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally controlled by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β and -δ. Moreover, adipocyte-induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine release by iNKT cells also occurred in the absence of exogenous ligands, suggesting the display of endogenous lipid antigen-D1d complexes by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, we identified microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which we show is also under the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and -δ, as a novel player in the presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes. Overall, our findings indicate that adipocytes can function as non-professional lipid antigen presenting cells, which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis.

  17. The relationships between exogenous and endogenous antioxidants with the lipid profile and oxidative damage in hemodialysis patients

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    Brucker Natália

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to investigate the relationships among the plasma levels of carotenoids, tocopherols, endogenous antioxidants, oxidative damage and lipid profiles and their possible effects on the cardiovascular risk associated with hemodialysis (HD patients. Methods The study groups were divided into HD and healthy subjects. Plasma carotenoid, tocopherol and malondialdehyde (MDA levels, as well as erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH, were measured by HPLC. Blood antioxidant enzymes, kidney function biomarkers and the lipid profiles were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods. Results Plasma lycopene levels and blood glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity were significantly decreased in HD patients compared with healthy subjects. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, creatinine, urea, MDA, GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were significantly increased in HD (p Conclusions Lycopene may represent an additional factor that contributes to reduced lipid peroxidation and atherogenesis in hemodialysis patients.

  18. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

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    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  19. Temporal variations in abundance and composition of intact polar lipids in North Sea coastal marine water

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    J. Brandsma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylglycerol (PG and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but possible phosphorous limitation during the spring bloom did not result in changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll-a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, whilst IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year did not result in major shifts in IPL composition. This shows that the most commonly occurring IPLs have limited chemotaxonomic potential, and highlights the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

  20. Total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving lipid resolvin D2 using a common lynchpin

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    John Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total synthesis of the endogenous inflammation resolving eicosanoid resolvin D2 (1 is described. The key steps involved a Wittig reaction between aldehyde 5 and the ylide derived from phosphonium salt 6 to give enyne 17 and condensation of the same ylide with aldehyde 7 to afford enyne 11. Desilylation of 11 followed by hydrozirconation and iodination gave the vinyl iodide 4 and Sonogashira coupling between this compound and enyne 3 provided alkyne 18. Acetonide deprotection, partial reduction and ester hydrolysis then gave resolvin D2 (1.

  1. [Effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in diffuse peritonitis].

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    Gadzhiev, N Dzh; Nasirov, M Ia; Sushkov, S V; Klimova, E M

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the results of effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in 111 patients with diffuse peritonitis. It was shown, that combined sequential local and systemic cytokine and ozone therapy allows correcting the expression of endogenous intoxication and lipid peroxidation in diffuse peritonitis. This method suppresses an inflammation in the abdominal cavity. At the same time, it accelerates the elimination of intestine atony and thereby potentiates the possibilities of traditional methods of treatment.

  2. Synergistic combinatorial antihyperlipidemic study of selected natural antioxidants; modulatory effects on lipid profile and endogenous antioxidants.

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    Hannan, Peer Abdul; Khan, Jamshaid Ali; Ullah, Irfan; Ullah, Safi

    2016-09-09

    Hyperlipidemia, a major pathological condition associated with disrupted lipid levels and physiological redox homeostasis. The excessive release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to enhanced lipid peroxidation, aggravated atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Integration of natural antioxidant blends in alone or with conventional treatments can alleviate these issues synergistically contributing least side effects. Published literature reported the efficacy of natural antioxidants as individual and in combinations in various conditions but less data is available on their evaluation in low dose ratio blends particularly in hypercholesterolemic diet. Antihyperlipidemic effects of selected natural antioxidants; the phenolic oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and pterostilbene (PT) with niacin (NA) were investigated in current study. Their effects on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and their aptitude to establish redox state between oxidants and antioxidants in body were evaluated in high cholesterol diet fed animal model. Male albino rabbits (n = 6) weighing 1.2-1.6 kg, supplemented with high cholesterol diet (400 mg/kg) for 12 weeks were used in the experiment. Antioxidants were administered individual high (100 mg/kg) and in low dose combinations (total dose = 100 mg/kg). Student's t test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet's test were used as statistical tools for evaluation. The results showed synergistic effects of low dose antioxidant blends. Therapies retarded elevation in blood lipid levels, lipid peroxidation and blood antioxidant depletion and consequently contributed in reestablishing redox homeostasis. The LDL/HDL ratio and atherogenic index were suppressed significantly in blend therapies with maximum effects of 59.3 and 25 % (p >0.001) observed in 50:30:20 ratios of OPC, NA and PT, compared to individual therapies 37 and 18 % max respectively. Moreover the results were also in close proximity with the statin

  3. Ordered Nanostructured Amphiphile Self-Assembly Materials from Endogenous Nonionic Unsaturated Monoethanolamide Lipids in Water

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    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Moghaddam, Minoo; Seddon, John M.; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MHT); (ICL)

    2010-08-23

    The self-assembly, solid state and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior of a series of endogenous n-acylethanolamides (NAEs) with differing degrees of unsaturation, viz., oleoyl monoethanolamide, linoleoyl monoethanolamide, and linolenoyl monoethanolamide, have been examined. The studied molecules are known to possess inherent biological function. Both the monoethanolamide headgroup and the unsaturated hydrophobe are found to be important in dictating the self-assembly behavior of these molecules. In addition, all three molecules form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in water, including the inverse bicontinuous cubic diamond (Q{sub II}{sup D}) and gyroid (Q{sub II}{sup G}) phases. The ability of the NAE's to form inverse cubic phases and to be dispersed into ordered nanostructured colloidal particles, cubosomes, in excess water, combined with their endogenous nature and natural medicinal properties, makes this new class of soft mesoporous amphiphile self-assembly materials suitable candidates for investigation in a variety of advanced multifunctional applications, including encapsulation and controlled release of therapeutic agents and incorporation of medical imaging agents.

  4. FadD Is Required for Utilization of Endogenous Fatty Acids Released from Membrane Lipids ▿ †

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    Pech-Canul, Ángel; Nogales, Joaquina; Miranda-Molina, Alfonso; Álvarez, Laura; Geiger, Otto; Soto, María José; López-Lara, Isabel M.

    2011-01-01

    FadD is an acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase responsible for the activation of exogenous long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) into acyl-CoAs. Mutation of fadD in the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti promotes swarming motility and leads to defects in nodulation of alfalfa plants. In this study, we found that S. meliloti fadD mutants accumulated a mixture of free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. The composition of the free fatty acid pool and the results obtained after specific labeling of esterified fatty acids with a Δ5-desaturase (Δ5-Des) were in agreement with membrane phospholipids being the origin of the released fatty acids. Escherichia coli fadD mutants also accumulated free fatty acids released from membrane lipids in the stationary phase. This phenomenon did not occur in a mutant of E. coli with a deficient FadL fatty acid transporter, suggesting that the accumulation of fatty acids in fadD mutants occurs inside the cell. Our results indicate that, besides the activation of exogenous LCFA, in bacteria FadD plays a major role in the activation of endogenous fatty acids released from membrane lipids. Furthermore, expression analysis performed with S. meliloti revealed that a functional FadD is required for the upregulation of genes involved in fatty acid degradation and suggested that in the wild-type strain, the fatty acids released from membrane lipids are degraded by β-oxidation in the stationary phase of growth. PMID:21926226

  5. Discovery of a class of endogenous mammalian lipids with anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Mark M; Syed, Ismail; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M; Zhang, Tejia; Herman, Mark A; Homan, Edwin A; Patel, Rajesh T; Lee, Jennifer; Chen, Shili; Peroni, Odile D; Dhaneshwar, Abha S; Hammarstedt, Ann; Smith, Ulf; McGraw, Timothy E; Saghatelian, Alan; Kahn, Barbara B

    2014-10-09

    Increased adipose tissue lipogenesis is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity. Mice overexpressing the Glut4 glucose transporter in adipocytes have elevated lipogenesis and increased glucose tolerance despite being obese with elevated circulating fatty acids. Lipidomic analysis of adipose tissue revealed the existence of branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) that were elevated 16- to 18-fold in these mice. FAHFA isomers differ by the branched ester position on the hydroxy fatty acid (e.g., palmitic-acid-9-hydroxy-stearic-acid, 9-PAHSA). PAHSAs are synthesized in vivo and regulated by fasting and high-fat feeding. PAHSA levels correlate highly with insulin sensitivity and are reduced in adipose tissue and serum of insulin-resistant humans. PAHSA administration in mice lowers ambient glycemia and improves glucose tolerance while stimulating GLP-1 and insulin secretion. PAHSAs also reduce adipose tissue inflammation. In adipocytes, PAHSAs signal through GPR120 to enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Thus, FAHFAs are endogenous lipids with the potential to treat type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipid-Derived Mediators in Endogenous Anti-Inflammation and Resolution: Lipoxins and Aspirin-Triggered 15-epi-Lipoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N. Serhan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well appreciated that lipid-derived mediators play key roles in inflammation and many other physiologic responses where multicellular processes are involved. Among them, lipoxins (LX and aspirin-triggered LX (ATL evoke actions of interest in a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, and these two series have emerged as founding members of the first class of lipid/chemical mediators “switched on” in the resolution phase of an inflammatory reaction. These unique compounds possess a trihydroxytetraene structure and are both structurally and functionally distinct among the many groups of lipid-derived bioactive mediators. LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 (a member of the ATL series display leukocyte-selective actions that enable them to serve as endogenous “stop signals” in multicellular events in that they modulate adherence, transmigration, and chemotaxis. Both LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 elicit these responses via a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, termed ALXR, identified in human and murine tissues. Among eicosanoids, ALXR is stereoselective for LXA4 (5S,6R,15S-trihydroxy-7,9,13-trans-11-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid. Its aspirin-triggered 15R epimer (15-epi-LXA4 and their bioactive stable analogs act in the subnanomolar to nanomolar range in human cellular systems and murine models of acute inflammation and reperfusion. ALXR also has the ability to interact with a wide panel of small peptides that give different signaling responses in vitro than LXA4 or its analogs, suggesting that ALXR is capable of serving as a multirecognition receptor in immune responses. Characterization of ALXR and development of metabolically stable LX and ATL analogs that are mimetics rapidly advanced our appreciation of the mechanism of LX actions and the potential utility of these counter-regulatory biocircuits in the quest to control local inflammatory events. In this on-line update, LX and ATL biosynthesis and the LXA4 specific receptor, termed ALXR, are

  7. Effects of EPA and DHA on lipid droplet accumulation and mRNA abundance of PAT proteins in caprine monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchi, Cristina; Invernizzi, Guido; Agazzi, Alessandro; Modina, Silvia; Sartorelli, Paola; Savoini, Giovanni; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro effects on caprine monocytes of two ω-3 PUFAs, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on lipid droplet formation, an emerging process of fundamental importance in innate immunity regulation. The mRNA abundance of PAT protein family (PLIN1, PLIN2 and PLIN3), involved in the formation and trafficking of the droplets, was also assessed. The effects of EPA and DHA on monocyte apoptosis were studied as well. The number of lipid droplets per cell was found to be dependent on both type and concentration of fatty acid. ω-3 PUFAs upregulated PLIN3 and PLIN2 gene expression, as well as apoptosis rate. The present findings suggest that PUFA might modify innate immune functions of goat monocytes by interfering with the formation of lipid droplets and by upregulating proteins belonging to PAT protein family.

  8. Abundant genetic overlap between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases indicates shared molecular genetic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole A Andreassen

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases, but the nature of these associations is not well understood. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS to investigate shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases. We analyzed data from GWAS (n~200,000 individuals, applying new False Discovery Rate (FDR methods, to investigate genetic overlap between blood lipid levels [triglycerides (TG, low density lipoproteins (LDL, high density lipoproteins (HDL] and a selection of archetypal immune-mediated diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, psoriasis and sarcoidosis. We found significant polygenic pleiotropy between the blood lipids and all the investigated immune-mediated diseases. We discovered several shared risk loci between the immune-mediated diseases and TG (n = 88, LDL (n = 87 and HDL (n = 52. Three-way analyses differentiated the pattern of pleiotropy among the immune-mediated diseases. The new pleiotropic loci increased the number of functional gene network nodes representing blood lipid loci by 40%. Pathway analyses implicated several novel shared mechanisms for immune pathogenesis and lipid biology, including glycosphingolipid synthesis (e.g. FUT2 and intestinal host-microbe interactions (e.g. ATG16L1. We demonstrate a shared genetic basis for blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases independent of environmental factors. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into dyslipidemia and immune-mediated diseases and may have implications for therapeutic trials involving lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory agents.

  9. Isolation and characterization of multiple abundant lipid transfer protein isoforms in developing sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ah Mi; Lee, Saet Buyl; Cho, Sung Ho; Hwang, Inhwan; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Suh, Mi Chung

    2008-02-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is an important oilseed crop; approximately 50% of the seed dry weight is storage oil. In a previous report, developing sesame seed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed that ESTs encoding lipid transfer protein (LTPs) were one of the most abundant groups of sesame ESTs. LTP functions in the transfer of wax or cutin monomers and in the defense response against pathogen attack. To study the biological role of the abundant LTP isoforms in developing seeds, 122 ESTs out of 3328 sesame ESTs were analyzed against Arabidopsis and rice proteome databases. LTP fraction, which was partially purified from developing sesame seeds, actively transferred fluorescent phospholipids and bound to fatty acids. Full-length cDNAs of five out of 21 LTP isoforms were isolated and named SiLTP1-SiLTP5. The predicted amino acid sequences of the five SiLTPs harbor typical characteristics of LTPs, including conserved arrangement of cysteine residues. Northern blot analysis revealed that the five SiLTP isoforms were most abundantly expressed in developing seeds, but were also detected in flower tissues. Also, SiLTP3 and SiLTP4 transcripts were expressed in leaves and seed-pot walls, respectively. In addition, SiLTP2 and SiLTP4 transcripts were significantly induced in 6-day-old sesame seedlings by application of NaCl, mannitol, and abscisic acid (ABA). Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion constructs in Arabidopsis protoplasts revealed that SiLTP1 and SiLTP2 were secreted by different pathways. Taken together, the abundant LTPs in developing sesame seeds are involved in lipid transfer into the extracellular matrix. Possible biological roles of SiLTPs related to organ-specific expression and abiotic stresses are discussed.

  10. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  11. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  12. Ultrafine particles affect the balance of endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in the lung: in-vitro and in-vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck-Speier Ingrid

    2012-07-01

    significantly increased also one day after UfCP exposure. Immunohistochemistry localized highest concentrations of PGE2 especially in AM one day after UfCP exposure. Conclusion Our results suggest that UfCP exposure affects the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. In allergic mice, where the endogenous balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is already altered, UfCP exposure aggravates the inflammation and the increase in anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving lipid mediators is insufficient to counterbalance the extensive inflammatory response. This may be a contributing mechanism that explains the increased susceptibility of asthmatic patients towards particle exposure.

  13. Microbial Diversity and Lipid Abundance in Microbial Mats from a Sulfidic, Saline, Warm Spring in Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J.; Edwardson, C.; Mackey, T. J.; Dzaugis, M.; Ibarra, Y.; Course 2012, G.; Frantz, C. M.; Osburn, M. R.; Hirst, M.; Williamson, C.; Hanselmann, K.; Caporaso, J.; Sessions, A. L.; Spear, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The microbial diversity of Stinking Springs, a sulfidic, saline, warm spring northeast of the Great Salt Lake was investigated. The measured pH, temperature, salinity, and sulfide concentration along the flow path ranged from 6.64-7.77, 40-28° C, 2.9-2.2%, and 250 μM to negligible, respectively. Five sites were selected along the flow path and within each site microbial mats were dissected into depth profiles based on the color and texture of the mat layers. Genomic DNA was extracted from each layer, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced on the Roche 454 Titanium platform. Fatty acids were also extracted from the mat layers and analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The mats at Stinking Springs were classified into roughly two morphologies with respect to their spatial distribution: loose, sometimes floating mats proximal to the spring source; and thicker, well-laminated mats distal to the spring source. Loosely-laminated mats were found in turbulent stream flow environments, whereas well-laminated mats were common in less turbulent sheet flows. Phototrophs, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers, methanogens, other bacteria and archaea were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Diatoms, identified by microscopy and lipid analysis were found to increase in abundance with distance from the source. Methanogens were generally more abundant in deeper mat laminae. Photoheterotrophs were found in all mat layers. Microbial diversity increased significantly with depth at most sites. In addition, two distinct microbial streamers were identified and characterized at the two fast flowing sites. These two streamer varieties were dominated by either cyanobacteria or flavobacteria. Overall, our genomic and lipid analysis suggest that the physical and chemical environment is more predictive of the community composition than mat morphology. Site Map

  14. [Regularities of endogenous lipid metabolites formation in phorbol 12-miristate 13-acetate-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes at leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batikian, T B; Akopian, G V; Lazian, M P; Torgomian, T R; Kazarian, R A; Amirkhanian, E S; Tadevosian, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Regularities of biologically active lipid metabolites formation in dynamics (5, 10, 30, 60 s) by phorbol 12-miristate 13-acetate stimulation in [14C]palmitic acid have been investigated in normal and leukemia peripheral blood lymphocytes prelabeled with [14C]palmitate. In normal cells there was two-phase formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (5, 30 s), lysophosphatidylcholine (10, 60 s), as well as free palmitic acid at 10 s of stimulation. Under the identical experimental conditions there was inhibition of investigated lipid release processes at early (5 and 10 s) stages of stimulation of leukemic lymphocytes. At later (30, 60 s) terms of these lymphocytes the activation, basically, similar to norm changes in the formation of palmitic acid-containing metabolites except free palmitic acid (the level of which raised only at 60 second of the post-stimulation) was found. Various protein kinases C are involved in the regulation of investigated lipid levels at certain stages of signal transduction both in norm, and in blast cells. Short-term (5, 10 s) activations of healthy donors lymphocytes are coupled to functioning of Ca2+-independent isoforms of protein kinase C. The inhibition of this protein kinase C in leukemic cells leads to normalization of the investigated lipid release. The data obtained suggests disorders of early membrane-bound reactions in agonist - and a protein kinase C-mediated processes of formation palmitic acid-containing lipid metabolites in the leukemic cells in comparison with the norm.

  15. Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Endogenous Lipids from Rat Brain Tissue Implanted with Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ludovic; Baldwin, Kathrine; Barbacci, Damon C.; Jackson, Shelley N.; Roux, Aurélie; Balaban, Carey D.; Brinson, Bruce E.; McCully, Michael I.; Lewis, Ernest K.; Schultz, J. Albert; Woods, Amina S.

    2017-08-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of tissue implanted with silver nanoparticulate (AgNP) matrix generates reproducible imaging of lipids in rodent models of disease and injury. Gas-phase production and acceleration of size-selected 8 nm AgNP is followed by controlled ion beam rastering and soft landing implantation of 500 eV AgNP into tissue. Focused 337 nm laser desorption produces high quality images for most lipid classes in rat brain tissue (in positive mode: galactoceramides, diacylglycerols, ceramides, phosphatidylcholines, cholesteryl ester, and cholesterol, and in negative ion mode: phosphatidylethanolamides, sulfatides, phosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelins). Image reproducibility in serial sections of brain tissue is achieved within lipid types having the fatty acid as a subunit. Almost no argentated intact fatty acid ions come from the pure fatty acid standard on tissue.

  16. The synthetic cationic lipid diC14 activates a sector of the Arabidopsis defence network requiring endogenous signalling components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiagno, Damián Alejandro; Lonez, Caroline; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Alvarez, María Elena

    2015-12-01

    Natural and synthetic elicitors have contributed significantly to the study of plant immunity. Pathogen-derived proteins and carbohydrates that bind to immune receptors, allow the fine dissection of certain defence pathways. Lipids of a different nature that act as defence elicitors, have also been studied, but their specific effects have been less well characterized, and their receptors have not been identified. In animal cells, nanoliposomes of the synthetic cationic lipid 3-tetradecylamino-tert-butyl-N-tetradecylpropionamidine (diC14) activate the TLR4-dependent immune cascade. Here, we have investigated whether this lipid induces Arabidopsis defence responses. At the local level, diC14 activated early and late defence gene markers (FRK1, WRKY29, ICS1 and PR1), acting in a dose-dependent manner. This lipid induced the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent, but not jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent, pathway and protected plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), but not Botrytis cinerea. diC14 was not toxic to plant or pathogen, and potentiated pathogen-induced callose deposition. At the systemic level, diC14 induced PR1 expression and conferred resistance against Pst. diC14-induced defence responses required the signalling protein EDS1, but not NDR1. Curiously, the lipid-induced defence gene expression was lower in the fls2/efr/cerk1 triple mutant, but still unchanged in the single mutants. The amidine headgroup and chain length were important for its activity. Given the robustness of the responses triggered by diC14, its specific action on a defence pathway and the requirement for well-known defence components, this synthetic lipid is emerging as a useful tool to investigate the initial events involved in plant innate immunity.

  17. CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Gijzel, Sanne M W; Siersbæk, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction results in a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, the AT-resident immune cell profile alters to create a pro-inflammatory state. Very recently......-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are upregulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally...

  18. New Insights into the Role of Macrophages in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fatty Liver Disease: Modulation by Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acid-derived Lipid Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan eClària

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is causally linked to a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Prolonged, unremitting inflammation in this tissue has a direct impact on insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e. liver and its timely resolution is a critical step toward reducing the prevalence of related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This article describes the current state-of-the-art knowledge and novel insights into the role of macrophages in adipose tissue inflammation, with special emphasis on the progressive changes in macrophage polarization observed over the course of obesity. In addition, this article extends the discussion to the contribution of Kupffer cells, the liver resident macrophages, to metabolic liver disease. Special attention is given to the modulation of macrophage responses by omega-3-PUFAs, and more importantly by resolvins, which are potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving autacoids generated from docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. In fact, resolvins have been shown to work as endogenous stop signals in inflamed adipose tissue and to return this tissue to homeostasis by inducing a phenotypic switch in macrophage polarization toward a pro-resolving phenotype. Collectively, this article offers new views on the role of macrophages in metabolic disease and their modulation by endogenously-generated omega-3-PUFA-derived lipid mediators.

  19. New Insights into the Role of Macrophages in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fatty Liver Disease: Modulation by Endogenous Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Lipid Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clària, Joan; González-Périz, Ana; López-Vicario, Cristina; Rius, Bibiana; Titos, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is causally linked to a chronic state of “low-grade” inflammation in adipose tissue. Prolonged, unremitting inflammation in this tissue has a direct impact on insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e., liver) and its timely resolution is a critical step toward reducing the prevalence of related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This article describes the current state-of-the-art knowledge and novel insights into the role of macrophages in adipose tissue inflammation, with special emphasis on the progressive changes in macrophage polarization observed over the course of obesity. In addition, this article extends the discussion to the contribution of Kupffer cells, the liver resident macrophages, to metabolic liver disease. Special attention is given to the modulation of macrophage responses by omega-3-PUFAs, and more importantly by resolvins, which are potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving autacoids generated from docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. In fact, resolvins have been shown to work as endogenous “stop signals” in inflamed adipose tissue and to return this tissue to homeostasis by inducing a phenotypic switch in macrophage polarization toward a pro-resolving phenotype. Collectively, this article offers new views on the role of macrophages in metabolic disease and their modulation by endogenously generated omega-3-PUFA-derived lipid mediators. PMID:22566839

  20. Evidence Suggesting That Francisella tularensis O-Antigen Capsule Contains a Lipid A-Like Molecule That Is Structurally Distinct from the More Abundant Free Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Barker

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, produces a high molecular weight capsule that is immunologically distinct from Francisella lipopolysaccharide but contains the same O-antigen tetrasaccharide. To pursue the possibility that the capsule of Francisella live vaccine strain (LVS has a structurally unique lipid anchor, we have metabolically labeled Francisella with [14C]acetate to facilitate highly sensitive compositional analysis of capsule-associated lipids. Capsule was purified by two independent methods and yielded similar results. Autoradiographic and immunologic analysis confirmed that this purified material was largely devoid of low molecular weight LPS and of the copious amounts of free lipid A that the Francisellae accumulate. Chemical hydrolysis yielded [14C]-labeled free fatty acids characteristic of Francisella lipid A but with a different molar ratio of 3-OH C18:0 to 3-OH C16:0 and different composition of non-hydroxylated fatty acids (mainly C14:0 rather than C16:0 than that of free Francisella lipid A. Mild acid hydrolysis to induce selective cleavage of KDO-lipid A linkage yielded a [14C]-labeled product that partitioned during Bligh/Dyer extraction and migrated during thin-layer chromatography like lipid A. These findings suggest that the O-antigen capsule of Francisella contains a covalently linked and structurally distinct lipid A species. The presence of a discrete lipid A-like molecule associated with capsule raises the possibility that Francisella selectively exploits lipid A structural heterogeneity to regulate synthesis, transport, and stable bacterial surface association of the O-antigen capsular layer.

  1. Influence of Growth Phase, pH, and Temperature on the Abundance and Composition of Tetraether Lipids in the Thermoacidophile Picrophilus torridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyhl-Buska, Jayme; Chen, Yufei; Jia, Chengling; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Boyd, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and composition of glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) and glycerol tribiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GTGT) lipids were determined as a function of growth phase as a proxy for nutrient availability, the pH of growth medium, and incubation temperature in cultures of the thermoacidophile Picrophilus torridus. Regardless of the cultivation condition, the abundance of GDGTs and GTGTs was greater in the polar than core fraction, with a marked decrease in core GDGTs in cultures harvested during log phase growth. These data are consistent with previous suggestions indicating that core GDGTs are re-functionalized during polar lipid synthesis. Under all conditions examined, polar lipids were enriched in a GDGT with 2 cyclopentyl rings (GDGT-2), indicating GDGT-2 is the preferred lipid in this taxon. However, lag or stationary phase grown cells or cells subjected to pH or thermal stress were enriched in GDGTs with 4, 5, or 6 rings and depleted in GDGTs with 1, 2, 3, rings relative to log phase cells grown under optimal conditions. Variation in the composition of polar GDGT lipids in cells harvested during various growth phases tended to be greater than in cells cultivated over a pH range of 0.3–1.1 and a temperature range of 53–63°C. These results suggest that the growth phase, the pH of growth medium, and incubation temperature are all important factors that shape the composition of tetraether lipids in Picrophilus. The similarity in enrichment of GDGTs with more rings in cultures undergoing nutrient, pH, and thermal stress points to GDGT cyclization as a generalized physiological response to stress in this taxon. PMID:27625636

  2. The highly abundant protein Ag-Ibp55 from Ascaridia galli represents a novel type of lipid-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordanova, R; Radoslavov, G; Fischer, P; Torda, A; Lottspeich, F; Boteva, R; Walter, RD; Bankov, [No Value; Liebau, E

    2005-01-01

    Lipid-binding proteins exhibit important functions in lipid transport, cellular signaling, gene transcription, and cytoprotection. Their functional analogues in nematodes are nematode polyprotein allergens/antigens and fatty acid and retinoid-binding proteins. This work describes a novel 55-kDa prot

  3. [Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa

    2013-09-01

    Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, which includes familial hypertriglyceridemia and idiopathic hypertriglyceridemia, is characterized by the increased level of VLDL-triglycerides in the blood. Increased production of VLDL from the liver and the decreased catabolism of VLDL-TG in the vessel, which are also the main metabolic features of insulin resistance, have been proposed to be the causes of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic factors responsible for endogenous hypertriglyceridemia have been elucidated in several studies, however, these factors have so far not been clearly identified yet; thus the causes of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia would be polygenic. Recent advances in the genetic analytical methods like genome-wide association study would hopefully unveil the whole pictures of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia.

  4. Plant lipid signaling protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.; Heilmann, I.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by membranes consisting of various lipids, including sterols, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids. Besides structural functions, membranes also contain lipids with regulatory and signaling roles. Such lipids include polyphosphoinositides, the low-abundant

  5. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples.

  6. Environmental variations in a semi-enclosed embayment (Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece – reconstructions based on benthic foraminifera abundance and lipid biomarker pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaberi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of environmental changes during the last decades and the impact on the living biomass in the western part of Amvrakikos Gulf was investigated using abundances of benthic foraminifera and lipid biomarker concentrations. These proxies indicated that the gulf has dramatically changed due to eutrophication. Eutrophication has led to a higher productivity, a higher bacterial biomass, shifts towards opportunistic and tolerant benthic foraminifera species (e.g. B. elongata, N. turgida, T. agglutinans, A. tepida and a lower benthic species density. Close to the Preveza Straits (connection between the gulf and the Ionian Sea, the benthic assemblages appeared to be less productive and more diversified under more oxygenated conditions. Sea grass meadows largely contributed to the organic matter at this sampling site. Isorenieratane, chlorobactane and lycopane together with oxygen monitoring data indicated that anoxic (and partly euxinic conditions prevailed seasonally throughout the western part of the gulf with more severe hypoxia towards the east. Increased surface water temperatures have led to a higher stratification, which reduced oxygen resupply to bottom waters. These developments are reasons for mass mortality events and ecosystem decline observed in Amvrakikos Gulf.

  7. Non-enzymatically derived minor lipids found in Escherichia coli lipid extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa A; Raetz, Christian R H; Son, Jennifer D; Richardson, Travis D; Bartling, Craig; Guan, Ziqiang

    2011-11-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is a powerful technique to analyze lipid extracts especially for the identification of new lipid metabolites. A hurdle to lipid identification is the presence of solvent contaminants that hinder the identification of low abundance species or covalently modify abundant lipid species. We have identified several non-enzymatically derived minor lipid species in lipid extracts of Escherichia coli; phosphatidylmethanol, ethyl and methyl carbamates of PE and N-succinyl PE were identified in lipid extracts of E. coli. Phosphatidylmethanol (PM) was identified by exact mass measurement and collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Extraction in the presence of deuterated methanol leads to a 3 atomic mass unit shift in the [M-H](-) ions of PM indicating its formation during extraction. Ethyl and methyl carbamates of PE, also identified by exact mass measurement and MS/MS, are likely to be formed by phosgene, a breakdown product of chloroform. Addition of phosgene to extractions containing synthetic PE significantly increases the levels of PE-MC detected in the lipid extracts by ESI-MS. Extraction in the presence of methylene chloride significantly reduced the levels of these lipid species. N-succinyl PE is formed from reaction of succinyl-CoA with PE during extraction. Interestingly N-succinyl PE can be formed in an aqueous reaction mixture in the absence of added E. coli proteins. This work highlights the reactivity of the amine of PE and emphasizes that careful extraction controls are required to ensure that new minor lipid species identified using mass spectrometry are indeed endogenous lipid metabolites.

  8. Endogenous Estradiol and Testosterone may Predispose toward Atherogenic Lipid Profile, but Higher Blood Level of Testosterone is Associated with Lower Number of Stenoses in the Coronary Arteries of Men with Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Kula, Piotr; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the correlations between blood levels of sex steroid hormones and blood lipid profile or the degree of coronary artery stenosis in men with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 111 men with stable CAD, aged 36-73 yrs, unselected for the coexisting clinical coronary risk factors were prospectively studied. Degree of coronary stenosis was assessed angiographically using different indices. Total cholesterol (T-Ch), high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-Ch), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-Ch), triglicerydes (TG), testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the blood. Free testosterone index (FTI) was calculated. Results: A positive, significant correlations were found between blood concentrations of estradiol and T-Ch (r=0.29, p<0.01) or LDL-Ch (r=0.34, p<0.005) as well as between FTI and blood LDL-Ch (r=0.23, p<0.05). Blood level of estradiol negatively correlated with HDL-Ch/T-Ch ratio (r=-0.21, p<0.05). While blood levels of T-Ch correlated positively with 3 out of 5 applied here indices of coronary stenosis, blood LDL-Ch with two of them. In turn, blood level of testosterone negatively correlated with one index of coronary stenosis (r=-0.26, p<0.05). Conclusion: In men with CAD, plasma estradiol concentrations are predictive for T-Ch, LDL-Ch and HDL-Ch/TCh ratio, and FTI for LDL-Ch. Regression analyses indicated that while sex steroid hormones may predispose toward atherogenic lipid profile and are predictive for the number and degree of coronary artery stenosis, higher blood level of total testosterone was associated with the lower number of stenosis in the coronary arteries. Hence, endogenous testosterone may have beneficial effect on coronary arteries. PMID:23674975

  9. Linking isoprenoidal GDGT membrane lipid distributions with gene abundances of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and uncultured crenarchaeotal groups in the water column of a tropical lake (Lake Challa, East Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Laura K; Villanueva, Laura; Weijers, Johan W H; Verschuren, Dirk; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2013-09-01

    Stratified lakes are important reservoirs of microbial diversity and provide habitats for niche differentiation of Archaea. In this study, we used a lipid biomarker/DNA-based approach to reveal the diversity and abundance of Archaea in the water column of Lake Challa (East Africa). Concentrations of intact polar lipid (IPL) crenarchaeol, a specific biomarker of Thaumarchaeota, were enhanced (1 ng l(-1) ) at the oxycline/nitrocline. The predominance of the more labile IPL hexose-phosphohexose crenarchaeol indicated the presence of an actively living community of Thaumarchaeota. Archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of thaumarchaeotal groups 1.1a and 1.1b at and above the oxycline. In the anoxic deep water, amoA gene abundance was an order of magnitude lower than at the oxycline and high abundance (∼90 ng l(-1) ) of an IPL with the acyclic glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT-0) was evident. The predominance of archaeal 16S rRNA sequences affiliated to the uncultured crenarchaeota groups 1.2 and miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group (MCG) points to an origin of GDGT-0 from uncultured crenarchaeota. This study demonstrates the importance of thermal stratification and nutrient availability in the distribution of archaeal groups in lakes, which is relevant to constrain and validate temperature proxies based on archaeal GDGTs (i.e. TEX86 ).

  10. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  11. The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings, the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly

  12. The ATG autophagic conjugation system in maize: ATG transcripts and abundance of the ATG8-lipid adduct are regulated by development and nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Taijoon; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Vierstra, Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Plants employ sophisticated mechanisms to recycle intracellular constituents needed for growth, development, and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Autophagy is one important route in which cytoplasm and organelles are sequestered in bulk into vesicles and subsequently delivered to the vacuole for breakdown by resident hydrolases. The formation and trafficking of autophagic vesicles are directed in part by associated conjugation cascades that couple the AUTOPHAGY-RELATED8 (ATG8) and ATG12 proteins to their respective targets, phosphatidylethanolamine and the ATG5 protein. To help understand the importance of autophagy to nutrient remobilization in cereals, we describe here the ATG8/12 conjugation cascades in maize (Zea mays) and examine their dynamics during development, leaf senescence, and nitrogen and fixed-carbon starvation. From searches of the maize genomic sequence using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) counterparts as queries, we identified orthologous loci encoding all components necessary for ATG8/12 conjugation, including a five-member gene family expressing ATG8. Alternative splicing was evident for almost all Atg transcripts, which could have important regulatory consequences. In addition to free ATG8, its membrane-associated, lipidated form was detected in many maize tissues, suggesting that its conjugation cascade is active throughout the plant at most, if not all, developmental stages. Levels of Atg transcripts and/or the ATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine adduct increase during leaf senescence and nitrogen and fixed-carbon limitations, indicating that autophagy plays a key role in nutrient remobilization. The description of the maize ATG system now provides a battery of molecular and biochemical tools to study autophagy in this crop under field conditions.

  13. Alpha-tocopherol protects against oxidative damage to lipids of the rod outer segments of the equine retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasa, Ana M; Guajardo, Margarita H; Marra, Carlos A; Zapata, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a possible risk factor for eye diseases. Lipid peroxidation is one of the major events induced by oxidative stress and is particularly active in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich biomembranes. This work evaluated endogenous lipid antioxidants, in vitro non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of rod outer segment membranes (ROS), the fatty acid composition during oxidative damage of total lipids from equine retina and ROS, and the protective action of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc). The major lipid soluble antioxidant was alpha-Toc followed by retinoids and carotenoids. The retina contained a high percentage of PUFAs, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). Lipid peroxidation of the equine ROS, induced by Fe(2+)-ascorbate, was monitored using chemiluminescence (CL) with or without pre-treatment with alpha-Toc. With alpha-Toc pre-treatment, CL values were significantly decreased. The most abundant fatty acid was 22:6n-3. After 3h incubation, 95% of total PUFAs were destroyed by peroxidation, whereas in alpha-Toc pre-treated ROS the percentage was significantly decreased. The results show that the retina has an endogenous lipid soluble antioxidant system. ROS were highly sensitive to oxidative damage, since their fatty acid composition was markedly modified during the lipid peroxidation process. The protective role of alpha-Toc as an antioxidant was evident and it could be used in the treatment of equine ocular diseases in which free radicals are involved.

  14. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    -fasted states. Dietary intake of taurine and glycine correlated negatively with body mass gain and total fat mass, while intake of all other amino acids correlated positively. Furthermore taurine and glycine intake correlated positively with improved plasma lipid profile, i.e., lower levels of plasma lipids...... and higher HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio. In conclusion, dietary scallop protein completely prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity whilst maintaining lean body mass and improving the plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice......., glycerol and hydroxy-butyrate levels were significantly reduced, indicating reduced lipid mobilization in scallop-fed mice. The plasma HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio was higher, suggesting increased reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol clearance in scallop-fed mice in both fasted and non...

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders May Be Due to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Associated with Chronic Neuroinflammation Causing Persistent Hypercytokinemia that Resulted in an Increased Lipid Peroxidation, Oxidative Stress, and Depressed Metabolism of Endogenous and Exogenous Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 2 billion people are chronically infected with "Toxoplasma gondii" with largely yet unknown consequences. Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) similarly as mice with chronic toxoplasmosis have persistent neuroinflammation, hypercytokinemia with hypermetabolism associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation, and…

  16. The Endogenous Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Brad Baxter; Liam Graham; Stephen Wright

    2007-01-01

    We relax the assumption of full information that underlies most dynamic general equilibrium models, and instead assume agents optimally form estimates of the states from an incomplete information set. We derive a version of the Kalman filter that is endogenous to agents' optimising decisions, and state conditions for its convergence. We show the (restrictive) conditions under which the endogenous Kalman filter will at least asymptotically reveal the true states. In general we show that incomp...

  17. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Health and endogenous growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, A; Muysken, J

    2001-03-01

    The focus of endogenous growth theory on human capital formation and the physical embodiment of knowledge in people, suggests the integration of the growth supporting character of health production and the growth generating services of human capital accumulation in an endogenous growth framework. We show that a slow down in growth may be explained by a preference for health that is positively influenced by a growing income per head, or by an ageing population. Growth may virtually disappear for countries with high rates of decay of health, low productivity of the health-sector, or high rates of discount.

  19. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Hamilton, Trinity L; Wang, Jinxiang; He, Liu; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Diether and tetraether lipids are fundamental components of the archaeal cell membrane. Archaea adjust the degree of tetraether lipid cyclization in order to maintain functional membranes and cellular homeostasis when confronted with pH and/or thermal stress. Thus, the ability to adjust tetraether lipid composition likely represents a critical phenotypic trait that enabled archaeal diversification into environments characterized by extremes in pH and/or temperature. Here we assess the relationship between geochemical variation, core- and polar-isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT, respectively) lipid composition, and archaeal 16S rRNA gene diversity and abundance in 27 geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The composition and abundance of C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal ecosystems were distinct from surrounding soils, indicating that they are synthesized endogenously. With the exception of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), the abundances of individual C-iGDGT and P-iGDGT lipids were significantly correlated. The abundance of a number of individual tetraether lipids varied positively with the relative abundance of individual 16S rRNA gene sequences, most notably crenarchaeol in both the core and polar GDGT fraction and sequences closely affiliated with Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. This finding supports the proposal that crenarchaeol is a biomarker for nitrifying archaea. Variation in the degree of cyclization of C- and P-iGDGT lipids recovered from geothermal mats and sediments could best be explained by variation in spring pH, with lipids from acidic environments tending to have, on average, more internal cyclic rings than those from higher pH ecosystems. Likewise, variation in the phylogenetic composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes could best be explained by spring pH. In turn, the phylogenetic similarity of archaeal 16S rRNA genes was significantly correlated with the similarity

  20. The metabolic importance of unabsorbed dietary lipids in the colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Kalivianakis, M; Minich, DM; Bijleveld, CMA; Verkade, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Digestion and absorption of lipids is a highly efficient process. From Western diets about 95% will be absorbed. This implies that together with lipids from endogenous sources 6-8 g of lipids will enter the colon daily. This input significantly increases during various lipid malabsorption syndromes.

  1. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  2. Evolution of endogenous analgesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous pain modulation is a complex phenomenon involved in the perception of pain. It consists of top-down inhibitory and facilitatory pathways that originate at higher sites within the central nervous system and converge at dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord, to modulate incoming afferent n

  3. Streptococcus agalactiae endogenous endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Saffra, Norman; Rakhamimov, Aleksandr; Husney, Robert; Ghitan, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (SA) is a Group B Streptococcus, which is a common pathogen implicated in neonatal and geriatric sepsis. Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE) is a condition that results from haematogenous seeding of the globe, during transient or persistent bacteremia. We document a case of a non-septic geriatric patient, who developed EBE after a transient bacteraemia with SA.

  4. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  5. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...... of the reviewed theories, appears able to compensate for the explanatory gaps they leave behind. The EFN proposes consciousness as the phenomenon emerging from a distinct network of neural paths broadcasting the neural changes associated to any mental process. It additionally argues for the need to include a 5th...

  6. Endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    van Damme, E.E.C.; Hurkens, S.

    1998-01-01

    We consider a linear price setting duopoly game with di®erentiated products and determine endogenously which of the players will lead and which will follow. While the follower role is most attractive for each firm, we show that waiting is more risky for the low cost firm so that, consequently, risk dominance considerations, as in Harsanyi and Selten (1988), allow the conclusion that only the high cost firm will choose to wait. Hence, the low cost firm will emerge as the end...

  7. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Qishen [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andreassen, Paul R., E-mail: Paul.Andreassen@cchmc.org [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  8. Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Lipid Profile Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... as: Lipid Panel; Coronary Risk Panel Formal name: Lipid Profile Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; ...

  9. 内源性n-3多不饱和脂肪酸对fat-1转基因小鼠血糖血脂的影响%Effects of Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipid in fat-1 Transgenic Mouse Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周飞; 张晓宏; 邹祖全; 张才乔

    2015-01-01

    利用fat-1转基因小鼠模型,研究内源性n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 PUFAs)的血糖血脂调节作用.采用fat-1转基因小鼠和C57BL/6野生型小鼠喂食高n-6、低n-3 PUFAs的标准配方饲料4周,然后2组小鼠给予高糖饮液自由饮用4周,每周测体重.第8周末,取血离心测血糖、胰岛素、甘油三脂(TG)、胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)水平.结果表明:fat-1转基因小鼠体重增加幅度、空腹血糖值、血清胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数、血清TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C水平明显低于野生型小鼠(P<0.05).认为n-3 PUFAs能抑制体重增长,降低小鼠血糖、血脂和胰岛素抵抗,起到调节血糖、血脂的作用.%In this study, we investigate the effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on blood glucose and serum lipid in fat-1 transgenic mouse model. The transgenic and wild type mice are maintained on a 10%corn oil diet which has high ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for 4 weeks. Then make them drink high sugar pinocytosis freely for another four weeks. On the eighth weekend, serum glucose, insulin, serum triglyceride (TG), serum total cholesterol (TC), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of blood serum are tested after blood collection and centrifugation. The weight gain rate, fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels, insulin resistance index, serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C of fat-1 transgenic mice are found to be significantly lower than those of wild type mice (P<0.05). The tests indicate that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce the blood glucose and serum lipid, which may play a vital role in regulating blood lipid and decreasing insulin resistance.

  10. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  11. Lipids changes in liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing-ting; XU Ning; ZHANG Xiao-ying; WU Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism.Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver.It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function,which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.When liver cancer occurs,these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed.Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide,and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries.In addition,liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis,so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases,which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo.In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer.

  12. 脂筏在CB2受体介导的内源性大麻素AEA抑制大鼠肝星状细胞增殖活性中的作用%Lipid Rafts and Cannabinoid 2 Receptors-mediated Inhibitory Effects of Endogenous AEA on Proliferation of Hepatic Stellate Cells in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文杰; 王密; 刘萍; 阳乔; 唐望先

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脂筏在内源性大麻素受体2(CB2)介导的内源性大麻素(AEA)抑制大鼠肝星状细胞(HSC)增殖活性中的作用及作用机制.方法 构建大麻素受体2 shRNA(Cnr2-shRNA)转染HSC细胞,干扰CB2受体的表达,采用MTT法检测转染前后不同浓度的AEA和甲基-β-环糊精(MCD)对HSC的作用效应;采用Western blot检测不同浓度AEA及MCD作用后HSC中P38 丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(p-P38MAPK)和c-Jun氨基端激酶/应激活化蛋白激酶(p-JNK)的表达量;采用激光共聚焦法检测HSC上的脂筏(LRs)以及CB2受体的表达;蔗糖密度梯度离心法提取脂筏,Western blot鉴定脂筏并检测脂筏中CB2受体的表达.结果 成功构建Cnr2-shRNA转染筛选Cnr2-单克隆细胞株,MTT检测发现转染后CB2受体的减少能减弱AEA对HSC细胞增殖的抑制作用,然而用MCD预处理HSC细胞后CB2受体的减少对AEA的效应无明显影响.p-P38MAPK和p-JNK的表达与AEA浓度有依赖关系,且可以被MCD部分拮抗.CB2受体在HSC膜脂筏和胞质中均有表达,但用蔗糖密度梯度离心法提取AEA刺激前HSC细胞脂筏,发现未受AEA刺激时脂筏中含有的CB2受体量很少,CB2受体大部分存在于HSC细胞胞质中.结论 CB2受体参与AEA 抑制HSC细胞增殖的过程与脂筏相偶联,通过脂筏这个信号平台AEA的刺激可能使CB2受体聚集或增多从而发挥级联放大效应,且这一效应与细胞中p-P38MAPK和p-JNK信号途径的激活有关.脂筏和CB2受体介导的信号传导途径可能成为治疗肝纤维化有效的作用靶点.%Objective To investigate the roles of lipid rafts in cannabinoid receptor 2(CB2)-mediated inhibitory effects of endogenous anadamide(AEA)on proliferation of hepatic stellate cells in rats and the action mechanism. Methods Cell viability was measured by using MTT assay. CB2-shRNA(Cnr2-shRNA) was designed to decrease the amount of CB2 and methyl-β-cy-clodextrin(MCD)treatment designed to destroy the lipid rafts in AEA

  13. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill

    of unsaturated lipid makes canola oil susceptible towards lipid oxidation. Many food products are lipid containing emulsions and a lot of efforts have been put into developing methods to protect the lipids against oxidation. Since lipid oxidation has a negative influence on the shelf life of the foods, efficient......, the effect of these endogenous antioxidants on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion is yet unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the endogenous phenolics in Canola oil on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion. For this purpose individual phenolics were extracted from defatted grinded...... canola seeds. Fractionated extracts of Sinapic acid, Sinapine and Canolol was used as well as a non fractionated extract. These extracts was added (100 and 350 μM) to 10% o/w emulsion with stripped canola oil in order to evaluate their effect on lipid oxidation in emulsions. For comparison...

  14. Endogenous formation of dimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, S H; DaCosta, K A; Fox, J G

    1985-01-01

    choline was not the sole precursor for DMA formation and that gut bacteria are not essential for the formation of DMA. Hence in mammals there must be endogenous pathways that are capable of forming DMA; however, these endogenous mechanisms remain unidentified. PMID:4091797

  15. 不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、内源酶活性和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Lipid Sources on Body Lipid Deposition, Endogenous Enzyme Activities and Fatty Acid Composition of Carassius auratus gibelio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜恒; 王爱民; 刘文斌; 於叶兵; 封功能; 杨文平; 齐志涛

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲料中不同脂肪源对异育银鲫体脂沉积、脂类代谢酶活性、消化酶活性和鱼体组织中脂肪酸组成的影响.选择尾均重(6.04±0.05)g的健康异育银鲫鱼种525尾,驯养1周后,随机分为5组,每组3个重复,每个重复35尾鱼.在基础饲料中分别添加4%的鱼油、豆油、猪油、花生油和混合油(鱼油:豆油:猪油=3:4:3),制成5种等氮等能试验饲料.试验期为60 d.结果表明,鱼油组肝胰脏中粗脂肪含量显著低于其他各组(P<0.05),各组间腹脂率以及肌肉中脂肪含量没有显著差异(P>0.05).鱼油组肝胰脏脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶活性显著高于猪油组和花生油组(P<0.05),鱼油组和豆油组肠道和肝胰脏中蛋白酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),但与花生油组和混合油组无显著差异(P>0.05).豆油组和混合油组肝胰脏脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),且混合油组肠道脂肪酶活性显著高于猪油组(P<0.05),其他各组之间没有显著差异(P>0.05).各组间肝胰脏和肠道中淀粉酶活性没有显著差异(P>0.05),但肠道淀粉酶活性普遍高于肝胰脏淀粉酶活性.鱼油组肌肉和肝胰脏中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)、二十碳五烯酸(EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸(DHA)含量显著高于其他组(P<0.05).异育银鲫肌肉和肝胰脏中亚油酸(C18:2n-6)含量均以豆油组最高,鱼油组最低,且上述2组间差异显著(P<0.05).结果显示,鱼油能提高肝胰脏中脂蛋白酯酶和肝酯酶的活性,从而降低鱼体脂肪沉积,而猪油的作用相反;饲料中脂肪酸组成影响异育银鲫鱼体组织中脂肪酸的组成.%This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary lipid sources on body lipid deposition, fatty acid composition, and activities of lipid metabolism enzymes and digestive enzymes of Carassius auratus gibelio. Five hundred and twenty-five healthy Carassius auratus gibelio with an average initial weight of

  16. Endogenous Plasma Peptide Detection and Identification in the Rat by a Combination of Fractionation Methods and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Bertile

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based analyses are essential tools in the field of biomarker research. However, detection and characterization of plasma low abundance and/or low molecular weight peptides is challenged by the presence of highly abundant proteins, salts and lipids. Numerous strategies have already been tested to reduce the complexity of plasma samples. The aim of this study was to enrich the low molecular weight fraction of rat plasma. To this end, we developed and compared simple protocols based on membrane filtration, solid phase extraction, and a combination of both. As assessed by UV absorbance, an albumin depletion 99% was obtained. The multistep fractionation strategy (including reverse phase HPLC allowed detection, in a reproducible manner (CV [1] 30%–35%, of more than 450 peaks below 3000 Da by MALDI-TOF/MS. A MALDI-TOF/MS-determined LOD as low as 1 fmol/μL was obtained, thus allowing nanoLC-Chip/ MS/MS identification of spiked peptides representing ∼10–6% of total proteins, by weight. Signal peptide recovery ranged between 5%–100% according to the spiked peptide considered. Tens of peptide sequence tags from endogenous plasma peptides were also obtained and high confidence identifications of low abundance fibrinopeptide A and B are reported here to show the efficiency of the protocol. It is concluded that the fractionation protocol presented would be of particular interest for future differential (high throughput analyses of the plasma low molecular weight fraction.

  17. The dynamic of lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Both endogenous and exogenous lipid levels may be regulators of total lipid oxidation in skeletal muscles. We studied the dynamics of lipid oxidation in human myotubes established from healthy, lean subjects exposed to acutely and chronically increased palmitate concentrations. The intramyocellul...... oxidation in human myotubes. A reduced exogenous lipid oxidation, secondary to increased triacylglycerol levels, may redirect free fatty acids into esterification and oxidation from intracellular stores, thereby protecting myotubes from FFA lipotoxic effects....

  18. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  19. Endogenous money and effective demand

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Keen

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous money is a core component of post-Keynesian economics, but it has not been fully integrated into its macroeconomics. To do so requires replacing the accounting truism that ex post expenditure equals ex post income with the endogenous money insight that ex post expenditure equals ex ante income plus the ex post turnover of new debt. This paper derives this result after exploring precedents to this concept in the work of Schumpeter, Minsky, Keynes and Pigou.

  20. Endogenous retroviruses of the chicken genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan I King

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed the chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence to search for previously uncharacterized endogenous retrovirus (ERV sequences using ab initio and combined evidence approaches. We discovered 11 novel families of ERVs that occupy more than 21 million base pairs, approximately 2%, of the chicken genome. These novel families include a number of recently active full-length elements possessing identical long terminal repeats (LTRs as well as intact gag and pol open reading frames. The abundance and diversity of chicken ERVs we discovered underscore the utility of an approach that combines multiple methods for the identification of interspersed repeats in vertebrate genomes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Igor Zhulin and Itai Yanai.

  1. Chitin is endogenously produced in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W Joyce; Fernandez, Javier G; Sohn, Joel J; Amemiya, Chris T

    2015-03-30

    Chitin, a biopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is abundant in invertebrates and fungi and is an important structural molecule [1, 2]. There has been a longstanding belief that vertebrates do not produce chitin; however, we have obtained compelling evidence to the contrary. Chitin synthase genes are present in numerous fishes and amphibians, and chitin is localized in situ to the lumen of the developing zebrafish gut, in epithelial cells of fish scales, and in at least three different cell types in larval salamander appendages. Chitin synthase gene knockdowns and various histochemical experiments in zebrafish further authenticated our results. Finally, a polysaccharide was extracted from scales of salmon that exhibited all the chemical hallmarks of chitin. Our data and analyses demonstrate the existence of endogenous chitin in vertebrates and suggest that it serves multiple roles in vertebrate biology.

  2. Raccoon abundance inventory report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  3. Endogenous rhythms influence interpersonal synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamm, Anna; Wellman, Chelsea; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Interpersonal synchrony, the temporal coordination of actions between individuals, is fundamental to social behaviors from conversational speech to dance and music-making. Animal models indicate constraints on synchrony that arise from endogenous rhythms: Intrinsic periodic behaviors or processes that continue in the absence of change in external stimulus conditions. We report evidence for a direct causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony in a music performance task, which places high demands on temporal coordination. We first establish that endogenous rhythms, measured by spontaneous rates of individual performance, are stable within individuals across stimulus materials, limb movements, and time points. We then test a causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony by pairing each musician with a partner who is either matched or mismatched in spontaneous rate and by measuring their joint behavior up to 1 year later. Partners performed melodies together, using either the same or different hands. Partners who were matched for spontaneous rate showed greater interpersonal synchrony in joint performance than mismatched partners, regardless of hand used. Endogenous rhythms offer potential to predict optimal group membership in joint behaviors that require temporal coordination.

  4. Ceramide displaces cholesterol from lipid rafts and decreases the association of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuijuan; Alterman, Michail; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2005-08-01

    Addition of exogenous ceramide causes a significant displacement of cholesterol in lipid raft model membranes. However, whether ceramide-induced cholesterol displacement is sufficient to alter the protein composition of caveolin-enriched lipid raft membranes is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether increasing endogenous ceramide levels with bacterial sphingomyelinase (bSMase) depleted cholesterol and changed the protein composition of caveolin-enriched membranes (CEMs) isolated from immortalized Schwann cells. bSMase increased ceramide levels severalfold and decreased the cholesterol content of detergent-insoluble CEMs by 25-50% within 2 h. To examine the effect of ceramide on the protein composition of the CEMs, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis using stable isotope labeling of cells in culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although ceramide rapidly depleted lipid raft cholesterol, the levels of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) decreased by 25% only after 8 h. Importantly, replenishing the cells with cholesterol rapidly reversed the loss of Cav-1 from the CEMs. Ceramide-induced cholesterol depletion increased the association of 5'-nucleotidase and ATP synthase beta-subunit with the CEMs but had a minimal effect on changing the abundance of other lipid raft proteins, such as flotillin-1 and G-proteins. These results suggest that the ceramide-induced loss of cholesterol from CEMs may contribute to altering the lipid raft proteome.

  5. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support divers...

  6. ENDOGENOUS SCHEDULING PREFERENCES AND CONGESTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i...

  7. Endogenous Fibrinolysis and Vascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭林

    2004-01-01

    @@ The fate of a forming thrombus is determined through the delicate balance between the coagulation cascade (favouring clot formation) and the fibrinolytic system (favouring clot lysis). These processes occur simultaneously, and enhancement of endogenous fibrinolysis has been shown to reduce occlusive thrombus formation in animal models.

  8. A note on endogenous transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn a competitive and Walrasian stable world with two goods transfer paradoxes are very robust to endogenization (relating the size of the transfer to either the donor's or the recipient's GNP). Donor enrichment and/or recipient impoverishment occur in very general formulations of

  9. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  10. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (endogenous opioids and receptors), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (pain and analgesia); stress and social status (human studies); tolerance and dependence (opioid mediation of other analgesic responses); learning and memory (stress and social status); eating and drinking (stress-induced analgesia); alcohol and drugs of abuse (emotional responses in opioid-mediated behaviors); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (opioid involvement in stress response regulation); mental illness and mood (tolerance and dependence); seizures and neurologic disorders (learning and memory); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (opiates and conditioned place preferences (CPP)); general activity and locomotion (eating and drinking); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (alcohol and drugs of abuse); cardiovascular responses (opiates and ethanol); respiration and thermoregulation (opiates and THC); and immunological responses (opiates and stimulants). This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular

  11. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  12. Endogenous neuromodulation at infralow frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmer, Siegfried; Othmer, Susan F; Kaiser, David A; Putman, John

    2013-12-01

    Neuromodulation in the bioelectrical domain is an attractive option for the remediation of functionally based deficits. Most of the interest to date has focused on exogenous methods, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, transient direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Much less attention has been given to endogenous methods of exploiting latent brain plasticity. These have reached a level of sophistication and maturity that invites attention. Over the last 7 years, the domain of infralow frequencies has been exploited productively for the enhancement of neuroregulation. The principal mechanism is putatively the renormalization of functional connectivity of our resting-state networks. The endogeneous techniques are particularly attractive for the pediatric population, where they can be utilized before dysfunctional patterns of brain behavior become consolidated and further elaborated into clinical syndromes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the twenty-ninth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning thirty years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2006 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localiz...

  14. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  15. The Origins of Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    ROMER, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two strands of work that converged under the heading of 'endogenous growth.' One strand, which is primarily empirical, asks whether there is a general tendency for poor countries to catch up with rich countries. The other strand, which is primarily theoretical, asks what modifications are necessary to construct a theory of aggregate growth that takes the economics of discovery, innovation, and technological change seriously. The paper argues that the second strand of work...

  16. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balamurugan, S; Khodifad, Ashish

    2016-01-01

      Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi...

  17. Alkyl caffeates as antioxidants in O/W emulsions: Impact of emulsifier type and endogenous tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant addition can be one strategy to limit lipid oxidation in emulsions. Research has proven that an important factor regarding the efficacy of antioxidants is their localization in the emulsion; however, other factors such as interactions with other components can also have an impact. Thus......, the aim was to evaluate the impact of emulsifiers (Citrem and Tween80) and presence of endogenous tocopherols on the efficacies of caffeic acid and caffeates (C1–C20) as antioxidants in emulsions. Lipid oxidation was evaluated during storage and partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was estimated...... by measuring their concentrations in the aqueous phase. Partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was influenced by emulsifier type and the presence of endogenous tocopherols. Caffeic acid was the most efficient antioxidant in Citrem and Tween stabilized emulsions in the presence of endogenous tocopherol...

  18. REFERENCE MODELS OF ENDOGENOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMĂNU MARINELA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The new endogenous growth theories are a very important research area for shaping the most effective policies and long term sustainable development strategies.Endogenous growth theory has emerged as a reaction to the imperfections of neoclassical theory, by the fact that the economic growth is the endogenous product of an economical system.

  19. Discovery and Characterization of an Endogenous CXCR4 Antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofrio Zirafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling controls multiple physiological processes and its dysregulation is associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, we screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. This approach identified a 16 amino acid fragment of serum albumin as an effective and highly specific CXCR4 antagonist. The endogenous peptide, termed EPI-X4, is evolutionarily conserved and generated from the highly abundant albumin precursor by pH-regulated proteases. EPI-X4 forms an unusual lasso-like structure and antagonizes CXCL12-induced tumor cell migration, mobilizes stem cells, and suppresses inflammatory responses in mice. Furthermore, the peptide is abundant in the urine of patients with inflammatory kidney diseases and may serve as a biomarker. Our results identify EPI-X4 as a key regulator of CXCR4 signaling and introduce proteolysis of an abundant precursor protein as an alternative concept for chemokine receptor regulation.

  20. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  1. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  2. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...... zero (implying symmetric information) or positive (implying privately informed consumers). Regardless of the nature of the equilibrium, all offered contracts, also at the top, involve underinsurance, which discourages information gathering. We identify a missorting effect that explains why the insurer...... wants to discourage information acquisition. Moreover, lower information gathering costs can hurt both consumer and insurer....

  3. Endogenous fertility, mortality and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, K; Cipriani, G P

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a model that illustrates the joint determination of population and development. "Economic and demographic outcomes are determined jointly in a choice-theoretic model of fertility, mortality and capital accumulation.... In addition to choosing savings and births, parents may reduce (infant) deaths by incurring expenditures on health-care which is also provided by the government. A generalised production technology accounts for long-run endogenous growth with short-run transitional dynamics. The analysis yields testable time series and cross-section implications which accord with the empirical evidence on the relationship between demography and development."

  4. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption...... and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different...

  5. Endogeneity in prison risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Bierie, David M; Stock, Amber

    2013-10-01

    Security designation tools are a key feature of all prisons in the United States, intended as objective measures of risk that funnel inmates into security levels-to prison environments varying in degree of intrusiveness, restriction, dangerousness, and cost. These tools are mostly (if not all) validated by measuring inmates on a set of characteristics, using scores from summations of that information to assign inmates to prisons of varying security level, and then observing whether inmates assumed more risky did in fact offend more. That approach leaves open the possibility of endogeneity--that the harsher prisons are themselves bringing about higher misconduct and thus biasing coefficients assessing individual risk. The current study assesses this potential bias by following an entry cohort of inmates to more than 100 facilities in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and exploiting the substantial variation in classification scores within a given prison that derive from systematic overrides of security-level designations for reasons not associated with risk of misconduct. By estimating pooled models of misconduct along with prison-fixed effects specifications, the data show that a portion of the predictive accuracy thought associated with the risk-designation tool used in BOP was a function of facility-level contamination (endogeneity).

  6. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  7. Cooperation Networks: Endogeneity and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S

    2006-01-01

    Insights from the Complex Systems literature are employed to develop a computational model of truly endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents, implemented as Finite State Automata (FSA), play a modified two-player IPD game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed and described. Third, the system dynamics are investigated and reveal that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics with self-organized critical properties when interaction lengths are increased by a sing...

  8. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  9. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic models of congestion so far rely on exogenous scheduling preferences of travelers, based for example on disutility of deviation from a preferred departure or arrival time for a trip. This paper provides a more fundamental view in which travelers derive utility just from consumption...... and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  10. Deuterium abundance and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal-Madjar, A; Lemoine, M

    1996-01-01

    We review the status of the measurements of the deuterium abundance from the local interstellar medium to the solar system and high redshifts absorbers toward quasars. We present preliminary results toward a white dwarf and a QSO. We conclude that the deuterium evolution from the Big-Bang to now is still not properly understood.

  11. [Lipids in the diet and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauré Nogueras, E

    1990-01-01

    Description of the main metabolic methods of different lipoproteins in relation to transportation of both exogenous lipids and endogenous lipids, with special reference to the regulation of synthesis and the destination of colesterol. An analysis was then made of the influence of dietetic colesterol on the different lipoproteins, and that of fatty acids. An evaluation was made of its possible influence on the pathogeny of the atheroma plate. Finally, an alternative unified diet was proposed as a main dietetic guide, both in prevention and therapy.

  12. Pex35 is a regulator of peroxisome abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yofe, Ido; Soliman, Kareem; Chuartzman, Silvia G

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid, and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes, however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is yet poorly understood. Here we use a high-content microscopy screen...... to identify novel regulators of peroxisome size and abundance. Our screen led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized gene, which we term PEX35, which affects peroxisome abundance. PEX35 encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, a remote homolog to several curvature generating human proteins. We...

  13. A lipase based approach for studying the role of wheat lipids in bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-08-01

    While endogenous wheat lipids exert a major effect on bread quality, little is known on the way they impact on bread loaf volume (LV). Here we altered wheat flour lipid composition during bread making using lipases in situ. Lipopan F, Lecitase Ultra, and surfactants increased LV to similar extents. The increases in bread LV as a result of these enzymes were related to decreased levels of galactolipids and phospholipids and concomitant increased 'lyso'-lipid as well as free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The FFA formed were transferred to the free lipid fraction, while the 'lyso'-lipids remained in the bound lipid fraction. For optimal gas cell stabilisation, an equilibrium between the lipid classes present and hence, the type of mesophase formed, is essential. Sufficient levels of lipids forming lamellar mesophases and lipids forming hexagonal I mesophases, which respectively form condensed monolayers or emulsify (deleterious) non-polar lipids in dough liquor, are needed.

  14. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  15. Contemporaryperspective on endogenous myocardial regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Considering the complex nature of the adult heart,it is no wonder that innate regenerative processes,while maintaining adequate cardiac function, fall shortin myocardial jeopardy. In spite of these enchaining limitations, cardiac rejuvenation occurs as well asrestricted regeneration. In this review, the backgroundas well as potential mechanisms of endogenousmyocardial regeneration are summarized. We presentand analyze the available evidence in three subsequentsteps. First, we examine the experimental researchdata that provide insights into the mechanisms andorigins of the replicating cardiac myocytes, includingcell populations referred to as cardiac progenitor cells(i.e. , c-kit+ cells). Second, we describe the role ofclinical settings such as acute or chronic myocardialischemia, as initiators of pathways of endogenousmyocardial regeneration. Third, the hitherto conductedclinical studies that examined different approachesof initiating endogenous myocardial regeneration infailing human hearts are analyzed. In conclusion, wepresent the evidence in support of the notion thatregaining cardiac function beyond cellular replacementof dysfunctional myocardium via initiation of innateregenerative pathways could create a new perspectiveand a paradigm change in heart failure therapeutics.Reinitiating cardiac morphogenesis by reintroducingdevelopmental pathways in the adult failing heart mightprovide a feasible way of tissue regeneration. Basedon our hypothesis "embryonic recall", we present firstsupporting evidence on regenerative impulses in themyocardium, as induced by developmental processes.

  16. Population aging and endogenous economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettner, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the consequences of population aging for long-run economic growth perspectives. Our framework incorporates endogenous growth models and semi-endogenous growth models as special cases. We show that (1) increases in longevity have a positive impact on per capita output growth, (2) decreases in fertility have a negative impact on per capita output growth, (3) the positive longevity effect dominates the negative fertility effect in case of the endogenous growth framework, and (4) population aging fosters long-run growth in the endogenous growth framework, while its effect depends on the relative change between fertility and mortality in the semi-endogenous growth framework.Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00148-012-0441-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  17. Chemical Atherogenesis: Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Poisons in Disease Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew K; Matthews, Anberitha T; Mangum, Lee C

    Chemical atherogenesis is an emerging field that describes how environmental pollutants and endogenous toxins perturb critical pathways that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus injuring cells found within the vessel wall. Despite growing awareness of the role of environmental pollutants in the development of cardiovascular disease, the field of chemical atherogenesis can broadly include both exogenous and endogenous poisons and the study of molecular, biochemical, and cellular pathways that become dysregulated during atherosclerosis. This integrated approach is logical because exogenous and endogenous toxins often share the same mechanism of toxicity. Chemical atherogenesis is a truly integrative discipline because it incorporates concepts from several different fields, including biochemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology, and toxicology. This review will provide an overview of this emerging research area, focusing on cellular and animal models of disease.

  18. Chemical Atherogenesis: Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Poisons in Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical atherogenesis is an emerging field that describes how environmental pollutants and endogenous toxins perturb critical pathways that regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, thus injuring cells found within the vessel wall. Despite growing awareness of the role of environmental pollutants in the development of cardiovascular disease, the field of chemical atherogenesis can broadly include both exogenous and endogenous poisons and the study of molecular, biochemical, and cellular pathways that become dysregulated during atherosclerosis. This integrated approach is logical because exogenous and endogenous toxins often share the same mechanism of toxicity. Chemical atherogenesis is a truly integrative discipline because it incorporates concepts from several different fields, including biochemistry, chemical biology, pharmacology, and toxicology. This review will provide an overview of this emerging research area, focusing on cellular and animal models of disease.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-05-20

    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods.

  20. Simultaneous morphological and biochemical endogenous optical imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Javier A; Park, Jesung; Pande, Paritosh; Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J; Rico Jimenez, J de Jesus; Clubb, Fred; Walton, Brian; Buja, L Maximilian; Phipps, Jennifer E; Feldman, Marc D; Adame, Jessie; Applegate, Brian E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to validate novel imaging technology for simultaneous morphological and biochemical endogenous optical imaging of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) generates high-resolution 3D images of plaque morphology and endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) characterizes biochemical composition. Both imaging modalities rely on plaque's intrinsic optical characteristics, making contrast agents unnecessary. A multimodal OCT/FLIM system was utilized to generate luminal biochemical maps superimposed on high-resolution (7 µm axial and 13 µm lateral) structural volumetric images. Forty-seven fresh postmortem human coronary segments were imaged: pathological intimal thickening (PIT, n = 26), fibroatheroma (FA, n = 12), thin-cap FA (TCFA, n = 2), and fibrocalcific plaque (CA, n = 7), determined by histopathology. Multimodal images were evaluated, and each plaque identified as PIT, FA, TCFA, or CA based on expert OCT readers, and as having high-lipid (HL), high-collagen (HC), or low-collagen/low-lipid (LCL) luminal composition based on linear discriminant analysis of FLIM. Of 47 plaques, 89.4% (42/47) of the plaques were correctly identified based on OCT/FLIM evaluation using tissue histopathology and immunohistochemistry as the gold standard. Four of the misclassifications corresponded to confusing PIT with HL luminal composition for FA with HL cap. The other corresponded to confusing FA with a HC cap for FA with an LCL cap. We have demonstrated the feasibility of accurate simultaneous OCT/FLIM morphological and biochemical characterization of coronary plaques at spatial resolutions and acquisition speeds compatible with catheter-based intravascular imaging. The success of this pilot study sets up future development of a multimodal intravascular imaging system that will enable studies that could help improve our understanding of plaque pathogenesis. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  1. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  2. Apolipoprotein gene involved in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Edward; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2007-07-03

    Methods and materials for studying the effects of a newly identified human gene, APOAV, and the corresponding mouse gene apoAV. The sequences of the genes are given, and transgenic animals which either contain the gene or have the endogenous gene knocked out are described. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene are described and characterized. It is demonstrated that certain SNPs are associated with diseases involving lipids and triglycerides and other metabolic diseases. These SNPs may be used alone or with SNPs from other genes to study individual risk factors. Methods for intervention in lipid diseases, including the screening of drugs to treat lipid-related or diabetic diseases are also disclosed.

  3. Lipid signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, T.

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the current status of plant lipid signaling. Written by leading researchers in the field, the chapters include detailed information on the measurement, regulation and function of phospholipases, lipid kinases, lipid phosphatases, inositolpolyphosphates, polyphosphoinositides, ph

  4. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  5. Calanus hyperboreus and the lipid pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Grønning, Josephine Bøgeskov; Jonasdottir, Sigrun

    2017-01-01

    Lipid-fuelled overwintering by copepods can be a regionally important contribution to carbon sequestration in the deep oceans. Here, we estimate the contribution for Calanus hyperboreus, found in abundance in the northern reaches of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Estimates for regions with ...

  6. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  7. A merge model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Bahn, O.

    2002-03-01

    A new version of the MERGE model, called MERGE-ETL, has been developed to consider endogenous technological change in the energy system. The basic formulation of MERGE-ETL as well as some first results are reported here. (author)

  8. Endogenous average cost based access pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis

    2006-01-01

    We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...

  9. [Endogenous persistent hypoglicemia of adult: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raquel R; Maia, Frederico F R; Araújo, Levimar R

    2007-02-01

    Persistent Hyperinsulinemic Endogenous hypoglycemia in adults is, in most cases, due to Insulinoma. Nesidioblastosis, a peculiar functional hyperinsulinemia from hypertrophic beta cells, has been described mainly in newborns. This article describes a 34-year-old patient who presented hyperinsulinemic endogenous hypoglycemia clinical and laboratorial situation (Fasting glycemia: 54 mg/dl / Reference Interval (RI): 60-99 mg/dl; Serum insulin: 70.9 mcU/ml / RI: hypoglicemia.

  10. Inhibition of human pancreatic and biliary output but not intestinal motility by physiological intraileal lipid loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Holst, Jens Juul; Layer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . Physiological postprandial ileal lipid concentrations dose dependently inhibited human digestive pancreatic protease and bile acid output, but not intestinal motor activity. Thus physiological postprandial ileal nutrient exposure may be of importance for the termination of digestive secretory responses......Lipid perfusion into the distal ileal lumen at supraphysiological loads inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion and gastrointestinal motility in humans. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of physiological postprandial intraileal lipid concentrations on endogenously stimulated...

  11. Reduced lipid oxidation in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether reduced lipid oxidation of skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects partly is based on reduced oxidation of endogenous lipids. Palmitate (PA) accumulation, total oxidation and lipolysis were not different between myotubes established from le...... lipid and mitochondria in obese and obese diabetic myotubes and secondly, a mismatch between beta-oxidation and citric acid cycle in obese diabetic myotubes....

  12. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aq...

  13. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aq...

  14. Primordial Deuterium Abundance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.; Takahara, Fumio

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium abundances measured recently from QSO absorption-line systems lie in the range from 3 10^{-5} to 3 10^{-4}, which shed some questions on standard big bang theory. We show that this discordance may simply be an artifact caused by inadequate analysis ignoring spatial correlations in the velocity field in turbulent media. The generalized procedure (accounting for such correlations) is suggested to reconcile the D/H measurements. An example is presented based on two high-resolution observations of Q1009+2956 (low D/H) [1,2] and Q1718+4807 (high D/H) [8,9]. We show that both observations are compatible with D/H = 4.1 - 4.6 10^{-5}, and thus support SBBN. The estimated mean value = 4.4 10^{-5} corresponds to the baryon-to-photon ratio during SBBN eta = 4.4 10^{-10} which yields the present-day baryon density Omega_b h^2 = 0.015.

  15. Endogenous Ouabain in Hypertensive Disorder Complicating Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li; XIONG Chengliang; SU Ping

    2007-01-01

    Expression of endogenous ouabain in placenta and the concentrations of serum ET-1 and NO were examined in 30 patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) and 30 healthy pregnant women to investigate the effect of endogenous ouabain on HDCP. Compared with the healthy pregnant group, the expression of endogenous ouabain dramatically increased in the HDCP groups (P<0.01). There was a significantly positive correlation between the expression of en- dogenous ouabain with ET-1 (r=0.5567, P<0.01), while the correlation of endogenous ouabain and NO was significantly negative (r=-0.6895, P<0.01). As expected, the correlation between ET-1 and NO was negative (r=-0.7796, P<0.01). ET-1 concentrations of maternal and cord sera in HDCP groups were significantly higher in comparison with healthy pregnant group (P<0.01). On the con- trast, NO concentrations were much lower in the maternal and cord sera of HDCP groups as com- pared with healthy pregnant group (P<0.01). Our data suggest that endogenous ouabain is directly involved in the nosogenesis of HDCP, with accompanying decreased NO and the elevated of ET-1.

  16. Activation of TLR3 in keratinocytes increases expression of genes involved in formation of the epidermis, lipid accumulation and epidermal organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Andrew W.; Park, Kyungho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Gallo, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the skin, and the subsequent release of non-coding double-stranded RNA from necrotic keratinocytes, has been identified as an endogenous activator of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Since changes in keratinocyte growth and differentiation follow injury, we hypothesized that TLR3 might trigger some elements of the barrier repair program in keratinocytes. Double-stranded RNA was observed to induce TLR3-dependent increases in human keratinocyte mRNA abundance for ABCA12 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 12), glucocerebrosidase, acid sphingomyelinase, and transglutaminase 1. Additionally, treatment with double-stranded RNA resulted in increases in sphingomyelin and morphologic changes including increased epidermal lipid staining by oil-red O and TLR3-dependent increases in lamellar bodies and keratohyalin granules. These observations show that double-stranded RNA can stimulate some events in keratinocytes that are important for skin barrier repair and maintenance. PMID:23353987

  17. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes an increased sludge age is associated with a decreased sludge production. This phenomenon is generally interpreted as a result of endogenous respiration processes. In the activated sludge models cell lysis (or decay) is incorporated. The lysis is modelled...... mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... and maintenance processes. This conversion will in general be denoted as endogenous respiration. Based on the literature review the phenomena are discussed and organised, in order to create a working platform for discussing more detailed activated sludge models, one of which is being sketched. (C) 1999 IAWQ...

  18. Endogenous versus Exogenous Origins of Crises

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    2004-01-01

    Are large biological extinctions such as the Cretaceous/Tertiary KT boundary due to a meteorite, extreme volcanic activity or self-organized critical extinction cascades? Are commercial successes due to a progressive reputation cascade or the result of a well orchestrated advertisement? Determining the chain of causality for extreme events in complex systems requires disentangling interwoven exogenous and endogenous contributions with either no clear or too many signatures. Here, I review several efforts carried out with collaborators, which suggest a general strategy for understanding the organization of several complex systems under the dual effect of endogenous and exogenous fluctuations. The studied examples are: Internet download shocks, book sale shocks, social shocks, financial volatility shocks, and financial crashes. Simple models are offered to quantitatively relate the endogenous organization to the exogenous response of the system. Suggestions for applications of these ideas to many other systems ...

  19. Endogenous versus Exogenous Origins of Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    Are large biological extinctions such as the Cretaceous/Tertiary KT boundary due to a meteorite, extreme volcanic activity or self-organized critical extinction cascades? Are commercial successes due to a progressive reputation cascade or the result of a well orchestrated advertisement? Determining the chain of causality for Xevents in complex systems requires disentangling interwoven exogenous and endogenous contributions with either no clear signature or too many signatures. Here, I review several efforts carried out with collaborators which suggest a general strategy for understanding the organizations of several complex systems under the dual effect of endogenous and exogenous fluctuations. The studied examples are: internet download shocks, book sale shocks, social shocks, financial volatility shocks, and financial crashes. Simple models are offered to quantitatively relate the endogenous organization to the exogenous response of the system. Suggestions for applications of these ideas to many other systems are offered.

  20. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balamurugan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium are the common organisms in mold endophthalmitis. We report a case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes. While diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis, we did not find any reported case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a case of diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with granulomatous uveitis masquerading as noninfectious uveitis with a very good response to steroids. The characteristic clinical features were established late in the clinical course associated with poor outcome. This case highlights the significance of uncontrolled diabetes as a risk factor for Fusarium endophthalmitis and also the presentation of endophthalmitis as a masquerade syndrome. The clinician should have high index of suspicion as these cases have poor outcomes.

  1. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, S; Khodifad, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium are the common organisms in mold endophthalmitis. We report a case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes. While diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis, we did not find any reported case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a case of diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with granulomatous uveitis masquerading as noninfectious uveitis with a very good response to steroids. The characteristic clinical features were established late in the clinical course associated with poor outcome. This case highlights the significance of uncontrolled diabetes as a risk factor for Fusarium endophthalmitis and also the presentation of endophthalmitis as a masquerade syndrome. The clinician should have high index of suspicion as these cases have poor outcomes.

  2. Effect of melatonin on endogenous circadian rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Feng; WANG Min; ZANG Ling-he

    2008-01-01

    Objective To further authenticate the role of melatonin on endogenous biologic clock system. Methods Pinealectomized mice were used in the experiments, a series of circadian rhythm of physiology index, such as glucocorticoid, amino acid neurotransmitter, immune function, sensitivity of algesia and body temperature were measured. Results Effects of melatonin on endogenous circadian rhythm roughly appeared four forms: 1) The model of inherent rhythm was invariant, but midvalue was removed. 2) Pacing function: pinealectomy and melatonin administration changed amplitude of the circadian vibration of aspartate, peripheral blood WBC and serum hemolysin. 3) Phase of rhythm changed, such as the effects on percentage of lymphocyte and sensitivity of algesia. 4) No effect, the circadian rhythm of body temperature belong to this form Conclusions Melatonin has effects some circadian rhythm, and it can adjust endogenous inherent rhythm and make the rhythm keep step with environmental cycle. Melatonin may be a kind of Zeitgeber, Pineal gland might being a rhythm bearing organ to some circadian rhythm.

  3. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    endogenous regulations with communication and exogenous regulations without communication. Our results suggest that externally imposed regulations do not crowd out intrinsic motivations in the lab and they confirm that communication facilitates cooperation to reduce extraction.......It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... potential confounds in previous experiments. A key feature of our experimental design is to have the exact same regulations chosen endogenously as those that are imposed exogenously. When we compare the same regulations chosen endogenously to those externally imposed, we observe no differences in extraction...

  4. Lipidomic and proteomic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans lipid droplets and identification of ACS-4 as a lipid droplet-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrablik, Tracy L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Petyuk, Vladislav A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Emily M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Watts, Jennifer [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-06-27

    Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids for membrane synthesis and energy reserves. In this study, we characterized the lipid and protein composition of purified C. elegans lipid droplets. These lipid droplets are composed mainly of triacylglycerols, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer composed primarily of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols was rich in fatty acid species obtained from the dietary E. coli, including cyclopropane fatty acids and cis-vaccenic acid. Unlike other organisms, C. elegans lipid droplets contain very little cholesterol or cholesterol esters. Comparison of the lipid droplet proteomes of wild type and high-fat daf-2 mutant strains shows a relative decrease of MDT-28 abundance in lipid droplets isolated from daf-2 mutants. Functional analysis of lipid droplet proteins identified in our proteomic studies indicated an enrichment of proteins required for growth and fat homeostasis in C. elegans.

  5. Lipidomic and proteomic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans lipid droplets and identification of ACS-4 as a lipid droplet-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Larson, Emily M; Smith, Richard D; Watts, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids for membrane synthesis and energy reserves. In this study, we characterized the lipid and protein composition of purified Caenorhabditis elegans lipid droplets. These lipid droplets are composed mainly of triacylglycerols, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer composed primarily of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols is rich in fatty acid species obtained from the dietary Escherichia coli, including cyclopropane fatty acids and cis-vaccenic acid. Unlike other organisms, C. elegans lipid droplets contain very little cholesterol or cholesterol esters. Comparison of the lipid droplet proteomes of wild type and high-fat daf-2 mutant strains shows a very similar proteome in both strains, except that the most abundant protein in the C. elegans lipid droplet proteome, MDT-28, is relatively less abundant in lipid droplets isolated from daf-2 mutants. Functional analysis of lipid droplet proteins identified in our proteomic studies indicated an enrichment of proteins required for growth and fat homeostasis in C. elegans. Finally, we confirmed the localization of one of the newly identified lipid droplet proteins, ACS-4. We found that ACS-4 localizes to the surface of lipid droplets in the C. elegans intestine and skin. This study bolsters C. elegans as a model to study the dynamics and functions of lipid droplets in a multicellular organism.

  6. A potentially dynamic lysosomal role for the endogenous TRPML proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, David A; Frumkin, Ayala; Offen-Glasner, Vered; Kogot-Levin, Aviram; Bach, Gideon

    2009-10-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) constitute a diverse group of inherited diseases that result from lysosomal storage of compounds occurring in direct consequence to deficiencies of proteins implicated in proper lysosomal function. Pathology in the LSD mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), is characterized by lysosomal storage of lipids together with water-soluble materials in cells from every tissue and organ of affected patients. Mutations in the mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) protein cause MLIV and TRPML1 has also been shown to interact with two of its paralogous proteins, mucolipin 2 (TRPML2) and mucolipin 3 (TRPML3), in heterologous expression systems. Heterogeneous lysosomal storage is readily identified in electron micrographs of MLIV patient cells, suggesting that proper TRPML1 function is essential for the maintenance of lysosomal integrity. In order to investigate whether TRPML2 and TRPML3 also play a role in the maintenance of lysosomal integrity, we conducted gene-specific knockdown assays against these protein targets. Ultrastructural analysis revealed lysosomal inclusions in both TRPML2 and TRPML3 knockdown cells, suggestive of a common mechanism for these proteins, in parallel with TRPML1, in the regulation of lysosomal integrity. However, co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that physical interactions between each of the endogenous TRPML proteins are quite limited. In addition, we found that all three endogenous proteins only partially co-localize with each other in lysosomal as well as extra-lysosomal compartments. This suggests that native TRPML2 and TRPML3 might participate with native TRPML1 in a dynamic form of lysosomal regulation. Given that depletion of TRPML2/3 led to lysosomal storage typical to an LSD, we propose that depletion of these proteins might also underlie novel LSD pathologies not described hitherto.

  7. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol L Fischer; Katherine S Walters; David R Drake; Deborah V Dawson; Derek R Blanchette; Kim A Brogden; Philip W Wertz

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria;however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  8. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carol L; Walters, Katherine S; Drake, David R; Dawson, Deborah V; Blanchette, Derek R; Brogden, Kim A; Wertz, Philip W

    2013-09-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  9. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. Results MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. Conclusions We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells. PMID:22727223

  10. Archaeological bone lipids as palaeodietary markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonese, André C; Farrell, Thomas; Lucquin, Alexandre; Firth, Daniel; Charlton, Sophy; Robson, Harry K; Alexander, Michelle; Craig, Oliver E

    2015-04-15

    Stable isotope analysis of archaeological and fossil bone samples can provide important insights into past environments, ecologies and diets. Previous studies have focused on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in bone collagen, or carbon isotopes in bone mineral (bioapatite). Carbon isotope analysis of lipids from archaeological bone has received much less attention, partly due to the lack of suitable methodologies allowing sufficient recovery of compounds for structural and isotopic characterisation. Here we show that lipids can be easily and reliably recovered from archaeological bone using a modified protocol, and that these provide complementary dietary information to other bone components. Human and animal bones were obtained from a variety of archaeological contexts. Lipids were sequentially extracted using solvent extraction (dichloromethane/methanol), followed by acidified methanol extraction (methanol/H2SO4). The lipids were then analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). Appreciable amounts of endogenous lipid were recovered from archaeological bone. Importantly, a comparison between compound-specific and bulk collagen isotopic data shows that archaeological bone lipids reflect dietary input and can be used to distinguish between marine and terrestrial consumers, as well as between C3 and C4 plant consumers. Furthermore, the presence of essential fatty acids directly incorporated from diet to bone may provide additional palaeodietary information. Our findings suggest that archaeological bone lipids are a hitherto untapped resource of dietary information that offer additional insights to those gained from other isotopic analyses of bone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. On-Tissue Derivatization via Electrospray Deposition for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Endogenous Fatty Acids in Rat Brain Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Comi, Troy J; Li, Bin; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2016-06-07

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is used for the multiplex detection and characterization of diverse analytes over a wide mass range directly from tissues. However, analyte coverage with MALDI MSI is typically limited to the more abundant compounds, which have m/z values that are distinct from MALDI matrix-related ions. On-tissue analyte derivatization addresses these issues by selectively tagging functional groups specific to a class of analytes, while simultaneously changing their molecular masses and improving their desorption and ionization efficiency. We evaluated electrospray deposition of liquid-phase derivatization agents as a means of on-tissue analyte derivatization using 2-picolylamine; we were able to detect a range of endogenous fatty acids with MALDI MSI. When compared with airbrush application, electrospray led to a 3-fold improvement in detection limits and decreased analyte delocalization. Six fatty acids were detected and visualized from rat cerebrum tissue using a MALDI MSI instrument operating in positive mode. MALDI MSI of the hippocampal area allowed targeted fatty acid analysis of the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and the CA1 pyramidal layer with a 20-μm pixel width, without degrading the localization of other lipids during liquid-phase analyte derivatization.

  12. ENDOGENOUS ENERGY. A CAUSE OF BIASET/ TRUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average daily feed intake was 77 ! ... They had thus sufficient time to recover from the effects of the operation. ... mediately after the first meal was fed and samples col- .... for the time spent to discuss the approach of determining endogen-.

  13. Endogenous Quality Effects of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe study the optimal trade policy against a foreign oligopoly with endogenous quality. We show that, under the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause, a uniform tariff policy is always welfare improving over the free trade equilibrium. However, a nonuniform tariff policy is always desirable

  14. Endogenous Quality Effects of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe study the optimal trade policy against a foreign oligopoly with endogenous quality. We show that, under the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause, a uniform tariff policy is always welfare improving over the free trade equilibrium. However, a nonuniform tariff policy is always desirable o

  15. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had...

  16. The Clinical Analysis of Endogenous Endophthalmitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingyi Liang; Xiaofeng Lin; Ayong Yu; Aihua Lin; Zhaohui Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and investigate prognostic factors of endogenous endophthalmitis.Methods: Twenty-eight cases (28 eyes) of endogenous endophthalmitis were surveyed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics, primary infection foci, predisposing systemic disease, complications, pathogens examination, therapeutic options and efficacy were analysed.Results: The endogenous endophthalmitis occurred more frequently in the right eye than in the left one. The respiratory tract was the most common primary foci. The positive rate of pathogens culture was higher in vitreous sample than that in other tissues. Cataract and retinal detachment were the common complications. The visual improvement and infection control were achieved in 13 eyes (46.43%). These 13 patients received treatment (3.77±2.49) days after onset of endophthalmitis being much earlier than that of others [ ( 10.13 ±4.98)days, P=0.002]. The prognosis was relevant to the type of the disease. The anterior segment inflammation type (anterior type) had better prognosis than posterior segment inflammation type(posterior type) and that of inflammation in both parts(mix type) (P <0.05). There were no significant relation between the prognosis and the age, predisposing systemic disease, vitreous antibiotic injection and vitrectomy (P > 0.05).Conclusions: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a vital ocular emergency. Early diagnosis and effective treatment combination with systemic and local antibiotics are of significant value. The anterior type is prone to have better outcome than the others.

  17. Environmental tax reform and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores how an environmental tax reform impacts pollution, economic growth and welfare in an endogenous growth model with pre-existing tax distortions. We find that a shift in the tax mix away from output taxes towards pollution taxes may raise economic growth through two cha

  18. Environmental tax reform and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; de Mooij, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of an environmental tax reform on pollution, economic growth and welfare in an endogenous growth model with pre-existing tax distortions. We find that a shift in the tax mix away from output towards pollution may raise economic growth through two channels. The first c

  19. The Limit of Public Policy : Endogenous Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Gill, O.; Fershtman, C.

    2000-01-01

    In designing public policy it is not enough to consider the possible reaction of individuals to the chosen policy.Public policy may also affect the formation of preferences and norms in a society.The endogenous evolution of preferences, in addition to introducing a conceptual difficulty in

  20. Immigration, Endogenous Technology Adoption and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Pandey, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We document that immigration to U.S. states has increased the mass of workers at the lower range of the skill distribution. We use this change in skill distribution of workers to analyze the effect of immigration on wages. Our model allows firms to endogenously respond to the immigration-induced cha

  1. Nicotine effects and the endogenous opioid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishioka, Shiroh; Kiguchi, Norikazu; Kobayashi, Yuka; Saika, Fumihiro

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine (NIC) is an exogenous ligand of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), and it influences various functions in the central nervous system. Systemic administration of NIC elicits the release of endogenous opioids (endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins) in the supraspinal cord. Additionally, systemic NIC administration induces the release of methionine-enkephalin in the spinal dorsal horn. NIC has acute neurophysiological actions, including antinociceptive effects, and the ability to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The endogenous opioid system participates in NIC-induced antinociception, but not HPA axis activation. Moreover, NIC-induced antinociception is mediated by α4β2 and α7 nAChRs, while NIC-induced HPA axis activation is mediated by α4β2, not α7, suggesting that the effects of NIC on the endogenous opioid system are mediated by α7, not α4β2. NIC has substantial physical dependence liability. The opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone (NLX) elicits NIC withdrawal after repeated NIC administration, and NLX-induced NIC withdrawal is inhibited by concomitant administration of an opioid-receptor antagonist. NLX-induced NIC withdrawal is also inhibited by concomitant administration of an α7 antagonist, but not an α4β2 antagonist. Taken together, these findings suggest that NIC-induced antinociception and the development of physical dependence are mediated by the endogenous opioid system, via the α7 nAChR.

  2. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital t

  3. Endogenizing technological progress: The MESEMET model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); G.H.A. van Hagen; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); J. van Sinderen (Jarig)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper endogenizes technology and human capital formation in the MESEM model that was developed by van Sinderen (Economic Modelling, 1993, 13, 285-300). Tax allowances for private R&D expenditures and public expenditures on both education and R& D are effective instruments to stimula

  4. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mohit; Ngoy, Soeun; Sheth, Sunil A.; Swanson, Raymond A.; Rhee, Eugene P.; Liao, Ronglih; Clish, Clary B.; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are a diverse collection of macromolecules essential for normal physiology, but the tissue distribution and function for many individual lipid species remain unclear. Here, we report a mass spectrometry survey of lipid abundance across 18 mouse tissues, detecting ∼1,000 mass spectrometry features, of which we identify 179 lipids from the glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, lysophospholipids, acylcarnitines, sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester classes. Our data reveal tissue-specific organization of lipids and can be used to generate testable hypotheses. For example, our data indicate that circulating triglycerides positively and negatively associated with future diabetes in humans are enriched in mouse adipose tissue and liver, respectively, raising hypotheses regarding the tissue origins of these diabetes-associated lipids. We also integrate our tissue lipid data with gene expression profiles to predict a number of substrates of lipid-metabolizing enzymes, highlighting choline phosphotransferases and sterol O-acyltransferases. Finally, we identify several tissue-specific lipids not present in plasma under normal conditions that may be of interest as biomarkers of tissue injury, and we show that two of these lipids are released into blood following ischemic brain injury in mice. This resource complements existing compendia of tissue gene expression and may be useful for integrative physiology and lipid biology. PMID:24518676

  5. Glycerolipid synthesis and lipid trafficking in plant mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Morgane; Prinz, William A; Jouhet, Juliette

    2017-02-01

    Lipid trafficking between mitochondria and other organelles is required for mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and signaling. This lipid exchange occurs by poorly understood nonvesicular mechanisms. In yeast and mammalian cells, this lipid exchange is thought to take place at contact sites between mitochondria and the ER or vacuolar membranes. Some proteins involved in the tethering between membranes or in the transfer of lipids in mitochondria have been identified. However, in plants, little is known about the synthesis of mitochondrial membranes. Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis is particularly important and noteworthy in plants as the lipid composition of mitochondrial membranes is dramatically changed during phosphate starvation and other stresses. This review focuses on the principal pathways involved in the synthesis of the most abundant mitochondrial glycerolipids in plants and the lipid trafficking that is required for plant mitochondria membrane biogenesis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's ...

  7. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  8. Daunorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunorubicin lipid complex is used to treat advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissue to ... body) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Daunorubicin lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-04-14

    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  11. Co-factors necessary for PPAR mediated transactivation of endogenous target genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Lars; Nielsen, Ronni; Stunnenberg, Henk

    physiological scenarios. PPARa and PPARd are transcriptional regulators of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, whereas PPAR? controls genes involved in lipid storage. Consequently, there must be PPAR subtype specific molecular determinants that secure PPAR selective recognition and activation of target...... promoters in a given cell type. In vitro experiments suggest that the different PPAR subtypes might have dissimilar binding preference for some PPAR target sites and may also have different affinity for some transcriptional co-factors. However the molecular mechanisms behind PPAR subtype specific activation...... of endogenous target gene in different cell types are elusive. To mutually compare the ability of the PPAR subtypes to activate endogenous target genes in a given cell, PPARa, PPARb/d and PPARg2 were HA tagged and rapidly, equally and synchronously expressed using adenoviral delivery. Within a few hours after...

  12. Gaseous abundances in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Origlia, L; Maiolino, R; Makishima, K; Ranalli, Piero; Comastri, Andrea; Origlia, Livia; Maiolino, Roberto; Makishima, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of a deep (100ks) XMM-Newton observation of M82. The spatial distribution of the abundances of chemical elements (Fe, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S) is investigated through narrow-band imaging analisys and spatially-resolved spectroscopy. We find that the abundances of alpha-elements follow a bipolar distribution, these elements being more abundant in the gaseous outflow than in the galaxy centre. This behaviour is found to be more marked for lighter elements (O, Ne) than for heavier elements.

  13. Persistence of virus lipid signatures upon silicification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Stedman, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    To date there is no known evidence of viruses within the rock record. Their small size and absence of a metabolism has led to the hypothesis that they lack unique biological signatures, and the potential to become preserved. Biosignature research relevant to early Earth has focused on prokaryotic communities; however, the most abundant member of modern ecosystems, viruses, have been ignored. In order to establish a baseline for research on virus biosignatures, we have initiated laboratory research on known lipid-containing viruses. PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects and replicates in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. PRD1 is a 65 nm spherical virus with an internal lipid membrane, which is a few nanometers thick. When the PRD1 virus stock was mixed with a 400 ppm SiO2 (final concentration) solution and incubated for six months. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and lipid analysis using gas chromatography revealed that the virus lipids were still detectable despite complete removal of dissolved silica. Free fatty acids were also detected. Titers of infectious PRD1 viruses after six months in the presence of silica decreased 40 times more than without silica. Though virus biosignature research is in its incipient stages, the data suggest that virus lipid signatures are preserved under laboratory conditions and may offer the potential for contribution to the organic geochemical record.

  14. The lipid-rich core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. Prevalence of small lipid droplets and vesicles by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    Abundant extracellular lipid deposits are associated with cell necrosis and tissue weakening in the core region of human atherosclerotic fibrous plaques. The ultrastructural morphology of the core region, previously undefined because of lipid extraction artifacts, was studied with the aid of new osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium and osmium-tannic acid-paraphenylenediamine sequences for tissue processing. Small droplets of neutral lipid (30 to 400 nm profile diameter) and lipid vesicles with aqueous centers accounted for more than 90% of the area occupied by lipid-rich structures in the core region. No foam cells were present. Cholesterol crystals, lipid droplets of a size similar to those in foam cells (0.4 to 6 mu), and larger neutral lipid deposits (greater than 6 mu) together occupied less than 10% of the total area of lipid structures. Abundant lipid vesicles were associated with the nearby presence of cholesterol crystals, whereas small lipid droplets were predominant in areas without crystals. Many droplets had surface defects in the form of pits and vesicular blebs. These morphologic findings are explained most concisely by postulating direct accumulation of extracellular lipid from interstitial lipoproteins as a major process in core region formation. Moreover, a dynamic state of ongoing physical/metabolic transformation of extracellular lipid deposits is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2646938

  15. Curbing Inflammation through Endogenous Pathways: Focus on Melanocortin Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeen J. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution of inflammation is now known to be an active process, armed with a multitude of mediators both lipid and protein in nature. Melanocortins are peptides endowed with considerable promise with their proresolution and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical models of inflammatory disease, with tissue protective effects. These peptides and their targets are appealing because they can be seen as a natural way of inducing these effects as they harness endogenous pathways of control. Whereas most of the information generated about these mediators derives from several acute models of inflammation (such as zymosan induced peritonitis, there is some indication that these mediators may inhibit chronic inflammation by modulating cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte apoptosis. In addition, proresolving mediators and their mimics have often been tested alongside therapeutic protocols, hence have been tested in settings more relevant to real life clinical scenarios. We provide here an overview on some of these mediators with a focus on melanocortin peptides and receptors, proposing that they may unveil new opportunities for innovative treatments of inflammatory arthritis.

  16. Endogenous thrombin potential in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff;

    2015-01-01

    : Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). RESULTS: PCOS women with phenotype BMI > 25 + IR have increased potential of thrombin generation. ETP is associated with total body fat mass, IR, and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Obese and insulin resistant women with PCOS have elevated level of ETP corresponding to increased risk......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate plasma endogenous thrombin generation in four different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS is diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. DESIGN: Multicenter...... cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two major University Hospitals in the Capital region of Denmark. PATIENTS: Hundred forty-eight European women with PCOS were consecutively recruited during April 2010-February 2012. Clinical examination, blood sampling, and DEXA scan were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  17. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Z G; Hinkle, K

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and one M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H$^{35}$Cl at 3.69851 $\\mu$m. The high resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m telescope. The average [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with --0.72$<$[Fe/H]$<$0.20 is [$^{35}$Cl/Fe]=(--0.10$\\pm$0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16$\\pm$0.15) dex. The [$^{35}$Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of $\\sim$0.35 dex above model predictions suggesting chemical evolution models are under producing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and \\ion{H}{2} regions. In one star where both H$^{35}$Cl a...

  18. The endogeneity of money and the eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Otto

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous theory of money, developed by Basil Moore, argues that the supply of central bank money in modern economies is not under the control of the central bank. According to this view, a central bank typically supplies cash reserves automatically on demand at its minimum lending rate, resulting in a clearly horizontal money supply function. While the paper agrees with Moore that the supply of central bank money cannot be determined exogenously by the central bank, it wonders whether t...

  19. Immigration, Endogenous Technology Adoption and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Pandey, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We document that immigration to U.S. states has increased the mass of workers at the lower range of the skill distribution. We use this change in skill distribution of workers to analyze the effect of immigration on wages. Our model allows firms to endogenously respond to the immigration-induced changes in skill distribution in terms of their decisions (i) to enter different industries which require the use of different technologies; (ii) to choose across technologies that differ in their ski...

  20. Cost of delay and endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Tuvana

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of discounting in a standard endogenous price leadership model. We show that there will be occasional changes in the identity of the leader with any cost of delay or discounting, however small. By analyzing the incentives that induce a firm to take up the leader position, we derive positive predictions about which firm will lead most price changes. Firms with shorter reaction times will be more likely to become the price leader, as will firms with lower cost o...

  1. Endogenous credit limits with small default costs

    OpenAIRE

    Costas Azariadis; Leo Kaas

    2012-01-01

    We analyze an exchange economy of unsecured credit where borrowers have the option to declare bankruptcy in which case they are temporarily excluded from financial markets. Endogenous credit limits are imposed that are just tight enough to prevent default. Economies with temporary exclusion differ from their permanent exclusion counterparts in two important properties. If households are extremely patient, then the first–best allocation is an equilibrium in the latter economies but not necessa...

  2. Determination of endogenous and exogenously derived N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine adducts in ethylene oxide-treated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Debbie A.; Jones, Donald J. L.; Lamb, John H.; Tompkins, Elaine M.; Farmer, Peter B.; Brown, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is one of the most widely used intermediates in the chemical industry. It is also formed endogenously as a result of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of ethylene, which is ubiquitous in the environment. Additionally, ethylene is generated in vivo during normal physiological processes such as methionine oxidation and lipid peroxidation; therefore, humans are continually exposed to EO. EO is classed by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans and reacts with DNA, primarily form...

  3. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  4. Induction of Neurorestoration From Endogenous Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji Hea; Seo, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Ji Yong; Lee, Min-Young; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the subventricular zone lining the ventricles of the adult brain. The resident stem/progenitor cells can be stimulated in vivo by neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and/or physical exercise. In both animals and humans, the differentiation and survival of neurons arising from the subventricular zone may also be regulated by the trophic factors. Since stem/progenitor cells present in the adult brain and the production of new neurons occurs at specific sites, there is a possibility for the treatment of incurable neurological diseases. It might be feasible to induce neurogenesis, which would be particularly efficacious in the treatment of striatal neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease, as well as cerebrovascular diseases such as ischemic stroke and cerebral palsy, conditions that are widely seen in the clinics. Understanding of the molecular control of endogenous NSC activation and progenitor cell mobilization will likely provide many new opportunities as therapeutic strategies. In this review, we focus on endogenous stem/progenitor cell activation that occurs in response to exogenous factors including neurotrophic factors, hematopoietic growth factors, magnetic stimulation, and an enriched environment. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that functional brain repair through induced neurorestoration from endogenous stem cells may soon be a clinical reality.

  5. Adjustment of endogenous concentrations in pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Wolfsegger, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    Estimating pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of an endogenous concentration is not straightforward as cross-reactivity in the analytical methodology prevents differentiation between endogenous and dose-related exogenous concentrations. This article proposes a novel intuitive modeling approach which adequately adjusts for the endogenous concentration. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out based on a two-compartment population pharmacokinetic (PK) model fitted to real data following intravenous administration. A constant and a proportional error model were assumed. The performance of the novel model and the method of straightforward subtraction of the observed baseline concentration from post-dose concentrations were compared in terms of terminal half-life, area under the curve from 0 to infinity, and mean residence time. Mean bias in PK parameters was up to 4.5 times better with the novel model assuming a constant error model and up to 6.5 times better assuming a proportional error model. The simulation study indicates that this novel modeling approach results in less biased and more accurate PK estimates than straightforward subtraction of the observed baseline concentration and overcomes the limitations of previously published approaches.

  6. Endogenous endophthalmitis after severe burn: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Maryam Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Burn patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics are at risk of candidemia and its complications, including endogenous endophthalmitis. Early diagnosis of endogenous endophthalmitis in high risk patients could prevent visual loss.

  7. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  8. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding.

  9. Effects of Fish Oil Diet and Age on the Fatty Acid Composition and the Endogenous Lipase Activity in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Jin, Z; Wada, O

    2000-01-01

    The influences of a fish oil diet and aging on the fatty acid composition in mouse brain, and the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from brain membranes by endogenous lipase were studied. The changes in brain fatty acid composition with aging were determined in 5-weeks, 5-months and 19-months old mice fed on a commercial chow. Mice of different ages were also fed a fish oil or lard diet for 30 days, and the influence of the diets on brain fatty acid composition and endogenous lipase activity was analyzed. In aged mice fed on a commercial chow brain arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (%) decreased significantly, whereas blood arachidonic acid (%) increased and docosahexaenoic acid (%) did not change. The percentages of brain docosahexaenoic acid were significantly higher but those of arachidonic acid were lower in the fish oil diet group than in the lard diet group. However, there were no significant differences in the endogenous lipase activity between the different age or dietary groups. The release of arachidonic acid showed a tendency to decrease and docosahexaenoic acid to increase in mice fed on the fish oil diet. These results suggest that dietary lipids affect the percentages of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids which are released by the endogenous lipase in brain although the decreases in brain polyunsaturated fatty acid content with aging are not due to the enzyme activation, and dietary lipids do not influence the enzyme activity.

  10. Post Keynesian Endogeneity of Money Supply: Panel Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nayan, Sabri; Ahmad, Mahyudin; Kadir, Norsiah; Abdullah, Mat Saad

    2013-01-01

    Post Keynesian economics is actually macroeconomics in a world of uncertainty and endogenous money. Post Keynesians posit that money supply in a market oriented production economy is endogenous or endogenously determined (rather than exogenous as claimed by Monetarists). Money supply is said to be endogenous if it is determined within the economic system itself. The present paper investigates this theory using a panel dataset of 177 countries from year 1970-2011 utilising dynamic panel data a...

  11. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...... of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations...

  12. Involvement of human endogenous retroviral syncytin-1 in human osteoclast fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie

    2011-01-01

    fusion of the lipid bilayers of their cell membranes are still unknown. Syncytin-1 is a protein encoded by a human endogenous retroviral gene which was stably integrated into the human ancestor genome more than 24 million years ago. Upon activation, syncytin-1 is able to destabilize the lipid bilayer......Generation of osteoclasts through fusion of mono-nucleated precursors is a key event of bone physiology and bone resorption is inefficient without osteoclast fusion. Several factors playing a critical role in the fusion process have already been recognized, but the factors involved in the actual....... This was documented through Q-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. These in vitro findings were confirmed by immunohistochemical stainings in human iliac crest biopsies. A syncytin-1 inhibitory peptide reduced the number of nuclei per osteoclast by 30%, as well as TRACP activity. From a mechanistic...

  13. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Y B; Singh, A V

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extract of pericarp showed significant protection against FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation, as compared with whole native nut and seeds. Mechanism of action may be through metal chelation or activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, because the extract did not show hydroxyl and super oxide anion scavenging property. Further in vitro experiments against FeSO4, it did not maintain the level of reduced glutathione.

  14. Effect of intensive laser irradiation on lipid peroxidation in retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyakhnovich, G.V.; Guseynov, T.M.; Zheltov, G.I.; Glazkov, V.N.; Naumovich, A.S.; Koney, S.V.; Volotovskiy, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of intensive laser irradiation on the kinetics of lipid peroxidation in the retina in in vivo and in vitro conditions and also considered the possible influence on these processes of vitamin E and selenium, which have endogenous antioxidants and play an active part in the regulation of the oxidizing processes in membranes was considered. Tests in vitro were conducted on preparations of bovine eyes; in vivo studies were conducted on Chinchilla rabbits.

  15. Endogenous Fibrinolysis: An Important Mediator of Thrombus Formation and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Osita N; Gorog, Diana A

    2015-04-28

    Most acute cardiovascular events are attributable to arterial thrombosis. Plaque rupture or erosion stimulates platelet activation, aggregation, and thrombosis, whilst simultaneously activating enzymatic processes that mediate endogenous fibrinolysis to physiologically maintain vessel patency. Interplay between these pathways determines clinical outcome. If proaggregatory factors predominate, the thrombus may propagate, leading to vessel occlusion. However, if balanced by a healthy fibrinolytic system, thrombosis may not occur or cause lasting occlusion. Despite abundant evidence for the fibrinolytic system regulating thrombosis, it has been overlooked compared with platelet reactivity, partly due to a lack of techniques to measure it. We evaluate evidence for endogenous fibrinolysis in arterial thrombosis and review techniques to assess it, including biomarkers and global assays, such as thromboelastography and the Global Thrombosis Test. Global assays, simultaneously assessing proaggregatory and fibrinolytic pathways, could play a role in risk stratification and in identifying impaired fibrinolysis as a potential target for pharmacological modulation.

  16. Sunspots, Starspots, and Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doschek, George A.; Warren, Harry P.

    2017-08-01

    The composition of plasma in solar and stellar atmospheres is not fixed, but varies from feature to feature. These variations are organized by the First Ionization Potential (FIP) of the element. Solar measurements often indicate that low FIP elements (10 eV, such as C, N, O, Ar, He) compared to abundances in the photosphere. Stellar observations have also shown similar enrichments. An inverse FIP effect, where the low FIP elements are depleted, has been observed in stellar coronae of stars believed to have large starspots in their photospheres. The abundances are important for determining radiative loss rates in models, tracing the origin of the slow solar wind, and for understanding wave propagation in the chromosphere and corona. Recently, inverse FIP effects have been discovered in the Sun (Doschek, Warren, & Feldman 2015, ApJ, 808, L7) from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft. The inverse FIP regions seem always to be near sunspots and cover only a very small area (characteristic length = a few arcseconds). However, in pursuing the search for inverse FIP regions, we have found that in some sunspot groups the coronal abundance at a temperature of 3-4 MK can be near photospheric over much larger areas of the sun near the sunspots (e.g., 6,000 arcsec2). Also, sometimes the abundances at 3-4 MK are in between coronal and photospheric values. This can occur in small areas of an active region. It is predicted (Laming 2015, Sol. Phys., 12, 2) that the FIP effect should be highly variable in the corona. Several examples of coronal abundance variations are presented. Our work indicates that a comprehensive re-investigation of solar abundances is highly desirable. This work is supported by a NASA Hinode grant.

  17. Anthropogenic noise changes arthropod abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkley, Jessie P; McClure, Christopher J W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Francis, Clinton D; Barber, Jesse R

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic noise is a widespread and growing form of sensory pollution associated with the expansion of human infrastructure. One specific source of constant and intense noise is that produced by compressors used for the extraction and transportation of natural gas. Terrestrial arthropods play a central role in many ecosystems, and given that numerous species rely upon airborne sounds and substrate-borne vibrations in their life histories, we predicted that increased background sound levels or the presence of compressor noise would influence their distributions. In the second largest natural gas field in the United States (San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA), we assessed differences in the abundances of terrestrial arthropod families and community structure as a function of compressor noise and background sound level. Using pitfall traps, we simultaneously sampled five sites adjacent to well pads that possessed operating compressors, and five alternate, quieter well pad sites that lacked compressors, but were otherwise similar. We found a negative association between sites with compressor noise or higher levels of background sound and the abundance of five arthropod families and one genus, a positive relationship between loud sites and the abundance of one family, and no relationship between noise level or compressor presence and abundance for six families and two genera. Despite these changes, we found no evidence of community turnover as a function of background sound level or site type (compressor and noncompressor). Our results indicate that anthropogenic noise differentially affects the abundances of some arthropod families. These preliminary findings point to a need to determine the direct and indirect mechanisms driving these observed responses. Given the diverse and important ecological functions provided by arthropods, changes in abundances could have ecological implications. Therefore, we recommend the consideration of arthropods in the environmental

  18. Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling.

  19. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  1. Lipid rafts and their possible involvements in neuroimmunological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Kunihiko; Ueda, Akihiro; Mutoh, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are presumed to be an autoimmune disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Although lipids are most abundant components in the nervous system, it has been believed that cellular and/or humoral immunity to various myelin proteins causes these neuroinflammatory diseases. Recent research advances enable us to study lipids in the membranes and some key molecules involved in various neurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and prion disease, are localized in lipid rafts. In MS and NMO, the key molecules for the pathogenesis or the target molecules for the treatments of MS and NMO are also localized in lipid rafts. Here in this article, we highlight on the possible involvement of lipid rafts in the pathogenesis and treatment of MS and NMO and introduce our recent observation of aquaporin 4 regarding NMO.

  2. Endogenous retroviruses are associated with autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Bisgaard Jensen, Sara; Hansen, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses can be transmitted in two fundamentally different ways: 1) They can be horizontally transmitted as infectious virus, or 2) they can integrate in the germ line and be transmitted to offspring and the offsprings' offspring as DNA. The latter is called endogenous viruses. The mode...... of transmission is called vertical. Viral variants of importance for development of disease must be more frequent among diseased persons than among healthy individuals. Multiple sclerosis, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis are all associated with sets of endogenouos retroviruses but not the same sets. If a virus...

  3. Neuronal hypersynchronization, creativity and endogenous psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J

    2001-06-01

    I have investigated a neuronal hypersynchronism, currently included under the general subject of epilepsy, and termed interictal activity. I suggest that it is a physiological activity of the mammalian brain and propose it be termed Hyperia. After a thorough study of the extraordinary psychic manifestations of this neuronal hypersynchronism shown by mystics and artists, I have reviewed several scientific publications bearing on my hypothesis. I conclude by elaborating on a variety of cerebral hypersynchronous functions whose cause I consider to be physiological. Such behaviour is a common basis for extraordinary psychic manifestations found not only in mystics and artists, but also in patients suffering from endogenous psychoses, especially Bipolar Disorder.

  4. Accounting for Endogeneity in Matching Function Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowczyk-Martins, Daniel; Jolivet, Grégory; Postel-Vinay, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    We show that equilibrium matching models imply that standard estimates of the matching function elasticities are exposed to an endogeneity bias, which arises from the search behavior of agents on either side of the market. We offer an estimation method which, under certain structural assumptions...... about the process driving shocks to matching efficiency, is immune from that bias. Application of our method to the estimation of a basic version of the matching function using aggregate U.S. data from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) suggests that the bias can be quantitatively...

  5. Endogenous Generalized Weights under DEA Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    Non-parametric efficiency analysis, such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, based on revealed preferences or market prices. However, as DEA is gaining popularity in regulation and normative budgeting, the strategic interest......, which also gives a more stable set of weights. The potential application could be to precipitate collective bargaining on cost efficiency for non-marketed resources and products. The models are applied to paneldata from 285 Danish district heating plants, where the open evaluation of multiple non...

  6. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  7. Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt R. Brekke; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of reference pricing on pharmaceutical prices and ex-penditures when generic entry is endogenously determined. We develop a Salop-type model where a brand-name producer competes with generic producers in terms of prices. In the market there are two types of consumers: (i) brand biased consumers who choose between brand-name and generic drugs, and (ii) brand neutral consumers who choose between the different generic drugs. We find that, for a given number of ...

  8. Psychological rehabilitation of patients with endogenous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kryvonis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for early psychotherapeutic intervention in combination with psychopharmatherapy in patients with endogenous disorders is provided. The mechanisms of psychological defenses to deal with traumatic experience, used by personalities functioning on a psychotic level, are also described here. Characteristic behavior patterns of extended family members in terms of emotional codependence are provided. Individual pathopsychology is considered as a symptom of abnormal functioning of the family. Emphasis is placed on the importance of inclusion of family members in psychotherapeutic interaction in order to correct interpersonal relations.

  9. Endogenous Stackelberg Leadership with Uncertain Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the Bayesian game models, the uncertainty is described with probability, but sometimes the uncertainty in practice is given by some fuzzy parameters, and the objectives of players may be not to maximize the expected payoffs. In this paper, a new subjective equilibrium is given for fuzzy games. We make a powerful comparison with Bayesian and equilibria for Stackelberg duopoly game with fuzzy costs. It is showed that endogenous Stackelberg leadership is related with not only marginal costs but also beliefs of the firms.

  10. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2......) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...

  11. Distribution of endogenous retroviruses in crocodilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Rodríguez-Zárate, Clara J; Isberg, Sally R; Damayanti, Chandramaya Siska; Miles, Lee G; Chansue, Nantarika; Moran, Chris; Melville, Lorna; Gongora, Jaime

    2009-10-01

    Knowledge of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in crocodilians (Crocodylia) is limited, and their distribution among extant species is unclear. Here we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these retroelements in 20 species of crocodilians by studying the pro-pol gene. The results showed that crocodilian ERVs (CERVs) cluster into two major clades (CERV 1 and CERV 2). CERV 1 clustered as a sister group of the genus Gammaretrovirus, while CERV 2 clustered distantly with respect to all known ERVs. Interestingly, CERV 1 was found only in crocodiles (Crocodylidae). The data generated here could assist future studies aimed at identifying orthologous and paralogous ERVs among crocodilians.

  12. Counterion-mediated pattern formation in membranes containing anionic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slochower, David R; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Tourdot, Richard W; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Most lipid components of cell membranes are either neutral, like cholesterol, or zwitterionic, like phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Very few lipids, such as sphingosine, are cationic at physiological pH. These generally interact only transiently with the lipid bilayer, and their synthetic analogs are often designed to destabilize the membrane for drug or DNA delivery. However, anionic lipids are common in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes. The net charge per anionic phospholipid ranges from -1 for the most abundant anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserine, to near -7 for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate, although the effective charge depends on many environmental factors. Anionic phospholipids and other negatively charged lipids such as lipopolysaccharides are not randomly distributed in the lipid bilayer, but are highly restricted to specific leaflets of the bilayer and to regions near transmembrane proteins or other organized structures within the plane of the membrane. This review highlights some recent evidence that counterions, in the form of monovalent or divalent metal ions, polyamines, or cationic protein domains, have a large influence on the lateral distribution of anionic lipids within the membrane, and that lateral demixing of anionic lipids has effects on membrane curvature and protein function that are important for biological control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Labby, Z E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J; Ivans, I I

    2006-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf...

  14. Gd Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Den Hartog, E A; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2006-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 49 even-parity and 14 odd-parity levels of Gd II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 611 lines of Gd II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Gd II transition probabilities and the first using a high performance Fourier transform spectrometer. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Gd abundance, log epsilon = 1.11 +/- 0.03. Revised Gd abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, and HD 115444. The resulting Gd/Eu abundance ratios are in very good agreement with the solar-system r-process ratio. We have employed the increasingly accurate stellar abundance determinations, resulting in large part from the more precise laboratory atomic data, to predict directly the Solar System r-process elemental...

  15. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  16. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  17. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  18. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  19. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  20. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  1. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  2. On the origins of the universal dynamics of endogenous granules in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanapalli, Siva A; Li, Yixuan; Mugele, Frieder; Duits, Michel H G

    2009-12-01

    Endogenous granules (EGs) that consist of lipid droplets and mitochondria have been commonly used to assess intracellular mechanical properties via multiple particle tracking microrheology (MPTM). Despite their widespread use, the nature of interaction of EGs with the cytoskeletal network and the type of forces driving their dynamics--both of which are crucial for the interpretation of the results from MPTM technique--are yet to be resolved. In this report, we study the dynamics of endogenous granules in mammalian cells using particle tracking methods. We find that the ensemble dynamics of EGs is diffusive in three types of mammalian cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts), thereby suggesting an apparent universality in their dynamical behavior. Moreover, in a given cell, the amplitude of the mean-squared displacement for EGs is an order of magnitude larger than that of injected particles. This observation along with results from ATP depletion and temperature intervention studies suggests that cytoskeletal active forces drive the dynamics of EGs. To elucidate the dynamical origin of the diffusive-like nonthermal motion, we consider three active force generation mechanisms--molecular motor transport, actomyosin contractility and microtubule polymerization forces. We test these mechanisms using pharmacological interventions. Experimental evidence and model calculations suggest that EGs are intimately linked to microtubules and that microtubule polymerization forces drive their dynamics. Thus, endogenous granules could serve as non-invasive probes for microtubule network dynamics in mammalian cells.

  3. Targeted delivery of RNAi therapeutics with endogenous and exogenous ligand-based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinc, Akin; Querbes, William; De, Soma; Qin, June; Frank-Kamenetsky, Maria; Jayaprakash, K Narayanannair; Jayaraman, Muthusamy; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Cantley, William L; Dorkin, J Robert; Butler, James S; Qin, Liuliang; Racie, Timothy; Sprague, Andrew; Fava, Eugenio; Zeigerer, Anja; Hope, Michael J; Zerial, Marino; Sah, Dinah W Y; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Tracy, Mark A; Manoharan, Muthiah; Koteliansky, Victor; Fougerolles, Antonin de; Maier, Martin A

    2010-07-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have proven to be highly efficient carriers of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to hepatocytes in vivo; however, the precise mechanism by which this efficient delivery occurs has yet to be elucidated. We found that apolipoprotein E (apoE), which plays a major role in the clearance and hepatocellular uptake of physiological lipoproteins, also acts as an endogenous targeting ligand for ionizable LNPs (iLNPs), but not cationic LNPs (cLNPs). The role of apoE was investigated using both in vitro studies employing recombinant apoE and in vivo studies in wild-type and apoE(-/-) mice. Receptor dependence was explored in vitro and in vivo using low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR(-/-))-deficient mice. As an alternative to endogenous apoE-based targeting, we developed a targeting approach using an exogenous ligand containing a multivalent N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-cluster, which binds with high affinity to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expressed on hepatocytes. Both apoE-based endogenous and GalNAc-based exogenous targeting appear to be highly effective strategies for the delivery of iLNPs to liver.

  4. Anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 is an endogenous allosteric enhancer of CB1 cannabinoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Fabricio A; Ferreira, Juliano; Menezes de Lima, Octávio; Duarte, Filipe Silveira; Bento, Allisson Freire; Forner, Stefânia; Villarinho, Jardel G; Bellocchio, Luigi; Bellochio, Luigi; Wotjak, Carsten T; Lerner, Raissa; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Canetti, Claudio; Matias, Isabelle; Calixto, João Batista; Marsicano, Giovanni; Guimarães, Marilia Z P; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2012-12-18

    Allosteric modulation of G-protein-coupled receptors represents a key goal of current pharmacology. In particular, endogenous allosteric modulators might represent important targets of interventions aimed at maximizing therapeutic efficacy and reducing side effects of drugs. Here we show that the anti-inflammatory lipid lipoxin A(4) is an endogenous allosteric enhancer of the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor. Lipoxin A(4) was detected in brain tissues, did not compete for the orthosteric binding site of the CB(1) receptor (vs. (3)H-SR141716A), and did not alter endocannabinoid metabolism (as opposed to URB597 and MAFP), but it enhanced affinity of anandamide at the CB1 receptor, thereby potentiating the effects of this endocannabinoid both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, lipoxin A(4) displayed a CB(1) receptor-dependent protective effect against β-amyloid (1-40)-induced spatial memory impairment in mice. The discovery of lipoxins as a class of endogenous allosteric modulators of CB(1) receptors may foster the therapeutic exploitation of the endocannabinoid system, in particular for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Lipid profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and the identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases in potato stolons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenzano, Ana M.; Cantoro, Renata; Teresa Hernandez-Sotomayor, S. M.; Abdala, Guillermina I.; Racagni, Graciela E.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about the involvement of lipids and esterified fatty acids in signaling pathways during plant development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lipid composition and molecular species of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) stolons and to identify phosphorylated lipids in the first two developmental stages of tuber formation. Lipid profiling was determined using ESI-MS/MS, a useful method for the determination of the biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids based on their fatty acid composition. The most prevalent compound identified in this study was phosphatidic acid (PA); digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the second most abundant compound. A 34:2 species was identified in PA, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The identification of lipid phosphorylation by kinases was revealed by the presence of the phosphorylated lipids. PA was metabolized to diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) by phosphatidic acid kinase (PAK). This work establishes a correlation between lipid fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism enzymes at the beginning of tuber formation and is the first report of PAK activity in the early events of potato tuber formation. PMID:22142228

  6. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare spending covered by basic health insurance whilst controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. These results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare spending, whilst increased availability of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. However, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies that did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    Amongst the vast multitude of plant secondary metabolites, cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) occupy an important place as sophisticated defence compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon herbivore attack – a process known as cyanogenesis. Beside this wellestablished function, there is st......Amongst the vast multitude of plant secondary metabolites, cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) occupy an important place as sophisticated defence compounds, releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon herbivore attack – a process known as cyanogenesis. Beside this wellestablished function...... through the formation of β- cyanoalanine, or, potentially, in an alternative endogenous turnover pathway circumventing the release of HCN. The investigation of the latter is the primary focus of this PhD project. Scattered data from the literature indicated that CNglcs co-occur in plants...... revealed the formation of glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and "anitriles", including their di- and triglycosides, evidently derived from CNglcs. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated plant species, a recycling endogenous turnover pathway for CNglcs was suggested in which...

  8. Harnessing Endogenous Systems for Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauber, Thomas Christopher Bogh

    In the recent decade, two strategies in particular have attracted attention due to the prospect of significantly improving cancer treatment: Gene silencing therapy and immunotherapy. Both strategies work by manipulating endogenous mechanisms and theoretically promise very strong effect on the dis......In the recent decade, two strategies in particular have attracted attention due to the prospect of significantly improving cancer treatment: Gene silencing therapy and immunotherapy. Both strategies work by manipulating endogenous mechanisms and theoretically promise very strong effect...... immunotherapy (Project II). Transfer into the clinic of therapies based on gene silencing by siRNA delivered by synthetic vectors has yet to happen. A major reason is the lack of efficiency in the delivery process, partly due to insufficient understanding of cellular uptake and processing of the si......RNA-containing particles. Project I aims to provide new mechanistic understanding of intracellular processing and vector interaction with target cells by investigating siRNA delivery using branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI), which is a well-known synthetic vector for DNA delivery, and comparing the properties of b...

  9. Live imaging of endogenous PSD-95 using ENABLED: a conditional strategy to fluorescently label endogenous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Dale A; Tillo, Shane E; Yang, Guang; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Melander, Joshua B; Bai, Suxia; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Qin, Maozhen; Zemelman, Boris V; Guo, Caiying; Mao, Tianyi; Zhong, Haining

    2014-12-10

    Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416698-15$15.00/0.

  10. Enzyme Activities in Oleaginous Yeasts Accumulating and Utilizing Exogenous or Endogenous Lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, Jane E.; Veenhuis, Marten; Ratledge, Colin

    1988-01-01

    The activities of ATP:citrate lyase (ACL; EC 4.1.3.8), carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.7), NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42), isocitrate lyase (ICL; EC 4.1.3.1) and malic enzyme (malate dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.40) were measured in four oleaginous yeasts, Candida

  11. Lipid bilayers and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In biological systems lipid bilayers are subject to many different interactions with other entities. These can range from proteins that are attached to the hydrophilic region of the bilayer or transmembrane proteins that interact with the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer. Interaction between

  12. Crosstalk between Gut Microbiota and Dietary Lipids Aggravates WAT Inflammation through TLR Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Tremaroli, Valentina; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids may influence the abundance of circulating inflammatory microbial factors. Hence, inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) induced by dietary lipids may be partly dependent on their interaction with the gut microbiota. Here, we show that mice fed lard for 11 weeks have increased ...

  13. Lipids and lipid binding proteins: a perfect match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Jan F C

    2015-02-01

    Lipids serve a great variety of functions, ranging from structural components of biological membranes to signaling molecules affecting various cellular functions. Several of these functions are related to the unique physico-chemical properties shared by all lipid species, i.e., their hydrophobicity. The latter, however, is accompanied by a poor solubility in an aqueous environment and thus a severe limitation in the transport of lipids in aqueous compartments such as blood plasma and the cellular soluble cytoplasm. Specific proteins which can reversibly and non-covalently associate with lipids, designated as lipid binding proteins or lipid chaperones, greatly enhance the aqueous solubility of lipids and facilitate their transport between tissues and within tissue cells. Importantly, transport of lipids across biological membranes also is facilitated by specific (membrane-associated) lipid binding proteins. Together, these lipid binding proteins determine the bio-availability of their ligands, and thereby markedly influence the subsequent processing, utilization, or signaling effect of lipids. The bio-availability of specific lipid species thus is governed by the presence of specific lipid binding proteins, the affinity of these proteins for distinct lipid species, and the presence of competing ligands (including pharmaceutical compounds). Recent studies suggest that post-translational modifications of lipid binding proteins may have great impact on lipid-protein interactions. As a result, several levels of regulation exist that together determine the bio-availability of lipid species. This short review discusses the significance of lipid binding proteins and their potential application as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Sm Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2005-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 212 odd-parity levels of Sm II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier-transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for more than 900 lines of Sm II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Sm II transition probabilities using modern methods. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Sm abundance, log epsilon = 1.00 +/- 0.03, from 26 lines. The spectra of three very metal-poor, neutron-capture-rich stars also have been analyzed, employing between 55 and 72 Sm II lines per star. The abundance ratios of Sm relative to other rare earth elements in these stars are in agreement, and are consistent with ratios expected from rapid neutron-capture nucleosynthesis (the r-process).

  15. Element abundances at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, D.M.; Welty, D.E.; York, D.G. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA); Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe( ), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value. 25 refs.

  16. Element abundances at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  17. Phospholipid oxidation generates potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that mimic structurally related pro-resolving eicosanoids by activating Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretscher, Peter; Egger, Julian; Shamshiev, Abdijapar; Trötzmüller, Martin; Köfeler, Harald; Carreira, Erick M; Kopf, Manfred; Freigang, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Exposure of biological membranes to reactive oxygen species creates a complex mixture of distinct oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) species, which contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders. While the ability of OxPL to modulate biological processes is increasingly recognized, the nature of the biologically active OxPL species and the molecular mechanisms underlying their signaling remain largely unknown. We have employed a combination of mass spectrometry, synthetic chemistry, and immunobiology approaches to characterize the OxPL generated from the abundant phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) and investigated their bioactivities and signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. Our study defines epoxycyclopentenones as potent anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that mimic the signaling of endogenous, pro-resolving prostanoids by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Using a library of OxPL variants, we identified a synthetic OxPL derivative, which alleviated endotoxin-induced lung injury and inhibited development of pro-inflammatory T helper (Th) 1 cells. These findings provide a molecular basis for the negative regulation of inflammation by lipid peroxidation products and propose a novel class of highly bioactive compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  18. In vivo Anomalous Diffusion and Weak Ergodicity Breaking of Lipid Granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, J.-H.; Tejedor, V.; Burov, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Combining extensive single particle tracking microscopy data of endogenous lipid granules in living fission yeast cells with analytical results we show evidence for anomalous diffusion and weak ergodicity breaking. Namely we demonstrate that at short times the granules perform subdiffusion accord...

  19. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  20. Lipid containing nanodrug delivery system for the treatment of Tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of the antibiotics in the cells, hence reducing the dose frequency and simultaneously improve patient compliance. The cell wall envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) contains unique high molecular weight lipids. Of these, the most abundant are mycolic acids...

  1. Abundance analysis of Barium stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Liu; Yan-Chun Liang; Li-Cai Deng

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the chemical abundances of six barium stars and two CH subgiant stars based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra. The neu- tron capture process elements Y, Zr, Ba, La and Eu show obvious overabundances relative to the Sun, for example, their [Ba/Fe] values are from 0.45 to 1.27. Other elements, in- cluding Na, Mg, A1, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni, show comparable abundances to the Solar ones, and their [Fe/H] covers a range from -0.40 to 0.21, which means they belong to the Galactic disk. The predictions of the theoretical model of wind accretion for bi- nary systems can explain the observed abundance patterns of the neutron capture process elements in these stars, which means that their overabundant heavy-elements could be caused by accreting the ejecta of AGB stars, the progenitors of present-day white dwarf companions in binary systems.

  2. Public Procurement of Innovation as Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Public procurement used as an innovation policy instrument has attracted attention the last decade. It has been argued that public procurement can be used to stimulate innovation from the demand-side. This paper problematizes ‘demand’ understood as a problem defined by a public procurer given...... to potential suppliers to solve. By drawing on a cross-case analysis of two similar projects the paper attempts to explicate an understanding of the role of public procurement of innovation not primarily as a ‘demand-side innovation instrument’, as such thinking might run the risk of ignoring important...... underlying mechanisms critical for success. Instead the paper views public procurement of innovation as an instrument of endogenous- exogenous knowledge conversion....

  3. [Endogenous retroviruses are associated with autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Jensen, Sara B; Hansen, Bettina; Laska, Magdalena J

    2016-06-13

    Retroviruses can be transmitted in two fundamentally different ways: 1) They can be horizontally transmitted as infectious virus, or 2) they can integrate in the germ line and be transmitted to offspring and the offsprings' offspring as DNA. The latter is called endogenous viruses. The mode of transmission is called vertical. Viral variants of importance for development of disease must be more frequent among diseased persons than among healthy individuals. Multiple sclerosis, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis are all associated with sets of endogenouos retroviruses but not the same sets. If a virus grows and this contributes to disease, one should be able to alleviate disease with antiretroviral drugs. We call for clinical trials to elucidate this issue.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Manage Endogenous Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2016-08-01

    angiogenesis, and stimulate mitosis and differentiation of tissue, intrinsic reparative or stem cells. These referred a trophic effects, different from the direct differentiation of MSCs into repair tissue. Thus, MSC suggested as a multidrug delivery vehicles in response of injury. In this regard, the trophic effects of MSCs may have profound clinical use. SUMMARY: Managing the body’s natural repair and regeneration capacities is the new frontier for modern medicine and the basis for the science of cell therapies. Study of MSCs become one avenue that being pursued to explore the endogenous tissue regeneration management, so that people have a great expectation to solve many severe diseases. KEYWORDS: mesenchymal stromal/stem cell, paracrine or autocrine activities, trophic mediator, inflammation, wound healing

  5. Changing Endogenous Development: the Territorial Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs István Tóth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.

  6. Endogenous versus Exogenous Origins of Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D; Yukalova, E P; Henry, J -Y; Schwab, D; Cobb, J P

    2007-01-01

    Many illnesses are associated with an alteration of the immune system homeostasis due to any combination of factors, including exogenous bacterial insult, endogenous breakdown (e.g., development of a disease that results in immuno suppression), or an exogenous hit like surgery that simultaneously alters immune responsiveness and provides access to bacteria, or genetic disorder. We conjecture that, as a consequence of the co-evolution of the immune system of individuals with the ecology of pathogens, the homeostasis of the immune system requires the influx of pathogens. This allows the immune system to keep the ever present pathogens under control and to react and adjust fast to bursts of infections. We construct the simplest and most general system of rate equations which describes the dynamics of five compartments: healthy cells, altered cells, adaptive and innate immune cells, and pathogens. We study four regimes obtained with or without auto-immune disorder and with or without spontaneous proliferation of ...

  7. Effect of sulpiride in endogenous depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkert, O; Holsboer, F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical practice and pharmacological data suggest a possible antidepressive action of sulpiride given in low dosages. To further explore the therapeutic efficacy of sulpiride 11 patients with an endogenous type of depression were studied during treatment with an oral daily dose of 150 mg sulpiride. The present data allows the conclusion that (A) low dosed sulpiride seems to act as an antidepressant in severe and milder forms of depression, (B) a clinical progress is seen earlier than is common during treatment with tricyclics and (C) a significant increase of drive is observable. However, sulpiride maintenance therapy did not prevent early relapse into depression. The preliminary nature of these clinical observations does not allow conclusions about the ultimate utility of this drug. Moreover, it remains unclear for which patients sulpiride is appropriate or perhaps superior to conventional treatment modalities of depression.

  8. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  9. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  10. Dynamic option pricing with endogenous stochastic arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mauricio; Montalva, Rodrigo; Pellicer, Rely; Villena, Marcelo

    2010-09-01

    Only few efforts have been made in order to relax one of the key assumptions of the Black-Scholes model: the no-arbitrage assumption. This is despite the fact that arbitrage processes usually exist in the real world, even though they tend to be short-lived. The purpose of this paper is to develop an option pricing model with endogenous stochastic arbitrage, capable of modelling in a general fashion any future and underlying asset that deviate itself from its market equilibrium. Thus, this investigation calibrates empirically the arbitrage on the futures on the S&P 500 index using transaction data from September 1997 to June 2009, from here a specific type of arbitrage called “arbitrage bubble”, based on a t-step function, is identified and hence used in our model. The theoretical results obtained for Binary and European call options, for this kind of arbitrage, show that an investment strategy that takes advantage of the identified arbitrage possibility can be defined, whenever it is possible to anticipate in relative terms the amplitude and timespan of the process. Finally, the new trajectory of the stock price is analytically estimated for a specific case of arbitrage and some numerical illustrations are developed. We find that the consequences of a finite and small endogenous arbitrage not only change the trajectory of the asset price during the period when it started, but also after the arbitrage bubble has already gone. In this context, our model will allow us to calibrate the B-S model to that new trajectory even when the arbitrage already started.

  11. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) technology. PMID:27527207

  12. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  13. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

  14. Horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists: The theory of endogenous money reassessed

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Basil Moore’s book, Horizontalists and Verticalists, to reassess the theory of endogenous money. The paper distinguishes between horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists. It argues Moore’s horizontalist representation of endogenous money was an over-simplification that discarded important enduring insights from monetary theory. The structuralist approach to endogenous money retains the basic insight that the money supply ...

  15. The endogenous protein content of ruminant proximal duodenal digesta

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Christopher Gordon

    1987-01-01

    Protein arriving at the ruminant proximal duodenum consists of microbial protein, undegraded feed protein and endogenous protein. In this study, endogenous protein is defined as that fraction of the digesta derived from the animal itself (e.g. enzymes, plasma proteins, sloughed cells and mucus), not including any endogenous protein which may have been incorporated into the microorganisms. Recent feeding schemes (e.g. ARC 1980, 1984) require an accurate value of the degradability of feed i...

  16. Lung Regeneration: Endogenous and Exogenous Stem Cell Mediated Therapeutic Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akram, Khondoker M; Patel, Neil; Spiteri, Monica A; Forsyth, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    ...) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, identification of true endogenous lung progenitors/stem cells, and their regenerative pathway are crucial for next-generation therapeutic development...

  17. [Lipids, depression and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, A; Reggers, J; Castronovo, V; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    Polyunsatured fatty acids are made out of a hydrocarbonated chain of variable length with several double bonds. The position of the first double bond (omega) differentiates polyunsatured omega 3 fatty acids (for example: alpha-linolenic acid or alpha-LNA) and polyunsatured omega 6 fatty acids (for example: linoleic acid or LA). These two classes of fatty acids are said to be essential because they cannot be synthetised by the organism and have to be taken from alimentation. The omega 3 are present in linseed oil, nuts, soya beans, wheat and cold water fish whereas omega 6 are present in maize, sunflower and sesame oil. Fatty acids are part of phospholipids and, consequently, of all biological membranes. The membrane fluidity, of crucial importance for its functioning, depends on its lipidic components. Phospholipids composed of chains of polyunsatured fatty acids increase the membrane fluidity because, by bending some chains, double bonds prevent them from compacting themselves perfectly. Membrane fluidity is also determined by the phospholipids/free cholesterol ratio, as cholesterol increases membrane viscosity. A diet based on a high proportion of essential polyunsatured fatty acids (fluid) would allow a higher incorporation of cholesterol (rigid) in the membranes to balance their fluidity, which would contribute to lower blood cholesterol levels. Brain membranes have a very high content in essential polyunsatured fatty acids for which they depend on alimentation. Any dietary lack of essential polyunsatured fatty acids has consequences on cerebral development, modifying the activity of enzymes of the cerebral membranes and decreasing efficiency in learning tasks. The prevalence of depression seems to increase continuously since the beginning of the century. Though different factors most probably contribute to this evolution, it has been suggested that it could be related to an evolution of alimentary patterns in the Western world, in which polyunsatured omega 3

  18. Regulation of lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LI

    2011-01-01

    @@ Lipids including cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids and triacylglycerols are important cellular constituents involved in membrane structure, energy homeostasis and many biological processes such as signal transduction, organelle development and cell differentiation.Recently, the area of lipid metabolism has drawn a great deal of attention due to its emerging role in the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and liver steatosis.We decided to organize a special issue of Frontiers in Biology focusing on our current understanding of lipid metabolism.

  19. Lake Superior lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish chemistry data (d13C, d15N, C:N, lipid content) published in Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2015, 29, 2069??2077 DOI: 10.1002/rcm.7367This dataset is associated with the following publication:Hoffman , J., M. Sierszen , and A. Cotter. Fish tissue lipid-C:N relationships for correcting ä13C values and estimating lipid content in aquatic food web studies. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. Wiley InterScience, Silver Spring, MD, USA, 29(21): 2069–2077, (2015).

  20. Endogenous Fertility in Models of Growth Endogenous Fertility in Models of Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Drazen

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous Fertility in Models of Growth Most theories of economic growth ignore determinants of growth in population. The common assumption of constant population growth is strikingly inconsistent with the data, which reveal a logistic pattern of population growth, the acceleration often coinciding with industrialization. After surveying existing theories of endogenous population, we propose a model in which the family replaces the market in a "traditional" sector. Children are both the primary source of labor and the sole means of saving in this sector, with output divided behween generations via bargaining. Industrialization improves the oportunities of children outside the rural sector. It thus leads not only to higher outmigration, but also, by increasing children's bargaining power and hence their share of output, lowers the incentive to bear children. The model can thus explain observed changes in both overall population growth and in its sectorai composition.

  1. THE PROCESSES OF ENDOGENIZING IN THE ENDOGENOUS GROWTH: THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSMAN DEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to state how the main inputs of endogenous growth, i.e. knowledge, human capital and technological progress are made endogenous by education, R&D, university-industry cooperation, learning by doing and diffusion within the production process. Competitiveness of firms and countries would increase as educated people enter into workforce; as R&D produces new technologies which are used in the production process; as theoretical knowledge meets with practice by university-industry cooperation; and as workers have more experience by learning by doing. In empirical analysis for Turkey is made by using data of 1970-2001 term it was found that a positive relationship among labour and capital factors and GNP and a negative relationship among education expenditures and foreign trade volume and capital stock.

  2. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  3. Suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies with human intraocular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ruoxin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR has become widely applied as a method to measure transcript abundance. In order to be reflective of biological processes during health and disease this method is dependent on normalisation of data against stable endogenous controls. However, these genes can vary in their stability in different cell types. The importance of reference gene validation for a particular cell type is now well recognised and is an important step in any gene expression study. Results Cultured primary human choroidal and retinal endothelial cells were treated with the immunostimulant polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid or untreated. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the expression levels of 10 commonly used endogenous control genes, TBP, HPRT1, GAPDH, GUSB, PPIA, RPLP0, B2M, 18S rRNA, PGK1 and ACTB. Three different mathematical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to analyse gene stability to give the most representative validation. In choroidal endothelial cells the most stable genes were ranked as HPRT1 and GUSB by GeNorm and NormFinder and HPRT1 and PPIA by BestKeeper. In retinal endothelial cells the most stable genes ranked were TBP and PGK1 by GeNorm and NormFinder and HPRT1 by BestKeeper. The least stable gene for both cell types was 18S with all 3 algorithms. Conclusions We have identified the most stable endogenous control genes in intraocular endothelial cells. It is suggested future qRT-PCR studies using these cells would benefit from adopting the genes identified in this study as the most appropriate endogenous control genes.

  4. Plasma lipid analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Kudoh, Shinobu; Sato, Taka-Aki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel method for the analysis of endogenous lipids and related compounds was developed employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with carbamoyl stationary phase achieved clear separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and mono-hexsosyl ceramide groups with good peak area repeatability (RSD% 0.99). The established method was applied to human plasma assays and a total of 117 endogenous lipids were successfully detected and reproducibly identified. In addition, we investigated the simultaneous detection of small polar metabolites such as amino and organic acids co-existing in the same biological samples processed in a single analytical run with lipids. Our results show that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful tool for human plasma lipidome analysis and offers more comprehensive metabolome coverage.

  5. 443 Review Lipids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Keywords: lipid emulsion therapy; local anaesthetic toxicity; local anaesthetic cardiotoxicity; .... of particular importance in generating sufficient ATP from fats because ..... Propofol is poorly water soluble and is dissolved in the.

  6. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  7. Lipid-modifying therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... risk reduction for most patients, while patients with severe ... He runs the Diabetic, Endocrine and Lipid clinics at R K Khan Hospital. Treatment .... retinopathy requiring laser therapy). ... Despite knowledge of the risk factors for.

  8. Dynamic Transbilayer Lipid Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    van Meer, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Flippases move lipids from the outer leaflet of the membrane to the inner leaflet; floppases export them in the opposite direction. This creates an asymmetry critical for membrane function and facilitates vesicle budding.

  9. Lead abundance in the uranium star CS 31082-001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plez, B.; Hill, V.; Cayrel, R.

    2004-01-01

    stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data......stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data...

  10. Strategies for endogenous spinal cord repair: HPMA hydrogel to recruit migrating endogenous stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Jeffrey, Araceli; Oregel, Karlos; Wiggins, Laurent; Valera, Remelyn; Bosnoyan, Kathrin; Agbo, Chioma; Awosika, Oluwole; Zhao, Paul M; de Vellis, Jean; Woerly, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Injury to the spinal cord disrupts ascending and descending axonal pathways and causes tissue damage with a subsequent limited cellular regeneration. Successful treatment would encompass the restoration of the cytoarchitecture, homeostasis and function all in dear need. Transplantation-based treatments using exogenous cells are the most favoured approach. Yet, with the advent of the stem cell concept and continuous progress in the field it became clear that the endogenous potential for repair is greater than previously thought. As an alternative to neural grafting, we and other researchers have aimed at understanding what are the elements needed for a successful repair with self progenitors that would give rise to the cell types needed to restore function of the central nervous system. Some studies involve both scaffolds and cell grafts. Here we describe studies on spinal cord repair using what we call "endogenous tissue engineering for regenerative medicine". The approach involves a hydrogel that mimics the natural milieu where endogenous pre-existing and newly formed cells populate the gel progressively allowing for the integration of CNS self populations leading to a successful recovery of function. Highlight aspects learned from this type of studies are that: Endogenous reconstruction of the injured spinal cord is possible by using the adequate support. The contribution of nestin-expressing progenitors to spinal cord regeneration is continuous and substantial both, in the reconstructed segment as well as, along the distal and caudal segments of the reconstructed spinal cord. Most of these cells appear to have been in a quiescent state until the injury occurred and only a small fraction of these neural progenitors was produced via cell proliferation. The hydrogel combined with exercise was necessary and sufficient to restore locomotor function in cats that underwent spinal transaction followed by reconstructive surgery. This recovery of function was first seen

  11. Surface abundances of ON stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Palacios, A; Howarth, I; Georgy, C; Walborn, N R; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient, or when mass transfer in binary systems happens, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle or not is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determine the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measure the projected rotational velocities. We compare the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. We show that ON stars are usually helium-rich. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cann...

  12. Lipids of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther

    2013-10-01

    A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glycans pattern the phase behaviour of lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Guidotti, Guido; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-02-01

    Hydrated networks of glycans (polysaccharides)—in the form of cell walls, periplasms or gel-like matrices—are ubiquitously present adjacent to cellular plasma membranes. Yet, despite their abundance, the function of glycans in the extracellular milieu is largely unknown. Here we show that the spatial configuration of glycans controls the phase behaviour of multiphase model lipid membranes: inhomogeneous glycan networks stabilize large lipid domains at the characteristic length scale of the network, whereas homogeneous networks suppress macroscopic lipid phase separation. We also find that glycan-patterned phase separation is thermally reversible—thus indicating that the effect is thermodynamic rather than kinetic—and that phase patterning probably results from a preferential interaction of glycans with ordered lipid phases. These findings have implications for membrane-mediated transport processes, potentially rationalize long-standing observations that differentiate the behaviour of native and model membranes and may indicate an intimate coupling between cellular lipidomes and glycomes.

  14. Omental Lipid-Coated Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    civilian medicine. REFERENCES: 1. Takada T, Kamei Y, Iwata T, et al. Effect of Omental Lipid Fraction on Enhancement of Skin Flap Survival. Annals of...Characterization of Feline Omentum Lipids. Lipids, 1987; 22:229-235. 7. Nottebaert M, Lane J, Juhn A, et al. Omental Angiogenic Lipid Fraction and

  15. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact ...

  16. Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caine, W.

    1997-01-01

    Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids is important for determining balanced homeostasis of protein metabolism in pigs and the true digestibility of dietary protein. In this context, the ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids were determined in growing pigs fed guanidinated Nutrisoy protein

  17. Government spending in a New Keynesian Endogenous Growth Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Veen, van A.P. (Tom); Muysken, J.

    2009-01-01

    Standard New Keynesian models cannot generate the widely observed result that private consumption is crowded in by government spending. We use a New Keynesian endogenous growth model with endogenous labour supply to analyse this phenomenon. The presence of small direct productivity effects of govern

  18. On the Endogeneity of the Mean-Variance Efficient Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. A.; O'Connell, Paul G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that the endogeneity of the efficient frontier in the mean-variance model of portfolio selection is commonly obscured in portfolio selection literature and in widely used textbooks. Demonstrates endogeneity and discusses the impact of parameter changes on the mean-variance efficient frontier and on the beta coefficients of individual…

  19. Endogene opioider og deres terapeutiske anvendelse i smertebehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, A T

    1990-01-01

    Cancer patients with chronic pain and obstetric patients have participated in clinical trials of the analgesic effects of endogenous opioids. It is possible to achieve adequate relief of pain in these patients following epidural or intrathecal administration of endogenous opioids. Further investi...

  20. Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Babaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer arises from a series of genetic and epigenetic changes, which result in abnormal expression or mutational activation of oncogenes, as well as suppression/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of coding genes or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with oncogenic properties can be caused by translocations, gene amplifications, point mutations or other less characterized mechanisms. One such mechanism is the inappropriate usage of normally dormant, tissue-restricted or cryptic enhancers or promoters that serve to drive oncogenic gene expression. Dispersed across the human genome, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs provide an enormous reservoir of autonomous gene regulatory modules, some of which have been co-opted by the host during evolution to play important roles in normal regulation of genes and gene networks. This review focuses on the “dark side” of such ERV regulatory capacity. Specifically, we discuss a growing number of examples of normally dormant or epigenetically repressed ERVs that have been harnessed to drive oncogenes in human cancer, a process we term onco-exaptation, and we propose potential mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.

  1. Digoxin and its related endogenous factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortani, S A; Valdes, R

    1997-01-01

    The digitalis drugs are plant-derived cardenolide compounds used medicinally for several hundred years. These drugs elicit inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, but they also affect many other tissues. The mechanism of action involves inhibition of the ion-transport activity of a membrane-associated protein called Na, K-ATPase (sodium pump). Present theory holds that the sodium pump is the principal molecular receptor for the digitalis drugs. Recent evidence indicates the presence of naturally occurring digitalis-like compounds in mammals. It is believed these compounds, collectively known as either digitalis-like (DLF) or ouabain-like (OLF) factors, may be endogenous hormones regulating the biological activity of the sodium pump and its isoforms. The presence of deglycosylated and other congeners of one specific DLF, the digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), has very recently been described in humans. Digoxin as a drug is the most widely prescribed digitalis in the U.S., and its measurement in serum has established a model for present-day therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Historically, the accurate measurement of digoxin in blood has been difficult. This article focuses on the present understanding of the clinical use of digoxin, factors that affect the accuracy of measuring digoxin, the principle of measuring metabolically active species of digoxin, and the effects of DLIF and other interfering substances in digoxin immunoassay.

  2. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C.; Meik, J. M.; Dashevsky, D.; Card, D. C.; Castoe, T. A.; Schaack, S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. PMID:25080342

  3. Endogenous viral elements in algal genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; LIU Tao; SUN Jing; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong; WANG Xumin

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are host-genomic fragments originated from viral genomes. They have been found universally in animal and plant genomes. Here we carried out a systematic screening and analy-sis of EVEs in algal genomes and found that EVEs commonly exist in algal genomes. We classified the EVE fragments into three categories according to the length of EVE fragments. Due to the probability of sequence similarity by chance, we ignored the potential function of medium-length EVE fragments. However, long-length EVE fragments probably had capability to encode protein domains or even entire proteins, and some short-length EVE fragments had high similarity with host's siRNA sequences and possibly served functions of small RNAs. Therefore, short and long EVE fragments might provide regulomic and proteomic novelty to the host's metabolism and adaptation. We also found several EVE fragments shared by more than 3 algal genomes. By phylogenetic analysis of the shared EVEs and their corresponding species, we found that the integration of viral fragments into host genomes was an ancient event, possibly before the divergence of Chlorophytes and Ochrophytes. Our findings show that there is a frequent genetic flow from viruses to algal genomes. Moreover, study on algal EVEs shed light on the virus-host interaction in large timescale and could also help us understand the balance of marine ecosystems.

  4. Enterococcus faecalis Endogenous Endophthalmitis from Valvular Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Barge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 74-year-old female, with a mitral heart valve, who presented with pain and blurred vision in the right eye for 2 days. Her visual acuity was light perception (LP in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Slit lamp examination showed corneal edema and hypopyon, and a view of the right fundus was impossible. Echography showed vitreous condensation. One day after presentation, the patient developed acute lung edema requiring hospitalization, so she was not submitted to vitreous tap and intravitreal treatment. The cardiac and systemic evaluations revealed a mitral endocarditis secondary to Enterococcus faecalis. The patient improved systemically with treatment with gentamicin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Her visual acuity remained as no LP, and her intraocular pressure (IOP has been controlled with brimonidine bid despite developing a total cataract with 360° posterior synechia. A cardiac source for endogenous endophthalmitis should be considered in the presence of a prosthetic cardiac valve. The treatment and followup must be made in cooperation with a cardiologist specialist, but the ophthalmologist can play a key role in the diagnosis.

  5. Retinal photodamage by endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgus, Albert R; Roberts, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    The human eye is constantly exposed to sunlight and artificial lighting. Light transmission through the eye is fundamental to its unique biological functions of directing vision and circadian rhythm and therefore light absorbed by the eye must be benign. However, exposure to the very intense ambient radiation can pose a hazard particularly if the recipient is over 40 years of age. There are age-related changes in the endogenous (natural) chromophores (lipofuscin, A2E and all-trans-retinal derivatives) in the human retina that makes it more susceptible to visible light damage. Intense visible light sources that do not filter short blue visible light (400-440 nm) used for phototherapy of circadian imbalance (i.e. seasonal affective disorder) increase the risk for age-related light damage to the retina. Moreover, many drugs, dietary supplements, nanoparticles and diagnostic dyes (xenobiotics) absorb ocular light and have the potential to induce photodamage to the retina, leading to transient or permanent blinding disorders. This article will review the underlying reasons why visible light in general and short blue visible light in particular dramatically raises the risk of photodamage to the human retina.

  6. Endogenous Retroviruses: With Us and Against Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas J.; Rosenkrantz, Jimi L.; Carbone, Lucia; Chavez, Shawn L.

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian genomes are scattered with thousands of copies of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), mobile genetic elements that are relics of ancient retroviral infections. After inserting copies into the germ line of a host, most ERVs accumulate mutations that prevent the normal assembly of infectious viral particles, becoming trapped in host genomes and unable to leave to infect other cells. While most copies of ERVs are inactive, some are transcribed and encode the proteins needed to generate new insertions at novel loci. In some cases, old copies are removed via recombination and other mechanisms. This creates a shifting landscape of ERV copies within host genomes. New insertions can disrupt normal expression of nearby genes via directly inserting into key regulatory elements or by containing regulatory motifs within their sequences. Further, the transcriptional silencing of ERVs via epigenetic modification may result in changes to the epigenetic regulation of adjacent genes. In these ways, ERVs can be potent sources of regulatory disruption as well as genetic innovation. Here, we provide a brief review of the association between ERVs and gene expression, especially as observed in pre-implantation development and placentation. Moreover, we will describe the roles ERVs may play in somatic tissues, mostly in the context of human disease, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and schizophrenia. Lastly, we discuss the recent discovery that some ERVs may have been pressed into the service of their host genomes to aid in the innate immune response to exogenous viral infections.

  7. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  8. Synthesis of lipid mediators during UVB-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sisignano

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensitization during inflammatory pain is mediated by a variety of endogenous proalgesic mediators including a number of oxidized lipids, some of which serve endogenous modulators of sensory TRP-channels. These lipids are eicosanoids of the arachidonic acid and linoleic acid pathway, as well as lysophophatidic acids (LPAs. However, their regulation pattern during inflammatory pain and their contribution to peripheral sensitization is still unclear. Here, we used the UVB-model for inflammatory pain to investigate alterations of lipid concentrations at the site of inflammation, the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs as well as the spinal dorsal horn and quantified 21 lipid species from five different lipid families at the peak of inflammation 48 hours post irradiation. We found that known proinflammatory lipids as well as lipids with unknown roles in inflammatory pain to be strongly increased in the skin, whereas surprisingly little changes of lipid levels were seen in DRGs or the dorsal horn. Importantly, although there are profound differences between the number of cytochrome (CYP genes between mice and rats, CYP-derived lipids were regulated similarly in both species. Since TRPV1 agonists such as LPA 18∶1, 9- and 13-HODE, 5- and 12-HETE were elevated in the skin, they may contribute to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia during UVB-induced inflammatory pain. These results may explain why some studies show relatively weak analgesic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in UVB-induced skin inflammation, as they do not inhibit synthesis of other proalgesic lipids such as LPA 18∶1, 9-and 13-HODE and HETEs.

  9. A statistical and experimental approach for assessing the preservation of plant lipids in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K. E.; Eissenstat, D. M.; Oleksyn, J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    Plant-derived lipids contribute to stable soil organic matter, but further interpretations of their abundance in soils are limited because the factors that control lipid preservation are poorly understood. Using data from a long-term field experiment and simple statistical models, we provide novel constraints on several predictors of the concentration of hydrolyzable lipids in forest mineral soils. Focal lipids included common monomers of cutin, suberin, and plant waxes present in tree leaves and roots. Soil lipid concentrations were most strongly influenced by the concentrations of lipids in leaves and roots of the overlying trees, but were also affected by the type of lipid (e.g. alcohols vs. acids), lipid chain length, and whether lipids originated in leaves or roots. Collectively, these factors explained ~80% of the variation in soil lipid concentrations beneath 11 different tree species. In order to use soil lipid analyses to test and improve conceptual models of soil organic matter stabilization, additional studies that provide experimental and quantitative (i.e. statistical) constraints on plant lipid preservation are needed.

  10. Comparison of Lipids in Organs of the Starfish Asterias amurensis Associated with Different Treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; IKEGAME Keita; TAKAHASHI Koretaro; XUE Changhu; ZHANG Weinong; WANG Hongxun; HOU Wenfu

    2013-01-01

    Lipids were extracted from organs of the starfish Asterias amurensis associated with different treatments (raw-control,boiling and heating),and then analyzed for lipid content,lipid oxidation index,lipid classes and fatty acid composition.Results showed that boiling softened the hard starfish shells,thus facilitating the collection of starfish organs.As compared with raw organs,the boiled organs had lower water content and higher lipid content,possibly due to the loss of water-holding capacity caused by protein denaturation.Both boiling and heating increased the peroxide value (PV),thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and carbon value (CV)of lipids.Despite slight increases in the content of complex lipids,associated lipid composition had no substantial variations upon boiling and heating.For simple lipids,the content of 1,2-diglyceride decreased in boiled and heated organs,with free fatty acids observed on thin layer chromatography (TLC).However,neither boiling nor heating significantly changed the fatty acid compositions of simple or complex lipids in starfish organs,suggesting that these two treatments had no significant effects on complex lipids in starfish organs.Together,our results indicated that boiling of starfish soon after capture facilitated the handling and extraction of useful complex lipids consisting of abundant glucosylceramide and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-bounded phospholipids.

  11. The Effect of Globalization in an Endogenous Growth Model with Heterogeneous Firms and Endogenous International Spillovers: Note

    OpenAIRE

    Katsufumi Fukuda

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that globalization increases (decreases) the growth rate if and only if the beachhead cost for the domestic market is strictly higher (lower) than that for the foreign market in a endogenous growth model with firm heterogeneity, international trade, and endogenous international spillover under specified necessary and sufficient conditions for exporting firms being more productive than non-exporting firms.

  12. Comparative phytohormone profiles, lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities in barley aleurone, coleoptile, and root tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringer, Maria V; Villasuso, Ana L; Pasquaré, Susana J; Giusto, Norma M; Machado, Estela E; Racagni, Graciela E

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed lipid kinase and lipid phosphatase activities and determined endogenous phytohormone levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in root and coleoptile tissues following germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds. The enzymes showing highest activity in aleurone cells were diacylglycerol kinase (DAG-k, EC 2.7.1.107) and phosphatidate kinase (PA-k). The ratio of gibberellins (GAs) to abscisic acid (ABA) was 2-fold higher in aleurone than in coleoptile or root tissues. In coleoptiles, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4-k, EC 2.7.1.67) showed the highest enzyme activity, and jasmonic acid (JA) level was higher than in aleurone. In roots, activities of PI4-k, DAG-k, and PA-k were similar, and salicylic acid (SA) showed the highest concentration. In the assays to evaluate the hydrolysis of DGPP (diacylglycerol pyrophosphate) and PA (phosphatidic acid) we observed that PA hydrolysis by LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) was not modified; however, the diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase (DGPPase) was strikingly higher in coleoptile and root tissues than to aleurone. Relevance of these findings in terms of signaling responses and seedling growth is discussed.

  13. Abundance analysis of DAZ white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, Adela; Dinnbier, Frantisek; Cibulkova, Helena; Nemeth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present an abundance analysis of a sample of 33 hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs. We have used archival high-resolution spectra to measure abundances of calcium, magnesium and iron in a set of 30 objects. In addition, we present preliminary calcium abundances in three new white dwarfs based on low-dispersion spectra. We investigate some abundance ratios (Mg/Ca, Fe/Ca) that may help uncover the composition of the accretion source.

  14. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradi

  15. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. In recent years mid-and far infrared spectra of planetary nebulae have been analysed and lead to more accurate abundances. It may be expected that these better abundances lead to a better understanding of the evolution of these objects. Aims. The observed abundances in planetary nebulae are

  16. Endogenous opioids: The downside of opposing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita J. Valentino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our dynamic environment regularly exposes us to potentially life-threatening challenges or stressors. To answer these challenges and maintain homeostasis, the stress response, an innate coordinated engagement of central and peripheral neural systems is initiated. Although essential for survival, the inappropriate initiation of the stress response or its continuation after the stressor is terminated has pathological consequences that have been linked to diverse neuropsychiatric and medical diseases. Substantial individual variability exists in the pathological consequences of stressors. A theme of this Special Issue is that elucidating the basis of individual differences in resilience or its flipside, vulnerability, will greatly advance our ability to prevent and treat stress-related diseases. This can be approached by studying individual differences in “pro-stress” mediators such as corticosteroids or the hypothalamic orchestrator of the stress response, corticotropin-releasing factor. More recently, the recognition of endogenous neuromodulators with “anti-stress” activity that have opposing actions or that restrain stress-response systems suggests additional bases for individual differences in stress pathology. These “anti-stress” neuromodulators offer alternative strategies for manipulating the stress response and its pathological consequences. This review uses the major brain norepinephrine system as a model stress-response system to demonstrate how co-regulation by opposing pro-stress (corticotropin-releasing factor and anti-stress (enkephalin neuromodulators must be fine-tuned to produce an adaptive response to stress. The clinical consequences of tipping this fine-tuned balance in the direction of either the pro- or anti-stress systems are emphasized. Finally, that each system provides multiple points at which individual differences could confer stress vulnerability or resilience is discussed.

  17. Endogenous synthesis of corticosteroids in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Higo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain synthesis of steroids including sex-steroids is attracting much attention. The endogenous synthesis of corticosteroids in the hippocampus, however, has been doubted because of the inability to detect deoxycorticosterone (DOC synthase, cytochrome P450(c21. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of P450(c21 was demonstrated using mRNA analysis and immmunogold electron microscopic analysis in the adult male rat hippocampus. DOC production from progesterone (PROG was demonstrated by metabolism analysis of (3H-steroids. All the enzymes required for corticosteroid synthesis including P450(c21, P450(2D4, P450(11β1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD were localized in the hippocampal principal neurons as shown via in situ hybridization and immunoelectron microscopic analysis. Accurate corticosteroid concentrations in rat hippocampus were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In adrenalectomized rats, net hippocampus-synthesized corticosterone (CORT and DOC were determined to 6.9 and 5.8 nM, respectively. Enhanced spinogenesis was observed in the hippocampus following application of low nanomolar (10 nM doses of CORT for 1 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results imply the complete pathway of corticosteroid synthesis of 'pregnenolone →PROG→DOC→CORT' in the hippocampal neurons. Both P450(c21 and P450(2D4 can catalyze conversion of PROG to DOC. The low nanomolar level of CORT synthesized in hippocampal neurons may play a role in modulation of synaptic plasticity, in contrast to the stress effects by micromolar CORT from adrenal glands.

  18. Endogenous neurotrophins and plasticity following spinal deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Matt S

    2012-05-01

    Neurons intrinsic to the spinal cord dorsal horn receive input from various classes of long-distance projection systems. Two of the best known of these are primary afferent and descending monoaminergic axons. Together with intrinsic interneurons, activity in these axonal populations shapes the early part of the sensory experience before it is transmitted to supraspinal structures via ascending projection axons. Injury to dorsal roots, which contain the centrally projecting branches of primary afferent axons, results in their permanent disconnection from the spinal cord, as well as sensory dysfunction such as pain. In animals, experimental dorsal root injuries affecting a small number of roots produce dynamic behavioural changes, providing evidence for the now familiar concept that sensory processing at the level of the spinal cord is not hard-wired. Changes in behaviour following rhizotomy suggest changes in spinal sensory circuitry, and we and others have shown that the density of spinal serotonergic axons as well as processes of inhibitory interneurons increases following rhizotomy. Intact primary afferent axons are less apt to sprout into denervated territory. Recent work from our group has asked (1) what is the stimulus that induces sprouting of serotonergic (and other) axons and (2) what prevents spared primary afferent axons from occupying the territory of those lost to injury. This article will review the evidence that a single factor upregulated by dorsal root injury, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), underpins both serotonergic sprouting and a lack of primary afferent plasticity. BDNF also differentially modulates some of the behavioural consequences of dorsal root injury: antagonizing endogenous BDNF improves spontaneous mechanosensory recovery but prevents recovery from rhizotomy-induced hypersensitivity to cold. These findings reinforce the notion that in disease states as complex and variable as spinal cord injury, single pharmacological

  19. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  20. Influence of Endogenous Cytokinins on Reverse Mobilization in Cotyledons of Cicer arietinum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jose Luis; Martin, Luisa; Nicolas, Gregorio; Villalobos, Nieves

    1990-01-01

    The embryonic axis plays an essential role in the mobilization of the main reserves of the cotyledons of seeds of Cicer arietinum L. cv Castellana. This control by the axis of the metabolism of the storage products of the cotyledons largely takes place through the cytokinins, which are transported from the embryonic axis to the cotyledons where the mobilization of reserves begins. The principal regulatory role of the endogenous cytokinins concerns the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins; there is less influence on lipid metabolism. However, each cytokinin seems to have a different role in the mobilization processes. The glucosides, glucosyl zeatin riboside, and glucosyl zeatin act only as storage forms of the hormones. Zeatin riboside affects mainly the mobilization of carbohydrates and has less effect on protein mobilization. Zeatin regulates both the mobilization of carbohydrates and that of proteins and is more marked in the latter case. PMID:16667549

  1. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  2. LIPID PEROXIDATION IN PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Sharmila Krishna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Preeclampsia is characterised by hypertension and proteinuria. Lipid peroxidation is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Preeclampsia. The present study was undertaken to determine Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA levels , a product of lipid peroxidation , in clinically diagnosed Preeclamptic women(n=30 and the values were compared with that of Normotensive pregnant women (n=30 aged between 18-30yrs. All of them were in their third trimester and were primigravida. Serum MDA was estimated by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. We observed that Serum MDA levels were significantly increased in Preeclamptic women (p <0.000 as compared to that of Normotensive pregnant women . Increased levels of lipid peroxiation product - MDA may contribute to the pathophysiology of Preeclampsia.

  3. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  4. Cytomegalovirus Restructures Lipid Rafts via a US28/CDC42-Mediated Pathway, Enhancing Cholesterol Efflux from Host Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contains cholesterol, but how HCMV interacts with host cholesterol metabolism is unknown. We found that, in human fibroblasts, HCMV infection increased the efflux of cellular cholesterol, despite reducing the abundance of ABCA1. Mechanistically, viral protein US28 was acting through CDC42, rearranging actin microfilaments, causing association of actin with lipid rafts, and leading to a dramatic change in the abundance and/or structure of lipid rafts. These changes displ...

  5. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide enhances salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox homeostasis and preventing salt-induced K⁺ loss in seedlings of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Diwen; Mao, Yu; Zhou, Heng; Li, Feng; Wu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jing; He, Ziyi; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie

    2014-08-01

    Despite the external application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conferring plant tolerance against various environmental cues, the physiological significance of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES)-associated endogenous H2S production involved in salt-stress signaling was poorly understood. To address this gap, the participation of in planta changes of H2S homeostasis involved in alfalfa salt tolerance was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl (from 50 to 300 mM) progressively caused the induction of total l-DES activity and the increase of endogenous H2S production. NaCl-triggered toxicity symptoms (175 mM), including seedling growth inhibition and lipid peroxidation, were alleviated by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM), a H2S donor, whereas aggravated by an inhibitor of l-DES or a H2S scavenger. A weaker or negative response was observed in lower or higher dose of NaHS. Further results showed that endogenous l-DES-related H2S modulated several genes/activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, and also regulated the contents of antioxidant compounds, thus counterbalancing the NaCl-induced lipid peroxidation. Moreover, H2S maintained K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis by preventing the NaCl-triggered K(+) efflux, which might be result form the impairment of SKOR expression. Together, our findings indicated that endogenous H2S homeostasis enhance salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox balance and restraining K(+) efflux in alfalfa seedlings.

  6. Bioorthogonal chemical reporters for analyzing protein lipidation and lipid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Howard C; Wilson, John P; Charron, Guillaume

    2011-09-20

    Protein lipidation and lipid trafficking control many key biological functions in all kingdoms of life. The discovery of diverse lipid species and their covalent attachment to many proteins has revealed a complex and regulated network of membranes and lipidated proteins that are central to fundamental aspects of physiology and human disease. Given the complexity of lipid trafficking and the protein targeting mechanisms involved with membrane lipids, precise and sensitive methods are needed to monitor and identify these hydrophobic molecules in bacteria, yeast, and higher eukaryotes. Although many analytical methods have been developed for characterizing membrane lipids and covalently modified proteins, traditional reagents and approaches have limited sensitivity, do not faithfully report on the lipids of interest, or are not readily accessible. The invention of bioorthogonal ligation reactions, such as the Staudinger ligation and azide-alkyne cycloadditions, has provided new tools to address these limitations, and their use has begun to yield fresh insight into the biology of protein lipidation and lipid trafficking. In this Account, we discuss how these new bioorthogonal ligation reactions and lipid chemical reporters afford new opportunities for exploring the biology of lipid-modified proteins and lipid trafficking. Lipid chemical reporters from our laboratory and several other research groups have enabled improved detection and large-scale proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated and prenylated proteins. For example, fatty acid and isoprenoid chemical reporters in conjunction with bioorthogonal ligation methods have circumvented the limited sensitivity and hazards of radioactive analogues, allowing rapid and robust fluorescent detection of lipidated proteins in all organisms tested. These chemical tools have revealed alterations in protein lipidation in different cellular states and are beginning to provide unique insights in mechanisms of regulation. Notably, the

  7. Circulatory Support with Venoarterial ECMO Unsuccessful in Aiding Endogenous Diltiazem Clearance after Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin N. Frazee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In cardiovascular collapse from diltiazem poisoning, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO may offer circulatory support sufficient to preserve endogenous hepatic drug clearance. Little is known about patient outcomes and diltiazem toxicokinetics in this setting. Case Report. A 36-year-old woman with a history of myocardial bridging syndrome presented with chest pain for which she self-medicated with 2.4 g of sustained release diltiazem over the course of 8 hours. Hemodynamics and mentation were satisfactory on presentation, but precipitously deteriorated after ICU transfer. She was given fluids, calcium, vasopressors, glucagon, high-dose insulin, and lipid emulsion. Due to circulatory collapse and multiorgan failure including ischemic hepatopathy, she underwent transvenous pacing and emergent initiation of venoarterial ECMO. The peak diltiazem level was 13150 ng/mL (normal 100–200 ng/mL and it remained elevated at 6340 ng/mL at hour 90. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple complications which resulted in her death on ICU day 9. Conclusion. This case describes the unsuccessful use of ECMO for diltiazem intoxication. Although past reports suggest that support with ECMO may facilitate endogenous diltiazem clearance, it may be dependent on preserved hepatic function at the time of cannulation, a factor not present in this case.

  8. Variation in endogenous oxidative stress in Escherichia coli natural isolates during growth in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubron Cecile

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli cause symptomatic infections whereas asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU strains are well adapted for growth in the human urinary tract, where they establish long-term bacteriuria. Human urine is a very complex growth medium that could be perceived by certain bacteria as a stressful environment. To investigate a possible imbalance between endogenous oxidative response and antioxidant mechanisms, lipid oxidative damage estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS content was evaluated in twenty-one E. coli belonging to various pathovars and phylogenetic groups. Antioxidant defense mechanisms were also analysed. Results During exponential growth in urine, TBARS level differs between strains, without correlation with the ability to grow in urine which was similarly limited for commensal, ABU and uropathogenic strains. In addition, no correlation between TBARS level and the phylogroup or pathogenic group is apparent. The growth of ABU strain 83972 was associated with a high level of TBARS and more active antioxidant defenses that reduce the imbalance. Conclusions Our results indicate that growth capacity in urine is not a property of ABU strains. However, E. coli isolates respond very differently to this stressful environment. In strain ABU 83972, on one hand, the increased level of endogenous reactive oxygen species may be responsible for adaptive mutations. On the other hand, a more active antioxidant defense system could increase the capacity to colonize the bladder.

  9. Endogenous allergen upregulation: transgenic vs. traditionally bred crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ladics, Gregory S

    2011-10-01

    The safety assessment for transgenic food crops currently includes an evaluation of the endogenous allergy potential (via serum IgE screening) when the non-transgenic counterpart is a commonly allergenic food. The value of this analysis in the safety assessment of transgenic crops, especially with reference to recent requests to quantify individual allergen concentrations in raw commodities, is examined. We conclude that the likelihood of upregulating an endogenous allergen due to transgenesis is no greater than from traditional breeding which has a history of safety and is largely unregulated. The potential consequences of upregulating an endogenous allergen are also unclear.

  10. Demonstration of endogenous imipramine like material in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehavi, M.; Ventura, I.; Sarne, Y.

    1985-02-18

    The extraction and partial purification of an endogenous imipramine-like material from rat brain is described. The endogenous factor obtained after gel filtration and silica chromatography inhibits (/sup 3/H) imipramine specific binding and mimics the inhibitory effect of imipramine on (/sup 3/H) serotonin uptake in both brain and platelet preparations. The effects of the endogenous material are dose-dependent and it inhibits (/sup 3/H) imipramine binding in a competitive fashion. The factor is unevenly distributed in the brain with high concentration in the hypothalamus and low concentration in the cerebellum.

  11. Origin of Cosmic Chemical Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological N-body hydrodynamic computations following atomic and molecular chemistry (e$^-$, H, H$^+$, H$^-$, He, He$^+$, He$^{++}$, D, D$^+$, H$_2$, H$_2^+$, HD, HeH$^+$), gas cooling, star formation and production of heavy elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, etc.) from stars covering a range of mass and metallicity are used to explore the origin of several chemical abundance patterns and to study both the metal and molecular content during simulated galaxy assembly. The resulting trends show a remarkable similarity to up-to-date observations of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers at redshift $z\\gtrsim 2$. These exhibit a transient nature and represent collapsing gaseous structures captured while cooling is becoming effective in lowering the temperature below $\\sim 10^4\\,\\rm K$, before they are disrupted by episodes of star formation or tidal effects. Our theoretical results agree with the available data for typical elemental ratios, such as [C/O], [Si/Fe], [O/Fe], [Si/O], [Fe/H], [O/...

  12. How proteins move lipids and lipids move proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; van der Sluijs, P.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368

    2001-01-01

    Cells determine the bilayer characteristics of different membranes by tightly controlling their lipid composition. Local changes in the physical properties of bilayers, in turn, allow membrane deformation, and facilitate vesicle budding and fusion. Moreover, specific lipids at specific locations

  13. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal—A Bioactive Lipid Peroxidation Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf J. Schaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review on recent research advances of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE has four major topics: I. the formation of HNE in various organs and tissues, II. the diverse biochemical reactions with Michael adduct formation as the most prominent one, III. the endogenous targets of HNE, primarily peptides and proteins (here the mechanisms of covalent adduct formation are described and the (patho- physiological consequences discussed, and IV. the metabolism of HNE leading to a great number of degradation products, some of which are excreted in urine and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  14. Biased signaling of lipids and allosteric actions of synthetic molecules for GPR119

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Helle A; Fares, Suzan; Larsen, Olav;

    2016-01-01

    for 2h with the 2-MAG-lipase inhibitor JZL84 doubled the constitutive activity, indicating that endogenous lipids contribute to the apparent constitutive activity. Finally, besides being an agonist, AR231453 acted as a positive allosteric modulator of OEA and increased its potency by 54-fold at 100nM AR......231453. Our studies uncovering broad and biased signaling, masked constitutive activity by endogenous MAGs, and ago-allosteric properties of synthetic ligands may explain why many GPR119 drug-discovery programs have failed so far....

  15. Seasonal variations of lipid content and composition in Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhang, Yonghua; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2007-08-01

    The total lipid content, composition of main lipid classes, composition of sterols and composition of fatty acids in the main glycerolipids of Perna viridis were analyzed through four seasons using TLC-FID and GLC. Mussel samples were collected during different seasons between 2003 and 2004 from Shengsi Island, Zhejiang Province, China and stored frozen prior to freeze-drying and lipid extraction. Ten grams of dried mussel powder of each season were analyzed. Total lipid content ranged from 14.5 g/100 g in spring month to 7.8 g/100 g dried mussel powder in autumn month. The predominant lipid in spring month was triacylglycerol (TAG), however, in the other three seasons the phospholipids (PL) was the main lipid class. The most abundant fatty acid in TAG, PL and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was 16:0, with the summer samples having the highest proportion (24-30% of total fatty acid) and winter the lowest (14-22%). In phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the spring samples had the highest proportions of 16:0. The predominant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 in TAG, PL, PE and PC (25-40%). The proportions of 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 were higher in spring than in other seasons in PL and PE. There were nine sterols identified, with cholesterol being the predominant sterol, and other main ones were desmostersol/brassicasterol and 24-methylenecholesterol. Proportions of other fatty acids in different lipid fractions and the sterol compositions as well also varied seasonally. There were subject to the seasonal variations. Differences in lipid content and composition, fatty acid composition in different lipid fractions may be caused by multiple factors such as lifecycle, sex, variation of plankton in different seasons and temperature, which could influence physiological activities and metabolism.

  16. Natural Antioxidants, Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes of Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqbal M.A. Dauqan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant plays a very important role in the body defense system against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. The free radicals also play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology including human physiology. Fats and oils are energy sources that are composed mostly of triacylglycerols. Lipid ptofile are risk indicators of coronary heart disease. Various types of lipoproteins exist, but the two most abundant are Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL and High-density Lipoprotein (HDL. Lipid peroxidation is the introduction of a functional group containing two catenated oxygyen atomsinto unsturated fatty acids in a free radical reaction. Life in oxygen has led to the evolution of biochemical adaptations that exploit the reactivity of Active Oxygen Species (AOS. Antioxidant enzymes are an important protective mechanism ROS. This paper highlight the functions of antioxidants in the blood and selected organs associated with health.

  17. Case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Suemori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Suemori1, Akira Sawada1, Shinya Komori1, Kiyofumi Mochizuki1, Kiyofumi Ohkusu2, Hirofumi Takemura31Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of General and Cardiothoracic Surgery Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, JapanAbstract: We report a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus equisimilis. A 74-year-old woman with endocarditis developed endogenous endophthalmitis. The patient underwent emergency mitral valvuloplasty, and intravitreal and subconjunctival injections of vancomycin and meropenem. After the surgery, she was treated with topical antibiotics, ointment, intravenous gentamicin and intravenous penicillin G potassium. The causative organism was identified as S. equisimilis. S. equisimilis should be considered as a pathogen that can cause severe endogenous endophthalmitis.Keywords: endogenous endophthalmitis, group G Streptococcus, endocarditis, Streptococcus equisimilis

  18. Can Neural Activity Propagate by Endogenous Electrical Field?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S; Zhang, Mingming; Durand, Dominique M

    2015-01-01

    .... The only explanation left is an electrical field effect. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous electric fields are sufficient to explain the propagation with in silico and in vitro experiments...

  19. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Neuropeptides and Their Control of Endogenous Glucose Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, E; Tan, A A T; Ackermans, M T; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2016-01-01

    Defective control of endogenous glucose production is an important factor responsible for hyperglycaemia in the diabetic individual. During the past decade, progressively more evidence has appeared indicating a strong and potentially causal relationship between disturbances of the circadian system a

  20. Association of endogenous substrate with solubilized bovine brain sialidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schengrund, C L; Repman, M A

    1986-01-01

    Nonidet P40 solubilized up to 90% of the sialidase, active towards added ganglioside substrate, that was associated with the total membrane fraction prepared from gray matter of bovine brains. Solubilized sialidase acted upon endogenous substrate (sialic acid containing compounds solubilized with the enzyme), hydrolyzing approximately 50% of the readily available sialosyl residues within 20 min. During a 2-hr reaction time 80% of the polysialylated gangliosides solubilized with the enzyme were acted upon. A 20-min lag was observed before sialidase acted upon added ganglioside substrate. The lag could be reduced to less than 2 min when the enzyme was allowed to act on endogenous substrate prior to exposure to exogenous substrate, suggesting that the solubilized enzyme acted preferentially on endogenous substrate. A protease inhibitor prevented much of the 86% loss of activity towards added substrate that was seen when the enzyme was stored at 4 degrees C for 6 days; activity towards endogenous substrate decreased only 34%.

  1. Detection and distribution of endogenous steroids in human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Tseng

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that, with the achievable sensitivity of current analytical technology, physiological concentrations of endogenous steroids, such as hydrocortisone and cortisone, can be found in the SC of some individuals.

  2. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  3. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of t

  4. Lipids in cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  5. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of t

  6. Cost of delay, deadlines and endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Tuvana; Pastine, Ivan

    2001-01-01

    This Paper analyses endogenous price leadership in a duopolistic market with differentiated products and symmetrically informed firms. We study the effects of deadlines and discounting in a standard endogenous leadership model. We show that there will be occasional changes in the identity of the price leader with any cost of delay or discounting, however small. By analyzing the incentives that induce a firm to take up the leader position we derive positive predictions about which firm will le...

  7. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Selbach Scheffel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  8. Anxiety and Performance: An Endogenous Learning-by-doing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Rauh; Giulio Seccia

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we show that a standard economic model, the endogenous learning-by-doing model, captures several major themes from the anxiety literature in psychology. In our model, anxiety is a fully endogenous construct that can be separated naturally into its cognitive and physiological components. As such, our results are directly comparable with hypotheses and evidence from psychology. We show that anxiety can serve a motivating function, which suggests potential applications in the pr...

  9. EXOGENOUS OR ENDOGENOUS MONEY SUPPLY: EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    ZATUL E. BADARUDIN; Ahmed M. Khalid; MOHAMED ARIFF

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of money supply in Australia over two separate monetary policy regimes: monetary and inflation targeting. The post-Keynesian theory on endogenous money was tested with the aim of investigating whether endogenous money supply, if it did exist, followed the accomodationist, structuralist or liquidity preference viewpoints. Data used are quarterly series from 1977 to 2007 and we used vector error-correction model for long-run and short-run causality tests. We f...

  10. Stratum corneum lipids: specificity, role, deficiencies and modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castiel-Higounenc Isabelle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are important constituents of the human epidermis. Either free and organized into broad lipid bilayers in the intercorneocytes spaces, or covalently bound to the corneocyte envelope, they play a crucial role in permeability barrier function. This article presents the structures of various human skin ceramides, their role in the maintenance of skin barrier function and homeostasis, and their qualitative and quantitative changes in some cases of dry skin or atopic xerosis. Moreover, we show that reconstructed human skin models could provide valuable tools to assess in vitro the biological interest of active compounds on epidermal lipogenesis. Based on such in vitro studies, we assume that the association of vitamin C and some exogenous sphingolipid could enhance the endogenous ceramide content deficient in some cases of atopic dry skin.

  11. Formation of 7-(2-oxoethyl) guanine from lipid peroxidation and vinyl chloride exposure in male sprague dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a development of a new sensitive LC-MS/MS method to analyze 7-(2-oxoethylguanine) (7OEG), we confirmed and differentiated 7-0EG DNA adduct formation endogenously from lipid peroxidation and exogenously from Vinyl Chloride (VC) exposure. VC is an industrial chemical that is ...

  12. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  13. In situ tissue regeneration: chemoattractants for endogenous stem cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering uses cells, signaling molecules, and/or biomaterials to regenerate injured or diseased tissues. Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have long been a cornerstone of regeneration therapies; however, drawbacks that include altered signaling responses and reduced homing capacity have prompted investigation of regeneration based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Recent successful proof-of-concept studies have further motivated endogenous MSC recruitment-based approaches. Stem cell migration is required for morphogenesis and organogenesis during development and for tissue maintenance and injury repair in adults. A biomimetic approach to in situ tissue regeneration by endogenous MSC requires the orchestration of three main stages: MSC recruitment, MSC differentiation, and neotissue maturation. The first stage must result in recruitment of a sufficient number of MSC, capable of effecting regeneration, to the injured or diseased tissue. One of the challenges for engineering endogenous MSC recruitment is the selection of effective chemoattractant(s). The objective of this review is to synthesize and evaluate evidence of recruitment efficacy by reported chemoattractants, including growth factors, chemokines, and other more recently appreciated MSC chemoattractants. The influence of MSC tissue sources, cell culture methods, and the in vitro and in vivo environments is discussed. This growing body of knowledge will serve as a basis for the rational design of regenerative therapies based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Successful endogenous MSC recruitment is the first step of successful tissue regeneration.

  14. Endogenous activated angiotensin-(1-7) plays a protective effect against atherosclerotic plaques unstability in high fat diet fed ApoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Meng, Xiao; Dong, Mei; Guo, Tao; Kong, Jing; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    We recently found that exogenous angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] inhibits Angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation and enhances plaque stability. Our objective was to evaluate the role of endogenous activated Ang-(1-7) during atherosclerosis. In mice, the effects of endogenous Ang-(1-7) on atherogenesis in early stage and plaque stability in late stage were observed in ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed with a high fat diet. Blockage of endogenous Ang-(1-7) with A779, an Ang-(1-7) antagonist, did not increase early plaque lesion formation, however, it remarkably enhanced contents of lipids and macrophages and decreased contents of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagens in late lesions. The expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, and the expressions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases were significantly elevated in A779-treated group than those in vehicle-treated group in late lesions. Exogenous Ang-(1-7) treatment attenuated early atherosclerotic plaque formation and enhanced late plaques stability in this model. The contents of Ang-II and Ang-(1-7) and activity of ACE2 in late atherosclerotic plaques were higher than those of early atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous activated Ang-(1-7) enhanced late atherosclerotic plaques stability but did not affect early atherosclerotic plaque formation. Therapies to elevate endogenous Ang-(1-7) may be a potentially effective approach to attenuate atherosclerotic plaques vulnerability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Lipid nanotube or nanowire sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica; Letant, Sonia; Stadermann, Michael; Artyukhin, Alexander B.

    2009-06-09

    A sensor apparatus comprising a nanotube or nanowire, a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer. Also a biosensor apparatus comprising a gate electrode; a source electrode; a drain electrode; a nanotube or nanowire operatively connected to the gate electrode, the source electrode, and the drain electrode; a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer.

  16. Lanolin-derived lipid mixtures mimic closely the lipid composition and organization of vernix caseosa lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissmann, Robert; Oudshoorn, Marion H M; Kocks, Elise; Hennink, Wim E; Ponec, Maria; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to use semi-synthetic lipid mixtures to mimic the complex lipid composition, organization and thermotropic behaviour of vernix caseosa (VC) lipids. As VC shows multiple protecting and barrier supporting properties before and after birth, it is suggested that a VC substitute could be an innovative barrier cream for barrier deficient skin. Lanolin was selected as the source of the branched chain sterol esters and wax esters--the main lipid classes of VC. Different lipid fractions were isolated from lanolin and subsequently mixed with squalene, triglycerides, cholesterol, ceramides and fatty acids to generate semi-synthetic lipid mixtures that mimic the lipid composition of VC, as established by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy investigations revealed that triglycerides play an important role in the (lateral) lipid organization and thermotropic behaviour of the synthetic lipid mixtures. Excellent resemblance of VC lipids was obtained when adding unsaturated triglycerides. Moreover, these lipid mixtures showed similar long range ordering as VC. The optimal lipid mixture was evaluated on tape-stripped hairless mouse skin in vivo. The rate of barrier recovery was increased and comparable to VC lipid treatment.

  17. Endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells in bone marrow are required to preserve muscle function in mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Ryo; Tamai, Katsuto; Aikawa, Eriko; Nimura, Keisuke; Ishino, Saki; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2015-03-01

    The physiological role of "endogenous" bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in tissue regeneration is poorly understood. Here, we show the significant contribution of unique endogenous BM-MSC populations to muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mice (mdx). Transplantation of BM cells (BMCs) from 10-week-old mdx into 3-4-week-old mdx mice increased inflammation and fibrosis and reduced muscle function compared with mdx mice that received BMCs from 10-week-old wild-type mice, suggesting that the alteration of BMC populations in mdx mice affects the progression of muscle pathology. Two distinct MSC populations in BM, that is, hematopoietic lineage (Lin)(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) cells, were significantly reduced in 10-week-old mdx mice in disease progression. The results of a whole-transcriptome analysis indicated that these two MSC populations have distinct gene expression profiles, indicating that the Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) and Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(-) MSC populations are proliferative- and dormant-state populations in BM, respectively. BM-derived Lin(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs abundantly migrated to damaged muscles and highly expressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6), an anti-inflammatory protein, in damaged muscles. We also demonstrated that TSG-6 stimulated myoblast proliferation. The injection of Lin(-) /ckit(-) /CD106(+) /CD44(+) MSCs into the muscle of mdx mice successfully ameliorated muscle dysfunction by decreasing inflammation and enhancing muscle regeneration through TSG-6-mediated activities. Thus, we propose a novel function of the unique endogenous BM-MSC population, which countered muscle pathology progression in a DMD model.

  18. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide va...

  19. Endogenous Synthesis of Prebiotic Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    The necessary condition for the synthesis of organic compounds on the primitive earth is the presence of reducing conditions. This means an atmosphere of CH4, CO, or CO2 + H2. The atmospheric nitrogen can be N2 with a trace of NH3, but NH4(+) is needed in the ocean at least for amino acid synthesis. Many attempts have been made to use CO2 + H2O atmospheres for prebiotic synthesis, but these give at best extremely low yields of organic compounds, except in the presence of H2. Even strong reducing agents such as FeS + H2S or the mineral assemblages of the submarine vents fail to give significant yields of organic compounds with CO2. There appears to be a high kinetic barrier to the non-biological reduction of CO2 at low temperatures using geological reducing agents. The most abundant source of energy for prebiotic synthesis is ultraviolet light followed by electric discharges, with electric discharges being more efficient, although it is not clear which was the important energy source. Photochemical process would also make significant contributions. In an atmosphere Of CO2, N2, and H2O with no H2, the production rates of HCN and H2CO would be very low, 0.001 or less than that of a relatively reducing atmosphere. The concentration of organic compounds under these non-reducing conditions would be so low that there is doubt whether the concentration mechanism would be adequate for further steps toward the origin of life. A number of workers have calculated the influx of comets and meteorites on the primitive earth as a source of organic compounds. We conclude that while some organic material was added to the earth from comets and meteorites the amount available from these sources at a given time was at best only a few percent of that from earth bases syntheses under reducing conditions.

  20. Activation of an endogenous retrotransposon associated with epigenetic changes in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Stougaard, Jens; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons occupy a large portion of genomes in flowering plants. In spite of their abundance, the majority are silenced and rarely transpose. One of the examples of a highly active retrotransposon is Lotus Retrotransposon 1(LORE1), of the model legume Lotus japonicus...... (Regel) K. Larsen (syn. Lotus corniculatus L. var. japonicus Regel). LORE1 has several unusual characteristics that are interesting both for studying evolutional genomics and for the use of LORE1 as a genetic tool. In this review, we present the characteristics of LORE1 and discuss the biological...... significance of LORE1 as a member of chromovirus, a chromodomain containing clade of the Gypsy superfamily. Then we discuss possibilities and methodologies for using endogenous transposable elements as mutagens to generate gene tagging populations in plants...

  1. Lipid characterization of human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, Maria Daniela; Valentich, Mirta Ana; Actis, Adriana Beatriz

    2011-12-01

    Salivary lipids have been scarcely studied, and the reported results present disparities. This literature review is presented based on the importance of saliva as a diagnostic and/or prognostic medium for various diseases, its lipid content, and on its potential use for the analysis of nutritional markers that contribute to the study of diseases related to lipid consumption and metabolism.

  2. A subset of annular lipids is linked to the flippase activity of an ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Chérine; Nöll, Anne; Morgner, Nina; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Tampé, Robert; Robinson, Carol V

    2015-03-01

    Lipids are critical components of membranes that could affect the properties of membrane proteins, yet the precise compositions of lipids surrounding membrane-embedded protein complexes is often difficult to discern. Here we report that, for the heterodimeric ABC transporter TmrAB, the extent of delipidation can be controlled by timed exposure to detergent. We subsequently characterize the cohort of endogenous lipids that are extracted in contact with the membrane protein complex, and show that with prolonged delipidation the number of neutral lipids is reduced in favour of their negatively charged counterparts. We show that lipid A is retained by the transporter and that the extent of its binding decreases during the catalytic cycle, implying that lipid A release is linked to adenosine tri-phosphate hydrolysis. Together, these results enable us to propose that a subset of annular lipids is invariant in composition, with negatively charged lipids binding tightly to TmrAB, and imply a role for this exporter in glycolipid translocation.

  3. Endogenous formation of N'-nitrosonornicotine in F344 rats in the presence of some antioxidants and grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubin, Diana; Hecht, Stephen S; Li, Zhong-ze; Gonta, Maria; Stepanov, Irina

    2007-08-22

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is one of the most abundant strong carcinogens in unburned tobacco and cigarette smoke and is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as carcinogenic to humans. Human exposure to NNN mainly occurs upon use of tobacco products. It is also possible that additional amounts of NNN are formed endogenously. The goal of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of some antioxidants, including ascorbic acid and grape seed extract (GSE), on endogenous NNN formation in rats treated with nornicotine and sodium nitrite by gavage twice daily for 3 days. The study included four groups of rats: (1) negative control group A, to which no chemical was administered; (2) negative control group B, treated with nornicotine alone (2.5 micromol per gavage); (3) positive control group, to which both nornicotine (2.5 micromol per gavage) and sodium nitrite (7.5 micromol per gavage) were administered; and (4) rats treated with nornicotine (2.5 micromol per gavage), inhibitor (7.5 or 37.5 micromol per gavage), and sodium nitrite (7.5 micromol per gavage). The mean (+/-SD) total amount of NNN in the 3-day urine of rats treated with both nornicotine and sodium nitrite was 4.78 +/- 2.88 nmol. The order of inhibition of endogenous NNN formation in rats at the molar ratio [nitrite]:[inhibitor] 1:5 was as follows: ascorbic acid (91%) > dihydroxyfumaric acid (86%) approximately catechin (85%) > resveratrol (no inhibition). Treatment of rats with grape seed extract did not produce statistically significant inhibition of endogenous nornicotine nitrosation. This is the first study that demonstrates endogenous NNN formation in rats treated with nornicotine and sodium nitrite and effective inhibition of this process by ascorbic acid, dixydroxyfumaric acid, and catechin.

  4. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  5. Quantitative analysis of proteome and lipidome dynamics reveals functional regulation of global lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, Albert; Sprenger, Richard R; Tarasov, Kirill; Ruckerbauer, David E; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Jensen, Ole N; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-03-19

    Elucidating how and to what extent lipid metabolism is remodeled under changing conditions is essential for understanding cellular physiology. Here, we analyzed proteome and lipidome dynamics to investigate how regulation of lipid metabolism at the global scale supports remodeling of cellular architecture and processes during physiological adaptations in yeast. Our results reveal that activation of cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling supports mitochondrial biogenesis in the transition from fermentative to respiratory metabolism, that down-regulation of de novo sterol synthesis machinery prompts differential turnover of lipid droplet-associated triacylglycerols and sterol esters during respiratory growth, that sphingolipid metabolism is regulated in a previously unrecognized growth stage-specific manner, and that endogenous synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids constitutes an in vivo upstream activator of peroxisomal biogenesis, via the heterodimeric Oaf1/Pip2 transcription factor. Our work demonstrates the pivotal role of lipid metabolism in adaptive processes and provides a resource to investigate its regulation at the cellular level.

  6. Mechanisms of formation and function of eosinophil lipid bodies: inducible intracellular sites involved in arachidonic acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozza Patricia T

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies, inducible lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions, are characteristically abundant in cells associated with inflammation, including eosinophils. Here we reviewed the formation and function of lipid bodies in human eosinophils. We now have evidence that the formation of lipid bodies is not attributable to adverse mechanisms, but is centrally mediated by specific signal transduction pathways. Arachidonic acid and other cis fatty acids by an NSAID-inhibitable process, diglycerides, and PAF by a 5-lipoxygenase dependent pathway are potent stimulators of lipid body induction. Lipid body formation develops rapidly by processes that involve PKC, PLC, and de novo mRNA and protein synthesis. These structures clearly serve as repositoires of arachidonyl-phospholipids and are more than inert depots. Specific enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2, MAP kinases, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, associate with lipid bodies. Lipid bodies appear to be dynamic, organelle-like structures involved in intracellular pathways of lipid mobilization and metabolism. Indeed, increases in lipid body numbers correlated with enhanced production of both lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We hypothesize that lipid bodies are distinct inducible sites for generating eicosanoids as paracrine mediators with varied activities in inflammation. The capacity of lipid body formation to be specifically and rapidly induced in leukocytes enhances eicosanoid mediator formation, and conversely pharmacologic inhibition of lipid body induction represents a potential novel and specific target for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  7. Lipid domains in bicelles containing unsaturated lipids and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyo Soon; Dominick, Johnna L; Spence, Megan M

    2010-07-22

    We have created a stable bicelle system capable of forming micrometer-scale lipid domains that orient in a magnetic field, suitable for structural biology determination in solid-state NMR. The bicelles consisted of a mixture of cholesterol, saturated lipid (DMPC), and unsaturated lipid (POPC), a mixture commonly used to create domains in model membranes, along with a short chain lipid (DHPC) that allows formation of the bicelle phase. While maintaining a constant molar ratio of long to short chain lipids, q = ([POPC]+[DMPC])/[DHPC] = 3, we varied the concentrations of the unsaturated lipid, POPC, and cholesterol to observe the effects of the components on bicelle stability. Using (31)P solid-state NMR, we observed that unsaturated lipids (POPC) greatly destabilized the alignment of the membranes in the magnetic field, while cholesterol stabilized their alignment. By combining cholesterol and unsaturated lipids in the bicelles, we created membranes aligning uniformly in the magnetic field, despite very high concentrations of unsaturated lipids. These bicelles, with high concentrations of both cholesterol and unsaturated lipid, showed similar phase behavior to bicelles commonly used in structural biology, but aligned over a wider temperature range (291-314 K). Domains were observed by measuring time-dependent diffusion constants reflecting restricted diffusion of the lipids within micrometer-scale regions of the bicelles. Micron-scale domains have never been observed in POPC/DMPC/cholesterol vesicles, implying that bilayers in bicelles show different phase behavior than their counterparts in vesicles, and that bilayers in bicelles favor domain formation.

  8. Stability of lipid excipients in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska-Soukharev, Anna

    2007-07-10

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of chemical stability of lipids used as excipients in the production of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). Different lipids and amounts of surfactants were considered. Most of the formulations were produced using identical binary surfactant mixtures and concentrations to analyze the effect of the chemical nature of the lipids on their stability in SLN. In some formulations, surfactants were exchanged or their concentration was increased to assess the contribution of surfactants on stability of lipids particles. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffractometry, zeta potential determination and differential scanning calorimetry. Potential effects of lipid crystallinity and modifications were assessed. A gas chromatography (GC) analysis in combination with a method for lipid extraction from aqueous SLN dispersions was used to investigate the chemical stability of the lipid excipients forming the particle matrix. All formulations were produced by the hot homogenization technique. The production process of SLN itself did not affect the chemical stability of lipid excipient forming the particle matrix. The formulations where lipids consisted of trigylicerides showed a negligible decomposition of the structure during incubation at 25 degrees C. Dynasan 118 showed the highest chemical stability (loss<4%) within two years.

  9. Tectonic conditionality endogenic geoecological processes on a shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmianskaia, Galina

    2014-05-01

    Influence on a sea ecosystem of deep tectonic structures and processes is considered. From the point of view of studying endogenic geoecological processes and the phenomena ensuring origin of «endogenic» ecological dangers, us the following interests, first of all: a structurally-tectonic structure, a lithologic-stratigraphic section, hydro- and lithodynamic, a hydrology, seismic activity, endogenic ingress of heavy metals, a structure cryolithozone The map of endogenic dangers to water area Barents and Karasky seas is made. In the list of the endogenic dangers which have been taken out on the map, have entered: - Areas of heavy metals endogenic origins; - Zones of hyperactivity of corrosion processes; - Zones of the raised seismological activity; - Areas active roiling at seismological influences; - Zones of negative influence on biogene communities, - Characteristics of influence of natural electric field on lithodynamic processes. The most part flooded at the bottom of technogenic objects is located within the tectonic zones characterised by raised intensity of corrosion processes. The tectonic reasons, in the big degree, cause dynamics of the deep hydro-geological processes providing receipt in hydrosphere of the sea highly mineralized waters, negatively influencing on a biogenic component of an ecosystem. The most vulnerable are the biogenic forms living in deeper sites of the sea. On the map are allocated and ranked some zones endogenic hydro-geological dangers to biogenic communities. At displays of seismological activity endogenic tectonic nature process roiling the ground deposits, menacing to normal dwelling biota, leading to death ground invertebral organisms, to sharp pauperisation of a forage reserve benthos feeder will have fishes, to sharp reduction of population nectobentofages and predators. At last, infringement of a hydrochemical mode in aggregate with endogenic receipts can strengthen aforementioned negative processes. The geoecological map of

  10. The potential for drug supersaturation during intestinal processing of lipid-based formulations may be enhanced for basic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Yan Yan; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Porter, Christopher J H

    2013-07-01

    Co-administration of poorly water-soluble drugs (PWSD) with dietary or formulation lipids stimulates the formation of lipid colloidal phases such as vesicular and micellar species, and significantly expands the drug solubilization capacity of the small intestine. The mechanism of drug absorption from the solubilizing phases, however, has not been fully elucidated. Recently, we observed that drug supersaturation may be triggered during endogenous processing of lipid colloidal phases containing medium-chain lipid digestion products and that this may represent a mechanism to reverse the reduction in thermodynamic activity inherent in drug solubilization and thereby enhance absorption. The current studies expand these preliminary findings and explore the supersaturation tendency of five model PWSD during endogenous processing of intestinal colloidal phases containing long-chain lipid digestion products. Bile-lipid concentration ratios progressively increase during colloid transit through the gastrointestinal tract due to biliary dispersion of lipid digestion products and lipid absorption. The supersaturation potential was therefore evaluated under conditions of increasing bile and decreasing lipid concentrations and was found to be greater for the basic drugs cinnarizine (CIN) and halofantrine (HF), than the neutral drugs fenofibrate (FF) and danazol (DAN), and acidic drug meclofenamic acid (MFA). Assessment of intestinal absorptive flux using rat jejunal perfusion experiments subsequently showed that the absorption enhancement afforded by bile dilution of lipid colloidal phases was greater for CIN than DAN. The results confirm that bile plays a significantly greater role in the absorption of CIN (a weak base) from long-chain intestinal colloids when compared to DAN (an uncharged molecule) and that the difference reflects a greater propensity for supersaturation as intestinal colloids are dispersed and diluted by bile. The data suggest that coadministered digestible

  11. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  12. iNKT Cells and Their potential Lipid Ligands during Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anunya eOpasawatchai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are a unique population of lipid reactive CD1d restricted innate-like T lymphocytes. Despite being a minor population, they serve as an early source of cytokines and promote immunological crosstalk thus bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Diseases ranging from allergy, autoimmunity, and cancer as well as infectious diseases, including viral infection, have been reported to be influenced by iNKT cells. However, it remains unclear how iNKT cells are activated during viral infection, as virus derived lipid antigens have not been reported. Cytokines may activate iNKT cells during infections from influenza and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV, although CD1d dependent activation is evident in other viral infections. Several viruses, such as dengue virus (DENV, induce CD1d upregulation which correlates with iNKT cell activation. In contrast, Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and Human papiloma virus (HPV promote CD1d downregulation as a strategy to evade iNKT cell recognition. These observations suggest the participation of a CD1d-dependent process in the activation of iNKT cells in response to viral infection. Endogenous lipid ligands, including phospholipids as well as glycosphingolipids, such as glucosylceramide have been proposed to mediate iNKT cell activation. Pro-inflammatory signals produced during viral infection may stimulate iNKT cells through enhanced CD1d dependent endogenous lipid presentation. Furthermore, viral infection may alter lipid composition and inhibit endogenous lipid degradation. Recent advances in this field are reviewed.

  13. Dietary Sugars and Endogenous Formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts: Emerging Mechanisms of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragno, Manuela; Mastrocola, Raffaella

    2017-04-14

    The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as a consequence of a high dietary sugar intake. Animal models of high sugar consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGE accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations. The in vitro observation that fructose is one of the most rapid and effective glycating agents when compared to other sugars has prompted the investigation of the in vivo fructose-induced glycation. In particular, the widespread employment of fructose as sweetener has been ascribed by many experimental and observational studies for the enhancement of lipogenesis and intracellular lipid deposition. Indeed, diet-derived AGEs have been demonstrated to interfere with many cell functions such as lipid synthesis, inflammation, antioxidant defences, and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, emerging evidence also in humans suggest that this impact of dietary AGEs on different signalling pathways can contribute to the onset of organ damage in liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and the brain, affecting not only metabolic control, but global health. Indeed, the most recent reports on the effects of high sugar consumption and diet-derived AGEs on human health reviewed here suggest the need to limit the dietary sources of AGEs, including added sugars, to prevent the development of metabolic diseases and related comorbidities.

  14. Mass-tag labeling reveals site-specific and endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percher, Avital; Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Thinon, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Xiaoqiu; Yount, Jacob S; Hang, Howard C

    2016-04-19

    Fatty acylation of cysteine residues provides spatial and temporal control of protein function in cells and regulates important biological pathways in eukaryotes. Although recent methods have improved the detection and proteomic analysis of cysteine fatty (S-fatty) acylated proteins, understanding how specific sites and quantitative levels of this posttranslational modification modulate cellular pathways are still challenging. To analyze the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation in cells, we developed a mass-tag labeling method based on hydroxylamine-sensitivity of thioesters and selective maleimide-modification of cysteines, termed acyl-PEG exchange (APE). We demonstrate that APE enables sensitive detection of protein S-acylation levels and is broadly applicable to different classes of S-palmitoylated membrane proteins. Using APE, we show that endogenous interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 is S-fatty acylated on three cysteine residues and site-specific modification of highly conserved cysteines are crucial for the antiviral activity of this IFN-stimulated immune effector. APE therefore provides a general and sensitive method for analyzing the endogenous levels of protein S-fatty acylation and should facilitate quantitative studies of this regulated and dynamic lipid modification in biological systems.

  15. Dysregulated lipid metabolism in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of lipid metabolism has been increasingly recognized as a hallmark of cancer cells. The changes of expression and activity of lipid metabolizing enzymes are directly regulated by the activity of oncogenic signals. The dependence of tumor cells on the dysregulated lipid metabolism suggests that proteins involved in this process are excellent chemotherapeutic targets for cancer treatment. There are currently several drugs under development or in clinical trials that are based on specifically targeting the altered lipid metabolic pathways in cancer cells. Further understanding of dysregulated lipid metabolism and its associated signaling pathways will help us to better design efficient cancer therapeutic strategy.

  16. Influence of liver cancer on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson-Ehle Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Liver plays a key role in the metabolism of plasma apolipoproteins, endogenous lipids and lipoproteins. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common fatal malignant tumors in China and in other Southeast Asian countries. This has been attributed to the high incidence of hepatitis B infection. Hepatitis B proteins, such as the hepatitis B X protein (HBx that is large hepatitis B surface protein could regulate transcription of many candidate genes for liver carcinogenesis. It has known that patients who suffered from acute hepatitis B could have lipid disorders such as decreased plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. Furthermore, aberrations of lipid metabolism are often seen in the chronic hepatitis B infection. Plasma lipid profiles could be changed under HCC. In majority of the reports in HCC, plasma levels of triglycerides (TG, cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA, HDL, low-density lipoproteins (LDL, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI and apoB were slight to significantly decreased, however, in some cases plasma levels of TG and Lp(a might be increased. It has been suggested that analysis of plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in the patients suffered from HCC reflects on the hepatic cellular impairment status. Studies revealed that alterations seen in the plasma levels of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins reflecting patients' pathologic conditions. Decreased serum levels of cholesterol and apoAI may indicate a poor prognosis. Human leukaemic cells and certain tumor tissues have a higher receptor-mediated uptake of HDL and LDL than the corresponding normal cells or tissues. LDL and HDL have therefore been proposed as a carrier for the water-insoluble anti-cancer agents.

  17. Polyunsaturated Lipids Regulate Membrane Domain Stability by Tuning Membrane Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Lorent, Joseph H; Lin, Xubo; Skinkle, Allison D; Surma, Michal A; Stockenbojer, Emily A; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Levental, Ilya

    2016-04-26

    The plasma membrane (PM) serves as the functional interface between a cell and its environment, hosting extracellular signal transduction and nutrient transport among a variety of other processes. To support this extensive functionality, PMs are organized into lateral domains, including ordered, lipid-driven assemblies termed lipid rafts. Although the general requirements for ordered domain formation are well established, how these domains are regulated by cell-endogenous mechanisms or exogenous perturbations has not been widely addressed. In this context, an intriguing possibility is that dietary fats can incorporate into membrane lipids to regulate the properties and physiology of raft domains. Here, we investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fats on the organization of membrane domains across a spectrum of membrane models, including computer simulations, synthetic lipid membranes, and intact PMs isolated from mammalian cells. We observe that the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid is robustly incorporated into membrane lipids, and this incorporation leads to significant remodeling of the PM lipidome. Across model systems, docosahexaenoic acid-containing lipids enhance the stability of ordered raft domains by increasing the order difference between them and coexisting nonraft domains. The relationship between interdomain order disparity and the stability of phase separation holds for a spectrum of different perturbations, including manipulation of cholesterol levels and high concentrations of exogenous amphiphiles, suggesting it as a general feature of the organization of biological membranes. These results demonstrate that polyunsaturated fats affect the composition and organization of biological membranes, suggesting a potential mechanism for the extensive effects of dietary fat on health and disease.

  18. Ultrastructure of the human aortic fibrolipid lesion. Formation of the atherosclerotic lipid-rich core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocan, T. M.; Schifani, T. A.; Guyton, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of the atherosclerotic lipid-rich core has been elucidated by electron microscopy of the core region in small, raised fibrolipid lesions. The relationship among lipid deposits, extracellular matrix, and cells found in distinct regions of the fibrolipid lesion was examined. Extracellular lipid droplets, verified by osmium-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium staining, made up approximately 40% of the lipid-rich core volume. The lipid droplets were often found distinctly associated with elastin and/or collagen; these associations were dependent upon the location examined within or near the lipid-rich core. Within areas of intense extracellular lipid deposits, crystalline clefts suggesting cholesterol monohydrate were observed. Stereologic analysis of the lipid-rich core components revealed marked reductions in the volume fractions of cells, reticular ground substance, and basement membrane; while the extent of extracellular lipid increased 7-10-fold. Eleven percent or less of lipid in the core region was found within cells, usually smooth muscle cells. Above the core region in the lesion cap, monocyte-macrophage foam cells were prominent. Cellular lipid droplets were much larger (profile diameters sixfold higher) than extracellular droplets. With these data as well as transitional morphologic features at the boundaries of the core region, it is suggested that the abundant extracellular lipid does not derive from cell necrosis, and lipid deposition in association with extracellular matrix constituents is an early event in the development of the lipid-rich core. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3717297

  19. Early extracellular and cellular lipid deposits in aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, J. R.; Klemp, K. F.

    1992-01-01

    Subendothelial accumulation of extracellular liposomes rich in unesterified cholesterol has been described as an early feature of atherosclerosis induced by cholesterol feeding in rabbits. Beta-very-low-density lipoproteins, however, the presumed source of atherogenic lipid in this animal model, contain mostly esterified cholesterol. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of extracellular neutral lipid deposits consistent with esterified cholesterol, by employing new electron microscopic techniques. Rabbits were fed 0.5% cholesterol, 5% butter for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The lipid-preserving ultrastructural techniques showed, in control and atherosclerotic rabbit arteries, neutral lipid droplets adherent to the endothelial luminal surface. After 1 to 2 weeks, subendothelial extracellular deposits of mostly membranous lipid appeared; these deposits contained variable amounts of neutral lipid. At the same time, cytoplasmic neutral lipid droplets appeared in smooth muscle cells and in a small number of subendothelial macrophagelike cells. After 4 weeks, monocytic infiltration and macrophage foam cell development were prominent, but abundant extracellular lipid deposits also were found. Therefore, in arteries of cholesterol-fed rabbits, deposition of membranous and neutral lipid in the extracellular space and neutral lipid accumulation in resident arterial cells are early and probably independent events, both occurring before monocytic infiltration of the arterial intima. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1415485

  20. Density imbalances and free energy of lipid transfer in supported lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chenyue; Faller, Roland

    2009-11-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are an abundant research platform for understanding the behavior of real cell membranes as they allow for additional mechanical stability and at the same time have a fundamental structure approximating cell membranes. However, in computer simulations these systems have been studied only rarely up to now. An important property, which cannot be easily determined by molecular dynamics or experiments, is the unsymmetrical density profiles of bilayer leaflets (density imbalance) inflicted on the membrane by the support. This imbalance in the leaflets composition has consequences for membrane structure and phase behavior, and therefore we need to understand it in detail. The free energy can be used to determine the equilibrium structure of a given system. We employ an umbrella sampling approach to obtain the free energy of a lipid crossing the membrane (i.e., lipid flip-flop) as a function of bilayer composition and hence the equilibrium composition of the supported bilayers. In this paper, we use a variant of the coarse-grained Martini model. The results of the free energy calculation lead to a 5% higher density in the proximal leaflet. Recent data obtained by large scale modeling using a water free model suggested that the proximal leaflet had 3.2% more lipids than the distal leaflet [Hoopes et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 175102 (2008)]. Our findings are in line with these results. We compare results of the free energy of transport obtained by pulling the lipid across the membrane in different ways. There are small quantitative differences, but the overall picture is consistent. We additionally characterize the intermediate states, which determine the barrier height and therefore the rate of translocation. Calculations on unsupported bilayers are used to validate the approach and to determine the barrier to flip-flop in a free membrane.

  1. Biased signaling of lipids and allosteric actions of synthetic molecules for GPR119

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Helle A; Fares, Suzan; Larsen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    GPR119 is a Gαs-coupled lipid-sensor in the gut, where it mediates release of incretin hormones from the enteroendocrine cells and in pancreatic α-cells, where it releases insulin. Naturally occurring lipids such as monoacylglycerols (MAGs) and N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), like oleoylethanolamide......231453. Our studies uncovering broad and biased signaling, masked constitutive activity by endogenous MAGs, and ago-allosteric properties of synthetic ligands may explain why many GPR119 drug-discovery programs have failed so far....

  2. Lipids and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, J J; Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    There is in vitro and in vivo evidence to suggest that dietary lipids play a role in modulating immune function. A review of the current literature on the interrelationships among dietary lipids, blood cholesterol levels, immunosuppression, and tumorigenesis makes for a very strong argument that (a) immunosuppression may be causally related to lymphoproliferative disorders, as well as to tumorigenesis and (b) diets high in polyunsaturated fat, relative to diets high in saturated fat, are more immunosuppressive and are better promotors of tumorigenesis. The effects of dietary fat on immune function seem to be mediated though its component parts, the unsaturated fatty acids, specially linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic. It is not clear how these components affect immune function. Several studies suggest that one effect is mediated by altering the lipid component of the cell membrane and thus its fluidity; the more fluid the membrane, the less responsive it is. Thus, fluidity of both immune cells and those to be destroyed or protected may be affected. The effects of saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids may be mediated by modulating serum lipoprotein levels, prostaglandin metabolism, and cholesterol concentrations and metabolism.

  3. Tear Film Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (MGS, or meibum) are formed from a complex mixture of lipids of different classes such as wax esters, cholesteryl esters, (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA) and their esters, acylglycerols, diacylated diols, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and a smaller amount of other polar and nonpolar lipids, whose chemical nature and the very presence in MGS have been a matter of intense debates. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent results that were obtained using different experimental techniques, estimate limitations of their usability, and discuss their biochemical, biophysical, and physiological implications. To create a lipid map of MGS and tears, the results obtained in the author’s laboratory were integrated with available information on chemical composition of MGS and tears. The most informative approaches that are available today to researchers, such as HPLC-MS, GC-MS, and proton NMR, are discussed in details. A map of the meibomian lipidome (as it is seen in reverse phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments) is presented. Directions of future efforts in the area are outlined. PMID:23769846

  4. CIDE proteins and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Zhou, Linkang; Li, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Lipid homeostasis is maintained through the coordination of lipid metabolism in various tissues, including adipose tissue and the liver. The disruption of lipid homeostasis often results in the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, liver steatosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor 45-like effector family proteins, including Cidea, Cideb, and Fsp27 (Cidec), are emerging as important regulators of various lipid metabolic pathways and play pivotal roles in the development of metabolic disorders. This review summarizes the latest cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor 45-like effector protein discoveries related to the control of lipid metabolism, with emphasis on the role of these proteins in lipid droplet growth in adipocytes and in the regulation of very low-density lipoprotein lipidation and maturation in hepatocytes.

  5. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter

  6. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa.

  7. Abundant Semigroups with a Multiplicative Adequate Transversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao Jiang

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate abundant semigroups with a multiplicative adequate transversal. Some properties and characterizations for such semigroups are obtained. In particular,we establish the structure of this class of abundant semigroups in terms of left normal bands, right normal bands and adequate semigroups with some simple compatibility conditions. Finally, we apply this structure to some special cases.

  8. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter depositi

  9. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  10. On the Solar Nickel and Oxygen Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pat; Asplund, Martin; Grevesse, Nicolas; Sauval, A. Jacques

    2009-02-01

    Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on the neutral forbidden transition at 630 nm depend upon the nickel abundance, due to a Ni I blend. Here, we rederive the solar nickel abundance, using the same ab initio three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere employed in the recent revision of the abundances of C, N, O, and other elements. Using 17 weak, unblended lines of Ni I together with the most accurate atomic and observational data available, we find log epsilonNi = 6.17 ± 0.02(statistical) ± 0.05(systematic), a downward shift of 0.06-0.08 dex relative to previous abundances based on one-dimensional model atmospheres. We investigate the implications of the new nickel abundance for studies of the solar oxygen abundance based on the [O I] 630 nm line in the quiet Sun. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen abundance implied by the recent sunspot spectropolarimetric study of Centeno & Socas-Navarro needs to be revised downward from log epsilonO = 8.86 ± 0.07 to 8.71 ± 0.10. This revision is based on the new nickel abundance, the application of the best available gf value for the 630 nm forbidden oxygen line, and a more transparent treatment of CO formation. Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on forbidden lines now appear to converge around log epsilonO = 8.7.

  11. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter depositi

  12. Thermodynamic clarification of interaction between antiseptic compounds and lipids consisting of stratum corneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, Hatsumi; Kawasaki, Yuhsuke

    2004-06-24

    The interactions of antiseptic compounds with quaternary ammonium, such as benzalkonium chloride (BC), benzethonium chloride (BZC), dodecyldiaminoethyl-glycine hydrochloride (AEG), and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), with components of the stratum corneum were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry at pH 7.5 and 25 deg. C. The different mechanisms for their permeation to stratum corneum were clarified. Cationic surfactants of BC and BZC bound to cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate with high affinity (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sup -1}) to extract endogenous cholesterol and its derivatives from the stratum corneum and penetrated via an intercellular route. CHG also bound to cholesterol and accumulated in the stratum corneum without removing endogenous cholesterol. On the other hand, an amphoteric surfactant of AEG seemed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer and bound to ceramide with its polar end close to the lipid polar heads by hydrophobic interaction.

  13. New mechanism of lipotoxicity in diabetic cardiomyopathy: Deficiency of Endogenous H2S Production and ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Runmin; Wu, Zijun; Jiang, Jiamei; Liu, Chang; Wu, Bin; Li, Xingyue; Li, Teng; Mo, Hailiang; He, Songjian; Li, Shanghai; Yan, Hai; Huang, Ruina; You, Qiong; Wu, Keng

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the roles and mechanisms of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Blood of DCM patients included in the study were collected. The model of DCM rats was established using streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Cardiac lipotoxicity in vitro models were established using 500μM palmitic acid (PA) treatment for 24h in AC16 cardiomyocytes. Endogenous H2S production in plasma, culture supernatant and heart was measured by sulphur ion-selective electrode assay. Cell viability was tested by using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) kit. Glucose regulated protein (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous transcription factor (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-3 and caspase-12 expressions were measured using western blot analysis. Lipid droplet was evaluated by Oil Red O staining. Apoptosis in hearts of DCM rats was analyzed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. H2S levels in serum of DCM patients and DCM rats were significant lower, H2S contents and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) expression in heart tissues of DCM rats were also markedly lower. H2S levels in supernatants of PA-treated AC16 cardiac cells were decreased. Cardiac lipotoxicity demonstrated by increase in TUNEL positive cells and lipid deposit in vivo and in vitro accompanied by a decrease of H2S levels. Pretreatment AC16 cells with 100μmol/L of NaHS (a donor of H2S) could suppress the PA-induced myocardial injury similar to the effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor), leading to an increase in cell viability and preventing lipid deposit. Meanwhile, administration diabetic rats with NaHS or 4-PBA alleviated cardiac lipotoxicity, as evidenced by decrease in TUNEL positive cells, cleaved caspase-3 expression and lipid accumulation. Deficiency of endogenous H2S was involved in lipotoxicity-induced myocardial injury

  14. Staphylococcal endogenous endophthalmitis in association with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeples, L R; Jones, N P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis as a rare infection associated with endogenous endophthalmitis.METHODS A retrospective review of three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis and sepsis due to underlying Staphylococcal vertebral osteomyelitis presenting during a 21-month time period. The ophthalmic and systemic features and management and outcomes are presented.RESULTS One patient developed unilateral endophthalmitis with cervical spine osteomyelitis, Staphylococcus aureus being isolated from blood cultures. The second presented with bilateral endophthalmitis with disseminated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection, with thoracic and lumbar discitis and para-spinal abscesses. MRSA was cultured from vitreous, blood, and synovial fluid. Both patients received prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics. Intravitreal antibiotic therapy was used in the second patient. Excellent visual and systemic outcomes were achieved in both cases with no ocular complications. The third patient developed lumbar osteomyelitis following spinal surgery and presented with disseminated S. aureus sepsis including unilateral endogenous endophthalmitis. Despite systemic antibiotics and intensive care the patient died.CONCLUSIONS Endogenous endophthalmitis should be suspected in septic patients developing eye symptoms. Endogenous endophthalmitis with staphylococcal bone infection is a rare but serious condition. Osteomyelitis should be considered as an infective source in any such patient reporting bone pain or reduced spinal mobility. Prompt investigation and treatment can achieve favourable visual and systemic outcomes.

  15. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  16. Endogenous molecules stimulating N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tatsuya; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Uyama, Toru; Masuda, Kim; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Houchi, Hitoshi; Ueda, Natsuo

    2012-05-16

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) plays the central role in the degradation of bioactive N-acylethanolamines such as the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) in brain and peripheral tissues. A lysosomal enzyme referred to as N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) catalyzes the same reaction with preference to palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous analgesic and neuroprotective substance, and is therefore expected as a potential target of therapeutic drugs. In the in vitro assays thus far performed, the maximal activity of NAAA was achieved in the presence of both nonionic detergent (Triton X-100 or Nonidet P-40) and the SH reagent dithiothreitol. However, endogenous molecules that might substitute for these synthetic compounds remain poorly understood. Here, we examined stimulatory effects of endogenous phospholipids and thiol compounds on recombinant NAAA. Among different phospholipids tested, choline- or ethanolamine-containing phospholipids showed potent effects, and 1 mM phosphatidylcholine increased NAAA activity by 6.6-fold. Concerning endogenous thiol compounds, dihydrolipoic acid at 0.1-1 mM was the most active, causing 8.5-9.0-fold stimulation. These results suggest that endogenous phospholipids and dihydrolipoic acid may contribute in keeping NAAA active in lysosomes. Even in the presence of phosphatidylcholine and dihydrolipoic acid, however, the preferential hydrolysis of palmitoylethanolamide was unaltered. We also investigated a possible compensatory induction of NAAA mRNA in brain and other tissues of FAAH-deficient mice. However, NAAA expression levels in all the tissues examined were not significantly altered from those in wild-type mice.

  17. Unsaturated lipid bodies as a hallmark of inflammation studied by Raman 2D and 3D microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, K.; Majzner, K.; Selmi, A.; Baranska, M.; Ozaki, Y.; Kaczor, A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial HMEC-1 cells incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α for 6 and 24 hours were studied as a model of inflammation using Raman imaging. Striking changes in distribution, composition and concentration of cellular lipids were observed after exposure to TNF-α compared to the control. In particular, 3D Raman imaging revealed a significant increase in the amount of lipid entities formed under inflammation. Lipid bodies were randomly distributed in the cytoplasm and two types of droplets were assembled: more saturated one, in spectral characteristics resembling phosphatidylcholine and saturated cholesteryl esters, observed also in the control, and highly unsaturated one, containing also cholesterols, being a hallmark of inflamed cells. The statistical analysis showed that the number of lipid bodies was significantly dependent on the exposure time to TNF-α. Overall, observed formation of unsaturated lipid droplets can be directly correlated with the increase in production of prostacyclins - endogenous inflammation mediators.

  18. The lipidation profile of aquaporin-0 correlates with the acyl composition of phosphoethanolamine lipids in lens membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Vian S; Mosely, Jackie A; Tapodi, Antal; Quinlan, Roy A; Sanderson, John M

    2016-11-01

    The lens fiber major intrinsic protein (otherwise known as aquaporin-0 (AQP0), MIP26 and MP26) has been examined by mass spectrometry (MS) in order to determine the speciation of acyl modifications to the side chains of lysine residues and the N-terminal amino group. The speciation of acyl modifications to the side chain of one specific, highly conserved lysine residue (K238) and the N-terminal amino group of human and bovine AQP0 revealed, in decreasing order of abundance, oleoyl, palmitoyl, stearoyl, eicosenoyl, dihomo-γ-linolenoyl, palmitoleoyl and eicosadienoyl modifications. In the case of human AQP0, an arachidonoyl modification was also found at the N-terminus. The relative abundances of these modifications mirror the fatty acid composition of lens phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. This lipid class would be expected to be concentrated in the inner leaflet of the lens fiber membrane to which each of the potential AQP0 lipidation sites is proximal. Our data evidence a broad lipidation profile that is both species and site independent, suggesting a chemical-based ester aminolysis mechanism to explain such modifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Lipid- and sugar-modified endomorphins: novel targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Pegah eVaramini; Istvan eToth

    2013-01-01

    Endomorphins are endogenous opioid peptides that cause potent antinociception in rodent models of acute and neuropathic pain with less undesirable side effects than opioid alkaloids. However, endomorphins are poorly suited to clinical applications because of low membrane permeability and a susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Glycosylation and lipidation have proven to be two of the most robust approaches for the generation of new therapeutic endomorphin derivatives. Conjugation with lipo...

  20. Affected by abundant PLTP : the atherogenic role of a lipid transfer protein in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.E. Samyn (Hannelore); M. Moerland (Matthijs)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of the large and medium-sized arteries. The disease is characterised by endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and the accumulation of fatty and fibrous substances in the vessel wall, resulting in thickening and loss of elasticity

  1. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    lipids endogenous to the cell, and the BPI-like proteins (including the Takeout-like proteins of arthropods), which act on exogenous lipids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterioplankton abundance and production and nanozooplankton abundance in Kenyan coastal waters (Western Indian Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Van Rijswijk, P.; De Bie, M.J.M.; Peene, J.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial abundance, [H-3]thymidine incorporation rate and heterotrophic nanoflagellate abundance were measured in the water column along transects perpendicular to the Kenyan coast (western Indian Ocean) during June-July (SE monsoon) and November-December (intermonsoon) 1992. Bacterial abundance wa

  3. Endogenous infection and hospital's civil liability - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsik, D; Wąsik, N; Sygit, B; Dubiel, M

    2014-01-01

    The subject matter of this publication is the legal assessment of endogenous infection - the specific type of hospital infections. The main aim of the publication is to answer the question of whether medical and legal grounds exist for civil liability for endogenous infections and for treating those infections as cases of medical malpractice or medical events. The research method adopted is a case study. The authors have analysed a civil lawsuit for compensation instituted by an infected patient against a Polish hospital, adjudicated in 2013. The main conclusion of the publication is to postulate distinguishing medical malpractice from complications resulting from the reactions of the human body to treatment. The authors argue that endogenous infections should be treated as the latter-mentioned of these two cases.

  4. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  6. Public procurement of innovation; endogenous institutions in user producer interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda

    2013-01-01

    and the participants in this interaction need a common code of communication to efficiently work together. The institutions that govern user-producer interaction have therefore been seen as a possible explanation for success or failure in public procurement of innovation. Endogenous institutions were found......This article sets out to explore endogenous institutions as the rules that govern the interaction between users and producers in public procurement of innovation in a regional context. It further aims to study how this interaction influences the results of the procurement process by investigating...... possible institutional barriers and what can be done to fence against them. The article addresses the question: How do endogenous institutions in the context of user-producer interaction affect performance in public procurement of innovation? Innovation is an interactive learning process...

  7. Detecting Abundance Variations in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, H.; Santos, P. M.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.

    2014-04-01

    Empirical methods of investigating chemical abundances are still widely used as a primary tool to study planetary nebulae (PNe) as well as HII regions. In this work we investigate the capacity of the empirical abundance determination methods to recover pre-defined parameters and abundance variations in a realistically modeled planetary nebula. To perform the test we use a threedimensional density structure obtained from a hydrodynamical simulation which is fed through a threedimensional photoionization code. The density structure is an asymetrical and inhomogeneous elongated closed shell. The input parameters used, such as, ionizing source, density, and chemical abundances are typical values of type I PNe. The model emissivities are then projected in the line of sight and emission line maps are generated, which are used to obtain the temperature and density diagnostics. The diagnostics and line emission maps are then used to obtain spatially resolved maps of the abundances. In this work we use the method described above to investigate abundances for two distinct orientations of the density structure. Our results show that for typical signal to noise ratios obtained from long-slit spectroscopy, only large abundance variations can be determined with good precision.

  8. Remarkable diversity of endogenous viruses in a crustacean genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. UVA-induced reset of hydroxyl radical ultradian rhythm improves temporal lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Ranjini; Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time that the endogenous, pseudo-steady-state, specific intracellular levels of the hydroxyl radical (si-OH) oscillate in an ultradian fashion (model system: the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris), and also characterize the various rhythm parameters. The ultradian rhythm in the endogenous levels of the si-OH occurred with an approximately 6 h period in the daily cycle of light and darkness. Further, we expected that the rhythm reset to a shorter period could rapidly switch the cellular redox states that could favor lipid accumulation. We reset the endogenous rhythm through entrainment with UVA radiation, and generated two new ultradian rhythms with periods of approximately 2.97 h and 3.8 h in the light phase and dark phase, respectively. The reset increased the window of maximum lipid accumulation from 6 h to 12 h concomitant with the onset of the ultradian rhythms. Further, the saturated fatty acid content increased approximately to 80% of total lipid content, corresponding to the peak maxima of the hydroxyl radical levels in the reset rhythm.

  10. Lipid nanocarriers: influence of lipids on product development and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Kamla; Keshri, Lav; Shah, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    Lipid nanocarriers are on the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery. Owing to their size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility for development of new therapeutics and an alternative system to other colloidal counterparts for drug administration. An important point to be considered in the selection of a lipid for the carrier system is its effect on the properties of the nanocarrier and also its intended use, as different types of lipids differ in their nature. Researchers around the globe have tapped the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in developing formulation(s) that can be administered by various routes such as oral, ocular, parenteral, topical, and pulmonary. Since the start of this millennium, a new generation of lipid nanoparticles, namely nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), lipid drug conjugates (LDCs), and pharmacosomes, has evolved that have the potential to overcome the limitations of SLNs. The current review article presents broad considerations on the influence of various types of lipids on the diverse characteristics of nanocarriers, encompassing their physicochemical, formulation, pharmacokinetic, and cytotoxic aspects.

  11. Endogenous Stem Cells Were Recruited by Defocused Low-Energy Shock Wave in Treating Diabetic Bladder Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Xu, Lina; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Muwen; Jin, Xunbo; Zhang, Haiyang

    2016-12-05

    Defocused low-energy shock wave (DLSW) has been shown effects on activating mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro. In this study, recruitment of endogenous stem cells was firstly examined as an important pathway during the healing process of diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) treated by DLSW in vivo. Neonatal rats received intraperitoneal injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) and then DBD rat model was created by injecting streptozotocin. Four weeks later, DLSW treatment was performed. Afterward, their tissues were examined by histology. Meanwhile, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were treated by DLSW in vitro. Results showed DLSW ameliorated voiding function of diabetic rats by recruiting EdU(+)Stro-1(+)CD34(-) endogenous stem cells to release abundant nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Some EdU(+) cells overlapped with staining of smooth muscle actin. After DLSW treatment, ADSCs showed higher migration ability, higher expression level of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and secreted more NGF and VEGF. In conclusion, DLSW could ameliorate DBD by recruiting endogenous stem cells. Beneficial effects were mediated by secreting NGF and VEGF, resulting into improved innervation and vascularization in bladder.

  12. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine...... in oxygen sensing. Furthermore, reduced endogenous H(2)S production may also play a role in ischemic heart diseases and hypertension, and treatment with H(2)S donors and cysteine analogues may be beneficial in treatment of cardiovascular disease....

  13. Endogenous fringe benefits, compensating wage differentials and older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, G A; Morrisey, M A

    2001-01-01

    Employers are the principal source of health insurance for Americans under age 65. Economic theory argues that workers pay for health insurance in the form of lower wages or reductions in other forms of compensation. This paper uses 1994 and 1998 Health and Retirement Survey data to examine the wage-health insurance trade-off for older U.S. workers. Job and insurance choice are treated as endogenous in a two stage least squares framework. There is strong evidence supporting the treatment of nonwage benefits as endogenous. The preferred specification indicates an annual health insurance wage adjustment of $6,300. The magnitude of the trade-off is fragile, however.

  14. Origin of Endogenous DNA Abasic Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Abasic (AP) sites are among the most frequent endogenous lesions in DNA and present a strong block to replication. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an apn1 apn2 rad1 triple mutant is inviable because of its incapacity to repair AP sites and related 3′-blocked single-strand breaks (M. Guillet and S. Boiteux, EMBO J. 21:2833, 2002). Here, we investigated the origin of endogenous AP sites in yeast. Our results show that the deletion of the UNG1 gene encoding the uracil DNA glycosylase suppresses the...

  15. Negative attributional style, hopelessness depression and endogenous depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, T E

    2001-02-01

    The hopelessness theory of depression [Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I. & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358-372.] postulates that a negative attributional style represents a risk factor for a particular constellation of depressive symptoms, termed 'hopelessness depression'. Four studies tested the relation of negative attributional style to hopelessness depression symptoms versus endogenous depression symptoms. Despite the considerable overlap of hopelessness and endogenous depression symptoms, negative attributional style was more related to the former than the latter, consistent with hopelessness theory.

  16. Occupational Choice and the Endogenous Supply of Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    I develop a selection model in which the individual’s supply of ability is endogenous and subject to selection along with occupation. Additionally, I identify and estimate the returns to creative and innovative ability, communication ability, and reading and math ability for white-collar and blue......-collar workers. The model permits a person’s choice of occupation to influence his decision regarding the amount of ability to supply. The empirical results show that the individual’s supply of ability should be allowed to be endogenous to correct for sample selection bias caused by occupational choice....

  17. Engineering oxidative stress defense pathways to build a robust lipid production platform in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Qiao, Kangjian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-07-01

    Microbially derived lipids have recently attracted renewed interests due to their broad applications in production of green diesels, cosmetic additives, and oleochemicals. Metabolic engineering efforts have targeted a large portfolio of biosynthetic pathways to efficiently convert sugar to lipids in oleaginous yeast. In the engineered overproducing strains, endogenous cell metabolism typically generates harmful electrophilic molecules that compromise cell fitness and productivity. Lipids, particularly unsaturated fatty acids, are highly susceptible to oxygen radical attack and the resulting oxidative species are detrimental to cell metabolism and limit lipid productivity. In this study, we investigated cellular oxidative stress defense pathways in Yarrowia lipolytica to further improve the lipid titer, yield, and productivity. Specifically, we determined that coupling glutathione disulfide reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with aldehyde dehydrogenase are efficient solutions to combat reactive oxygen and aldehyde stress in Y. lipolytica. With the reported engineering strategies, we were able to synchronize cell growth and lipid production, improve cell fitness and morphology, and achieved industrially-relevant level of lipid titer (72.7 g/L), oil content (81.4%) and productivity (0.97 g/L/h) in controlled bench-top bioreactors. The strategies reported here represent viable steps in the development of sustainable biorefinery platforms that potentially upgrade low value carbons to high value oleochemicals and biofuels. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1521-1530. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  19. Study of the primordial lithium abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lithium isotopes have attracted an intense interest because the abundance of both 6Li and 6Li from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the puzzles in nuclear astrophysics. Many investigations of both astrophysical observation and nucleosynthesis calculation have been carried out to solve the puzzle, but it is not solved yet. Several nuclear reactions involving lithium have been indirectly measured at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The Standard BBN (SBBN) network calculations are then performed to investigate the primordial Lithium abundance. The result shows that these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the SBBN abundances of 6Li and 7Li.

  20. Investigation of endogenous blood plasma phospholipids, cholesterol and glycerides that contribute to matrix effects in bioanalysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Zhang, Tianyi; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Matrix effects caused by compounds endogenous to the biological sample are a primary challenge in quantitative LC/MS/MS bioanalysis. Many approaches have been developed to minimize matrix effects such as optimization of sample extraction procedures and use of isotopically labeled internal standards. Unexpected matrix components may still remain undetected, however, because of the selective mass transitions monitored during MS/MS analysis. Glycerophosphocholines are the major phospholipids in plasma that have been widely shown to cause significant matrix effects on electrospray ionization efficiencies for target analytes. The purpose of this work was to investigate potential matrix effects resulting from different endogenous lipid classes, including phospholipids, acylglycerols and cholesterols, in order to establish a library for the relative presence of these components in biological sample extracts obtained by commonly used sample preparation techniques. Thirteen compounds were selected which were representatives of eight phospholipids classes, mono, di, triacylglycerols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters. Post-column infusion experiments were carried out to compare relative ion suppression effects of these compounds. Chlorpheniramine and loratadine were selected as model test analytes. A Concentration Normalized Suppression Factor (%CNSF) was defined to allow comparison of ion suppression effects resulting from different endogenous lipids according to their typical concentrations in human plasma and erythrocytes. A simple LC/MS/MS method was developed to monitor these endogenous components in sample extracts and their extraction recoveries from a plasma pool were compared using protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, supported-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and Hybrid SPE-precipitation methods. Endogenous lipid components other than GPChos, such as cholesterols and triacylglycerols, may result in significant matrix effects and should be

  1. Lipides polaires marins

    OpenAIRE

    Fanni Jacques; Linder Michel; Parmentier Michel

    2004-01-01

    Les lipides polaires marins, notamment les phospholipides (PL), retiennent depuis quelques années l’attention des chercheurs et des industriels en raison de leur composition, particulièrement riche en acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne (AGPI-LC). Ils combinent ainsi les propriétés reconnues des AGPI-LC à l’intérêt métabolique et structural des phospholipides. Les sources sont nombreuses et d’accès très diversifié. Le défi industriel provient de leurs caractéristiques amphiphiles et aro...

  2. RF Microalgal lipid content characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps.

  3. Chlorosome lipids from Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Grove; Cox, Raymond Pickett; Miller, Mette

    2008-01-01

    We have extracted polar lipids and waxes from isolated chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum and determined the fatty acid composition of each lipid class. Polar lipids amounted to 4.8 mol per 100 mol bacteriochlorophyll in the chlorosomes, while non-polar lipids (waxes......) were present at a ratio of 5.9 mol per 100 mol bacteriochlorophyll. Glycolipids constitute 60 % of the polar lipids while phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an aminoglycosphingolipid make up respectively 15, 3, 8 and 12 %. A novel glycolipid was identified...... as a rhamnose derivative of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, while the other major glycolipid was monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. Tetradecanoic acid was the major fatty acid in the aminoglycosphingolipid, while the other polar lipids contained predominantly hexandecanoic acid. The chlorosome waxes are esters...

  4. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method......We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...

  5. Lipid composition of organelles from germinating castor bean endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.P.; Beevers, H.

    1977-02-01

    Glyoxysome, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and proplastid fractions were isolated from endosperm of castor beans (Ricinus communis) germinated for 5 days at 30 C. Samples from sucrose density gradients were diluted with 0.15 M KCl and the membranes pelleted. Lipid extracts of these membranes were analyzed for phosphoglyceride, acyl lipid, and sterol content. The endoplasmic reticulum contains 1.24 ..mu..mol of phosphoglyceride per mg of protein; the mitochondria, 0.65 ..mu..mol/mg; and the glyoxysome membranes, 0.55 ..mu..mol/mg. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine are the most abundant lipids in all membranes studied, accounting for 70% or more of the lipid phosphorus and 50% or more of the fatty acid. Glyoxysome membranes and endoplasmic reticulum also contain phosphatidyl inositol (respectively, 9 and 17% of the lipid phosphorus) and free fatty acids (13% of the total fatty acid in each). Compared with other organelles, mitochondrial membranes have more phosphatidyl ethanolamine relative to phosphatidyl choline and are characterized by the presence of cardiolipin, in which 80% of the fatty acid is linoleate. The relative amounts of linoleate, palmitate, oleate, stearate, and linolenate in each of the phosphotoglycerides are constant regardless of the membrane source. Stimasgasterol and ..beta..-sitosterol are present in the membranes (1 to 9 nmol each/mg protein). The data provide further evidence that glyoxysome membranes are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum but at the same time indicate some differentiation.

  6. Expression of HIV-1 Vpu leads to loss of the viral restriction factor CD317/Tetherin from lipid rafts and its enhanced lysosomal degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rollason

    Full Text Available CD317/tetherin (aka BST2 or HM1.24 antigen is an interferon inducible membrane protein present in regions of the lipid bilayer enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol (often termed lipid rafts. It has been implicated in an eclectic mix of cellular processes including, most notably, the retention of fully formed viral particles at the surface of cells infected with HIV and other enveloped viruses. Expression of the HIV viral accessory protein Vpu has been shown to lead to intracellular sequestration and degradation of tetherin, thereby counteracting the inhibition of viral release. There is evidence that tetherin interacts directly with Vpu, but it remains unclear where in the cell this interaction occurs or if Vpu expression affects the lipid raft localisation of tetherin. We have addressed these points using biochemical and cell imaging approaches focused on endogenous rather than ectopically over-expressed tetherin. We find i no evidence for an interaction between Vpu and endogenous tetherin at the cell surface, ii the vast majority of endogenous tetherin that is at the cell surface in control cells is in lipid rafts, iii internalised tetherin is present in non-raft fractions, iv expression of Vpu in cells expressing endogenous tetherin leads to the loss of tetherin from lipid rafts, v internalised tetherin enters early endosomes, and late endosomes, in both control cells and cells expressing Vpu, but the proportion of tetherin molecules destined for degradation rather than recycling is increased in cells expressing Vpu vi lysosomes are the primary site for degradation of endogenous tetherin in cells expressing Vpu. Our studies underlie the importance of studying endogenous tetherin and let us propose a model in which Vpu intercepts newly internalised tetherin and diverts it for lysosomal destruction rather than recycling to the cell surface.

  7. Lipids and membrane lateral organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro eSonnino

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the elucidation of the very basic structure and properties of cellular membranes, it became evident that cellular membranes are highly organized structures with multiple and multi-dimensional levels of order. Very early observations suggested that the lipid components of biological membranes might be active players in the creations of these levels of order. In the late 80’s, several different and diverse experimental pieces of evidence coalesced together giving rise to the lipid raft hypothesis. Lipid rafts became enormously (and, in the opinion of these authors, sometimes acritically popular, surprisingly not just within the lipidologist community (who is supposed to be naturally sensitive to the fascination of lipid rafts. Today, a PubMed search using the key word lipid rafts returned a list of 3767 papers, including 690 reviews (as a term of comparison, searching over the same time span for a very hot lipid-related key word, ceramide returned 6187 hits with 799 reviews, and a tremendous number of different cellular functions have been described as lipid raft-dependent. However, a clear consensus definition of lipid raft has been proposed only in recent times, and the basic properties, the ruling forces, and even the existence of lipid rafts in living cells have been recently matter of intense debate. The scenario that is gradually emerging from the controversies elicited by the lipid raft hypothesis emphasize multiple roles for membrane lipids in determining membrane order, that encompasses their tendency to phase separation but are clearly not limited to this. In this review, we would like to re-focus the attention of the readers on the importance of lipids in organizing the fine structure of cellular membranes.

  8. Absorption Of Dietary Lipid Components

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Hurşit

    2015-01-01

    Although the digestion and absorption of lipids that are necessary for the survival of living organisms are well known in general terms, nevertheless how different lipids to be digested, how it is distributed into the bloodstream, and how to be used by the cells, are unknown issues by most non specialist people. In recent years, knowledge of lipid digestion and absorption has expanded considerably. More insight has been gained in the mechanism of action of H + pump as a transport system in fa...

  9. Endogenous cytokinin profiles of tissue-cultured and acclimatized 'Williams' bananas subjected to different aromatic cytokinin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Adeyemi O; Plačková, Lenka; Bairu, Michael W; Novák, Ondřej; Szüčová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous cytokinin (CK) levels of in vitro-cultured and greenhouse-acclimatized 'Williams' bananas treated with six aromatic CKs were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. The underground parts had higher endogenous CK levels than the aerial parts. Control plantlets had more isoprenoid CKs while the aromatic-type CKs were predominant in all other regenerants. Following acclimatization of the control and 10 μM CK regenerants, there was a rapid decline in both isoprenoid and aromatic CK in the greenhouse-grown plants. Apart from the control and 6-(3-Methoxybenzylamino)-9-tetrahydropyran-2-ylpurine (MemTTHP) treatment with higher level of isoprenoid CK, aromatic CK remain the predominant CK-type across all CK treatments. The most abundant CK forms were meta-topolin (mT) and benzyladenine (BA) in the micropropagated and acclimatized plants, respectively. Micropropagated plantlets had cis-Zeatin (cZ) as the major isoprenoid CK-type which was in turn replaced by isopentenyladenine (iP) upon acclimatization. On a structural and functional basis, 9-glucoside, a deactivation/detoxicification product was the most abundant and mainly located in the underground parts (micropropagation and acclimatization). The results establish the wide variation in metabolic products of the tested aromatic CKs during micropropagation and acclimatization. The findings are discussed with the possible physiological roles of the various CK constituents on the growth and development of banana plants.

  10. Endogenous Protein Interactome of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases Exposed by Untargeted Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Michèle; Audet-Delage, Yannick; Desjardins, Sylvie; Rouleau, Mélanie; Girard-Bock, Camille; Guillemette, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    The conjugative metabolism mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) significantly influences the bioavailability and biological responses of endogenous molecule substrates and xenobiotics including drugs. UGTs participate in the regulation of cellular homeostasis by limiting stress induced by toxic molecules, and by controlling hormonal signaling networks. Glucuronidation is highly regulated at genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. However, the UGT protein interaction network, which is likely to influence glucuronidation, has received little attention. We investigated the endogenous protein interactome of human UGT1A enzymes in main drug metabolizing non-malignant tissues where UGT expression is most prevalent, using an unbiased proteomics approach. Mass spectrometry analysis of affinity-purified UGT1A enzymes and associated protein complexes in liver, kidney and intestine tissues revealed an intricate interactome linking UGT1A enzymes to multiple metabolic pathways. Several proteins of pharmacological importance such as transferases (including UGT2 enzymes), transporters and dehydrogenases were identified, upholding a potential coordinated cellular response to small lipophilic molecules and drugs. Furthermore, a significant cluster of functionally related enzymes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as in the glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathways were enriched in UGT1A enzymes complexes. Several partnerships were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations and co-localization by confocal microscopy. An enhanced accumulation of lipid droplets in a kidney cell model overexpressing the UGT1A9 enzyme supported the presence of a functional interplay. Our work provides unprecedented evidence for a functional interaction between glucuronidation and bioenergetic metabolism. PMID:28217095

  11. Estimating Squirrel Abundance From Live trapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A reprint of an article from the Journal of Wildlife Management entitled "Estimating Squirrel Abundance from Live Trapping Data" by Nixon, Edwards and Eberhardt. The...

  12. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  13. Iron abundance in the atmosphere of Arcturus

    CERN Document Server

    Sheminova, V A

    2015-01-01

    Abundance of iron in the atmosphere of Arcturus has been determined from the profiles or regions of the profiles of the weak lines sensitive to iron abundance. The selected lines of Fe I and Fe II were synthesized with the MARCS theoretical models of the atmosphere. From the observed profiles of lines available with a high spectral resolution in the atlas by Hinkle and Wallace (2005), the values of the iron abundance $A = 6.95 \\pm 0.03$ and the radial-tangential macroturbulent velocity $5.6 \\pm 0.2$ km/s were obtained for Arcturus. The same physical quantities were found for the Sun as a star; they are $7.42 \\pm 0.02$ and $3.4 \\pm 0.3$ km/s, respectively. For Arcturus, the iron abundance relative to the solar one was determined with the differential method as [Fe/H] $=-0.48 \\pm 0.02$.

  14. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  15. SWFSC/MMTD: Vaquita Abundance Survey 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1997, the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) conducted a survey designed to estimate the abundance of vaquita, the Gulf of California harbor porpoise...

  16. Probing the subcellular localization of hopanoid lipids in bacteria using NanoSIMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Doughty

    Full Text Available The organization of lipids within biological membranes is poorly understood. Some studies have suggested lipids group into microdomains within cells, but the evidence remains controversial due to non-native imaging techniques. A recently developed NanoSIMS technique indicated that sphingolipids group into microdomains within membranes of human fibroblast cells. We extended this NanoSIMS approach to study the localization of hopanoid lipids in bacterial cells by developing a stable isotope labeling method to directly detect subcellular localization of specific lipids in bacteria with ca. 60 nm resolution. Because of the relatively small size of bacterial cells and the relative abundance of hopanoid lipids in membranes, we employed a primary (2H-label to maximize our limit of detection. This approach permitted the analysis of multiple stable isotope labels within the same sample, enabling visualization of subcellular lipid microdomains within different cell types using a secondary label to mark the growing end of the cell. Using this technique, we demonstrate subcellular localization of hopanoid lipids within alpha-proteobacterial and cyanobacterial cells. Further, we provide evidence of hopanoid lipid domains in between cells of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. More broadly, our method provides a means to image lipid microdomains in a wide range of cell types and test hypotheses for their functions in membranes.

  17. Organization of Lipids in the Tear Film: A Molecular-Level View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D. Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film. PMID:24651175

  18. Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Cod(Gadus morhua),Haddock(Melanogrammus aeglefinus)and Halibut(Hippogiossus hippoglossus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Duan; MAI Kangsen; AI Qinghui; Joyce E.Milley; Santosh P.Lall

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod,haddock and halibut.Three groups of cod(276 g±61 g),haddock(538 g±83 g)and halibut(3704 g±221 g)were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling.The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters(FAME).Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak(R).The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography(HPTLC)and the FAME profile was obtained.Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%,respectively,with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid,respectively.Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%,with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid.Total liver lipid contents of cod,haddock and halibut were 36.9%,67.2% and 30.7%,respectively,of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction(88.1%-97.1%).Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid.Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid.Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant.In summary,the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ,and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh.However,as a medium-fat fish,halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  19. Lipid hydroperoxides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, G; Leverentz, M; Silkowski, H; Gill, N; Sánchez-Serrano, J J

    2000-12-01

    Hydroperoxides are the primary oxygenated products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and were determined spectrophotometrically based on their reaction with an excess of Fe2+ at low pH in the presence of the dye Xylenol Orange. Triphenylphosphine-mediated hydroxide formation was used to authenticate the signal generated by the hydroperoxides. The method readily detected lipid peroxidation in a range of plant tissues including Phaseolus hypocotyls (26 +/- 5 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1); mean +/- S.D.), Alstroemeria floral tissues (sepals, 66+/-13 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1); petals, 49+/-6 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)), potato leaves (334+/-75 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)), broccoli florets (568+/-68 nmol.g of fresh weight(-1)) and Chlamydomonas cells (602+/-40 nmol.g of wet weight(-1)). Relative to the total fatty acid content of the tissues, the percentage hydroperoxide content was within the range of 0.6-1.7% for all tissue types (photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic) and represents the basal oxidation level of membrane fatty acids in plant cells. Leaves of transgenic potato with the fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase enzyme expressed in the antisense orientation were elevated by 38%, indicating a role for this enzyme in the maintenance of cellular levels of lipid hydroperoxides.

  20. Does land abundance explain African institutions?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The land abundance view of African history uses sparse population to explain pre-colonial land tenure and slavery. I document the geographic forcing variables that predict land rights, slavery, and population density in a cross section of global societies. I discuss whether these correlations support theories of land rights and slavery, including the land abundance view. I show that pre-colonial institutions predict institutional outcomes in Africa in the present, including land transactions,...

  1. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  2. Highly resistant macromolecular components and low rate of generation of endogenous damage: two key traits of longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Barja, Gustavo

    2007-10-01

    Key characteristics relating oxidative damage to aging and longevity are reviewed. Available information indicates that the specific composition of tissue macromolecules (proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA) in long-lived animal species gives them an intrinsically high resistance to modification that likely contributes to the superior longevity of these species. This is obtained in the case of lipids by decreasing fatty acid unsaturation, and in the proteins by lowering their methionine content. Long-lived animals also show low rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage at their mitochondria. On the other hand, dietary restriction decreases mitochondrial ROS production and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and proteins. These changes are due to the decreased intake of dietary proteins (not of lipids or carbohydrates) of the dietary restricted animals. In turn, these effects of protein restriction seem to be specifically due to the lowered methionine intake of the protein and dietary restricted animals. It is emphasized that both a low rate of generation of endogenous damage and an intrinsically high resistance to modification of tissue macromolecules are key traits of animal longevity.

  3. Modelling Void Abundance in Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F

    2016-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f(R) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surv...

  4. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this is discussed. The higher solar neon abundance is confirmed; this is discussed in terms of the results of helioseismology. Evidence is presented for oxygen destruction via ON cycling having occurred in the progenitors of four planetary nebulae with bilobal structure. These progenitor stars had a high mass, probably greater than 5 solar masses. This is deduced from the high values of He/H and N/H found in these nebulae. Formation of nitrogen, helium and carbon are discussed. The high mass progenitors which showed oxygen de...

  5. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  6. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  7. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) protect endogenous antioxidants in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellagic acid monomers, polymeric tannins and related phenolic compounds isolated from English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) have been reported to inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress in animal models. To determine whether dietary and endogenous antioxidants are pres...

  8. Endogenous psychoactive tryptamines reconsidered: an anxiolytic role for dimethyltryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michael S; Presti, David E

    2005-01-01

    The presence of the potent hallucinogenic psychoactive chemical N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in the human body has puzzled scientists for decades. Endogenous DMT was investigated in the 1960s and 1970s and it was proposed that DMT was involved in psychosis and schizophrenia. This hypothesis developed from comparisons of the blood and urine of schizophrenic and control subjects. However, much of this research proved inconclusive and conventional thinking has since held that trace levels of DMT, and other endogenous psychoactive tryptamines, are insignificant metabolic byproducts. The recent discovery of a G-protein-coupled, human trace amine receptor has triggered a reappraisal of the role of compounds present in limited concentrations in biological systems. Interestingly enough, DMT and other psychoactive tryptamine hallucinogens elicit a robust response at the trace amine receptor. While it is currently accepted that serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors play a pivotal role in the activity of hallucinogenic/psychedelic compounds, we propose that the effects induced by exogenous DMT administration, especially at low doses, are due in part to activity at the trace amine receptor. Furthermore, we suggest that endogenous DMT interacts with the TA receptor to produce a calm and relaxed mental state, which may suppress, rather than promote, symptoms of psychosis. This hypothesis may help explain the inconsistency in the early analysis of endogenous DMT in humans. Finally, we propose that amphetamine action at the TA receptor may contribute to the calming effects of amphetamine and related drugs, especially at low doses.

  9. The Endogenous Origins of Experience, Routines and Organizational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Felin, Teppo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the origins and emergence of organizational routines and capabilities. We first argue that there are theoretical and endogeneity-related concerns associated with the key antecedents and mechanisms specified by the extant routines and capabilities literature. Specifically,...

  10. Target‐specific epigenetic silencing of endogenous retroviruses in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Gernot

    Retroviruses are able to stably integrate their genome into the DNA of infected cells. If retroviral integration takes place in cells of the germ line, the retrovirus may become a part of the host genome and be inherited from generation to generation as a genomic parasite. These endogenous retrov...

  11. Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda;

    2013-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), remains unclear. Here, we show that the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which...

  12. Endogenous assessment of myocardial fibrosis with quantitative MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, J.W.M. van

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the use of quantitative MR contrast mechanisms, that could potentially be used for endogenous detection of myocardial fibrosis in the clinic. we have mainly focused on T2*, T1ρ MRI and Magnetization Transfer Imaging, and found that T1ρ -mapping, and Magnetization Tran

  13. A Dynamic Model of Endogenous Mergers and Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic dominant-firm model with an endogenous merger process to examine the effects of trade liberalization on industry structure. Domestic and cross-border mergers and demergers are allowed for. When firms are myopic and the dominant firm has a sufficiently high pre-merger capita

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  15. Testing for a Threshold in Models with Endogenous Regressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothfelder, Mario; Boldea, Otilia

    2016-01-01

    Using 2SLS estimation, we propose two tests for a threshold in models with endogenous regressors: a sup LR test and a sup Wald test. Here, the 2SLS estimation is not conventional because it uses additional information about the first-stage being linear or not. Because of this additional information,

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  17. Role of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryeom, Sandra; Folkman, Judah

    2009-03-01

    New blood vessel growth via angiogenesis is a fundamental process in both physiological and pathological conditions. Physiological angiogenesis is critical during embryogenesis and placental development, whereas pathological angiogenesis plays an important role in the progression of many diseases, most notably tumor growth. Tumor angiogenesis is well accepted to be regulated by a balance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors produced both by tumor cells and surrounding stromal cells. For many years, investigation of antiangiogenic therapies for cancer has focused on the proangiogenic cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor; its receptors; or downstream signaling pathways. However, more recently with the identification of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, studies have turned toward understanding the role of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins in preventing disease progression. Clinical clues have suggested that specific populations may have dysregulated angiogenesis due to differential expression of endogenous angiogenesis regulators. For example, individuals with Down syndrome may possess a systemic antiangiogenic state with a significantly decreased incidence of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Our work suggests that endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors may be the master regulators controlling progression of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as vascular anomalies and cancer. The molecular regulation of angiogenesis is not yet fully understood; however, the Down syndrome population may give us insights toward novel therapies for controlling angiogenesis in disease.

  18. Endogeneous price leadership in a duopoly: equal products, unequal technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastidar, K.G.; Furth, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we study endogenous price leadership in the context of a homogeneous product Bertrand duopoly model in which the firms have different, strictly convex cost functions. In such a framework it is well known that a simultaneous move price choice game does not have an equilibrium in

  19. Endogenous adenosine curtails lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tumour necrosis factor synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eigler, A; Greten, T F; Sinha, B; Haslberger, C; Sullivan, G W; Endres, S

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the inhibitory effect of exogenous adenosine on TNF production. During inflammation endogenous adenosine levels are elevated and may be one of several anti-inflammatory mediators that reduce TNF synthesis. In the present study the authors investigated this role of ad

  20. Managing waste exports when closure risks are endogenous

    OpenAIRE

    Stähler, Frank; Michaelis, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a rationale for taxing waste exports when closure risks are endogenous in that they depend on the importing country's accumulated stock of waste. The paper shows that the optimal time path of waste exports requires a progressively increasing tax rate which even surmounts a Hotelling tax which tackles the problem by evaluating the expected closure stock.

  1. Place branding, embeddedness and endogenous rural development: Four European cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Lummina; Donner, Mechthild; Fort, Fatiha; Vellema, Sietze

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with place branding on the regional scale, in the rural context of food and tourism networks in Europe. Place branding is linked to the concepts of endogenous rural development, territory and embeddedness, by analysing how the valorisation of specific rural assets takes shape. The

  2. Fiscal Policies and Endogenous Growth in Integrated Capital Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, A.M.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of policy coordination in a two-country world with endogenous growth and imperfect capital mobility.Public investment and a public consumption good are financed by a source-based capital-income tax. By comparing the cases in which countries do and do not coordinate th

  3. Endogenous Opioid Peptides and Epilepsy: Quieting the Seizing Brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    observed to progressively decline endogenous ligand at the receptor be due to the syndrome of ’failing in terms of severity and duration, is unknown, to see...Grupper D., Can we consider that the focal and 12 tHenriksen, S. J., Wiesner, 1. B. and Tyano, S. and Laron . Z. (1987) Psycho- generalized depolarization

  4. Endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Banga, J.D.; Graaf, Y. van der

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether combined information on reproductive factors has additive value to the single reproductive factor age at menopause for assessing endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women. They conducted a population-based c

  5. Occupational Choice and the Endogenous Supply of Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    I develop a selection model in which the individual’s supply of ability is endogenous and subject to selection along with occupation. Additionally, I identify and estimate the returns to creative and innovative ability, communication ability, and reading and math ability for white-collar and blue...

  6. Endogeneous price leadership in a duopoly: equal products, unequal technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Dastidar; D. Furth

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we study endogenous price leadership in the context of a homogeneous product Bertrand duopoly model in which the firms have different, strictly convex cost functions. In such a framework it is well known that a simultaneous move price choice game does not have an equilibrium in

  7. Strategic Delay and Information Exchange in Endogenous Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    to the members of Asu’s group, Paul Njoroge, Ishai Menache, Ermin Wei, Ali ParandehGheibi, Noah Stein, Alireza Tahbaz-Salehi, Diego Feijer, Kimon...games of innovation. Journal of Economic Theory, 25(1):21- 41, Jan 1981. [59] P Romer . Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98

  8. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  9. Conceptual Understanding of Multiplicative Properties through Endogenous Digital Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Andre

    2012-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of an endogenously designed instructional game on conceptual understanding of the associative and distributive properties of multiplication. Additional this study sought to investigate if performance on measures of conceptual understanding taken prior to and after game play could serve as predictors of…

  10. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  11. The efficacy of endogenous gibberellic acid for parthenocarpy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... fruit productivity and quality in eggplants grown under greenhouse ... other chromatographic methods (MacDonald et al., 1981;. Martin et al., 1981; ... The other six genotypes ... using authentic standards (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, MO, USA). ... reported an increase in endogenous gibberellin levels in.

  12. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  13. Endogenous Depression in the Elderly: Prevalence and Agreement among Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined agreement among diagnoses made according to 5 definitions of endogenous depression in 99 depressed elders. Poor to fair agreement was generally demonstrated, except for Research Diagnostic Criteria and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which demonstrated excellent agreement. Mostly, demographic and clinical variables…

  14. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  15. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensibl

  16. Study of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: The oxidative stress and inflammation are cooperative events involved in atherosclerosis ... reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid status parameters in the patients with coronary artery .... Data were analyzed with t-test and expressed as mean ± SD. ... biomolecules including; lipids, proteins and DNA. Antioxidative ...

  17. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is

  18. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC) nanoparticle

  19. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC)

  20. Inhibition of cellular respiration by endogenously produced carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lam, Francis; Hagen, Thilo; Moncada, Salvador

    2006-06-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) interacts with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, leading to inhibition of cellular respiration. This interaction has been shown to have important physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is also known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro; however, it is not clear whether endogenously produced CO can inhibit cellular respiration and, if so, what the significance of this might be. In this study, we show that exogenous CO inhibits respiration in a moderate but persistent manner in HEK293 cells under ambient (21%) oxygen concentrations (K(i) = 1.44 microM). This effect of CO was increased (K(i) = 0.35 microM) by incubation in hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen). Endogenous CO, generated by HEK293 cells transfected with the inducible isoform of haem oxygenase (haem oxygenase-1; HO-1), also inhibited cellular respiration moderately (by 12%) and this was accompanied by inhibition (23%) of cytochrome c oxidase activity. When the cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions during HO-1 induction, the inhibitory effect of CO on cell respiration was markedly increased to 70%. Furthermore, endogenously produced CO was found to be responsible for the respiratory inhibition that occurs in RAW264.7 cells activated in hypoxic conditions with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, in the presence of N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine to prevent the synthesis of NO. Our results indicate that CO contributes significantly to the respiratory inhibition in activated cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of cell respiration by endogenous CO through its interaction with cytochrome c oxidase might have an important role in inflammatory and hypoxic conditions.

  1. Lipid distribution, composition and uptake in bovine articular cartilage studied using Raman micro-spectrometry and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Jessica Claire; Winlove, C Peter

    2017-07-01

    The distribution and composition of endogenous lipids in articular cartilage and transport of exogenous fatty acids have been investigated on a microscopic scale in fresh bovine articular cartilage. To investigate the distribution and composition of the endogenous lipids, hyperspectral Raman maps were taken of chondrocytes and their surrounding matrix in both the deep and superficial zones. These revealed differences in both lipid distribution and composition between the two zones. Extracellular lipid was observed surrounding the cells in the superficial zone but not in the deep zone. Additionally, intracellular lipid droplets were observed that were larger and more numerous in the deep zone (P = 0.01). The extracellular lipid was primarily free saturated fatty acid, whereas the cellular lipid droplets contained triglycerides with unsaturated fatty acid chains. Fatty acid uptake and transport were investigated by incubating cartilage samples in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing fluorescently labelled palmitate for a range of times and temperatures. After incubation, the palmitate distribution was imaged using confocal microscopy. Palmitate accumulated preferentially in the territorial matrix only in the superficial zone where the concentration was up to 100-fold greater than that in the bulk matrix (P = 0.001). Palmitate uptake by the chondrocytes in both zones showed differential temperature sensitivity (P = 0.05), which would support the idea that cells take up palmitate by both active and passive mechanisms. The study reveals large differences between chondrocytes in the superficial and deep zones in their lipid content, in their extracellular lipid environment and in their access to exogenous fatty acids. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  2. Production of n-alkyl lipids in living plants and implications for the geologic past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, Aaron F.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Wing, Scott L.; Graham, Heather V.

    2011-12-01

    Leaf waxes (i.e., n-alkyl lipids or n-alkanes) are land-plant biomarkers widely used to reconstruct changes in climate and the carbon isotopic composition of the atmosphere. There is little information available, however, on how the production of leaf waxes by different kinds of plants might influence the abundance and isotopic composition of n-alkanes in sedimentary archives. This lack of information increases uncertainty in interpreting n-alkyl lipid abundance and δ 13C signals in ancient settings. We provide here n-alkyl abundance distributions and carbon isotope fractionation data for deciduous and evergreen angiosperm and gymnosperm leaves from 46 tree species, representing 24 families. n-Alkane abundances are significantly higher in angiosperms than gymnosperms; many of the gymnosperm species investigated did not produce any n-alkanes. On average, deciduous angiosperms produce 200 times more n-alkanes than deciduous gymnosperms. Although differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms dominate the variance in n-alkane abundance, leaf life-span is also important, with higher n-alkane abundances in longer-lived leaves. n-Alkanol abundances covary with n-alkanes, but n-alkanoic acids have similar abundances across all plant groups. Isotopic fractionation between leaf tissue and individual alkanes ( ɛlipid) varies by as much as 10‰ among different chain lengths. Overall, ɛlipid values are slightly lower (-4.5‰) for angiosperm than for gymnosperm (-2.5‰) n-alkanes. Angiosperms commonly express slightly higher Δleaf (photosynthetic discrimination) relative to gymnosperms under similar growth conditions. As a result, angiosperm n-alkanes are expected to be generally 3-5‰ more depleted in 13C relative to gymnosperm alkanes for the same locality. Differences in n-alkane production indicate the biomarker record will largely (but not exclusively) reflect angiosperms if both groups were present, and also that evergreen plants will likely be overrepresented

  3. Equations for lipid normalization of carbon stable isotope ratios in aquatic bird eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H Elliott

    Full Text Available Stable isotope ratios are biogeochemical tracers that can be used to determine the source of nutrients and contaminants in avian eggs. However, the interpretation of stable carbon ratios in lipid-rich eggs is complicated because (13C is depleted in lipids. Variation in (13C abundance can therefore be obscured by variation in percent lipids. Past attempts to establish an algebraic equation to correct carbon isotope ratios for lipid content in eggs have been unsuccessful, possibly because they relied partly on data from coastal or migratory species that may obtain egg lipids from different habitats than egg protein. We measured carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios in 175 eggs from eight species of aquatic birds. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes were enriched in lipid-extracted egg samples compared with non extracted egg samples. A logarithmic equation using the C∶N ratio and carbon isotope ratio from the non extracted egg tissue calculated 90% of the lipid-extracted carbon isotope ratios within ±0.5‰. Calculating separate equations for eggs laid by species in different habitats (pelagic, offshore and terrestrial-influenced improved the fit. A logarithmic equation, rather than a linear equation as often used for muscle, was necessary to accurately correct for lipid content because the relatively high lipid content of eggs compared with muscle meant that a linear relationship did not accurately approximate the relationship between percent lipids and the C∶N ratio. Because lipid extraction alters sulphur and nitrogen isotope ratios (and cannot be corrected algebraically, we suggest that isotopic measurement on bulk tissue followed by algebraic lipid normalization of carbon stable isotope ratio is often a good solution for homogenated eggs, at least when it is not possible to complete separate chemical analyses for each isotope.

  4. Unraveling the Complex Relationship Triad between Lipids, Obesity, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida A. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity today stands at the intersection between inflammation and metabolic disorders causing an aberration of immune activity, and resulting in increased risk for diabetes, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and pulmonary inflammation to name a few. Increases in mortality and morbidity in obesity related inflammation have initiated studies to explore different lipid mediated molecular pathways of attempting resolution that uncover newer therapeutic opportunities of anti-inflammatory components. Majorly the thromboxanes, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, and so forth form the group of lipid mediators influencing inflammation. Of special mention are the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids that regulate inflammatory mediators of interest in hepatocytes and adipocytes via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. They also exhibit profound effects on eicosanoid production. The inflammatory cyclooxygenase pathway arising from arachidonic acid is a critical step in the progression of inflammatory responses. New oxygenated products of omega-3 metabolism, namely, resolvins and protectins, behave as endogenous mediators exhibiting powerful anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory actions via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. In this review we attempt to discuss the complex pathways and links between obesity and inflammation particularly in relation to different lipid mediators.

  5. Molecular Dynamics of Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-09

    The aim of this work is to study, by molecular dynamics simulations, the properties of lipid bilayers. We have applied the vectorizable, order-N...fast angle-dependent force/potential algorithms to treat angle bending and torsion. Keywords: Molecular dynamics , Lipid bilayers.

  6. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  7. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  8. Lipid droplets, lipophagy, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Lipids are essential components for life. Their various structural and physical properties influence diverse cellular processes and, thereby, human health. Lipids are not genetically encoded but are synthesized and modified by complex metabolic pathways, supplying energy, membranes, signaling molecules, and hormones to affect growth, physiology, and response to environmental insults. Lipid homeostasis is crucial, such that excess fatty acids (FAs) can be harmful to cells. To prevent such lipotoxicity, cells convert excess FAs into neutral lipids for storage in organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). These organelles do not simply manage lipid storage and metabolism but also are involved in protein quality management, pathogenesis, immune responses, and, potentially, neurodegeneration. In recent years, a major trend in LD biology has centered around the physiology of lipid mobilization via lipophagy of fat stored within LDs. This review summarizes key findings in LD biology and lipophagy, offering novel insights into this rapidly growing field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon.

  9. Roles of Lipids in Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Endo, Kaichiro; Wada, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes in cyanobacterial cells and chloroplasts of algae and higher plants are the sites of oxygenic photosynthesis. The lipid composition of the thylakoid membrane is unique and highly conserved among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Major lipids in thylakoid membranes are glycolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, and the phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol. The identification of almost all genes involved in the biosynthesis of each lipid class over the past decade has allowed the generation and isolation of mutants of various photosynthetic organisms incapable of synthesizing specific lipids. Numerous studies using such mutants have revealed that these lipids play important roles not only in the formation of the lipid bilayers of thylakoid membranes but also in the folding and assembly of the protein subunits in photosynthetic complexes. In addition to the studies with the mutants, recent X-ray crystallography studies of photosynthetic complexes in thylakoid membranes have also provided critical information on the association of lipids with photosynthetic complexes and their activities. In this chapter, we summarize our current understanding about the structural and functional involvement of thylakoid lipids in oxygenic photosynthesis.

  10. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Loher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL, skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL. Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass, insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  11. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  12. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-09-14

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  13. Lipides polaires marins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Jacques

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les lipides polaires marins, notamment les phospholipides (PL, retiennent depuis quelques années l’attention des chercheurs et des industriels en raison de leur composition, particulièrement riche en acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne (AGPI-LC. Ils combinent ainsi les propriétés reconnues des AGPI-LC à l’intérêt métabolique et structural des phospholipides. Les sources sont nombreuses et d’accès très diversifié. Le défi industriel provient de leurs caractéristiques amphiphiles et aromatiques particulièrement marquées qui rend leur extraction très difficile.

  14. Induction of endogenous uncoupling protein 3 suppresses mitochondrial oxidant emission during fatty acid-supported respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ethan J; Yamazaki, Hanae; Neufer, P Darrell

    2007-10-26

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression increases dramatically in skeletal muscle under metabolic states associated with elevated lipid metabolism, yet the function of UCP3 in a physiological context remains controversial. Here, in situ mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission and respiration were measured in permeabilized fiber bundles prepared from both rat and mouse (wild-type) gastrocnemius muscle after a single bout of exercise plus 18 h of recovery (Ex/R) that induced a approximately 2-4-fold increase in UCP3 protein. Elevated uncoupling activity (i.e. GDP inhibitable) was evident in Ex/R fibers only upon the addition of palmitate (known activator of UCP3) or under substrate conditions eliciting substantial rates of H(2)O(2) production (i.e. respiration supported by succinate or palmitoyl-L-carnitine/malate but not pyruvate/malate), indicative of UCP3 activation by endogenous reactive oxygen species. In mice completely lacking UCP3 (ucp3(-/-)), Ex/R failed to induce uncoupling activity. Surprisingly, when UCP3 activity was inhibited by GDP (rats) or in the absence of UCP3 (ucp3(-/-)), H(2)O(2) emission was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Ex/R versus non-exercised control fibers. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the oxidant emitting potential of mitochondria is increased in skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise, possibly as a consequence of prolonged reliance on lipid metabolism and/or altered mitochondrial biochemistry/morphology and that induction of UCP3 in vivo mediates an increase in uncoupling activity that restores mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission to non-exercised, control levels.

  15. Lipid functionalized biopolymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurat-Ul-Ain; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zia, Fatima; Ali, Muhammad; Rehman, Saima; Zuber, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Lipids are the main source of energy and widely used for various applications. In this review, the modification of lipids by using them in combination with other biomaterials like natural and synthetic polymers is elaborated. These new blends have characteristic features of both polymers and are characterized by different techniques (NMR, DSC, TGA, IR and Raman spectroscopy etc.) to understand their structure, properties and functional behavior. Lipids are hydrophobic, have anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial properties and thus impart hydrophobicity and flexibility to the polymers. While the polymers, on the other hand, make the lipids tougher. Properties of few polymers such as starch, polyethylene protein and chitosan that have brittleness, low combustion rate and hydrophobicity, are improved by incorporation of lipids ultimately increased their flexibility, combustion rate and hydrophobicity respectively. This review article is also focused on emerging fields for the applications of these composite materials. The most notable application of composite materials are in the field of paint industry.

  16. Abundance, distribution and patch formation of zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenhöfer, Gustav-Adolf; Sherman, Byron K.; Lee, Thomas N.

    The goal of studies described here was to determine the responses of zooplankton taxa to phytoplankton patches which develop in and near intrusions of cold, nutrient-rich Gulf Stream water. To achieve this goal we determined the horizontal and vertical distributions of abundant mesozooplankton taxa on the south-eastern continental shelf of the USA between 29°30‧ and 31°N. The study period was from June 23 to August 16, 1981. Highest concentrations of zooplankton usually occurred in and near patches of phytoplankton. Increased phytoplankton appeared to trigger the formation of patches of the calanoid copepod Temora turbinata and the cyclopoid copepods Oithona spp. and Oncaea spp. The patches of zooplankton had greater alongshore than cross-shelf dimensions. T. turbinata responded rapidly to increased concentrations of phytoplankton by reproducing and aggregating in and above intruded waters. Oithonidae which were often, but not always, abundant in phytoplankton patches eventually attained high concentrations over most of the middle and part of the inner shelf. Their concentration and that of Oncaeidae increased steadily. Oncaeidae were not abundant in recently upwelled waters, as was T. turbinata but reached high concentrations in older intrusions when the abundance of T. turbinata remained level or decreased slowly. Both cyclopoid taxa are thought to reproduce slowly (egg sacs) compared to T. turbinata. Another taxon, the doliolids, became abundant far more rapidly in intruded waters (by asexual reproduction) than did the other three taxa. Doliolids were the most opportunistic intrusion zooplankton form. They do not regularly occur in low abundance on the shelf, as do the three copepod taxa, but develop in pulses in regions where T. turbinata and Oncaea are not abundant. Of the four taxa studied the abundance of doliolids increased and decreased most rapidly, whereas Oithona and Oncaea increased slowly and did not decrease during the study period. T. turbinata

  17. Saposins modulate human invariant Natural Killer T cells self-reactivity and facilitate lipid exchange with CD1d molecules during antigen presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salio, Mariolina; Ghadbane, Hemza; Dushek, Omer; Shepherd, Dawn; Cypen, Jeremy; Gileadi, Uzi; Aichinger, Michael C.; Napolitani, Giorgio; Qi, Xiaoyang; van der Merwe, P. Anton; Wojno, Justyna; Veerapen, Natacha; Cox, Liam R.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Yuan, Weiming; Cresswell, Peter; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins, such as molecules of the saposin family, facilitate extraction of lipids from biological membranes for their loading onto CD1d molecules. Although it has been shown that prosaposin-deficient mice fail to positively select invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, it remains unclear whether saposins can facilitate loading of endogenous iNKT cell agonists in the periphery during inflammatory responses. In addition, it is unclear whether saposins, in addition to loading, also promote dissociation of lipids bound to CD1d molecules. To address these questions, we used a combination of cellular assays and demonstrated that saposins influence CD1d-restricted presentation to human iNKT cells not only of exogenous lipids but also of endogenous ligands, such as the self-glycosphingolipid β-glucopyranosylceramide, up-regulated by antigen-presenting cells following bacterial infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in human myeloid cells CD1d-loading of endogenous lipids after bacterial infection, but not at steady state, requires trafficking of CD1d molecules through an endo-lysosomal compartment. Finally, using BIAcore assays we demonstrated that lipid-loaded saposin B increases the off-rate of lipids bound to CD1d molecules, providing important insights into the mechanisms by which it acts as a “lipid editor,” capable of fine-tuning loading and unloading of CD1d molecules. These results have important implications in understanding how to optimize lipid-loading onto antigen-presenting cells, to better harness iNKT cells central role at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24248359

  18. Deep sequencing reveals low incidence of endogenous LINE-1 retrotransposition in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Arokium

    Full Text Available Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 retrotransposition induces insertional mutations that can result in diseases. It was recently shown that the copy number of L1 and other retroelements is stable in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. However, by using an engineered reporter construct over-expressing L1, another study suggests that reprogramming activates L1 mobility in iPSCs. Given the potential of human iPSCs in therapeutic applications, it is important to clarify whether these cells harbor somatic insertions resulting from endogenous L1 retrotransposition. Here, we verified L1 expression during and after reprogramming as well as potential somatic insertions driven by the most active human endogenous L1 subfamily (L1Hs. Our results indicate that L1 over-expression is initiated during the reprogramming process and is subsequently sustained in isolated clones. To detect potential somatic insertions in iPSCs caused by L1Hs retotransposition, we used a novel sequencing strategy. As opposed to conventional sequencing direction, we sequenced from the 3' end of L1Hs to the genomic DNA, thus enabling the direct detection of the polyA tail signature of retrotransposition for verification of true insertions. Deep coverage sequencing thus allowed us to detect seven potential somatic insertions with low read counts from two iPSC clones. Negative PCR amplification in parental cells, presence of a polyA tail and absence from seven L1 germline insertion databases highly suggested true somatic insertions in iPSCs. Furthermore, these insertions could not be detected in iPSCs by PCR, likely due to low abundance. We conclude that L1Hs retrotransposes at low levels in iPSCs and therefore warrants careful analyses for genotoxic effects.

  19. A new method for quantitative immunoblotting of endogenous α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Newman

    Full Text Available β-Sheet-rich aggregates of α-synuclein (αSyn are the hallmark neuropathology of Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies, whereas the principal native structure of αSyn in healthy cells--unfolded monomer or α-helically folded oligomer--is under debate. Our recent crosslinking analysis of αSyn in intact cells showed that a large portion of endogenous αSyn can be trapped as oligomers, most notably as apparent tetramers. One challenge in such studies is accurately quantifying αSyn Western blot signals among samples, as crosslinked αSyn trends toward increased immunoreactivity. Here, we analyzed this phenomenon in detail and found that treatment with the reducible amine-reactive crosslinker DSP strongly increased αSyn immunoreactivity even after cleavage with the reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol. The effect was observed with all αSyn antibodies tested and in all sample types from human brain homogenates to untransfected neuroblastoma cells, permitting easy detection of endogenous αSyn in the latter, which had long been considered impossible. Coomassie staining of blots before and after several hours of washing revealed complete retention of αSyn after DSP/β-mercaptoethanol treatment, in contrast to a marked loss of αSyn without this treatment. The treatment also enhanced immunodetection of the homologs β- and γ-synuclein and of histones, another group of small, lysine-rich proteins. We conclude that by neutralizing positive charges and increasing protein hydrophobicity, amine crosslinker treatment promotes adhesion of αSyn to blotting membranes. These data help explain the recent report of fixing αSyn blots with paraformaldehyde after transfer, which we find produces similar but weaker effects. DSP/β-mercaptoethanol treatment of Western blots should be particularly useful to quantify low-abundance αSyn forms such as extracellular and post-translationally modified αSyn and splice variants.

  20. Deep sequencing reveals low incidence of endogenous LINE-1 retrotransposition in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokium, Hubert; Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Sanggu; Kim, Namshin; Liang, Min; Presson, Angela P; Chen, Irvin S

    2014-01-01

    Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition induces insertional mutations that can result in diseases. It was recently shown that the copy number of L1 and other retroelements is stable in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, by using an engineered reporter construct over-expressing L1, another study suggests that reprogramming activates L1 mobility in iPSCs. Given the potential of human iPSCs in therapeutic applications, it is important to clarify whether these cells harbor somatic insertions resulting from endogenous L1 retrotransposition. Here, we verified L1 expression during and after reprogramming as well as potential somatic insertions driven by the most active human endogenous L1 subfamily (L1Hs). Our results indicate that L1 over-expression is initiated during the reprogramming process and is subsequently sustained in isolated clones. To detect potential somatic insertions in iPSCs caused by L1Hs retotransposition, we used a novel sequencing strategy. As opposed to conventional sequencing direction, we sequenced from the 3' end of L1Hs to the genomic DNA, thus enabling the direct detection of the polyA tail signature of retrotransposition for verification of true insertions. Deep coverage sequencing thus allowed us to detect seven potential somatic insertions with low read counts from two iPSC clones. Negative PCR amplification in parental cells, presence of a polyA tail and absence from seven L1 germline insertion databases highly suggested true somatic insertions in iPSCs. Furthermore, these insertions could not be detected in iPSCs by PCR, likely due to low abundance. We conclude that L1Hs retrotransposes at low levels in iPSCs and therefore warrants careful analyses for genotoxic effects.

  1. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Sarah A; Watson, Rachel E B; Gibbs, Neil K; Costello, Patrick; Baldock, Clair; Weiss, Anthony S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm(2)) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure

  2. Abundance differences among G and K giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Sharon Lynn Montgomery

    Effective temperatures and surface gravities were derived for 52 G and K giants using model atmosphere. Of these, 33 were called very strong-lined (or VSL) stars primarily because of their CN line strength. We find that when compared to normal stars, the VSL stars show a mean iron overabundance of 0.15 dex. Contrary to earlier suggestions, none of the heavier elements (Z greater than 10) appear selectively enhanced. Red giants are believed to undergo mixing, thereby driving the surface abundances towards those of the stellar interior. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances are most sensitive to mixing as they are produced through nucleosynthesis at various depths beneath the star's surface. The CNO abundances (normalized to the iron abundances) of the VSLs appear on average to be normal for G and K giants. This result suggests that the strong CN absorption seen in VSLs is not the result of unusual mixing. Their general overabundance of metal appears instead to be innate, presumably reflecting the metallicity of the gaseous clouds from which they formed. This should be settled once the appropriate number of VSL dwarfs is found. The deviations from the normal population of giants are rather small, however, and certainly not of the magnitude envisioned by Spinrad and Taylor (1969). It is likely that VSLs are merely the stars lying in the tail of the normal abundance distribution.

  3. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zinchenko, I A; Grebel, E K; Sanchez, S F; Vilchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the disks of 88 galaxies using CALIFA data release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the center of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) were also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the SDSS $g$ and $r$ bands of the photometric maps of SDSS data release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the disks of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e., the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, $\\lesssim 0.05$ dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxie...

  4. The iron abundance of the Magellanic Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Dufton, P L; Thompson, H M A; Street, R A

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution HST ultra-violet spectra for five B-type stars in the Magellanic Bridge and in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have been analysed to estimate their iron abundances. Those for the Clouds are lower than estimates obtained from late-type stars or the optical lines in B-type stars by approximately 0.5 dex. This may be due to systematic errors possibly arising from non-LTE effects or from errors in the atomic data as similar low Fe abundances having previously been reported from the analysis of the ultra-violet spectra of Galactic early-type stars. The iron abundance estimates for all three Bridge targets appear to be significantly lower than those found for the SMC and LMC by approximately -0.5 dex and -0.8 dex respectively and these differential results should not be affected by any systematic errors present in the absolute abundance estimates. These differential iron abundance estimates are consistent with the underabundances for C, N, O, Mg and Si of approximately -1.1 dex relative to our...

  5. The Iron abundance in Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, G; Mampaso, A; Viironen, K

    2008-01-01

    We constrain the iron abundance in a sample of 33 low-ionization Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) using [Fe III] lines and correcting for the contribution of higher ionization states with ionization correction factors (ICFs) that take into account uncertainties in the atomic data. We find very low iron abundances in all the objects, suggesting that more than 90% of their iron atoms are condensed onto dust grains. This number is based on the solar iron abundance and implies a lower limit on the dust-to-gas mass ratio, due solely to iron, of M_dust/M_gas>1.3x10^{-3} for our sample. The depletion factors of different PNe cover about two orders of magnitude, probably reflecting differences in the formation, growth, or destruction of their dust grains. However, we do not find any systematic difference between the gaseous iron abundances calculated for C-rich and O-rich PNe, suggesting similar iron depletion efficiencies in both environments. The iron abundances of our sample PNe are similar to those derived follow...

  6. Abundance of sea kraits correlates with precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)--amphibious sea snakes--dehydrate without a source of fresh water, drink only fresh water or very dilute brackish water, and have a spatial distribution of abundance that correlates with freshwater sites in Taiwan. The spatial distribution correlates with sites where there is a source of fresh water in addition to local precipitation. Here we report six years of longitudinal data on the abundance of sea kraits related to precipitation at sites where these snakes are normally abundant in the coastal waters of Lanyu (Orchid Island), Taiwan. The number of observed sea kraits varies from year-to-year and correlates positively with previous 6-mo cumulative rainfall, which serves as an inverse index of drought. Grouped data for snake counts indicate that mean abundance in wet years is nearly 3-fold greater than in dry years, and this difference is significant. These data corroborate previous findings and suggest that freshwater dependence influences the abundance or activity of sea kraits on both spatial and temporal scales. The increasing evidence for freshwater dependence in these and other marine species have important implications for the possible impact of climate change on sea snake distributions.

  7. Abundance of sea kraits correlates with precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B Lillywhite

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that sea kraits (Laticauda spp.--amphibious sea snakes--dehydrate without a source of fresh water, drink only fresh water or very dilute brackish water, and have a spatial distribution of abundance that correlates with freshwater sites in Taiwan. The spatial distribution correlates with sites where there is a source of fresh water in addition to local precipitation. Here we report six years of longitudinal data on the abundance of sea kraits related to precipitation at sites where these snakes are normally abundant in the coastal waters of Lanyu (Orchid Island, Taiwan. The number of observed sea kraits varies from year-to-year and correlates positively with previous 6-mo cumulative rainfall, which serves as an inverse index of drought. Grouped data for snake counts indicate that mean abundance in wet years is nearly 3-fold greater than in dry years, and this difference is significant. These data corroborate previous findings and suggest that freshwater dependence influences the abundance or activity of sea kraits on both spatial and temporal scales. The increasing evidence for freshwater dependence in these and other marine species have important implications for the possible impact of climate change on sea snake distributions.

  8. The solar photospheric abundance of zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Steffen, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr), together with strontium and yttrium, is an important element in the understanding of the Galactic nucleosynthesis. In fact, the triad Sr-Y-Zr constitutes the first peak of s-process elements. Despite its general relevance not many studies of the solar abundance of Zr were conducted. We derive the zirconium abundance in the solar photosphere with the same CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere that we previously used to investigate the abundances of C-N-O. We review the zirconium lines available in the observed solar spectra and select a sample of lines to determine the zirconium abundance, considering lines of neutral and singly ionised zirconium. We apply different line profile fitting strategies for a reliable analysis of Zr lines that are blended by lines of other elements. The abundance obtained from lines of neutral zirconium is very uncertain because these lines are commonly blended and weak in the solar spectrum. However, we believe that some lines of ionised zirconium are...

  9. Lipid- and sugar-modified endomorphins: Novel targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah eVaramini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endomorphins are endogenous opioid peptides that cause potent antinociception in rodent models of acute and neuropathic pain with less undesirable side effects than opioid alkaloids. However, endomorphins are poorly suited to clinical applications because of low membrane permeability and a susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Glycosylation and lipidation have proven to be two of the most robust approaches for the generation of new therapeutic endomorphin derivatives. Conjugation with lipoamino acids (LAA confers an amphipathic character to the peptide, which improved interaction between the peptide and the lipid bilayer of the cell membranes, increasing permeability. Glycosylation can also improve peptide stability and blood brain barrier (BBB transport. It is believed that an endocytotic mechanism (transcytosis is responsible for the systemic delivery of water-soluble glycopeptides. This review discusses the application of glycosylation and lipidation strategies to improve the drug-like properties of endomorphins. Pharmacologically active endomorphin analogues with less adverse effects are also discussed.

  10. Lipid- and sugar-modified endomorphins: novel targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varamini, Pegah; Toth, Istvan

    2013-12-13

    Endomorphins are endogenous opioid peptides that cause potent antinociception in rodent models of acute and neuropathic pain with less undesirable side effects than opioid alkaloids. However, endomorphins are poorly suited to clinical applications because of low membrane permeability and a susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Glycosylation and lipidation have proven to be two of the most robust approaches for the generation of new therapeutic endomorphin derivatives. Conjugation with lipoamino acids (LAA) confers an amphipathic character to the peptide, which improved interaction between the peptide and the lipid bilayer of the cell membranes, increasing permeability. Glycosylation can also improve peptide stability and blood brain barrier (BBB) transport. It is believed that an endocytotic mechanism (transcytosis) is responsible for the systemic delivery of water-soluble glycopeptides. This review discusses the application of glycosylation and lipidation strategies to improve the drug-like properties of endomorphins. Pharmacologically active endomorphin analogs with less adverse effects are also discussed.

  11. Kinetic modeling of growth and lipid body induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Neha; Kumar, G Dinesh; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Manikandan, B; Basu, Biswajit; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a mathematical model to describe the biomass and (total) lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 under heterotrophic conditions. Biomass growth rate was predicted by Droop's cell quota model, while changes observed in cell quota (utilization) under carbon excess conditions were used for the modeling and predicting the lipid accumulation rate. The model was simulated under non-limiting (excess) carbon and limiting nitrate concentration and validated with experimental data for the culture grown in batch (flask) mode under different nitrate concentrations. The present model incorporated two modes (growth and stressed) for the prediction of endogenous lipid synthesis/induction and aimed to predict the effect and response of the microalgae under nutrient starvation (stressed) conditions. MATLAB and Genetic Algorithm were employed for the prediction and validation of the model parameters.

  12. Role of lipid rafts/caveolae in the anticancer effect of endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Claudia; Capasso, Anna

    2012-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system comprises the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and the whole apparatus appointed of their synthesis and degradation. Recent studies investigated the possibility that drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system might be used to retard or block cancer growth. CB1, CB2 and metabolic enzymes of endocannabinoids, function in the context of lipid rafts, specialized membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and glycosphingolipids which may be important in modulating signal transduction. Here, we analysed the role of lipid rafts/caveolae in the intracellular signaling and trafficking of cannabinoid receptor agonist in cancer cells. Perturbation of lipid rafts/caveolae may in fact represent a useful tool for the development of a novel therapy for endocannabinoids-related diseases, such as cancer. Also, we report the more recent developments of endocannabinoids in cancer drug discovery.

  13. Lipid traffic: the ABC of transbilayer movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raggers, R.J.; Pomorski, T.; Holthuis, J.C.M.; Kälin, N.; van Meer, G.

    2000-01-01

    Membrane lipids do not spontaneously exchange between the two leaflets of lipid bilayers because the polar headgroups cannot cross the hydrophobic membrane interior. Cellular membranes, notably eukaryotic plasma membranes, are equipped with special proteins that actively translocate lipids from one

  14. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine A; Farmer, Kyle; Lee, Hyunmin; Holahan, Matthew R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-27

    Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females.

  15. Altered Hippocampal Lipid Profile Following Acute Postnatal Exposure to Di(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Slight changes in the abundance of certain lipid species in the brain may drastically alter normal neurodevelopment via membrane stability, cell signalling, and cell survival. Previous findings have demonstrated that postnatal exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts normal axonal and neural development in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to DEHP alters the lipid profile in the hippocampus during postnatal development. Systemic treatment with 10 mg/kg DEHP during postnatal development led to elevated levels of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in the hippocampus of female rats. There was no effect of DEHP exposure on the overall abundance of phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin in male rats or of lysophosphatidylcholine in male or female rats. Individual analyses of each identified lipid species revealed 10 phosphatidylcholine and six sphingomyelin lipids in DEHP-treated females and a single lysophosphatidylcholine in DEHP-treated males with a two-fold or higher increase in relative abundance. Our results are congruent with previous work that found that postnatal exposure to DEHP had a near-selective detrimental effect on hippocampal development in males but not females. Together, results suggest a neuroprotective effect of these elevated lipid species in females.

  16. Endogenous microRNAs in human microvascular endothelial cells regulate mRNAs encoded by hypertension-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Alison J; Baker, Maria Angeles; Liu, Yong; Liu, Pengyuan; Cowley, Allen W; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically identify endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in endothelial cells that regulate mRNAs encoded by genes relevant to hypertension. Small RNA deep sequencing was performed in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Of the 50 most abundant miRNAs identified, 30 had predicted target mRNAs encoded by genes with known involvement in hypertension or blood pressure regulation. The cells were transfected with anti-miR oligonucleotides to inhibit each of the 30 miRNAs and the mRNA abundance of predicted targets was examined. Of 95 miRNA-target pairs examined, the target mRNAs were significantly upregulated in 35 pairs and paradoxically downregulated in 8 pairs. The result indicated significant suppression of the abundance of mRNA encoded by ADM by endogenous miR-181a-5p, ATP2B1 by the miR-27 family, FURIN by miR-125a-5p, FGF5 by the let-7 family, GOSR2 by miR-27a-3p, JAG1 by miR-21-5p, SH2B3 by miR-30a-5p, miR-98, miR-181a-5p, and the miR-125 family, TBX3 by the miR-92 family, ADRA1B by miR-22-3p, ADRA2A by miR-30a-5p and miR-30e-5p, ADRA2B by miR-30e-5p, ADRB1 by the let-7 family and miR-98, EDNRB by the miR-92 family, and NOX4 by the miR-92 family, miR-100-5p, and miR-99b-5p (n=3-9; Phypertension.

  17. Metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and its implications for lipid acyl chain composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, A.I.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a very abundant membrane lipid in most eukaryotes including the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Consequently, the molecular species profile of PC, i.e. the ensemble of PC molecules with acyl chains differing in number of carbon atoms and double bonds, is importan

  18. Endogenous Gibberellins and Shoot Growth and Development in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, S B; Mandel, R; Pharis, R P

    1989-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus, annual Canola variety ;Westar') plants were harvested at six dates from the vegetative phase until the early pod (silique)-fill/late flowering stage. Endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were extracted from stems, purified, and chromatographed on silica gel partition columns prior to bioassay in serial dilution using the ;Tan-ginbozu' dwarf rice microdrop assay. The concentrations of total endogenous GA-like substances were low during vegetative stages (1 nanogram GA(3) equivalents/gram dry weight), and rose 300-fold by the time of floral initiation. After floral initiation the concentration of GA-like substances fell, then rose again during bolting to maximal levels during the early pod-fill stage (940 nanograms per gram dry weight). The qualitative profiles of GA-like substances varied across harvests, with higher proportions of a GA(1)-like substance at the early pod-fill stage. In a second study stems were similarly harvested at eight dates and the concentrations of endogenous GA(1), the principal bioactive native GA of oilseed rape, were determined by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [17,17-(2)H]GA(1) as a quantitative internal standard. The concentration of GA(1) increased at about the time of floral initiation and then subsequently fell, thus confirming the pattern noted above for total GA-like substances. The exogenous application of paclobutrazol (PP333), a persistent triazole plant growth regulator (PGR) which blocks GA biosynthesis, or another triazole, triapenthenol (RSW0411), prevented flowering as well as bolting; plants remained at the vegetative rosette stage. These results imply a causal role for endogenous GA, in the control of bolting, which normally precedes anthesis. Further, the rise in the concentration of total endogenous GA-like substances, including GA(1), which was associated with floral initiation, and the prevention of visable floral development by the triazole PGRs

  19. Estimating the relationship between abundance and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies investigate the relationship between abundance and distribution using indices reflecting one of the three aspects of distribution: proportion of area occupied, aggregation, and geographical range. Using simulations and analytical derivations, we examine whether these indices...... based on Euclidean distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution. Only the proportion of structurally empty areas, Lloyds index, and indices of the distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution are unbiased at all levels of abundance. The remaining indices generate...... relationships between abundance and distribution even in cases where no underlying relationships exists, although the problem decreases for measures derived from Lorenz curves when samples contain more than four individuals on average. To illustrate the problem, the indices are applied to juvenile North Sea cod...

  20. Chemical Fractionation and Abundances in Coronal Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, J J

    2003-01-01

    Much of modern astrophysics is grounded on the observed chemical compositions of stars and the diffuse plasma that pervades the space between stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. X-ray and EUV spectra of the hot plasma in the outer atmospheres of stars have demonstrated that these environments are subject to chemical fractionation in which the abundances of elements can be enhanced and depleted by an order of magnitude or more. These coronal abundance anomalies are discussed and some of the physical mechanisms that might be responsible for producing them are examined. It is argued that coronal abundances can provide important new diagnostics on physical processes at work in solar and stellar coronae. It seems likely that other hot astrophysical plasmas will be subject to similar effects.