WorldWideScience

Sample records for abundant cheap electricity

  1. The last season of cheap electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Mucka, F.

    2007-01-01

    The former 'Mr. SuperCEZ', as the Czech media often used to call Jaroslav Mil, claims he is not a nuclear fundamentalist. But in his opinion without the use of nuclear energy, Europe must expect an increase in the electricity price. The experience of the former director of CEZ caught the attention of the Italian directors of Enel and so he is now a member of the Board of Directors of Slovenske elektrarne. He criticises EU measures that do not offer a solution for either the energy sector or environment protection but make investments in the replacement of decommissioned European power stations uncertain. He says he is not an uncritical advocate of nuclear power, but in his opinion we do not have much choice. Energy consumption is growing fast and resources are being depleted. And if Europe does not want to become dependent on Russia there is no other option. Unless we want Putin's vision to come true: coal and nuclear resources will be kept by Russia for internal use and gas is for export. In the opinion of J. Mil, politicians are often populists and are only doing their jobs. They think in terms of 4-year election periods and then only in the better cases. He recalls that in 2000 politicians seriously considered the possibility of closing down the Temelin nuclear power station in the Czech Republic. As long as there is electricity in the sockets and the bulbs are glowing there is no crisis. The crisis will come when there is no electricity. He stresses that there will always be electricity but for a different price. He mentioned emission permits as an example of the attitude politicians have. This is a useless measure that only supports big business available to a narrow circle which does not help the environment at all. The Kyoto protocol without China, Brazil, India and the USA is a nightmare and does not solve anything in his opinion. (authors)

  2. Novel scheme for making cheap electricity with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettibone, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuels should produce cheaper electricity than coal, considering their high specific energy and low cost. To exploit these properties, the scheme proposed here replaces the expensive reactor/steam-turbine system with an engine in which the expansion of a gas heated by a nuclear explosion raises a mass of liquid, thereby producing stored hydraulic energy. This energy could be converted to electricity by hydroelectric generation with water as the working fluid or by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation with molten metal. A rough cost analysis suggests the hydroelectric system could reduce the present cost of electricity by two-thirds, and the MHD system by even more. Such cheap power would make feasible large-scale electrolysis to produce hydrogen and other fuels and chemical raw materials

  3. Abundant and cheap petroleum until what date?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Here is an economic analysis about the petroleum market. With the increasing demand in petroleum and the limited possibilities of supply, it should be obvious to increase the petroleum prices and to make investments in research and development to find new reserves or to increase the production capacities, without these options the demand could exceed the supply and strong tensions could appear in some years. (N.C.)

  4. Too cheap to meter what?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  5. Environmentally friendly AND cheap?

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the initiative to make CERN a greener laboratory (see the Word from the DG in issue 20-21/2009 of the Bulletin), the Safety Commission’s General Safety Group has acquired CERN’s first electric bicycle. Picture of a cyclist wearing personal protective equipment riding the new bike at CERN.What with the Medical Service’s "Be active" health campaign, the emphasis placed on two-wheel safety this spring and the sheds for two-wheeled vehicles that are springing up all over the CERN site, it’s time to get on your bike… or one of the bikes available to the personnel, such as the DG/SCG’s new electric cycle. On Tuesday, 21 July, Building 57 welcomed CERN’s first electric bicycle, and the message to the DG/SCG group is clear: "Use it rather than taking one of the CERN cars as often as you can". With this new means of transport that’s easy on the environment (no direct gas emissions) as well as on the walle...

  6. The end of cheap uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50–70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10 ± 2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58 ± 4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54 ± 5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41 ± 5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10–20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a worldwide nuclear energy phase-out is in order. If such a slow global phase-out is not voluntarily effected, the end of the present cheap uranium supply situation will be unavoidable. The result will be that some countries will simply be unable to afford sufficient uranium fuel at that point, which implies involuntary and perhaps chaotic nuclear phase-outs in those countries involving brownouts, blackouts, and worse

  7. Electricity Generation by Single- and Double Chamber Membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of microbes capable of producing electri-cal current. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy. Application of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) may represent a ...

  8. Enhancing cheap talk scripts in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests and addition to Cheap Talk, an Op-out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results sugggest that adding and Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents...

  9. ZnO as a cheap and effective filler for high breakdown strength elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    . In this article, we explore the use of a cheap and abundant metal oxide filler, namely ZnO, as a filler in silicone-based dielectric elastomers. The electro-mechanical properties of the elastomer composites are investigated, and their performance is evaluated by means of figures of merit. Various commercial......Cheap, high-performance dielectric elastomers are in high demand from industry concerning new products based on dielectric elastomer transducers. However, formulating an elastomer that fulfils all the requirements for dielectric elastomers is difficult and, first and foremost, not cheap...... silicone elastomers and a self-formulated silicone elastomer are utilised as elastomer matrices, the effects of which on the final properties of the elastomer composite are investigated...

  10. Seasonal distribution and abundance of Ohio River fishes at the J.M. Stuart Electric Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, C.O.; Gammon, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Distributions of Ohio River fishes were studied in the vicinity of a 2400-Mw coal-fired electric generating plant. Three thermally elevated zones, two ambient river zones, and a backwater zone were sampled intensively from June 1974 through February 1975 following the completion of all four units of the power plant. Less intensive collections were made preceding and during construction from 1970 to 1973. Overall variations in water temperature in 1974 to 1975 ranged from 6 to 40 0 C in the heated zones, 4 to 30 0 C in the ambient river zones, and 5 to 27 0 C in the backwater zone. Seasonal and spatial differences in abundance, diversity, and faunal associations were largely influenced by temperature. Notable changes in species populations from 1970 to 1975 were observed which were attributed to power-plant operation. Although seasonal definitions in terms of summer, fall, and winter were generally used, they were of very limited value, as demonstrated by annual fluctuations in community parameters. Apparently near-freezing temperatures in the ambient river zones, as well as high summer temperatures in the effluent canal, limit the time fish can spend in these areas and force them to seek more hospitable temperatures. This suggests that there are critical winter as well as summer months, with spring/fall transitional periods in between in the vicinity of thermal effluents

  11. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent reported utility scale PV prices 222 % decrease in investment in 2013, despite record capacity additions of more than 32 % Solar PV Global Capacity Additions & Investment, 2004-2013 Main reason: Module prices are getting lower! Sources: REN21... curve: Volume + 100 % → Price -20 %Source: Navigant / PSE 2013 12 Contents Global PV overview South African PV market overview Recent reported utility scale PV prices 13 Integrated Resource Plan 2010 (IRP 2010, promulgated version) plans capacity...

  12. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo.

  13. Lanzamiento de supermercados cheap en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Colmenares D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente caso de estudio se plantea en el contexto del sector de distribución de alimentos al detal en Venezuela en los años 2005 al 2007, el cual ha ostentado diversas mutaciones y cambios en función de las condiciones socioeconómicas del país y las tendencias globales. La cadena internacional de Supermercados Cheap, de origen tailandés, es una empresa dedicada a la distribución al menor de productos de consumo masivo, que estaba interesada en abrir operaciones comerciales en Latinoamérica tomando como país piloto a Venezuela. Para ello, quiere desarrollar una red de tiendas con marca y concepto propio adecuada a las características y exigencias del mercado local. En este sentido, debe diagnosticar el escenario de negocios y del mercado actual del sector y diseñar un plan de acción para cumplir con su objetivo

  14. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  15. Optimal signaling with cheap talk and money burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir); B. Visser (Bauke)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe study Sender-optimal signaling equilibria with cheap talk and money-burning. Under general assumptions, the Sender never uses money-burning to reveal all states, but always wants to garble information for at least some states. With quadratic preferences and any log-concave density of

  16. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the Ameri...

  17. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  18. Abundance in proteins expressed after functional electrical stimulation cycling or arm cycling ergometry training in persons with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Graham, Zachary A; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher; Gater, David R

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal design. The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Clinical trial at a Medical Center. Nine men with chronic motor-complete SCI participated in functional electrical stimulation lower extremity cycling (FES-LEC; n = 4) or arm cycling ergometer (arm-cycling ergometer [ACE]; n = 5) 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Whole body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose effectiveness (Sg) and insulin sensitivity (Si). Muscle biopsies of the right vastus lateralis (VL) and triceps muscles were collected one week prior to and post the exercise training intervention. Neither training intervention altered body composition or carbohydrate metabolism. GLUT-4 increased by 3.8 fold in the VL after FES training and increased 0.6 fold in the triceps after ACE training. PGC-1α increased by 2.3 fold in the VL after FES training and 3.8 fold in the triceps after ACE training. AMPK increased by 3.4 fold in the VL after FES training and in the triceps after ACE training. FES-LEC and ACE training were associated with greater protein expressions in the trained muscles by effectively influencing the abundance of GLUT-4, AMPK and PGC-1α. Thus, FES-LEC training of paralyzed muscle can modulate protein expression similar to that of trained and innervated muscle.

  19. Cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses for residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian architectural practice for individual houses in residential areas, designing the architectural object in order to function together with the nature is neglected in the majority of the situations. This happens despite of a great variety of the solar bioclimatic solutions materialized in the traditional houses of all the Romanian geographical regions in a history of over 2000 years of traditional architecture. Unfortunately, in the local real estate realities, other choices are preferred in instead those of the solar bioclimatic architecture. The approach starts with a historical approach, analyzing several examples of traditional houses from all the regions of Romania, in order to identify the traditional bioclimatic solutions used to better adapt to the environment. This constitutes the source of inspiration for the modern cheap type solar bioclimatic houses presented. But a way of thinking should be changed for it, with the help of the Romanian state transformed in financial and legislative realities. These cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses are destined for the middle class families and involve minimum costs for building and living, creating the best premises to efficiently use one or all of the complementary systems for producing, storage and/or transforming the energy from the environment (using solar, wind, water and/or earth energy.

  20. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely......, inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...... model using a battery of Grade 0 tests, including phoneme awareness, rapid naming, and paired associate learning, 2) a late, comprehensive model adding reading measures from January of Grade 1, and 3) a late, inexpensive model using only group-administered reading measures from January of Grade 1...

  1. Identification of children with reading difficulties: Cheap can be adequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    Classification of reading difficulties: Cheap screening can be accurate Purpose: Three factors are important for identification of students in need of remedial instruction: accuracy, timeliness, and cost. The identification has to be accurate to be of any use, the identification has to be timely......, inexpensive testing. The present study investigated the classification accuracy of three screening models varying in timeliness and cost. Method: We compared the ROC statistics of three logistic models for predicting end of Grade 2 reading difficulties in a sample of 164 students: 1) an early, comprehensive...... to allow for optimal remediation, and the procedure should preferably be inexpensive to allow wide-spread adoption. These criteria are, however, often in conflict: Early screening may be less accurate than late screening, and comprehensive and expensive testing is possibly more accurate than simple...

  2. Rapid and cheap prototyping of a microfluidic cell sorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Z; McMullin, J N; Tsui, Y Y

    2011-05-01

    Development of a microfluidic device is generally based on fabrication-design-fabrication loop, as, unlike the microelectronics design, there is no rigorous simulation-based verification of the chip before fabrication. This usually results in extremely long, and hence expensive, product development cycle if micro/nano fabrication facilities are used from the beginning of the cycle. Here, we illustrate a novel approach of device prototyping that is fast, cheap, reliable, and most importantly, this technique can be adopted even if no state-of-the-art microfabrication facility is available. A water-jet machine is used to cut the desired microfluidic channels into a thin steel plate which is then used as a template to cut the channels into a thin sheet of a transparent and cheap polymer material named Surlyn® by using a Hot Knife™. The feature-inscribed Surlyn sheet is bonded in between two microscope glass slides by utilizing the techniques which has been being used in curing polymer film between dual layer automotive glasses for years. Optical fibers are inserted from the sides of chip and are bonded by UV epoxy. To study the applicability of this prototyping approach, we made a basic microfluidic sorter and tested its functionalities. Sample containing microparticles is injected into the chip. Light from a 532-nm diode laser is coupled into the optical fiber that delivers light to the interrogation region in the channel. The emitted light from the particle is collected by a photodiode (PD) placed over the detection window. The device sorts the particles into the sorted or waste outlets depending on the level of the PD signal. We used fluorescent latex beads to test the detection and sorting functionalities of the device. We found that the system could detect all the beads that passed through its geometric observation region and could sort almost all the beads it detected. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AC power generation, its transmission and distribution. The well known observations made by Oersted that an electric current produces a magnetic field led a number of researchers to investigate whether the converse was true i.e. whether electric current can be produced from a magnetic field. Michael Faraday of England ...

  4. Fusion energy: 'clean' nuclear power with cheap fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, H.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the world energy crisis the possible use of thermonuclear energy is exciting great interest, particularly in the United States. Of primary importance is that the fuel required is cheap and readily available - it is the world's water resources. The basic long standing fundamental problem is to produce a stable plasma; the difficulties and the reasons for them are discussed. Of the machines and methods designed to overcome the problem, to date the Russian-developed Tokamak appears the most likely to succeed. The confidence in this equipment is shown by the number under construction or design in the U.S.; brief descriptions are given of a number of 'tokamaks' being built by Government agencies and universities and by industry. The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) hopes that some useful energy can be produced by 1985 and a 500MW generator by 1995-97. Of importance also to the understanding of the fusion reaction are fundamental investigations with, for instance, particle accelerators. Work at Oakridge, Livermore, Princeton and Brookhaven is discussed. Other experiments e.g. laser induced fusion, are also considered. (G.P.)

  5. Why Does Deep and Cheap Learning Work So Well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry W.; Tegmark, Max; Rolnick, David

    2017-09-01

    We show how the success of deep learning could depend not only on mathematics but also on physics: although well-known mathematical theorems guarantee that neural networks can approximate arbitrary functions well, the class of functions of practical interest can frequently be approximated through "cheap learning" with exponentially fewer parameters than generic ones. We explore how properties frequently encountered in physics such as symmetry, locality, compositionality, and polynomial log-probability translate into exceptionally simple neural networks. We further argue that when the statistical process generating the data is of a certain hierarchical form prevalent in physics and machine learning, a deep neural network can be more efficient than a shallow one. We formalize these claims using information theory and discuss the relation to the renormalization group. We prove various "no-flattening theorems" showing when efficient linear deep networks cannot be accurately approximated by shallow ones without efficiency loss; for example, we show that n variables cannot be multiplied using fewer than 2^n neurons in a single hidden layer.

  6. Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks: The Luxury of Digital Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, David; Scharber, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Today we thrive on an abundance of relatively cheap computing power and have the luxury of wasting most of it. It is quickly becoming not only possible but also financially sound, for educators to significantly complement, supplement, or even replace traditional print curricula with digital print and media, online curricula and websites, and…

  7. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which removes the heat produced In the core and the colis. I represents an Isolator which is a kind of. 'switch' used to isolate the station from the grid. Note the huge Insulators (marked I) that are used. The steel structures marked S support the conductors through insulators (courtesy: Kirloskar Electric Company, Bangalore).

  8. Testing the effect of a short cheap talk script in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Bonnichsen, Ole

    a tendency to overestimate how much they are willing to pay compared to their actual (true) willingness to pay. Applying a two-split sample approach to a Choice Experiment study focusing on preferences for reducing visual disamenities from offshore wind farms, the Cheap Talk script is found...... to be a preference mover, but does not affect preferences significantly. Significant effects are found when relating the effect of the Cheap Talk script to the cost levels of the alternatives, in that female respondents are found to choose higher cost alternatives less frequently when presented with the Cheap Talk...

  9. Formulation of cheap prawn diets and their biological evaluation on some penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.; Goswami, S.C.

    While using the cheap locally available wastes and raw materials, two compound diets have been formulated and prepared. Three species of penaeid prawns viz. Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis and Penaeus indicus were fed on these diets...

  10. Chaos in power: Pakistan's electricity crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a severe electricity crisis due to a persistent and widening gap between demand and available system generating capacity. The worsening of power shortages has become a major political issue, reflecting the hardships for individuals and businesses. It threatens to undermine the credibility and legitimacy of government and to further stress the social fabric of the country. The power crisis did not emerge suddenly. It is the direct result of imprudent and reckless energy policies over the last three decades. These policies have impeded the development of cheap and abundant domestic energy sources. They have also resulted in very inefficient fuel-mix choices, compromising energy and economic security. Pakistan's energy bankruptcy is ultimately due to massive institutional and governance failure. This paper analyzes the problems confronting Pakistan's electricity sector and identifies the key elements of a potential policy response to address the country's severe power crisis. - Highlights: ► We analyze the structure, conduct, and performance of Pakistan's electricity sector. ► The causes and economic impacts of Pakistan's electricity shortages are analyzed. ► We identify the potential policy response to the power crisis

  11. Building a Supercomputer for Cheap! Cheap! Cheap!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikonyan, E. N.; Goldberg, D. M.

    2001-12-01

    Ever since the first off-the-shelf distributed memory computing cluster (Beowulf) was constructed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, systems composed of commodity hardware have been attractive solutions to difficult scientific computing problems. Beowulfs are relatively easy to construct, maintain, and program, and provide an unbeatable cost per performance ratio. The Drexel University Physics Department was the first academic department to utilize Beowulf clusters, and has since built a successor. We are in the process of building a new cluster, one with the express design goal of maximum flexibility at very low construction price. We discuss a possible design of such a system with dual Athlon MP processors and channel-bonded 100 Mbps Ethernet. This hardware combination provides maximum performance at a minimum price, which is further strengthened by in-house construction of the entire system. We present a review of Beowulfs, comparisons of other hardware solutions and performance projections.

  12. Electricity and Man (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1974-01-01

    Our whole industrial civilization depends upon cheap energy streaking out in all directions and under fingertip controls—and that would be very difficult without electric current. It would take enormous ingenuity to find substitutes. If all electricity were shut off, then all electronic devices would be dead. Electric lights would darken. Aluminum would become a rare metal. All factories would have to develop power sources on the spot and would have to switch to primitive, mechanical controls. Every house and every farm would have to give up items we have come to take for granted—not only electric lights, but electric irons, electric toasters, electric water pumps, electric control of furnaces, and so on.

  13. Testing the effect of a short cheap talk script in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Bonnichsen, Ole; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav

    2011-01-01

    as hypothetical bias. The present paper attempts to frame the description of the hypothetical market so as to induce more “true market behaviour” in the respondents by including a short Cheap Talk script. The script informs respondents that in similar studies using stated preference methods, people have...... a tendency to overestimate how much they are willing to pay compared to their actual (true) willingness to pay. Applying a two-split sample approach to a Choice Experiment study focusing on preferences for reducing visual disamenities from offshore wind farms, the Cheap Talk script is found to reduce...

  14. Testing the effect of a short cheap talk script in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Bonnichsen, Ole; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav

    2011-01-01

    a tendency to overestimate how much they are willing to pay compared to their actual (true) willingness to pay. Applying a two-split sample approach to a Choice Experiment study focusing on preferences for reducing visual disamenities from offshore wind farms, the Cheap Talk script is found to reduce...... the demand for visual impact mitigation, but does not affect preferences significantly. Significant effects are found when relating the effect of the Cheap Talk script to the cost levels of the alternatives, in that female respondents are found to choose higher cost alternatives less frequently when...

  15. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  16. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used. Theoretically, many equilibria exist side by side, in which senders use either costless messages, money, or both. We find that senders prefer to communicate through costless

  17. Money talks? An experimental investigation of cheap talk and burned money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, T.; Offerman, T.; Sloof, R.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the strategic transmission of information in a setting where both cheap talk and money can be used for communication purposes. Theoretically a large number of equilibria exist side by side, in which senders either use costless messages, money, or a combination of the two. We

  18. Doubling the Performance-Cost Ratio of PV by Using Cheap Mirrors - a Secondary School Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, H.; van Herwaarden, S.; Keijsers, B.; van Dijk, V.A.P.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of cost is a major issue in the photovoltaics field. We have addressed this issue in a secondaryschool science project by considering the use of cheap mirrors in combination with solar panels, for application in developing countries. We have confirmed that it is possible to increase the

  19. Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of cassava starch as an alternative and cheap gelling agent for potato in vitro culture micro-propagation media was investigated. A two-factor experiment in randomized complete block design was conducted. Four levels of gelling agents; 10% (w/v) cassava starch, 8% cassava starch mixed with 0.25% agar, ...

  20. A cheap and simple passive sampler using silicone rubber for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cheap and simple passive sampler using silicone rubber for the analysis of surface water by gas chromatography–time of flight mass spectrometry. ... Contaminants detected in surface water include caffeine, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Keywords: passive ...

  1. Cheap Electrickery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: introduction (historical and general); counting the costs; Hunterston 'A' - historical cost accounting versus current cost accounting; Hunterston 'B' - 'a catastrophe we must not repeat'; Torness - lessons not learned (query); the hidden costs; the future - insulation versus generation (query); conclusions - nuclear accountability. (U.K.)

  2. Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...

  3. A robust preference for cheap-and-easy strategies over reliable strategies when verifying personal memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert A; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Adelman, James S

    2017-08-01

    People depend on various sources of information when trying to verify their autobiographical memories. Yet recent research shows that people prefer to use cheap-and-easy verification strategies, even when these strategies are not reliable. We examined the robustness of this cheap strategy bias, with scenarios designed to encourage greater emphasis on source reliability. In three experiments, subjects described real (Experiments 1 and 2) or hypothetical (Experiment 3) autobiographical events, and proposed strategies they might use to verify their memories of those events. Subjects also rated the reliability, cost, and the likelihood that they would use each strategy. In line with previous work, we found that the preference for cheap information held when people described how they would verify childhood or recent memories (Experiment 1), personally important or trivial memories (Experiment 2), and even when the consequences of relying on incorrect information could be significant (Experiment 3). Taken together, our findings fit with an account of source monitoring in which the tendency to trust one's own autobiographical memories can discourage people from systematically testing or accepting strong disconfirmatory evidence.

  4. Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} heterostructures on a DVD as easy&cheap photoelectrochemical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Michele; Calvillo, Laura; Zheng, Jian; Rizzi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: gianandrea.rizzi@unipd.it; Durante, Christian; Giallongo, Giuseppe; Chirkov, Dymitrov; Colazzo, Luciano; Marega, Carla; Gennaro, Armando; Granozzi, Gaetano

    2016-03-31

    Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles have been grown by pulse-electrochemical deposition on a Digital Versatile Disk (DVD) which acts as a nanostructured electrode. Prior to Cu{sub 2}O deposition, the silver-coated rectangular-shaped grooves of the disassembled DVD were coated with a TiO{sub 2} thin film by a modified sol–gel method, where oxalic acid is used in place of the usual mineral acids to peptize the precipitated hydrous titania formed from the hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide. This procedure leaves no inorganic residues after UV-curing, resulting in a high quality film, mainly composed of TiO{sub 2}-anatase. As demonstrated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, the DVD grooves are filled by a 120–130 nm thick TiO{sub 2} film, while the thickness of the TiO{sub 2} deposit on the crests is only ca. 50 nm. This inhomogeneous thickness leads to an inhomogeneous electric field when the DVD is used as an electrode for depositing Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles, which eventually leads to the growth of Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles only on the DVD crests. A highly regular and reproducible Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} stripe-like heterostructure is obtained where both semiconducting oxides are aside. This system has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements. A possible use of this easy&cheap electrode as a visible light responsive sensor to water soluble organics in basic solution is suggested. - Highlights: • A commercial DVD is recycled to prepare cheap photo-electrochemical sensors. • The sensing elements are Cu{sub 2}O nanostripes grown on a nanostructured TiO{sub 2} thin film obtained at room temperature. • Water soluble organics can be detected by dissolved O{sub 2} activation with visible light.

  5. A Simple and Cheap 3D Reconstruction System of Embryonic Structures from Serial Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Suárez-Rairán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explaines how to setup and use a very cheap and simple 3D reconstruction system, for embryonic structures, using as an example the innervation of E19 hindlimb rat embryo. It also shows how results of good level can be achieved, such as, form, location and distribution of the structures of interest, obtaining additionally quantitative data of the size (volume and superficial area, and form. All the results mentioned above were obtained from the operation of free software available at the Internet.

  6. Simple and cheap monitoring unit for solar installations; Einfache und kostenguenstige Ueberwachungseinheit fuer Solaranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderegg, E.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy describes a simple and cheap monitoring unit for photovoltaics (PV) installations. The functions of the unit are described, which can monitor the operation of a PV installation and send alarms via short text messages. Its construction, which features analog and digital inputs, digital outputs and a separate GSM antenna is discussed. The communication of the alarms using mobile phone GSM technology and the components used are described. Future developments in this sector are discussed. The parametrisation of the unit is described and the results of laboratory and field tests are presented. Several suggestions for further development are made.

  7. Electrolytic copper as cheap and effective catalyst for one-pot triazole synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularski, Jacek; Czaplińska, Barbara; Cieślik, Wioleta; Bebłot, Jakub; Bartczak, Piotr; Sitko, Rafał; Polański, Jarosław; Musiol, Robert

    2018-03-14

    Electrolytic copper is a well-known form of pure, oxygen free copper that is used for industrial applications. In this work, the catalytic potential of this relatively cheap material was studied. The addition of less than 0.015 mol equivalent of copper powder effectively catalysed the one-pot synthesis of triazoles from a diverse range of organic halides and alkynes. Quantitative conversions in aqueous solvents can be achieved within minutes. The heterogenous nature of the catalyst afforded a low level of copper contamination in the products, thus meeting the rigorous criteria of the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Augmenting short cheap talk scripts with a repeated opt-out reminder in choice experiment surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2014-01-01

    Hypothetical bias continues to be a major challenge for stated preference methods. Cheap Talk (CT) has been found to be an effective remedy in some applications, though empirical results are ambiguous. We discuss reasons why CT may fail to effectively remove specific types of hypothetical bias...... find the OOR to significantly reduce total WTP and to some extent also marginal WTP beyond the capability of the CT applied without the OOR. This suggests that the CT practice should be adapted to fit the potentially different decision processes and repeated choices structure of the Choice Experiment...

  9. Microbial diversity and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in cheap and junk foods consumed by primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Kim, S A; Kang, Y S; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens were tested in 1008 cheap and junk foods, including candies, dried cakes, chewing gum, chocolate, dried and seasoned seafood, ice cream, and sugary foods. APCs were positive for 342 samples (33·9%), and the majority of the counts were 2-3 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) (average: 1·10 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Most samples (97·3%) contained no coliforms (average: 0·07 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Bacillus cereus was detected in 68 samples (average: 0·14 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in 6 and 1 samples, respectively, whereas other foodborne pathogens were not isolated. The highest bacterial counts were associated with dried and seasoned seafood products and dried cakes, suggesting that appropriate regulations of these food types should be considered. Cheap and junk foods were produced mainly in developing countries, but there were no significant differences in the bacterial counts among different countries of origin. The presence of foodborne pathogens may pose a risk for children. These results suggest that there is cause for deeper concern about the safety of these foods and that effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. Food safety is especially important for children, but only limited information is available about the microbiological quality of cheap and junk foods that are consumed frequently by primary schoolchildren (e.g. dried cakes, candies and chocolates). The present study investigated the microbial quality of cheap and junk foods, and our results indicate that these foods are a potential health risk for children, therefore, deeper concern about the safety of these foods and effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. The present study may contribute to the development of an appropriate child food

  10. Challenging cheap-labour theory: Natal and Transvaal coal miners, ca 1890-1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, P. [University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, South Africa's two main coal-producing provinces, Natal and the Transvaal, were regarded as having separate industries. Comparing the two, the article shows that their geology, markets, ownership and organization were distinctive. In contrast, the patterns of labour struggles were alike, reflecting labour processes, racial divisions, and legal and ideological frameworks that were similar. The historiography of South African mining labour has emphasized the role of black migrants, who 'oscillated' between the mines and the rural areas from where they originated and to which they retired. While structuralist analyses argued that migrancy was the bedrock of a cheap-labour system that underpinned white power, leading social historians stressed that migrants were primarily rural men. The account presented here rejects the thrust of both positions, showing that a high proportion of coal miners settled around the mines. More of them would have done so had this been permitted, and the same applies to Africans working on the gold mines. Given that cheap-labour theory strengthens the exceptionalism that runs through much South African history, rejecting it can open up new possibilities for comparative study. In passing, the article reveals that black workers participated in the militant 1913 strike by the Witwatersrand's white mine workers.

  11. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmal, D.; Saakes, M.; Veen, W.R. ter; Raadschelders, J.W.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    2000-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the requirements on batteries are very different from those for battery electric vehicles (BEV). A high power (bipolar) lead-acid battery could be a good alternative for other types of batteries under development for this application. It is potentially cheap and

  12. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  13. Swarm Robotics, or: The Smartness of 'a bunch of cheap dumb things'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vehlken

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only recent Science Fiction – e.g., Star Trek Beyond (USA 2016 – celebrates the capacities of robot collectives. Also RoboCup, an annual robot soccer competition, or Harvard University’s Kilobot Project show stunning examples of the central idea behind Swarm Robotics: »[U]sing swarms is the same as getting a bunch of small cheap dumb things to do the same job as an expensive smart thing« (Beni/Wang 1989. This article examines some crucial aspects of the techno-history of a research field which intertwines engineering and biological knowledge and whose applications deal with compelling questions about synchronization and self-organization in changing environments – on the ground, in the air, and under water.

  14. Upgrading of citric acid production from cheap carbohydrate sources as affected by aspergillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbatal, A.I.; Khalaf, S.A.; Khalil, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Five strains of aspergillus niger (EMCC 102, EMCC 104, EMCC 111, EMCC 132 and EMCC 147) were for citric acid production at different incubation period using different cheap carbohydrate substrates, such as beet, cane and citrus molasses and milk whey. A. niger EMCC 111 was found to be the most potent strain for citric acid production from beet molasses after 11 days of incubation at 30 degree. The studies concerning molasses concentration and nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic sources with different concentration, revealed that 30 g% beet molasses and ammonium sulfate with 0.05 g% as N 2 content, gave the highest production of citric acid. Gamma irradiated inocula of A. niger EMCC 111 at doses (0.05-0.8 KGy), showed that the dose 0.4 KGy was the optimum for maximum citric acid production. 8 tabs

  15. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available conventional alkaline electrolyser and advanced polymer membrane electrolysers for water electrolysis are quite expensive. Taking into account this aspect, a very simple and cheap water electrolyser has been designed and fabricated utilising easily available economical materials for small scale production of hydrogen using renewable energy from photovoltaic panel. The construction details of the electrolyser with a schematic drawing of the experimental set-up for PV production of H2 are given. In order to fabricate the compact electrolyser, two coaxial tubular PVC pipes were used. The lower part of the inner pipe has fine perforations for the transport of ions through electrolyte between the electrodes. Two cylindrical electrodes, cathode and anode are kept in inner and outer pipes respectively. The performance of hydrogen production was measured using a photovoltaic panel directly connected to the electrolyser under atmospheric pressure and in 27wt% KOH solution. Flow rates of hydrogen and oxygen were measured using a digital flow meter. High purity fuel cell grade hydrogen (99.98% and oxygen (99.85% have been produced. The experimental results confirm that the present electrolyser has eligible properties for hydrogen production in remote areas. No such electrolyser has been reported prior to this work. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 May 2009, Revised: 14 August 2009, Accepted: 19 August 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad. (2009. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 10-15. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.21.10-15][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.21.10-15

  16. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available conventional alkaline electrolyser and advanced polymer membrane electrolysers for water electrolysis are quite expensive. Taking into account this aspect, a very simple and cheap water electrolyser has been designed and fabricated utilising easily available economical materials for small scale production of hydrogen using renewable energy from photovoltaic panel. The construction details of the electrolyser with a schematic drawing of the experimental set-up for PV production of H2 are given. In order to fabricate the compact electrolyser, two coaxial tubular PVC pipes were used. The lower part of the inner pipe has fine perforations for the transport of ions through electrolyte between the electrodes. Two cylindrical electrodes, cathode and anode are kept in inner and outer pipes respectively. The performance of hydrogen production was measured using a photovoltaic panel directly connected to the electrolyser under atmospheric pressure and in 27wt% KOH solution. Flow rates of hydrogen and oxygen were measured using a digital flow meter. High purity fuel cell grade hydrogen (99.98% and oxygen (99.85% have been produced. The experimental results confirm that the present electrolyser has eligible properties for hydrogen production in remote areas. No such electrolyser has been reported prior to this work. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All rights reserved.[Received: 20 May 2009, Revised: 14 August 2009, Accepted: 19 August 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad. (2009. Design of a Simple and Cheap Water Electrolyser for the Production of Solar Hydrogen. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 10-15.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7113.10-15][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7113.10-15 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7113 ] 

  17. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  18. Preventing distortion of quick couplers of hoses of central pipe lines--a cheap and simple method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A cheap and practical approach of steel chains attached to the station outlet quick couplers helps in maintaining the shape of the quick couplers and ensures their effective functioning over a long period of time and avoids mishap of connection due to damage of these couplers.

  19. Predictable and predictive emotions: explaining cheap signals and trust re-extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniter, Eric; Sheremeta, Roman M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite normative predictions from economics and biology, unrelated strangers will often develop the trust necessary to reap gains from one-shot economic exchange opportunities. This appears to be especially true when declared intentions and emotions can be cheaply communicated. Perhaps even more puzzling to economists and biologists is the observation that anonymous and unrelated individuals, known to have breached trust, often make effective use of cheap signals, such as promises and apologies, to encourage trust re-extension. We used a pair of trust games with one-way communication and an emotion survey to investigate the role of emotions in regulating the propensity to message, apologize, re-extend trust, and demonstrate trustworthiness. This design allowed us to observe the endogenous emergence and natural distribution of trust-relevant behaviors, remedial strategies used by promise-breakers, their effects on behavior, and subsequent outcomes. We found that emotions triggered by interaction outcomes are predictable and also predict subsequent apology and trust re-extension. The role of emotions in behavioral regulation helps explain why messages are produced, when they can be trusted, and when trust will be re-extended. PMID:25477797

  20. Worldwide cheap and heavy oil productions: A long-term energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Crude oil, natural gas liquids, heavy oils, deepwater oils, and polar oils are non-renewable energy resources with increasing extraction costs. Two major definitions emerge: regular or 'cheap' oil and non-conventional or 'heavy' oil. Peaking time in conventional oil production has been a recent focus of debate. For two decades, non-conventional oils have been mixed with regular crude oil. Peaking time estimation and the rate at which production may be expected to decline, following the peak, are more difficult to determine. We propose a two-wave model for world oil production pattern and forecasting, based on the diffusion of innovation theories: a sequential multi-Bass model. Historical well-known shocks are confirmed, and new peaking times for crude oil and mixed oil are determined with corresponding depletion rates. In the final section, possible ties between the dynamics of oil extraction and refining capacities are discussed as a predictive symptom of an imminent mixed oil peak in 2016. - Highlights: → Production of conventional and non-conventional oils in aggregate time series. → Decomposition modelling and forecasting with a multi-regime model. → Diffusion of innovation theories and appropriateness of applying Bass concepts to the extraction of oil resources. → Partially overlapping oil extraction processes. → Refining capacities and dynamics of oil extraction.

  1. Predictable and Predictive Emotions:Explaining Cheap Signals and Trust Re-Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eSchniter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite normative predictions from economics and biology, unrelated strangers will often develop the trust necessary to reap gains from one-shot economic exchange opportunities. This appears to be especially true when declared intentions and emotions can be cheaply communicated. Perhaps even more puzzling to economists and biologists is the observation that anonymous and unrelated individuals, known to have breached trust, often make effective use of cheap signals, such as promises and apologies, to encourage trust re-extension. We used a pair of trust games with one-way communication and emotion surveys to investigate the role of emotions in regulating the propensity to message, apologize, re-extend trust, and demonstrate trustworthiness. This design allowed us to observe the endogenous emergence and natural distribution of trust-relevant behaviors, remedial strategies used by promise-breakers, their effects on behavior, and subsequent outcomes. We found that emotions triggered by interaction outcomes are predictable and also predict subsequent apology and trust re-extension. The role of emotions in behavioral regulation helps explain why messages are produced, when they can be trusted, and when trust will be re-extended.

  2. Producing Cheap Food and Labour: Migrations and Agriculture in the Capitalistic World-Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbeau Yoan Molinero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the perspective of world-ecology, one of the most recent approaches in international relations, we aim to analyse global capitalism as an ecological project based on the appropriation of human and extra-human nature oriented to support capital accumulation process. Agriculture and its labour force occupy a central role in maintaining the world-system in which global chains, international migrations and centre-periphery relationships interact. This paper shows how global processes occur at this intersection. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of the current world-system through this innovative approach, developed mainly by Jason W. Moore, and then show how the world-system’s structure and its crisis have articulated a highlyinternationalized production model whose most significant effect has been the generation of large migrations of cheap labour across the planet. It is also proposed to descend to the local context to highlight examples because the organization of work at this territorial scale is representative of global agricultural production.

  3. How cheap is soaring flight in raptors? A preliminary investigation in freely-flying vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Olivier; Kato, Akiko; Tromp, Clara; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Sarrazin, François; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR) of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis) trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight) and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm)) compared to baseline levels (80-100 bpm). However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food.

  4. How cheap is soaring flight in raptors? A preliminary investigation in freely-flying vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Duriez

    Full Text Available Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and accelerometer bio-loggers, we report the heart rate (HR of captive griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus and G. himalayensis trained for freely-flying. HR increased three-fold at take-off (characterized by prolonged flapping flight and landing (>300 beats-per-minute, (bpm compared to baseline levels (80-100 bpm. However, within 10 minutes after the initial flapping phase, HR in soaring/gliding flight dropped to values similar to baseline levels, i.e. slightly lower than theoretically expected. However, the extremely rapid decrease in HR was unexpected, when compared with other marine gliders, such as albatrosses. Weather conditions influenced flight performance and HR was noticeably higher during cloudy compared to sunny conditions when prolonged soaring flight is made easier by thermal ascending air currents. Soaring as a cheap locomotory mode is a crucial adaptation for vultures who spend so long on the wing for wide-ranging movements to find food.

  5. Ammonia abundances in comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  6. Distribution, Abundance and Assemblages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-mail: luis.silva@cd.ieo.es. Cephalopod Species in Mozambican Waters Caught in the. “Mozambique 0307” Survey: Distribution, Abundance and. Assemblages. Luis Silva1, Eduardo Balguerías2, Paula Santana Afonso3, Ignacio Sobrino1, Juan Gil1 and. Candelaria Burgos1. 1Instituto Español de Oceanografía Unidad de ...

  7. Weak data do not make a free lunch, only a cheap meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhipu; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Refinement and analysis of four structures with various data resolution cutoffs suggests that at present there are no reliable criteria for judging the diffraction data resolution limit and the condition I/σ(I) = 2.0 is reasonable. However, extending the limit by about 0.2 Å beyond the resolution defined by this threshold does not deteriorate the quality of refined structures and in some cases may be beneficial. Four data sets were processed at resolutions significantly exceeding the criteria traditionally used for estimating the diffraction data resolution limit. The analysis of these data and the corresponding model-quality indicators suggests that the criteria of resolution limits widely adopted in the past may be somewhat conservative. Various parameters, such as R merge and I/σ(I), optical resolution and the correlation coefficients CC 1/2 and CC*, can be used for judging the internal data quality, whereas the reliability factors R and R free as well as the maximum-likelihood target values and real-space map correlation coefficients can be used to estimate the agreement between the data and the refined model. However, none of these criteria provide a reliable estimate of the data resolution cutoff limit. The analysis suggests that extension of the maximum resolution by about 0.2 Å beyond the currently adopted limit where the I/σ(I) value drops to 2.0 does not degrade the quality of the refined structural models, but may sometimes be advantageous. Such an extension may be particularly beneficial for significantly anisotropic diffraction. Extension of the maximum resolution at the stage of data collection and structure refinement is cheap in terms of the required effort and is definitely more advisable than accepting a too conservative resolution cutoff, which is unfortunately quite frequent among the crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank

  8. COMPARISON OF A SIMPLE AND CHEAP IMMEDIATE POSTOPERATIVE PROSTHESIS WITH SOFT DRESSING IN LOWER LIMB AMPUTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Yeshwant Kothari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Removal of a part of a limb through one or more bones termed amputation is done for various causes. Properly performed amputation is a reconstructive procedure. Effective postoperative rehabilitation reduces disability and helps in proper shaping of the residual limb leading to final prosthetic fitment. The aim of the study is to compare effect of rigid dressing and Immediate Postoperative Prosthesis (IPOP using a simple and cheap pylon developed by the first author with soft dressing in respect of stump maturation and function in lower limb amputees. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty one patients with lower limb amputations were included in the study and randomised into two groups. Twenty four patients completed follow-up in the study group of rigid dressing with early postoperative prosthetic fitting while twenty patients completed with soft dressing. Stump maturation as measured by girth and volumetric assessment and complications of residual pain and phantom pain were compared at six weeks and twelve weeks with baseline data. Statistical Analysis- Done with SPSS for Windows version 17. Independent-T test was used for comparison of continuous variables and Chi-square and Fischer exact test was used for comparison of dichotomous responses. Settings and Design- The study was done in a multispecialty teaching hospital of a metro city. It was a well-structured comparative study done after addressing all safety and ethical issues. RESULTS Stump maturation was significantly better and the stump complications reduced in the study group. CONCLUSION Rigid dressing with IPOP has proven to be significantly superior to soft dressing in terms of maturation of stump and residual complications in lower limb amputations.

  9. Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balali-Mood, M.; Afshari, R.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

  10. Bioinformatics: Cheap and robust method to explore biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo

    2015-02-01

    Indonesia has a huge amount of biodiversity, which may contain many biomaterials for pharmaceutical application. These resources potency should be explored to discover new drugs for human wealth. However, the bioactive screening using conventional methods is very expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we developed a methodology for screening the potential of natural resources based on bioinformatics. The method is developed based on the fact that organisms in the same taxon will have similar genes, metabolism and secondary metabolites product. Then we employ bioinformatics to explore the potency of biomaterial from Indonesia biodiversity by comparing species with the well-known taxon containing the active compound through published paper or chemical database. Then we analyze drug-likeness, bioactivity and the target proteins of the active compound based on their molecular structure. The target protein was examined their interaction with other proteins in the cell to determine action mechanism of the active compounds in the cellular level, as well as to predict its side effects and toxicity. By using this method, we succeeded to screen anti-cancer, immunomodulators and anti-inflammation from Indonesia biodiversity. For example, we found anticancer from marine invertebrate by employing the method. The anti-cancer was explore based on the isolated compounds of marine invertebrate from published article and database, and then identified the protein target, followed by molecular pathway analysis. The data suggested that the active compound of the invertebrate able to kill cancer cell. Further, we collect and extract the active compound from the invertebrate, and then examined the activity on cancer cell (MCF7). The MTT result showed that the methanol extract of marine invertebrate was highly potent in killing MCF7 cells. Therefore, we concluded that bioinformatics is cheap and robust way to explore bioactive from Indonesia biodiversity for source of drug and another

  11. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Khedher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L-1 starch, 30 g L-1 soya bean and 9g L-1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch. Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  12. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  13. Association between quality of cheap and unrecorded alcohol products and public health consequences in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Ganss, Sebastian; Rychlak, Bogumil; Rehm, Jürgen; Sulkowska, Urszula; Skiba, Michał; Zatonski, Witold

    2009-10-01

    The research aimed to study the quality of cheap alcohol products in Poland. These included unrecorded alcohols (i.e., home-produced or illegally imported), estimated to constitute more than 25% of total consumption and fruit wines. A sample of alcohol products (n = 52) was collected from local markets and chemical analyses were conducted. The parameters studied were alcoholic strength, volatiles (methanol, acetaldehyde, and higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, inorganic elements, and food additives including preservatives, colors, and sweeteners. The compositions of the beverages were then toxicologically evaluated using international standards. With the exception of 1 fortified wine, the unrecorded alcohols were home-produced fruit-derived spirits (moonshine) and spirits imported from other countries. We did not detect any nonbeverage surrogate alcohol. The unrecorded spirits contained, on average, 45% vol of alcohol. However, some products with considerably higher alcoholic strengths were found (up to 85% vol) with no labeling of the content on the bottles. These products may cause more pronounced detrimental health effects (e.g., liver cirrhosis, injuries, some forms of malignant neoplasms, alcohol use disorders, and cardiovascular disease) than will commercial beverages, especially as the consumer may be unaware of the alcohol content consumed. Fruit wines containing between 9.5 and 12.2% vol alcohol showed problems in terms of their additive content and their labeling (e.g., sulfites, sorbic acid, saccharin, and artificial colors) and should be subjected to stricter control. Regarding the other components investigated, the suspected human carcinogens, acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate, were found at levels relevant to public health concerns. While acetaldehyde is a typical constituent of fermented beverages, ethyl carbamate was found only in home-produced unrecorded alcohols derived from stone fruits with levels significantly above international guidelines. The

  14. Google Searches for "Cheap Cigarettes" Spike at Tax Increases: Evidence from an Algorithm to Detect Spikes in Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L

    2017-06-22

    Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status 1-8. Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase 9-10. However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists. Publicly available data from Google Trends is used to observe standardized search volumes for the term, "cheap cigarettes." Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate and E-Divisive with Means tests were performed to observe spikes and mean level shifts in search volume. Of the twelve cigarette tax increases studied, ten showed spikes in searches for "cheap cigarettes" within two weeks of the tax increase. However, the mean level shifts did not occur for any cigarette tax increase. Searches for "cheap cigarettes" spike around the time of a cigarette tax increase, but the mean level of searches does not shift in response to a tax increase. The SHESD and EDM tests are unbiased methodologies that can be used to identify spikes and mean level shifts in time series data without an a priori date to be studied. SHESD and EDM affirm spikes in interest are related to tax increases. Applies improved statistical techniques (SHESD and EDM) to Google search data related to cigarettes, reducing bias and increasing powerContributes to the body of evidence that state and federal tax increases are associated with spikes in searches for cheap cigarettes and may be good dates for increased online health messaging related to tobacco. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research

  15. Gas and electricity prices in France and in the European Union in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Graphs and tables illustrate the levels and the evolution of gas and electricity prices in France and in EU member states. It is notably outlined that gas is less expensive in central and eastern Europe, that gas prices generally increased in Europe between 2011 and 2012 (for industries as well as for households), that electricity remains cheap in France

  16. Three Inexpensive Static-Electricity Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Gordon R.; Gregg, William R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes demonstrations to (1) construct an inexpensive static electricity detector; (2) obtain an abundant supply of either negative or positive charge using household items; and (3) create static electricity using a Tesla coil or Van de Graaff generator. (MDH)

  17. Electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eduardo L V; Lima, Raul Gonzalez; Amato, Marcelo B P

    2009-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive, radiation-free monitoring tool that allows real-time imaging of ventilation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the fundamentals of EIT and to review the use of EIT in critical care patients. In addition to its established role in describing the distribution of alveolar ventilation, EIT has been shown to be a useful tool to detect lung collapse and monitor lung recruitment, both regionally and on a global basis. EIT has also been used to diagnose with high sensitivity incident pneumothoraces during mechanical ventilation. Additionally, with injection of hypertonic saline as a contrast agent, it is possible to estimate ventilation/perfusion distributions. EIT is cheap, noninvasive and allows continuous monitoring of ventilation. It is gaining acceptance as a valuable monitoring tool for the care of critical patients.

  18. Availability and use of cheap tobacco in the UK 2002 - 2014: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partos, Timea R; Gilmore, Anna B; Hitchman, Sara C; Hiscock, Rosemary; Branston, J Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Raising tobacco prices is the most effective population-level intervention for reducing smoking, but this is undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco. This study monitors trends in cheap tobacco use among adult smokers in the UK between 2002-2014 via changes in product type, purchase source, and prices paid. Weighted data from 10 waves of the International Tobacco Control policy evaluation study were used. This is a longitudinal cohort study of adult smokers with replenishment; 6169 participants provided 15812 responses. Analyses contrasted 1) product type: roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, factory made packs (FM-P), and cartons (FM-C); 2) purchase source: UK store-based sources (e.g. supermarkets, convenience stores) with non-UK/ non-store sources representing tax avoidance/ evasion (e.g. outside the UK, duty free, informal sellers); and 3) prices paid (inflation-adjusted to 2014 values). Generalised Estimating Equations tested linear changes over time. 1) RYO use increased significantly over time as FM decreased. 2) UK store-based sources constituted approximately 80% of purchases over time, with no significant increases in tax avoidance/ evasion. 3) Median RYO prices were less than half that of FM, with FM-C cheaper than FM-P. Non-UK/ non-store sources were cheapest. Price increases of all three product types from UK store-based sources from 2002 - 2014 were statistically significant, but not substantial. Wide (and increasing for FM-P) price ranges meant each product type could be purchased in 2014 at prices below their 2002 medians from UK store-based sources. Options exist driving UK smokers to minimise their tobacco expenditure; smokers do so largely by purchasing cheap tobacco products from UK stores. The effectiveness of price increases as a deterrent to smoking is being undermined by the availability of cheap tobacco such as roll-your-own tobacco and cartons of packs of factory-made cigarettes. Wide price ranges allowed smokers in 2014 to easily obtain

  19. Abundances in the Galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbuy, B; Alves-Brito, A [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Ortolani, S; Zoccali, M [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hill, V; Gomez, A [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Melendez, J [Centro de AstrofIsica da Universidade de Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Asplund, M [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, 85741 Garching (Germany); Bica, E [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Renzini, A [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Minniti, D [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)], E-mail: barbuy@astro.iag.usp.br

    2008-12-15

    The metallicity distribution and abundance ratios of the Galactic bulge are reviewed. Issues raised by recent work of different groups, in particular the high metallicity end, the overabundance of {alpha}-elements in the bulge relative to the thick disc and the measurement of giants versus dwarfs, are discussed. Abundances in the old moderately metal-poor bulge globular clusters are described.

  20. Energy abundance and economic progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the benefits of energy abundance and on the links between energy supply, economic growth and human welfare in the United States. It is argued that the restoration of energy abundance with dependable sources of supply should be a major national objective. (U.K.)

  1. Utilization of busted CFL in developing cheap and efficient segmented compact LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, N. S.; Ponce, R. T.

    2018-01-01

    Today’s generation will not survive a day without the help of lighting. In fact, someone’s productivity, particularly at night, depends on the presence of a good lighting and it seems that it is a daily necessity. Lighting takes a large part on the consumption of household electrical energy particularly in the Philippines. There are different type of lighting bulbs used at home can affect the overall lighting consumption. Nowadays, most commonly and widely used bulb in the household is the Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL). However, the main problem of CFL is the mercury they contain. In addition to this is the harmful effect of mercury such as Emission of UV Radiation. In response to the said problem, this project study gives solution to the problem of the society concerning environment, health and safety as well energy conservation, by developing a segmented compact light-emitting diode (SCLED) bulb from busted CFL that are efficient, economical, and does not contain toxic chemicals.

  2. Cheap glass fiber mats as a matrix of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yusong; Wang, Faxing; Liu, Lili; Xiao, Shiyin; Yang, Yaqiong; Wu, Yuping

    2013-11-12

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are going to play more important roles in electric vehicles and smart grids. The safety of the current LIBs of large capacity has been remaining a challenge due to the existence of large amounts of organic liquid electrolytes. Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been tried to replace the organic electrolyte to improve their safety. However, the application of GPEs is handicapped by their poor mechanical strength and high cost. Here, we report an economic gel-type composite membrane with high safety and good mechanical strength based on glass fiber mats, which are separator for lead-acid batteries. The gelled membrane exhibits high ionic conductivity (1.13 mS cm(-1)), high Li(+) ion transference number (0.56) and wide electrochemical window. Its electrochemical performance is evaluated by LiFePO4 cathode with good cycling. The results show this gel-type composite membrane has great attraction to the large-capacity LIBs requiring high safety with low cost.

  3. Cheap-GSHPs, an European project aiming cost-reducing innovations for shallow geothermal installations. - Geological data reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertermann, David; Müller, Johannes; Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Sipio, Eloisa

    2016-04-01

    The success and widespread diffusion of new sustainable technologies are always strictly related to their affordability. Nowadays the energy price fluctuations and the economic crisis are jeopardizing the development and diffusion of renewable technologies and sources. With the aim of both reduce the overall costs of shallow geothermal systems and improve their installation safety, an European project has took place recently, under the Horizon 2020 EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The acronym of this project is Cheap-GSHPs, meaning "cheap and efficient application of reliable ground source heat exchangers and pumps"; the CHEAP-GSHPs project involves 17 partners among 9 European countries such Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Spain, Switzerland. In order to achieve the planned targets, an holistic approach is adopted, where all involved elements that take part of shallow geothermal activities are here integrated. In order to reduce the drilling specific costs and for a solid planning basis the INSPIRE-conformal ESDAC data set PAR-MAT-DOM ("parent material dominant") was analysed and reinterpreted regarding the opportunities for cost reductions. Different ESDAC classification codes were analysed lithologically and sedimentologically in order to receive the most suitable drilling technique within different formations. Together with drilling companies this geological data set was translated into a geotechnical map which allows drilling companies the usage of the most efficient drilling within a certain type of underground. The scale of the created map is 1: 100,000 for all over Europe. This leads to cost reductions for the final consumers. Further there will be the definition of different heat conductivity classes based on the reinterpreted PAR-MAT-DOM data set which will provide underground information. These values will be reached by sampling data all over Europe and literature data. The samples will be measured by several

  4. Development of a relatively cheap and simple automated separation system for a routine separation procedure based on extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petro Zoriy; Reinhold Flucht; Mechthild Burow; Peter Ostapczuk; Reinhard Lennartz; Myroslav Zoriy

    2010-01-01

    A robust analytical method has been developed in our laboratory for the separation of radionuclides by means of extraction chromatography using an automated separation system. The proposed method is both cheap and simple and provides the advantageous, rapid and accurate separation of the element of interest. The automated separation system enables a shorter separation time by maintaining a constant flow rate of solution and by avoiding clogging or bubbling in the chromatographic column. The present separation method was tested with two types of samples (water and urine) using UTEVA-, TRU- and Sr-specific resins for the separation of U, Th, Am, Pu and Sr. The total separation time for one radionuclide ranged from 60 to 100 min with the separation yield ranging from 68 to 98% depending on the elements separated. We used ICP-QMS, multi-low-level counter and alpha spectroscopy to measure the corresponding elements. (author)

  5. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  6. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  7. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  8. Gas and electricity price in the European Union in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-11-01

    This document indicates and comments the evolution of gas and electricity prices in the different countries of the European Union. As far as natural gas is concerned, it outlines that taxes on gas are higher in Nordic countries, and that prices are increasing everywhere (for industry as well as for households). As far as electricity is concerned, price is rather cheap in France compared to the other countries. Graphs indicate the evolution of electricity prices between 2010 and 2011 in the different countries for industry and households. Even if a decrease has been noticed in some countries, the general trend is to an increase (between 5 and 10% in average)

  9. Hybrid power system (hydro, solar and wind) for rural electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahinda Kurukulasuriya

    2000-01-01

    Generation of affordable cheap electric energy for rural development by a hybrid power system (10-50 kW) of hydropower, solar and wind energies on self determining basis and computer application to determine its performance. In this paper the following topics were discussed, design of hybrid power system, its justification and economic analysis, manufacturing and installation of the system. (Author)

  10. Optical and electrical properties of ZrSe3 single crystals grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    pounds have special interest on account of their structural anisotropy. The need for developing a cheap yet effective method of converting solar energy into electrical or chemical energy stimulated rapid advancement of semi- conductor electrochemistry in the past decades. As a result certain useful materials, e.g. metallic ...

  11. Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker Schaffer, Marvin

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that thorium-232 is a fertile radioactive material that can produce energy in nuclear reactors for conversion to electricity. Thorium-232 is well suited to a variety of reactor types including molten fluoride salt designs, heavy water CANDU configurations, and helium-cooled TRISO-fueled systems. Among contentious commercial nuclear power issues are the questions of what to do with long-lived radioactive waste and how to minimize weapon proliferation dangers. The substitution of thorium for uranium as fuel in nuclear reactors has significant potential for minimizing both problems. Thorium is three times more abundant in nature than uranium. Whereas uranium has to be imported, there is enough thorium in the United States alone to provide adequate grid power for many centuries. A well-designed thorium reactor could produce electricity less expensively than a next-generation coal-fired plant or a current-generation uranium-fueled nuclear reactor. Importantly, thorium reactors produce substantially less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium reactors. Thorium-fueled reactors with molten salt configurations and very high temperature thorium-based TRISO-fueled reactors are both recommended for priority Generation IV funding in the 2030 time frame. - Highlights: • Thorium is an abundant nuclear fuel that is well suited to three advanced reactor configurations. • Important thorium reactor configurations include molten salt, CANDU, and TRISO systems. • Thorium has important nuclear waste disposal advantages relative to pressurized water reactors. • Thorium as a nuclear fuel has important advantages relative to weapon non-proliferation

  12. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  13. CHLORINE ABUNDANCES IN COOL STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Z. G.; Pilachowski, C. A. [Indiana University Bloomington, Astronomy Department, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Hinkle, K., E-mail: zmaas@indiana.edu, E-mail: cpilacho@indiana.edu, E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and 1 M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H{sup 35}Cl at 3.69851 μ m. The high-resolution L -band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4 m telescope. The average [{sup 35}Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with −0.72 < [Fe/H] < 0.20 is [{sup 35}Cl/Fe] = (−0.10 ± 0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [{sup 35}Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16 ± 0.15) dex. The [{sup 35}Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of ∼0.35 dex above model predictions, suggesting that chemical evolution models are underproducing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and H ii regions. In one star where both H{sup 35}Cl and H{sup 37}Cl could be measured, a {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl isotope ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 was found, consistent with values found in the Galactic ISM and predicted chemical evolution models.

  14. Anthropogenic noise changes arthropod abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkley, Jessie P; McClure, Christopher J W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Francis, Clinton D; Barber, Jesse R

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic noise is a widespread and growing form of sensory pollution associated with the expansion of human infrastructure. One specific source of constant and intense noise is that produced by compressors used for the extraction and transportation of natural gas. Terrestrial arthropods play a central role in many ecosystems, and given that numerous species rely upon airborne sounds and substrate-borne vibrations in their life histories, we predicted that increased background sound levels or the presence of compressor noise would influence their distributions. In the second largest natural gas field in the United States (San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA), we assessed differences in the abundances of terrestrial arthropod families and community structure as a function of compressor noise and background sound level. Using pitfall traps, we simultaneously sampled five sites adjacent to well pads that possessed operating compressors, and five alternate, quieter well pad sites that lacked compressors, but were otherwise similar. We found a negative association between sites with compressor noise or higher levels of background sound and the abundance of five arthropod families and one genus, a positive relationship between loud sites and the abundance of one family, and no relationship between noise level or compressor presence and abundance for six families and two genera. Despite these changes, we found no evidence of community turnover as a function of background sound level or site type (compressor and noncompressor). Our results indicate that anthropogenic noise differentially affects the abundances of some arthropod families. These preliminary findings point to a need to determine the direct and indirect mechanisms driving these observed responses. Given the diverse and important ecological functions provided by arthropods, changes in abundances could have ecological implications. Therefore, we recommend the consideration of arthropods in the environmental

  15. Fabrication of Cheap Optical Transducers (CHOTs) on film carriers for in-situ application and generation of surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, V.; Stratoudaki, T.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    Cheap optical transducers (CHOTs) are patterns on the surface of a component activated by lasers to generate and detect ultrasound. Excited optically, with minimal surface impact, and fully customizable, CHOTs provide a simple alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers, offering wireless, remote operation. Of particular interest is application of CHOTs for in-situ ultrasonic inspection of hard-to reach and complex-geometry components such as those of aero-engines. A suitable fabrication method has been developed to allow in-situ application of CHOTs onto large size and curved components, as well as those already in service, challenging for current laboratory-based micro-patterning methods. This work describes the fabrication of a transferable g-CHOT for generation of ultrasound. The g- CHOT has been made on an SU8 carrier film using a sacrificial polystyrene layer, allowing the transducer to be transferred from the substrate and subsequently delivered and applied to the surface of the sample in-situ. The functionality of the fabricated transducer is demonstrated by detection of the Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) generated by the g-CHOT transferred onto glass and aluminium samples.

  16. Nickel electrodes as a cheap and versatile platform for studying structure and function of immobilized redox proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiao Xia [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Li, Junbo [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Öner, Ibrahim Halil [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Zhao, Bing [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Leimkühler, Silke [Institut für Biochemie und Biologie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht Straße 24-25, H. 25, Golm D-14476 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Weidinger, Inez M., E-mail: i.weidinger@mailbox.tu-berlin.de [Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. PC14, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-10-19

    Practical use of many bioelectronic and bioanalytical devices is limited by the need of expensive materials and time consuming fabrication. Here we demonstrate the use of nickel electrodes as a simple and cheap solid support material for bioelectronic applications. The naturally nanostructured electrodes showed a surprisingly high electromagnetic surface enhancement upon light illumination such that immobilization and electron transfer reactions of the model redox proteins cytochrome b{sub 5} (Cyt b{sub 5}) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) could be followed via surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy. It could be shown that the nickel surface, when used as received, promotes a very efficient binding of the proteins upon preservation of their native structure. The immobilized redox proteins could efficiently exchange electrons with the electrode and could even act as an electron relay between the electrode and solubilized myoglobin. Our results open up new possibility for nickel electrodes as an exceptional good support for bioelectronic devices and biosensors on the one hand and for surface enhanced spectroscopic investigations on the other hand. - Highlights: • Nickel electrodes were used without further functionalization as supports for various redox proteins. • It was possible to monitor the immobilized proteins via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. • The native structure of the immobilized proteins was preserved and they could exchange electrons with the Ni electrode. • The immobilized redox proteins worked as an electron relay between electrode and solubilized myoglobin.

  17. Ensete ventricosum (WELW. CHEESMAN: A CHEAP AND ALTERNATIVE GELLING AGENT FOR PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE IN VITRO PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Ayenew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms are tried so far to reduce the production cost of plant tissue culture through increasing multiplication rate and/or substituting expensive components for wider usage of the technology. Subsequently, replacing the most common gelling agent, agar, took an attention since higher proportion of media cost comes from it. Up to now different alternatives were tried though they have drawbacks due to their inherent chemical characteristics. Therefore the search for new alternatives like Enset ventricosum is important. Enset flour, ‘Bulla’, has been tried in this study for the first time to substitute agar and showed no significant difference for shoots number, root number, shoot height, leaf number and an associated fresh weight of the plantlets besides good gelling ability than Agar. Subsequently, ‘Bulla’ at 80g L-1 gelled well and gave 11.8 shoots with 0.95g and 13.33 roots having 1.37 cm length. This rate can also save up to 76 % cost of gelling though significant difference was found for root length of 3.23 cm with Agar, 8 g L-1. This indicates further study on biochemical and/ or hormonal activity and across crop genotypes to use ‘Bulla’ as a cheap alternative commercial gelling agent.

  18. Nickel electrodes as a cheap and versatile platform for studying structure and function of immobilized redox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao Xia; Li, Junbo; Öner, Ibrahim Halil; Zhao, Bing; Leimkühler, Silke; Hildebrandt, Peter; Weidinger, Inez M

    2016-10-19

    Practical use of many bioelectronic and bioanalytical devices is limited by the need of expensive materials and time consuming fabrication. Here we demonstrate the use of nickel electrodes as a simple and cheap solid support material for bioelectronic applications. The naturally nanostructured electrodes showed a surprisingly high electromagnetic surface enhancement upon light illumination such that immobilization and electron transfer reactions of the model redox proteins cytochrome b 5 (Cyt b 5 ) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) could be followed via surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy. It could be shown that the nickel surface, when used as received, promotes a very efficient binding of the proteins upon preservation of their native structure. The immobilized redox proteins could efficiently exchange electrons with the electrode and could even act as an electron relay between the electrode and solubilized myoglobin. Our results open up new possibility for nickel electrodes as an exceptional good support for bioelectronic devices and biosensors on the one hand and for surface enhanced spectroscopic investigations on the other hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CheapStat: an open-source, "do-it-yourself" potentiostat for analytical and educational applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A Rowe

    Full Text Available Although potentiostats are the foundation of modern electrochemical research, they have seen relatively little application in resource poor settings, such as undergraduate laboratory courses and the developing world. One reason for the low penetration of potentiostats is their cost, as even the least expensive commercially available laboratory potentiostats sell for more than one thousand dollars. An inexpensive electrochemical workstation could thus prove useful in educational labs, and increase access to electrochemistry-based analytical techniques for food, drug and environmental monitoring. With these motivations in mind, we describe here the CheapStat, an inexpensive (<$80, open-source (software and hardware, hand-held potentiostat that can be constructed by anyone who is proficient at assembling circuits. This device supports a number of potential waveforms necessary to perform cyclic, square wave, linear sweep and anodic stripping voltammetry. As we demonstrate, it is suitable for a wide range of applications ranging from food- and drug-quality testing to environmental monitoring, rapid DNA detection, and educational exercises. The device's schematics, parts lists, circuit board layout files, sample experiments, and detailed assembly instructions are available in the supporting information and are released under an open hardware license.

  20. An innovative experimental sequence on electromagnetic induction and eddy currents based on video analysis and cheap data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Sapia, P.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a coherent sequence of experiments on electromagnetic (EM) induction and eddy currents, appropriate for university undergraduate students, based on a magnet falling through a drilled aluminum disk. The sequence, leveraging on the didactical interplay between the EM and mechanical aspects of the experiments, allows us to exploit the students’ awareness of mechanics to elicit their comprehension of EM phenomena. The proposed experiments feature two kinds of measurements: (i) kinematic measurements (performed by means of high-speed video analysis) give information on the system’s kinematics and, via appropriate numerical data processing, allow us to get dynamic information, in particular on energy dissipation; (ii) induced electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements (by using a homemade multi-coil sensor connected to a cheap data acquisition system) allow us to quantitatively determine the inductive effects of the moving magnet on its neighborhood. The comparison between experimental results and the predictions from an appropriate theoretical model (of the dissipative coupling between the moving magnet and the conducting disk) offers many educational hints on relevant topics related to EM induction, such as Maxwell’s displacement current, magnetic field flux variation, and the conceptual link between induced EMF and induced currents. Moreover, the didactical activity gives students the opportunity to be trained in video analysis, data acquisition and numerical data processing.

  1. A New Metre for Cheap, Quick, Reliable and Simple Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) Measurements in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar Márquez, José Manuel; Martínez Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel; Gómez Melgar, Sergio

    2017-09-03

    This paper deals with the thermal transmittance measurement focused on buildings and specifically in building energy retrofitting. Today, if many thermal transmittance measurements in a short time are needed, the current devices, based on the measurement of the heat flow through the wall, cannot carry out them, except if a great amount of devices are used at once along with intensive and tedious post-processing and analysis work. In this paper, from well-known physical laws, authors develop a methodology based on three temperatures measurements, which is implemented by a novel thermal transmittance metre. The paper shows its development step by step. As a result the developed device is modular, scalable, and fully wireless; it is capable of taking as many measurements at once as user needs. The developed system is compared working together on a same test to the currently used one based on heat flow. The results show that the developed metre allows carrying out thermal transmittance measurements in buildings in a cheap, quick, reliable and simple way.

  2. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  3. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  4. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  5. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  6. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  7. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  8. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  9. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  10. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  11. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  12. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  13. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  14. A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry to determine benzotriazole, benzothiazole and benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pol; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Marcé, Rosa M

    2014-04-25

    A Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction method followed by liquid chromatography-(Orbitrap) high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of five benzotriazole, four benzothiazole and five benzenesulfonamide derivates in sewage sludge. While the method was being developed, several buffers and dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up (dSPE) sorbents were tested. Citrate buffer and Z-sep+ (zirconium-based sorbent) were the most effective extraction buffer and dSPE clean-up material. The absolute recoveries were higher than 80% for all compounds (100ng/g (d.w.)) and the matrix effect was less than -20% for most compounds. The limits of detection were between 0.5 and 10ng/g (d.w.) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 1 and 25ng/g (d.w.). Repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 15% (%RSD, n=5). Several sludge samples from five sewage treatment plants in Catalonia were analysed and the most abundant compounds were 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (181.2ng/g (d.w.)) and 4-methyl-1-H-benzotriazole (

  15. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  16. Desert water harvesting to benefit wildlife: a simple, cheap, and durable sub-surface water harvester for remote locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William E

    2004-12-01

    A sub-surface desert water harvester was constructed in the sagebrush steppe habitat of south-central Idaho, U.S.A. The desert water harvester utilizes a buried micro-catchment and three buried storage tanks to augment water for wildlife during the dry season. In this region, mean annual precipitation (MAP) ranges between about 150-250 mm (6"-10"), 70% of which falls during the cold season, November to May. Mid-summer through early autumn, June through October, is the dry portion of the year. During this period, the sub-surface water harvester provides supplemental water for wildlife for 30-90 days, depending upon the precipitation that year. The desert water harvester is constructed with commonly available, "over the counter" materials. The micro-catchment is made of a square-shaped, 20 mL. "PERMALON" polyethylene pond liner (approximately 22.9 m x 22.9 m = 523 m2) buried at a depth of about 60 cm. A PVC pipe connects the harvester with two storage tanks and a drinking trough. The total capacity of the water harvester is about 4777 L (1262 U.S. gallons) which includes three underground storage tanks, a trough and pipes. The drinking trough is refined with an access ramp for birds and small animals. The technology is simple, cheap, and durable and can be adapted to other uses, e.g. drip irrigation, short-term water for small livestock, poultry farming etc. The desert water harvester can be used to concentrate and collect water from precipitation and run-off in semi-arid and arid regions. Water harvested in such a relatively small area will not impact the ground water table but it should help to grow small areas of crops or vegetables to aid villagers in self-sufficiency.

  17. Abundances in stars with exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Israelian, Garik

    2003-01-01

    Extensive spectroscopic studies of stars with and without planets have concluded that stars hosting planets are significantly more metal-rich than those without planets. More subtle trends of different chemical elements begin to appear as the number of detected extrasolar planetary systems continues to grow. I review our current knowledge concerning the observed abundance trends of various chemical elements in stars with exoplanets and their possible implications.

  18. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  19. Putting the efficiency of the Nordic electricity market to the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Nordic electricity market came face to face with a new and unexpected situation in the late summer of 2002. Up until then, there had been plenty of cheap hydropower-based electricity available on the common open market. A beautiful, dry summer changed all that. When the autumn too was dryer than normal and the winter came earlier and with a colder bite to it than normal, the stage was set for a major challenge to the hitherto stable Nordic electricity market. The price of electricity on the Nordic exchange took off, followed not long after by rapidly rising consumer prices

  20. The effect of feedback by SMS-text messages and email on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Maria; Larsen, Anders; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying feedback by text messages (SMS) and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control....... Results suggest that email and SMS messaging that communicated timely information about a household's 'exceptional' consumption periods (e.g. highest week of electricity use in past quarter) produced average reductions in total annual electricity use of about 3%. The feedback technology is cheap...

  1. About the ''end of the cheap petroleum''; A propos de la ''fin du petrole bon marche''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses the catastrophic scenario presented by two geologists on the end of a cheap petroleum in the next ten years (paper presented in the french magazine ''Pour la Science'' in may 1998). The authors analysis is more moderate and bring the attention on other arguments as the geo-political and environmental aspects of the problems. (A.L.B.)

  2. Lead abundance in the uranium star CS 31082-001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plez, B.; Hill, V.; Cayrel, R.

    2004-01-01

    stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data......stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data...

  3. Co-firing coal with wood pellets for U.S. electricity generation: A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Hui; Colson, Gregory; Mei, Bin; Wetzstein, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to EU, U.S. electric utilities are not employing the bioenergy technology of co-firing wood pellets with coal. This difference in employment patterns is explored within a real options analysis (ROA) for possible U.S. utilization of wood pellets, considering fuel-price series from 2009 to 2014. For analysis, these series are divided into two sub-periods based on different market conditions: Infancy (2009–2011) and Substitution (2012–2014). ROA indicates co-firing wood pellets with coal is feasible considering adoption during wood pellets' infancy, under low discount rates, and long power-plant lifespans. A portfolio effect of employing multiple fuels underlies this result. However, co-firing is not currently economically feasible. The different adoption decisions are likely a consequence of recent cheap and abundant U.S. natural gas. For co-fired wood pellets to be feasible, government incentives and/or a market increase in natural gas prices appear necessary. -- Highlights: •Real options analysis indicates co-firing is not currently economically feasible within the U.S. •The recent U.S. natural-gas boom is likely hindering the adoption of co-firing. •For co-fired adoption, government incentives or an increase in natural-gas prices are necessary

  4. ELECTRICITY DEMAND AND ELECTRICITY VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Lim; Glenn Jenkins

    2000-01-01

    The estimation of the demand for electricity is important in the appraisal of power projects because it often affects the benefits of the projects. For projects that involve a decision about the timing of investment- when to install new capacity to meet the demand- the precision of the electricity demand forecast can be critical. For others, when electric tariff policy is involved, it is essential to relate the demand for electricity with tariffs through the use of an electricity demand model...

  5. Depleting high-abundant and enriching low-abundant proteins in human serum: An evaluation of sample preparation methods using magnetic nanoparticle, chemical depletion and immunoaffinity techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; da Silva Fernandes, Rafael; de Souza Pessôa, Gustavo; Raimundo, Ivo Milton; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of three different depletion methods to remove the most abundant proteins, enriching those human serum proteins with low abundance is checked to make more efficient the search and discovery of biomarkers. These methods utilize magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemical reagents (sequential application of dithiothreitol and acetonitrile, DTT/ACN), and commercial apparatus based on immunoaffinity (ProteoMiner, PM). The comparison between methods shows significant removal of abundant protein, remaining in the supernatant at concentrations of 4.6±0.2, 3.6±0.1, and 3.3±0.2µgµL -1 (n=3) for MNPs, DTT/ACN and PM respectively, from a total protein content of 54µgµL -1 . Using GeLC-MS/MS analysis, MNPs depletion shows good efficiency in removing high molecular weight proteins (>80kDa). Due to the synergic effect between the reagents DTT and ACN, DTT/ACN-based depletion offers good performance in the depletion of thiol-rich proteins, such as albumin and transferrin (DTT action), as well as of high molecular weight proteins (ACN action). Furthermore, PM equalization confirms its efficiency in concentrating low-abundant proteins, decreasing the dynamic range of protein levels in human serum. Direct comparison between the treatments reveals 72 proteins identified when using MNP depletion (43 of them exclusively by this method), but only 20 proteins using DTT/ACN (seven exclusively by this method). Additionally, after PM treatment 30 proteins were identified, seven exclusively by this method. Thus, MNPs and DTT/ACN depletion can be simple, quick, cheap, and robust alternatives for immunochemistry-based protein depletion, providing a potential strategy in the search for disease biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  7. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  8. Saving electricity in a hurry. Dealing with temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Blackouts are normally the result of imbalances in electricity supply and demand. A brief blackout is mostly an inconvenience. But persistent shortfalls ? those lasting days, weeks, or months ? can cause economic disruption and danger to human life in our technology-rich societies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry describes some of the recent power shortfalls, from Norway to New Zealand, from Tokyo to Arizona and the policies these regions used to quickly reduce their power consumption. How did the whole country of Sweden cut its power consumption by 4% in only three days? How did California save 14% in only a few months? While the temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies described in this book are relatively rare events, they disproportionately shape future energy policies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry shows that countries can quickly reduce electricity consumption without harming the economy as much as blackouts or unplanned curtailments. The strategies are diverse, unique and often surprisingly cheap. They include mass media campaigns ? where a good joke can save a Megawatt ? improvements in equipment efficiency and quickly adjusting electricity prices. This book explains how California replaced a million traffic signals with energy-saving models, how millions of Tokyo residents raised their thermostat settings, and how New Zealanders took shorter showers, all quickly enough to help avoid imminent blackouts. Finally, it connects these policies to the traditional goal of ?saving electricity slowly?.

  9. Palila abundance estimates and trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richad; Banko, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Palila (Loxioides bailleui) is an endangered, seed-eating, finch-billed honeycreeper found only on Hawai`i Island. Once occurring on the islands of Kaua`i and O`ahu and Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes of Hawai`i, Palila are now found only in subalpine, dry-forest habitats on Mauna Kea (Banko et al. 2002). Previous analyses showed that Palila numbers fluctuated throughout the 1980s and 1990s but declined rapidly and steadily since 2003 (Jacobi et al. 1996, Leonard et al. 2008, Banko et al. 2009, Gorresen et al. 2009, Banko et al. in press). The aim of this report is to update abundance estimates for the Palila based on the 2012 surveys. We assess Palila trends over two periods: 1) the long-term trend during 1998–2012 and 2) the short-term trajectory between 2003 and 2012. The first period evaluates the population trend for the entire time series since additional transects were established (Johnson et al. 2006). These additional transects were established to produce a more precise population estimate and provide more complete coverage of the Palila range. The initial year for short-term trajectory was chosen subjectively to coincide with the recent decline in the Palila population. Additionally, stations in the core Palila habitat were surveyed on two occasions in 2012, thus allowing us to address the question of how repeat samples improve estimate precision.

  10. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  11. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  12. Application of neural network and Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm for electrical grid planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, M.; Senthil Kumar, S.; Kalaiarassan, G.

    2017-11-01

    In the present scenario of industrial growth, technological advancement and population growth, the single most inseparable commodity is electrical energy. This paper presents a novel way to use Neural Networks to forecast long-term electricity load and use the result for proper grid planning in terms of expansion and maintenance. Uninterrupted, reliable and cheap electricity can only be available if there is a proper planned and stable grid, which can be achieved only through proper futuristic grid planning models. In this paper, focus is centered to form the cluster of areas based on the forecasted energy needs in India. Priority ranking also allocated to decide the level of expansion for forthcoming decades.

  13. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  14. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  15. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  16. A highly sensitive detection of chloramphenicol based on chemiluminescence immunoassays with the cheap functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linyu, Wang; Manwen, Yao; Chengzhi, Fang; Xi, Yao

    2017-09-01

    A strategy has been applied to chloramphenicol (CAP) detection with chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA) based on cheap functionalized Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe-MNPs). The strategy that bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilized on cheap functionalized Fe-MNPs and that the CAP molecules were then immobilized on BSA, avoided the long process of dialysis for preparation of the BSA-CAP conjugates. The samples were detected for both methods that utilized two different kinds of functionalized Fe-MNPs (amine-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 and carboxylic acid-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 ). The sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs) of the two methods were obtained and compared based on inhibition curves. The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) values of the two methods were about 0.024 ng ml -1 and 0.046 ng ml -1 respectively and LODs were approximately 0.0002 ng ml -1 and 0.001 ng ml -1 respectively. These methods were much more sensitive than that of any traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) previously reported. Therefore, such chemiluminescence methods could be easily adapted for small molecule detection in a variety of foods using Fe-MNPs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Statistical evaluation and modeling of cheap substrate-based cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris to enhance microalgae lipid as new potential feedstock for biolubricant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-05-18

    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalga was investigated as a new potential feedstock for the production of biodegradable lubricant. In order to enhance microalgae lipid for biolubricant production, mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was optimized using statistical analysis of Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodology (RSM). A cheap substrate-based medium of molasses and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used instead of expensive mineral salts to reduce the total cost of microalgae production. The effects of molasses and CSL concentration (cheap substrates) and light intensity on the growth of microalgae and their lipid content were analyzed and modeled. Designed models by RSM showed good compatibility with a 95% confidence level when compared to the cultivation system. According to the models, optimal cultivation conditions were obtained with biomass productivity of 0.123 g L(-1) day(-1) and lipid dry weight of 0.64 g L(-1) as 35% of dry weight of C. vulgaris. The extracted microalgae lipid presented useful fatty acid for biolubricant production with viscosities of 42.00 cSt at 40°C and 8.500 cSt at 100°C, viscosity index of 185, flash point of 185°C, and pour point of -6°C. These properties showed that microalgae lipid could be used as potential feedstock for biolubricant production.

  18. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  19. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  20. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  1. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  2. Electricity derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Gigli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm for pricing derivatives written on electricity in an incomplete market setting. A discrete time model for price dynamics which embodies the main features of electricity price revealed by simple time series analysis is considered. We use jointly Binomial and Monte Carlo methods for pricing under a risk-neutral measure of which we prove the existence.

  3. Determinants of distribution, abundance and reproductive success ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... while local vegetation structure determines the abundance of locally established populations. The abundance of trees affects nest site availability and breeding success, based on observations at two oases. Blackbird nests were usually situated on pomegranate trees and olive trees. The Common Blackbird is a successful ...

  4. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  5. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a positive correlation between fish abundance and biomass for wet and dry seasons (r = 0.60 and 0.76 respectively). There was no significant difference between fish abundance in the two seasons. Variations occurred between physico-chemical parameters of water samples. Analysis of the lagoon waters showed ...

  6. Factors Influencing the Behavioural Intention towards Full Electric Vehicles: An Empirical Study in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. W. Lai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that influence individual intentions towards the adoption of full electric vehicles. A sample including 308 respondents was collected on the streets of Macau. The collected data were analysed by confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate that environmental concerns and the perception of environmental policy are antecedent factors of the perception of full electric vehicles, which influences the behavioural intention to purchase full electric vehicles. This study also finds that the perception of economic benefit is one of the key factors influencing the adoption of full electric vehicles. Vehicle operators seek economic benefits from future long-term fuel savings, high energy efficiency, and cheap electricity. Thus, a government striving to promote low-carbon transportation needs to scale up its efforts to enhance citizens’ environmental concerns and to establish proper environmental policy as well as to provide long-term financial and strategic support for electric vehicles.

  7. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  8. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  9. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of 0, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  10. Electric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Seong

    2006-02-01

    This book explains electric theory which is divided into four chapters. The first chapter includes electricity and material, electric field, capacitance, magnetic field and electromagnetic force, inductance. The second chapter mentions electronic circuit analysis, electric resistance,heating and power, chemical activity on current and battery with electrolysis. The third chapter deals with an alternating current circuit about the basics of an AC circuit, operating of resistance, inductance and capacitance, series circuit and parallel circuit of PLC, an alternating current circuit, Three-phase Alternating current, two terminal pair network and voltage and current of non-linearity circuit. The last explains transient phenomena of RC series circuit, RL series circuit, transient phenomena of an alternating current circuit and transient phenomena of RLC series circuit.

  11. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  12. Electric empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the economic and political aspects of Ontario Hydro, a provincial crown corporation. He also deals with nuclear safety of the CANDU reactors and the ecological effects of electric power supply. Alternate sources of energy are also mentioned

  13. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  14. Electricity Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Details technologies that can be used to store electricity so it can be used at times when demand exceeds generation, which helps utilities operate more effectively, reduce brownouts, and allow for more renewable energy resources to be built and used.

  15. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  16. Distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in the Salt Lake Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaş Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in 10 different stations of the Salt Lake basin were investigated. In addition, its relationship to pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity and water levels were analyzed. Field studies were carried out from July to August of 2010. Artemia salina was observed in five of these stations. Artemia salina was not seen in some stations that have high electrical conductivity. It is determined that, in the station named Tersakan Lake where electrical conductivity was 154 mS/cm, Artemia salina is more abundant when compared to the other stations. But as underground water pumps that are built for the irrigation of agricultural lands decrease water levels, Artemia salina’s life is under threat.

  17. Testing Relationships between Energy and Vertebrate Abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, C.; Pettorelli, N.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding what drives variation in the abundance of organisms is fundamental to evolutionary ecology and wildlife management. Yet despite its importance, there is still great uncertainty about the main factors influencing variation in vertebrate abundance across taxa. We believe valuable knowledge and increased predictive power could be gained by taking into account both the intrinsic factors of species and the extrinsic factors related to environmental surroundings in the commonly cited RQ model, which provides a simple conceptual framework valid at both the interspecific and the intraspecific scales. Approaches comparing studies undertaken at different spatial and taxonomic scales could be key to our ability to better predict abundance, and thanks to the increased availability of population size data, global geographic datasets, and improved comparative methods, there might be unprecedented opportunities to (1) gain a greater understanding of vertebrate abundance patterns and (2) test existing theories on free-ranging animals.

  18. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  19. Stochastic species abundance models involving special copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2018-01-01

    Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.

  20. SWFSC/MMTD: Vaquita Abundance Survey 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1997, the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) conducted a survey designed to estimate the abundance of vaquita, the Gulf of California harbor porpoise...

  1. Abundance Analysis of Red Horizontal Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Lagerholm, C.; Mikolaitis, Š.

    2008-12-01

    During the Observational Stellar Astrophysics research course in Lithuania, we analyzed the spectra of four red horizontal branch stars obtained on the Nordic Optical Telescope and FIES spectrograph. For the analysis we used the program SIU running under IDL. Overall, the metallicity for these stars seems to be higher than what is listed in the literature. We have determined the main atmospheric parameters and abundances of C, N, O and Mg chemical elements. We were only able to get the [O/Fe] abundance for one star because of telluric lines. The abundances were compared with stellar evolutionary models, both for finding the stellar mass and to investigate how well these stars follow theoretical predictions of evolutionary abundance alterations.

  2. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  3. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  4. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere.

  5. Good abundances from bad spectra - I. Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. Bryn; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1996-01-01

    Stellar spectra derived from multiple-object fibre-fed spectroscopic radial-velocity surveys, of the type feasible with, among other examples, AUTOFIB, 2dF, HYDRA, NESSIE, and the Sloan survey, differ significantly from those traditionally used for determination of stellar abundances. The spectra tend to be of moderate resolution (around 1A) and signal-to-noise ratio (around 10-20 per resolution element), and cannot usually have reliable continuum shapes determined over wavelength ranges in excess of a few tens of Angstroms. None the less, with care and a calibration of stellar effective temperature from photometry, independent of the spectroscopy, reliable iron abundances can be derived. We have developed techniques to extract true iron abundances and surface gravities from low-signal-to-noise ratio, intermediate-resolution spectra of G-type stars in the 4000-5000A wavelength region. Spectroscopic indices sensitive to iron abundance and gravity are defined from a set of narrow (few-several A wide) wavelength intervals. The indices are calibrated theoretically using synthetic spectra. Given adequate data and a photometrically determined effective temperature, one can derive estimates of the stellar iron abundance and surface gravity. We have also defined a single abundance indicator for the analysis of very low-signal-to-noise ratio spectra; with the further assumption of a value for the stellar surface gravity, this is able to provide useful iron abundance information from spectra having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 10 (1-A elements). The theoretical basis and calibration using synthetic spectra are described in this paper. The empirical calibration of these techniques by application to observational data is described in a separate paper (Jones, Wyse & Gilmore). The technique provides precise iron abundances, with zero-point correct to ~0.1 dex, and is reliable, with typical uncertainties being <~0.2 dex. A derivation of the in situ thick disc metallicity

  6. Composition and abundance of tree regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Hutchinson; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Charles T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The composition and abundance of tree seedlings and saplings in the four study areas in southern Ohio were related to soil moisture via a GIS-derived integrated moisture index and to soil texture and fertility. For seedlings, the total abundance of small stems (less than 30 cm tall) was significantly greater on xeric plots (81,987/ha) than on intermediate (54,531/ha)...

  7. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  8. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  9. Experimental Enhancement for Electric Properties of Polyethylene Nanocomposites under Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Thabet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer properties can be experimentally tailored by adding small amounts of different nanoparticles for enhancing their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The work in this paper investigates enhancing the electric and dielectric properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE, and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE polymer materials with cheap nanoparticles. Certain percentages of clay and fumed silica nanoparticles are used to enhance electric and dielectric properties of polyethylene nanocomposites films. By using the Dielectric Spectroscopy; the electric and dielectric properties of each polyethylene nanocomposites have been measured with and without nanoparticles at various frequencies up to 1kHz under different thermal conditions (20°C and 60°C. And so, we were successful in specifying the optimal nanoparticles types and their concentrations for the control of electric and dielectric characterization.

  10. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  11. Clustering in the stellar abundance space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesso, R.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the chemical enrichment history of the interstellar medium through an analysis of the n-dimensional stellar abundance space. This work is a non-parametric analysis of the stellar chemical abundance space. The main goal is to study the stars from their organization within this abundance space. Within this space, we seek to find clusters (in a statistical sense), that is, stars likely to share similar chemo-evolutionary history, using two methods: the hierarchical clustering and the principal component analysis. We analysed some selected abundance surveys available in the literature. For each sample, we labelled the group of stars according to its average abundance curve. In all samples, we identify the existence of a main enrichment pattern of the stars, which we call chemical enrichment flow. This flow is set by the structured and well-defined mean rate at which the abundances of the interstellar medium increase, resulting from the mixture of the material ejected from the stars and stellar mass-loss and interstellar medium gas. One of the main results of our analysis is the identification of subgroups of stars with peculiar chemistry. These stars are situated in regions outside of the enrichment flow in the abundance space. These peculiar stars show a mismatch in the enrichment rate of a few elements, such as Mg, Si, Sc and V, when compared to the mean enrichment rate of the other elements of the same stars. We believe that the existence of these groups of stars with peculiar chemistry may be related to the accretion of planetary material on to stellar surfaces or may be due to production of the same chemical element by different nucleosynthetic sites.

  12. Electrically powered hand tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  13. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  14. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  15. REVIEW: Can habitat selection predict abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mark S; Johnson, Chris J; Merrill, Evelyn H; Nielsen, Scott E; Solberg, Erling J; van Moorter, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Habitats have substantial influence on the distribution and abundance of animals. Animals' selective movement yields their habitat use. Animals generally are more abundant in habitats that are selected most strongly. Models of habitat selection can be used to distribute animals on the landscape or their distribution can be modelled based on data of habitat use, occupancy, intensity of use or counts of animals. When the population is at carrying capacity or in an ideal-free distribution, habitat selection and related metrics of habitat use can be used to estimate abundance. If the population is not at equilibrium, models have the flexibility to incorporate density into models of habitat selection; but abundance might be influenced by factors influencing fitness that are not directly related to habitat thereby compromising the use of habitat-based models for predicting population size. Scale and domain of the sampling frame, both in time and space, are crucial considerations limiting application of these models. Ultimately, identifying reliable models for predicting abundance from habitat data requires an understanding of the mechanisms underlying population regulation and limitation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  16. Abundances in Eight M31 Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry G.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Corradi, Romano; Galera-Rosillo, R.; Balick, Bruce; Henry, Richard B. C.

    2014-06-01

    As part of a continuing project using planetary nebulae (PNe) to study the chemical evolution and formation history of M31 (see accompanying poster by Balick et al.), we obtained spectra of eight PNe in the fall of 2013 with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC. All of these PNe are located outside M31’s inner disk and bulge. Spectral coverage extended from 3700-7800Å with a resolution of ~6 Å. Especially important in abundance determinations is the detection of the weak, temperature-sensitive auroral line of [O III], at 4363Å, which is often contaminated by Hg I 4358Å from streetlights; the remoteness of the GTC eliminated this difficulty. We reduced and measured the spectra using IRAF, and derived nebular diagnostics and abundances with ELSA, our in-house five-level-atom program. Here we report the chemical abundances determined from these spectra. The bottom line is that the oxygen abundances in these PNe are all within a factor of 2-3 of the solar value, (as are all the other M31 PNe our team has previously measured) despite the significant range of galactocentric distance. Future work will use these abundances to constrain models of the central star to estimate progenitor masses and ages. In particular we will use the results to investigate the hypothesis that these PNe might represent a population related to the encounter between M31 and M33 ~3 Gy ago. We gratefully acknowledge support from Williams College.

  17. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS IN PLUMES AND INTERPLUMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennou, C.; Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) <10 eV are enhanced relative to their photospheric abundances. This coronal-to-photospheric abundance ratio, commonly called the FIP bias, is typically 1 for elements with a high-FIP (>10 eV). We have used Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over a ≈24 hr period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we used a differential emission measure analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These results may help to identify whether plumes or interplumes contribute to the fast solar wind observed in situ and may also provide constraints on the formation and heating mechanisms of plumes

  18. Bracken: estimating species abundance in metagenomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic experiments attempt to characterize microbial communities using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Identification of the microorganisms in a sample provides information about the genetic profile, population structure, and role of microorganisms within an environment. Until recently, most metagenomics studies focused on high-level characterization at the level of phyla, or alternatively sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA gene that is present in bacterial species. As the cost of sequencing has fallen, though, metagenomics experiments have increasingly used unbiased shotgun sequencing to capture all the organisms in a sample. This approach requires a method for estimating abundance directly from the raw read data. Here we describe a fast, accurate new method that computes the abundance at the species level using the reads collected in a metagenomics experiment. Bracken (Bayesian Reestimation of Abundance after Classification with KrakEN uses the taxonomic assignments made by Kraken, a very fast read-level classifier, along with information about the genomes themselves to estimate abundance at the species level, the genus level, or above. We demonstrate that Bracken can produce accurate species- and genus-level abundance estimates even when a sample contains multiple near-identical species.

  19. Deuterium abundance, from ultraviolet to visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebrard, Guillaume

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the standard Big Bang model, the primordial abundance of deuterium is the most sensitive to the baryonic density of the Universe. It was synthesized only during the primordial nucleosynthesis few minutes after the Big Bang and no other standard mechanism is able to produce any further significant amount. On the contrary, since deuterium is burned up within stars, its abundance D/H decreases along cosmic evolution. Thus, D/H measurements constrain Big Bang and galactic chemical evolution models. There are three samples of deuterium abundances: primordial, proto-solar and interstellar. Each of them is representative of a given epoch, respectively about 15 Gyrs past, 4.5 Gyrs past and present epoch. Although the evolution of the deuterium abundance seems to be qualitatively understood, the measurements show some dispersion. Present thesis works are linked to deuterium interstellar abundance measurements. Such measurements are classically obtained from spectroscopic observations of the hydrogen and deuterium Lyman series in absorption in the ultraviolet spectral range, using space observatories. Results presented here were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and FUSE, which has recently been launched. Simultaneously, a new way to observe deuterium has been proposed, in the visible spectral range from ground-based telescopes. This has led to the first detections and the identification of the deuterium Balmer series, in emission in HII regions, using CFHT and VLT telescopes. (author) [fr

  20. Electrical Rectification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    bio-mimetic systems. O w ing to the saturation of the e± ciency of sil- icon devices in electronics industry, m olecular electronics has gained trem endous im petus in re- cent tim es. T heoretical predictions and experi- m ental realizations of such system s have given birth to a ... their electrical conductance property and pos-.

  1. Estimating the relationship between abundance and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies investigate the relationship between abundance and distribution using indices reflecting one of the three aspects of distribution: proportion of area occupied, aggregation, and geographical range. Using simulations and analytical derivations, we examine whether these indices...... based on Euclidean distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution. Only the proportion of structurally empty areas, Lloyds index, and indices of the distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution are unbiased at all levels of abundance. The remaining indices generate...... relationships between abundance and distribution even in cases where no underlying relationships exists, although the problem decreases for measures derived from Lorenz curves when samples contain more than four individuals on average. To illustrate the problem, the indices are applied to juvenile North Sea cod...

  2. INTERSTELLAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD X Per, REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to examine dust grain types and measure elemental abundances in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The absorption features of O, Fe, Mg, and Si along this line of sight were measured using spectra from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments, and the Spex software package. The spectra were fit with dust analogs measured in the laboratory. The O, Mg, and Si abundances were compared to those from standard references, and the O abundance was compared to that along lines of sight toward other X-ray binaries. The results are as follows. First, it was found that a combination of MgSiO 3 (enstatite) and Mg 1.6 Fe 0.4 SiO 4 (olivine) provided the best fit to the O K edge, with N(MgSiO 3 )/N(Mg 1.6 Fe 0.4 SiO 4 ) = 3.4. Second, the Fe L edge could be fit with models that included metallic iron, but it was not well described by the laboratory spectra currently available. Third, the total abundances of O, Mg, and Si were in very good agreement with that of recently re-analyzed B stars, suggesting that they are good indicators of abundances in the local ISM, and the depletions were also in agreement with expected values for the diffuse ISM. Finally, the O abundances found from X-ray binary absorption spectra show a similar correlation with Galactocentric distances as seen in other objects.

  3. Food Byproducts as a New and Cheap Source of Bioactive Compounds: Lignans with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties from Crataegus pinnatifida Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Bai, Ming; Zhou, Le; Lou, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Yan; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2015-08-19

    During the process of manufacturing hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) juice and jam, a significant quantity of byproducts (leaves, seeds) is generated. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of hawthorn seeds has led to the isolation of eight new lignans, hawthornnins A-H (1-8), and seven known analogues (9-15). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR and CD spectra. The radical-scavenging effects of all isolated compounds were investigated. 1-6 and 8 showed moderate activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), whereas 1-6 and 14 displayed good 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical-scavenging activities that were even more potent than that of trolox. In addition, all isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by detecting the nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by the LPS-induced murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, and compounds 1-7, 13, and 14 exhibited potent inhibition of NO and TNF-α production. The structure-activity relationships of isolated lignans were also examined, and the results obtained show that C. pinnatifida seeds can be regarded as a potential new and cheap source of antioxidants and inflammation inhibitors.

  4. Amorphous silicon-carbon nanospheres synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using cheap methyltrichlorosilane as improved anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zailei; Zhang, Meiju; Wang, Yanhong; Tan, Qiangqiang; Lv, Xiao; Zhong, Ziyi; Li, Hong; Su, Fabing

    2013-06-21

    We report the preparation and characterization of amorphous silicon-carbon (Si-C) nanospheres as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. These nanospheres were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition at 900 °C using methyltrichlorosilane (CH3SiCl3) as both the Si and C precursor, which is a cheap byproduct in the organosilane industry. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermal gravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the synthesized Si-C nanospheres composed of amorphous C (about 60 wt%) and Si (about 40 wt%) had a diameter of 400-600 nm and a surface area of 43.8 m(2) g(-1). Their charge capacities were 483.6, 331.7, 298.6, 180.6, and 344.2 mA h g(-1) at 50, 200, 500, 1000, and 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than that of the commercial graphite anode. The Si-C amorphous structure could absorb a large volume change of Si during Li insertion and extraction reactions and hinder the cracking or crumbling of the electrode, thus resulting in the improved reversible capacity and cycling stability. The work opens a new way to fabricate low cost Si-C anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  5. Determination of multiresidue analysis of β-agonists in muscle and viscera using liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometry with Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The official analytical method of the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare for testing for veterinary drug residues in foods is the multiresidue analysis of β-agonists. Samples are pretreated through liquid–liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. This method is time consuming and requires the intensive use of solvents. To improve analytical efficiency and reduce costs, our study incorporated QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe techniques to establish a new method of multiresidue analysis of β-agonists in animal muscle and viscera. The pretreatment time was shortened and solvent usage was minimized. The modified analysis was conducted using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring. The results demonstrated that the correlation coefficients of the tissue calibration curve were higher than 0.99 and the limit of quantification (LOQ was 1 ppb. The average recoveries in spiked samples varied from 70% to 120%, and the relative difference between duplicated analysis results was lower than 10%. On the basis of the results, the proposed method was concluded to be an appropriate procedure for determining the presence of β-agonists, and demonstrated the advantages of high recovery rates in spiked samples, high precision, reduced analysis time and solvent usage, and lower costs.

  6. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, Jean.

    1983-06-01

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  7. The significance and impact of the new French electricity organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batail, J.

    2000-01-01

    The years 1996 to 1998 saw the introduction of 'internal electricity market' and 'internal gas market' directives. In France, the year 2000 has recently been marked by the enactment of the new electricity law and soon a gas law will also be brought into force. The issues are technical-economic, industrial, social and political. This article points out the particular nature of the 'power supply network industries', recalls the arguments presented during communal debates about electricity and explains the solutions that have resulted in agreement. Finally, it details the practical impact of the recent electricity law, aimed at revitalizing the electricity network by the introduction of competition, whilst clarify and consolidating the public service in a competitive context and equipping the energy policy with suitable tools for this new context. What is required is a balance between the advantages of moderate liberalization and a certain number features to which France adheres to i.e. the security of national supplies, the involvement of public authorities in the preparation for the collective and access to cheap electricity for all, etc. (authors)

  8. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not require ploughing and are also less demanding as regards fertilizers and other chemical protection. The average yield from one hectare of such a plantation is 60 tons of wood chips every three years. At the current price of over 1000 Sk (25.31 EUR) per ton, the annual profit per hectare is about 18,000 Sk (473 EUR). (author)

  9. Cheap Thin Film Oxygen Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising a porous support layer a gas tight electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer and a catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer is formed from a material having a crystallite...

  10. Selling cheap sex and seashells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J

    1993-03-01

    Sri Lanka became known as a gay paradise with the advent of tourism in the late 1970s. UNICEF estimates that up to 15,000 boys in Sri Lanka may engage in homosexual prostitution. Nearly 400,000 tourists visited Sri Lanka in 1992, 50,000 of them British. The probable increase of high risk sexual contacts between tourists and Sri Lankan youths worries the government's health department. By early 1993, there were only 22 cases of AIDS and 65 people who tested HIV positive. But the government's chief venereologist says there are around 200,000 cases of sexually transmitted diseases each year, and it is estimated that as many as 2500 Sri Lankans are HIV positive. In a population of 17 million, this figure is small, but it represents an increase of 300% in just over a year. The parallels with nearby Thailand, where HIV spread explosively, are ominous. Unfortunately, cultural taboos make sex education difficult. A UNICEF doctor described the first television commercials about AIDS as ridiculous. Ignorance about AIDS is almost total. Most boy prostitutes have heard of AIDS but few use condoms and none realize that the disease kills. Organizations like Save the Children Fund recognize the magnitude of the problem but admit that reaching the beach boys, who are financially independent, is difficult. In an attempt to attack the problem, 2 social organizations compiled a list of beach boys in Hikkaduwa, the most popular tourist resort, and invited them for counselling and voluntary AIDS testing, but no one showed up.

  11. A biogeographical perspective on species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that multiple processes can generate similar shapes of species abundance distributions (SADs), with the result that the fit of a given SAD model cannot unambiguously provide evidence in support of a given theory or model. An alternative approach to comparing...

  12. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length- Weight Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loading Salter digital balance for small fish (<2.0 kg) or on a hanging Salter ... white- spotted grouper,. Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus, was numerically the most abundant (15.6%) in the catch followed by Cephalopholis boenak. (13%) and E. fasciatus ... Vanga, the commonly landed species were the white-spotted grouper,.

  13. species composition, relative abundance and distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    However, wet season had an effect on the avian abundance in eucalyptus plantation. (t=2.952, P <0.05). Eucalyptus plantation, soil ... distribution of bird species in the country is quite complex (Urban, 1980). Most of the the birds that .... size, shape, colour, songs and calls were considered as important parameters (Afework.

  14. Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance of Almophrya mediovacuolata (Ciliophora: Anoplophryidae) endocommensal ciliate of an ... The survey primarily involved soil samples collection from the same spots of EW collection and preparation for physico-chemical analysis; evaluation in situ of the ...

  15. Securing abundance : The politics of energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Energy Security is a concept that is known in the literature for its ‘slippery’ nature and subsequent wide range of definitions. Instead of another attempt at grasping the essence of this concept, Securing Abundance reformulates the problem and moves away from a definitional problem to a theoretical

  16. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  17. Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    δ∗(W-29, W-70) = 1.25; δ∗(W-93, W-70 = 0.75)) even though they originate from different geographical regions. We can, therefore, infer that the WSSV sequences are closely related by ancestry. Table 3. Dinucleotide relative abundance in the ...

  18. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  19. Abundance Ratios in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Seyda; Peletier, Reynier F.; Toloba, Elisa; Mentz, Jaco J.

    The aim of this study is to determine abundance ratios and star formation histories (SFH) of dwarf ellipticals in the nearby Virgo cluster. We perform a stellar population analysis of 39 dEs and study them using index-index and scaling relations. We find an unusual behaviour where [Na/Fe] is

  20. Abundances and morphology in planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Kastner, JH; Soker, N; Rappaport, SA

    2000-01-01

    The abundances of 16 well studied have been determined. New ISO measurements have been combined with optical and ultraviolet data from the literature, in an attempt to obtain accurate values. Only He, O, C, N, Ne, Ar, and S are considered. High values of N/O are sometimes, but not always, found in

  1. Cosmological evolution of the Nitrogen abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangioni, Elisabeth; Dvorkin, Irina; Olive, Keith A.; Dubois, Yohan; Molaro, Paolo; Petitjean, Patrick; Silk, Joe; Kimm, Taysun

    2018-03-01

    The abundance of nitrogen in the interstellar medium is a powerful probe of star formation processes over cosmological timescales. Since nitrogen can be produced both in massive and intermediate-mass stars with metallicity-dependent yields, its evolution is challenging to model, as evidenced by the differences between theoretical predictions and observations. In this work we attempt to identify the sources of these discrepancies using a cosmic evolution model. To further complicate matters, there is considerable dispersion in the abundances from observations of damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) at z ˜ 2 - 3. We study the evolution of nitrogen with a detailed cosmic chemical evolution model and find good agreement with these observations, including the relative abundances of (N/O) and (N/Si). We find that the principal contribution of nitrogen comes from intermediate mass stars, with the exception of systems with the lowest N/H, where nitrogen production might possibly be dominated by massive stars. This last result could be strengthened if stellar rotation which is important at low metallicity can produce significant amounts of nitrogen. Moreover, these systems likely reside in host galaxies with stellar masses below 108.5M⊙. We also study the origin of the observed dispersion in nitrogen abundances using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulations Horizon-AGN. We conclude that this dispersion can originate from two effects: difference in the masses of the DLA host galaxies, and difference in the their position inside the galaxy.

  2. On the primoridal abundance of argon-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, F.; Weber, H.W.; Hintenberger, H.

    1976-01-01

    Argon trapped in graphite-diamond-kamacite inclusions from the Havero ureilite has a 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of (1.4 +- 0.6) x 10 -3 , which is close to the estimated primordial abundance ratio of 2 x 10 -4 . Some implications are discussed

  3. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  4. Abundance and guild structure of grasshoppers (Orthoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine how savanna grass sward modifications caused by heavy grazing pressure influenced the abundance and guild structure of grasshoppers. Heavily grazed communal land was compared with a lightly grazed area and a mowed airstrip, in adjacent protected land, in the Mpumalanga ...

  5. spatial patterns of zooplankton distribution and abundance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    production of fish species, invertebrates and availability of phytoplankton. Weekly monitoring for zooplankton abundance was conducted in .... chlorophyll-a pigment was extracted according to procedures recommended by ..... production of high density of bacteria and detrital matter which were effectively consumed by the ...

  6. Topology in QCD and the axion abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Norikazu [KEK Theory Center,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai),Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-10-21

    The temperature dependence of the topological susceptibility in QCD, χ{sub t}, essentially determines the abundance of the QCD axion in the Universe, and is commonly estimated, based on the instanton picture, to be a certain negative power of temperature. While lattice QCD should be able to check this behavior in principle, the temperature range where lattice QCD works is rather limited in practice, because the topological charge is apt to freezes at high temperatures. In this work, two exploratory studies are presented. In the first part, we try to specify the temperature range in the quenched approximation. Since our purpose here is to estimate the range expected in unquenched QCD through quenched simulations, hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm is employed instead of heatbath algorithm. We obtain an indication that unquenched calculations of χ{sub t} encounter the serious problem of autocorrelation already at T∼2 T{sub c} or even below with the plain HMC. In the second part, we revisit the axion abundance. The absolute value and the temperature dependence of χ{sub t} in real QCD can be significantly different from that in the quenched approximation, and is not well established above the critical temperature. Motivated by this fact and precedent arguments which disagree with the conventional instanton picture, we estimate the axion abundance in an extreme case where χ{sub t} decreases much faster than the conventional power-like behavior. We find a significant enhancement of the axion abundance in such a case.

  7. Benthic macrofauna community composition, abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The communities of the shallow, intermediate and deep environments were composed mainly of molluscs, worms and insects. Gastropods (52.68%) and bivalves (40.18%) constituted the major part of the benthic community. Bellamya unicolor, Melanoides tuberculata and Coelatura spp. were the most abundant molluscs.

  8. Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya. ... measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria. Keywords: biodiversity index, environmental monitoring, Lake Victoria Basin, species distribution, water quality, Winam Gulf ...

  9. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Temporal variation in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of the benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua has been reconstructed over the last ∼ 50,000 yr BP,from a core collected from the distal Bay of Bengal fan,to assess its potential application in palaeoceanographic reconstruction studies.

  10. Short communication: Abundance, distribution and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using a Super Cub aircraft ...

  11. Toward reliable estimates of abundance: comparing index methods to assess the abundance of a Mammalian predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result.

  12. Electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report focuses on the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) administration of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, intended to protect the public, investors, and consumers from abuses associated with the control of electric and gas utility companies through the holding company structure. These abuses include subjecting subsidiary utilities to excessive charges for services, construction work, and materials; frustrating effective state regulation through the holding company structure; and overloading subsidiary utilities with debt to prevent voluntary rate reductions. GAO discusses industry changes during the past decade involving electric utility holding companies; SEC's regulatory response to such changes; and the relationship between SEC, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and states in protecting consumer and investor interests in light of these changes

  13. Electricity Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, A.; Beith, A.J.; Hardy, P.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the debate, which lasted a total of about 7 hours, a verbatim report of the first five of which are included here, was about energy conservation. Several new clauses and amendments were discussed. One would place a duty on the new Director of the Energy Supply industry to promote the efficiency and conservation of energy, another would appoint a Deputy Director with responsibility for energy conservation, and the third would require targets of energy efficiency and pollution reduction to be achieved. This allowed discussion on energy saving by domestic thermal insulation, improved efficiency of heating and refrigeration units and on renewable energy sources especially world energy. The second part of the debate was about access to information regarding health and safety resulting from any activities of the electricity supply industry. The remainder of the debate concerned regional representation and the economics of the electricity supply industry. (UK)

  14. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  15. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  16. Electrical deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation in the electricity sector took effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. Business consumers discovered that their electricity rates had almost doubled in a one-month period. The government argued that it was the case of short term pain for long term gain. The intent of the deregulation is the lowering of prices through competition. This principle applies when the supply meets the demand, but when the demand exceeds the supply, prices increase. When initial plans were made for the deregulation of the sector, utilities did not invest huge amounts of capital to build new generation plants, as it was not known how they would fare in the deregulated environment. This situation was compounded by the fact that there was an economic boom around the same time in Alberta, adding to the demands made on the existing generation infrastructure (approximately 4 per cent per year over the past decade). At the moment, some resource developers such as Syncrude, Amoco, and Daishowa produce their own electricity and export their excess capacity to the provincial grid for general use. The rules of the deregulated market have been clarified and a number of utilities are planning new generation plants and facilities. TransAlta, EPCOR, and Enmax Corp. have announced plans to expand or build new coal-fired plants. Alberta has an estimated 35 billion tonnes of recoverable coal, and 25 million tonnes of coal were used in 1999 to produce 75 per cent of the electricity required in Alberta. Over the next ten years, 4,000 megawatts of new capacity is planned, representing a 50 per cent increase over current levels. AES Corporation, a Virginia power giant, has also announced plans to build a generator in Alberta

  17. A portable bio-amplifier for electric fish research: design and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Wells

    Full Text Available The weak electric organ discharges (EODs of gymnotiform knife fishes can be readily amplified with a wideband amplifier connected to submerged electrodes. The output from such an amplifier can then be monitored with audio speakers or digitized for subsequent analysis. Commercially available devices are expensive and usually require mains electrical power. Here we provide design notes and instructions for the construction and calibration of a cheap, portable, battery-powered, AC-coupled wideband bio-amplifier. This device was designed to allow electric fishes to be located in the field, and also to permit the relatively noise-free acquisition of EOD waveforms from specimens held in temporary captivity. This contribution is intended to encourage students of neotropical ichthyology to explore electric signaling in gymnotiform fishes.

  18. Does UV instrumentation effectively measure ozone abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of O3 on Mars provide significant information about the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere, including long-term changes. The most extensive and accurate data were inferred from the Mariner 9 UV spectrometer experiment. Mars O3 shows strong seasonal and latitudinal variation, with column abundances ranging from 0.2 microns at equatorial latitudes to 60 microns over the northern winter polar latitudes (1 micron-atm is a column abundance of 2.689 x 10(exp 15) molecules cm(exp-2)). The Mariner 9 UV spectrometer scanned from 2100 to 3500 Angstroms in one of its two spectral channels every 3 seconds with a spectral resolution of 15 Angstroms and an effective field-of-view of approximately 300 km(exp 2). Measurements were made for almost half a Martian year, with winter and spring in the Northern Hemisphere and summer and fall in the Southern Hemisphere. The detectability limit of the spectrometer was approximately 3 microns of ozone. The UV spectrometer on Mariner 9 was incapable of penetrating the dust during dust storms; the single-scattering albedo and phase function of airborne dust and cloud ice are not known to the degree required to extract the small UV signal reflected up from near the surface. The reflectance spectroscopy technique would also have difficulty detecting the total column abundance of O3 in cases where large dust abundances exist together with the polar hood, especially at high latitudes where large solar zenith angles magnify those optical depths; yet these cases would contain the maximum O3, based on theoretical results. It is quite possible that the maximum O3 column abundance observed by Mariner 9 of 60 microns is common. In fact, larger quantities may exist in some of the colder areas with optically thick clouds and dust. As the Viking period often had more atmospheric dust loading than did that of Mariner 9, the reflectance spectroscopy technique may even have been incapable of detecting the entire O3 column abundance

  19. Simultaneous determination of florfenicol with its metabolite based on modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and evaluation of their degradation behavior in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingfei; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Ma, Junwei; Wang, Jianmei; Wu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    A simple and simultaneous method for the determination of florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine in agricultural soils using modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented. Florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine residues in agricultural soils were extracted with alkalized acetonitrile and an aliquot was cleaned up with Si(CH2)3NH(CH2)2NH2 and C18 sorbent, which were powder materials. High-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to simultaneously determine the level of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in agricultural soils. Excellent linearity was achieved for florfenicol and florfenicol amine over a range of concentrations from 0.1-500 μg/L with coefficients more than 0.99. Average recoveries at four different levels (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg/kg) for florfenicol and florfenicol amine ranged from 73.6-94.9% with relative standard deviations of 2.9-12.5%. The limits of detection for florfenicol and florfenicol amine in agricultural soils were 2.0 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 6.0 μg/kg. Based on this method, the degradation behavior of florfenicol and its metabolite florfenicol amine in three soils (Nanchang, Hangzhou, and Changchun) under sterilized and native conditions was investigated and the transformation rate of florfenicol amine from florfenicol was evaluated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Getting shops to voluntarily stop selling cheap, strong beers and ciders: a time-series analysis evaluating impacts on alcohol availability and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliakas, T; Lock, K; Jones, A; Aalders, S; Egan, M

    2018-02-13

    'Reducing the Strength' (RtS) is a public health initiative encouraging retailers to voluntarily stop selling cheap, strong beers/ciders (≥6.5% alcohol by volume). This study evaluates the impact of RtS initiatives on alcohol availability and purchasing in three English counties with a combined population of 3.62 million people. We used a multiple baseline time-series design to examine retail data over 29 months from a supermarket chain that experienced a two-wave, area-based role out of RtS: initially 54 stores (W1), then another 77 stores (W2). We measured impacts on units of alcohol sold (primary outcome: beers/ciders; secondary outcome: all alcoholic products), economic impacts on alcohol sales and substitution effects. We observed a non-significant W1 increase (+3.7%, 95% CI: -11.2, 21.0) and W2 decrease (-6.8%, 95% CI: -20.5, 9.4) in the primary outcome. We observed a significant W2 decrease in units sold across all alcohol products (-10.5%, 95% CI: -19.2, -0.9). The direction of effect between waves was inconsistent for all outcomes, including alcohol sales, with no evidence of substitution effects. In the UK, voluntary RtS initiatives appear to have little or no impact on reducing alcohol availability and purchase from the broader population of supermarket customers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Simultaneous determination of UV-filters and estrogens in aquatic invertebrates by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke; Timm, Anne; Blaney, Lee

    2017-08-04

    Ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters) and estrogens have attracted increased attention as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) due to their widespread occurrence in the environment. Most of these CECs are hydrophobic and have the potential to accumulate in aquatic organisms. To date, co-analysis of UV-filters and estrogens has not been reported due, in part, to the complex environmental matrices. Here, a multi-residue method has been developed for simultaneous determination of five UV-filters and three estrogens in tissue from aquatic and marine organisms. The procedure involved a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction with a novel reverse-solid-phase extraction (reverse-SPE) cleanup in place of dispersive-SPE, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The tissue mass, acetonitrile content, and salt conditions for QuEChERS extraction, along with the reverse-SPE cartridge material and elution conditions, were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Five UV-filters (i.e., 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor, benzophenone-3, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate, homosalate, and octocrylene) and three estrogens (i.e., estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol) were simultaneously analyzed by taking advantage of wrong-way-round ionization in LC-MS/MS. The optimized analytical protocol exhibited good recoveries (>80%) for target compounds and enabled their detection at concentrations as low as 0.2ng/g in 50mg tissue samples. The method was applied to determine concentrations of target analytes in four invertebrates (i.e., Orconectes virilis, Procambarus clarkii, Crassostrea virginica, and Ischadium recurvum). All eight target analytes were detected at least once in the tissue samples, with the highest concentration being 399ng/g of homosalate in O. virilis. These results highlight the ubiquitous bioaccumulation of CECs in aquatic and marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Magnetic graphene as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Li, Xue; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Feng-Peng; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Chen, Zai-Gen; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-08-07

    In this study, magnetic graphene was used as modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) adsorbent for the determination of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) residues in tobacco. To achieve the optimum conditions of modified QuEChERS procedure toward target analytes, several parameters affecting the clean-up efficiency including the amount of the adsorbent and clean-up time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a method for the determination of 26 OCPs residues in tobacco was established by coupling the modified QuEChERS procedure to on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line GPC-GC-MS(2)). The limits of detection of proposed method for 26 OCPs residues ranged from 0.01275 to 3.150ng/g. And good linearities of the proposed method were obtained with coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9985 for all target analytes. Good reproducibility of method was obtained as intra- and inter-day precisions, the relative standard deviations were less than 11.1 and 15.0%, respectively. The apparent recoveries were in the range of 64-126% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared with the reported methods for the determination of OCPs residues in tobacco, the proposed method has the advantages of simple to operate, low cost and high clean-up ability. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of OCPs residues in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of four sulfonylurea herbicides in cereals using modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe sample preparation method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yanxia; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Hantong; He, Qiao; Huang, Siqi; Qin, Meiling; Chai, Shuangshuang; Gao, Huanhuan; Ma, Youning

    2018-02-16

    A modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method, coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of four commonly used sulfonylurea herbicides, ethoxysulfuron, halosulfuron-methyl, mesosulfuron-methyl and orthosulfamuron, in rice, maize, wheat and soybean. Adsorption of the analytes onto the primary-secondary amine used in the clean-up step was avoided by using 1% formic acid in acetonitrile as the extraction solvent to maintain the acidic herbicides in a non-ionized state. Trueness studies were carried out at three levels (2.5, 25 and 250 μg/kg for ethoxysulfuron and 5, 50 and 500 μg/kg for the other three analytes). Promising trueness (70.2%-119.8%) was achieved for all herbicides in all matrices after clean-up, with relative standard deviations (RSDr) < 18.6%. Satisfactory matrix effects (-19.7% to 14.8%) were also obtained. Good linearity of the calibration curves was achieved, with determination coefficients (r) ≥ 0.9956, when the concentration of ethoxysulfuron was in the range 0.5-50 μg/L and that of the other three analytes was in the range 1.0-500 μg/L. The RSD wR for within-laboratory reproducibility was 5.7%. The validated method was successfully used to analyze real samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of multiple pesticides in fruits and vegetables using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with magnetic nanoparticles and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Lu-Qin; Li, Fang-Wei; Ding, Yi; Yang, Zi-Jun; Wang, Ming-Lin

    2014-09-26

    Based on a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation method with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as the adsorbing material and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) determination in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, we established a new method for the determination of multiple pesticides in vegetables and fruits. It was determined that bare MNPs have excellent function as adsorbent when purified, and it is better to be separated from the extract. The amount of MNPs influenced the clean-up performance and recoveries. To achieve the optimum performance of modified QuEChERS towards the target analytes, several parameters including the amount of the adsorbents and purification time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, recoveries were evaluated in four representative matrices (tomato, cucumber, orange and apple) with the spiked concentrations of 10 μg kg(-1), 50 μg kg(-1)and 200 μg kg(-1) in all cases. The results showed that the recovery of 101 pesticides ranged between 71.5 and 111.7%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 10.5%. The optimum clean-up system improved the purification efficiency and simultaneously obtained satisfactory recoveries of multiple pesticides, including planar-ring pesticides. In short, the modified QuEChERS method in addition to MNPs used for removing impurities improved the speed of sample pre-treatment and exhibited an enhanced performance and purifying effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  6. Nontoxic and Abundant Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals for Potential High-Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A.; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P.; Wu, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase...

  7. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis and lithium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vinay; Lahiri, Joydev; Bhowmick, Debasis; Basu, D.N.

    2017-01-01

    The predictions of the standard big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory depend on the astrophysical nuclear reaction rates and on additional three parameters, the number of flavours of light neutrinos, the neutron lifetime and the baryon-to-photon ratio in the uni- verse. The effect of the modification of thirty-five reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN was investigated earlier by us. In the present work we have replaced the neutron lifetime, baryon-to-photon ratio by the most recent values and further modified 3 He( 4 He,γ) 7 Be reaction rate which is used directly for estimating the formation of 7 Li as a result of β + decay by the most recent equation. We find that these modifications reduce the calculated abundance of 7 Li by ∼ 12%

  8. Chemical element abundance in K giant atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, N.S.; Shcherbak, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    With the help of modified method of differential curves of growth studied are physical parameters of atmospheres of giant stars of KO111 spectral class of the NGC 752, M25 and UMa cluster. Observations have been made on reflector of Crimea astrophysical observatory of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the period from February to May, 1978. Spectograms are obtained for the wave length range from 5000-5500 A. It is shown that the change of chemical content in the wide range in heavy element composition does not influence the star atmosphere structUre. It follows from the results of the investigation that the abundance of chemical elements in stars of various scattered clusters, is the same in the range of errors of measurements and is similar to the abundance of chemical elements in the Sun atmosphere

  9. Abundances in the diffuse interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.

    1988-04-01

    The wealth of interstellar absorption line data obtained with the Copernicus and IUE satellites has opened up a new era in studies of the interstellar gas. It is now well established that certain elements, generally those with high condensation temperatures, are substantially under-abundant in the gas-phase relative to total solar or cosmic abundances. This depletion of elements is due to the existence of solid material in the form of dust grains in the interstellar medium. Surprisingly, however, recent surveys indicate that even volatile elements such as Zn and S are significantly depleted in many sight lines. Developments in this field which have been made possible by the large base of UV interstellar absorption line data built up over recent years are reviewed and the implications of the results for our understanding of the physical processes governing depletion are discussed. (author)

  10. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  11. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  12. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  13. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  14. A global database of ant species abundances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibb, H.; Dunn, R. R.; Sanders, N. J.; Grossman, B. F.; Photakis, M.; Abril, S.; Agosti, D.; Andersen, A. N.; Angulo, E.; Armbrecht, I.; Arnan, X.; Baccaro, F. B.; Bishop, T. R.; Boulay, R.; Brühl, C.; Castracani, C.; Cerdá, X.; Del Toro, I.; Delsinne, T.; Diaz, M.; Donoso, D. A.; Ellison, A. M.; Enríquez, M. L.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Feener, D. H.; Fisher, B. L.; Fisher, R. N.; Fitzpatrick, M. C.; Gómez, C.; Gotelli, N. J.; Gove, A.; Grasso, D. A.; Groc, S.; Guenard, B.; Gunawardene, N.; Heterick, B.; Hoffmann, B.; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, C.; Kaspari, M.; Klimeš, Petr; Lach, L.; Laeger, T.; Lattke, J.; Leponce, M.; Lessard, J.-P.; Longino, J.; Lucky, A.; Luke, S. H.; Majer, J.; McGlynn, T. P.; Menke, S.; Mezger, D.; Mori, A.; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, T. C.; Pacheco, R.; Paknia, O.; Pearce-Duvet, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Philpott, S. M.; Resasco, J.; Retana, J.; Silva, R. R.; Sorger, M. D.; Souza, J.; Suarez, A.; Tista, M.; Vasconcelos, H. L.; Vonshak, M.; Weisser, M. D.; Yates, M.; Parr, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2017), s. 883-884 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G; GA ČR GAP505/12/2467; GA ČR GPP505/12/P875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : abundance * ants * database Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecy.1682/abstract

  15. Uranium abundance in some sudanese phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out mainly to analysis of some Sudanese phosphate ores, for their uranium abundance and total phosphorus content measured as P 2 O 5 %. For this purpose, 30 samples of two types of phosphate ore from Eastern Nuba Mountains, in Sudan namely, Kurun and Uro areas were examined. In addition, the relationship between uranium and major, and trace elements were obtained, also, the natural radioactivity of the phosphate samples was measured, in order to characterize and differentiate between the two types of phosphate ores. The uranium abundance in Uro phosphate with 20.3% P 2 O 5 is five time higher than in Kurun phosphate with 26.7% P 2 O 5 . The average of uranium content was found to be 56.6 and 310 mg/kg for Kurun and Uro phosphate ore, respectively. The main elements in Kurun and Uro phosphate ore are silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus, while the most abundant trace elements in these two ores are titanium, strontium and barium. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium in Kurun phosphate shows strong positive correlation with P 2 O 5 , and its distribution is essentially controlled by the variations of P2O5 concentration, whereas uranium in Uro phosphate shows strong positive correlation with strontium, and its distribution is controlled by the variations of Sr concentration. Uranium behaves in different ways in Kurun phosphate and in Uro phosphate. Uro phosphate shows higher concentrations of all the estimated radionuclides than Kurun phosphate. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Uro phosphate is consider as secondary uranium source, and is more suitable for uranium recovery, because it has high uranium abundance and low P 2 O 5 %, than Kurun phosphate. (authors) [es

  16. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    screened more than 20 macrofauna species for nitrous oxide production and identified filter-feeders and deposit-feeders that occur ubiquitously and at high abundance (e.g., chironomids, ephemeropterans, snails, and mussels) as the most important emitters of nitrous oxide. In contrast, predatory species...... and temperature. Given the increasing nitrate pollution of freshwater ecosystems, the collective gut of benthic macrofauna might constitute an increasingly important yet hitherto overlooked link in the global nitrous oxide budget....

  17. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y p . The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y p . In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y p = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y p = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination

  18. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 index-index diagrams and scaling relations and use the stellar population models to interpret them. We present ages, metallicities, and abundance ratios obtained from these dEs within an aperture size of Re/8. We calculate [Na/Fe] from NaD, [Ca/Fe] from Ca4227, and [Mg/Fe] from Mgb. We find that [Na/Fe] is underabundant with respect to solar, whereas [Mg/Fe] is around solar. This is exactly opposite to what is found for giant ellipticals, but follows the trend with metallicity found previously for the Fornax dwarf NGC 1396. We discuss possible formation scenarios that can result in such elemental abundance patterns, and we speculate that dEs have disc-like star formation history (SFH) favouring them to originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  19. 2015-2016 Palila abundance estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The palila (Loxioides bailleui) population was surveyed annually during 1998−2016 on Mauna Kea Volcano to determine abundance, population trend, and spatial distribution. In the latest surveys, the 2015 population was estimated at 852−1,406 birds (point estimate: 1,116) and the 2016 population was estimated at 1,494−2,385 (point estimate: 1,934). Similar numbers of palila were detected during the first and subsequent counts within each year during 2012−2016; the proportion of the total annual detections in each count ranged from 46% to 56%; and there was no difference in the detection probability due to count sequence. Furthermore, conducting repeat counts improved the abundance estimates by reducing the width of the confidence intervals between 9% and 32% annually. This suggests that multiple counts do not affect bird or observer behavior and can be continued in the future to improve the precision of abundance estimates. Five palila were detected on supplemental survey stations in the Ka‘ohe restoration area, outside the core survey area but still within Palila Critical Habitat (one in 2015 and four in 2016), suggesting that palila are present in habitat that is recovering from cattle grazing on the southwest slope. The average rate of decline during 1998−2016 was 150 birds per year. Over the 18-year monitoring period, the estimated rate of change equated to a 58% decline in the population.

  20. BOND: Bayesian Oxygen and Nitrogen abundance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale Asari, N.; Stasinska, G.; Morisset, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2018-01-01

    BOND determines oxygen and nitrogen abundances in giant H II regions by comparison with a large grid of photoionization models. The grid spans a wide range in O/H, N/O and ionization parameter U, and covers different starburst ages and nebular geometries. Unlike other statistical methods, BOND relies on the [Ar III]/[Ne III] emission line ratio to break the oxygen abundance bimodality. By doing so, it can measure oxygen and nitrogen abundances without assuming any a priori relation between N/O and O/H. BOND takes into account changes in the hardness of the ionizing radiation field, which can come about due to the ageing of H II regions or the stochastically sampling of the IMF. The emission line ratio He I/Hβ, in addition to commonly used strong lines, constrains the hardness of the ionizing radiation field. BOND relies on the emission line ratios [O III]/Hβ, [O II]/Hβ and [N II]/Hβ, [Ar III]/Hβ, [Ne III]/Hβ, He I/Hβ as its input parameters, while its output values are the measurements and uncertainties for O/H and N/O.

  1. Abundance of boron in Vega and Sirius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praderie, F.; Boesgaard, A.M.; Milliard, B.; Pitois, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution (0.05 A) observations of the region of the B II resonance line (1362 A) have been made of Vega (AO V) and Sirius (Al V) with the Copernicus satellite. A strong B II feature is present in Vega, but only a weak line, due primarily to V III, is present is Sirius. An upper limit of B/H -12 is derived for Sirius from line-profile fitting. A local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthesis of the B II blend in Vega results in an abundance ratio B/H=1 x 10 -10 . Calculations of the effects of non--LTE on the line profile show that the LTE abundance would not be increased by more than 50% (B.H=1.5 x 10 -10 ) to account for departures from LTE. The B content of Vega probably represents the cosmic B abundance. The B deficiency in Sirius could result from interaction with the white-dwarf companion at an earlier stage in its evolution or from diffusion processes in the Sirius atmosphere.Difficult observations at 0.10 A resolution of subordinate lines from multiplet (3) of B II at 1624 A show that those lines are not present in Sirius; but the identification of B in Vega appears to be confirmed by the presence of weak lines at 1624 A in this star

  2. A global database of ant species abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  3. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, Texas 78712-1205 (United States); Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V. [Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of RAS, 65/1, Pulkovskoye Chaussee, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Roederer, I. U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wittenmyer, R. A. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  4. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Porter, R. L.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Yp. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, & Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, & Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Yp. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Yp = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Yp = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  5. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  6. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  7. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  8. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  9. Determining Evapotranspiration with the Eddy Covariance Method: Fast-Response Dry- and Wet-Bulb Thermocouples for Humidity Measurements Can Provide a Cheap Alternative to Infrared Hygrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Field data on evapotranspiration are of crucial importance for ecohydrological and hydrometeorological studies in the tropics. Probably the most direct way to measure evapotranspiration is with the eddy covariance method, in which the latent heat flux (λE) is calculated from turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind velocity and humidity. The humidity fluctuations are typically measured with some type of fast-response infrared hygrometer. However, these sensors are expensive, which can be problematic if research budgets are limited. Turbulent fluctuations of humidity can also be measured with fast-response dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples, which can be constructed easily and at a fraction of the price of infrared sensors. The idea of using dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples for measuring λE with the eddy covariance method is not new, but hasn't been tested recently, possibly because experiments in the late seventies showed that this approach is not without problems due to the slow response of the wet-bulb thermocouple. In the present study, values of λE derived from dry- and wet-bulb thermocouple measurements were compared with those obtained using a fast-response KH20 hygrometer. Measurements were made above a shaded coffee plantation and a sugarcane crop in central Veracruz, Mexico. The agreement between λE obtained with the thermocouples (y) and the hygrometer (x) was very good for both vegetation covers: y = 0.98x + 5.0 (W m-2), r2 = 0.93 (coffee plantation); y = 0.99x - 13.3 (W m-2), r2 = 0.88 (sugarcane). However, the correction factor (CF) for high frequency loss in the wet-bulb temperature signal was considerably higher for the low-statured sugarcane crop (CF = 1.33) as compared to the taller shaded coffee plantation (CF = 1.09). Nevertheless, as long as care is taken in the derivation of this correction factor, reliable λE data can be obtained using the dry- and wet-bulb thermocouples, offering a cheap alternative to infrared hygrometers.

  10. A pilot study on the content and the release of Ni and other allergenic metals from cheap earrings available on the Italian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocca, B.; Forte, G.; Senofonte, O.; Violante, N.; Paoletti, L.; De Berardis, B.; Petrucci, F.; Cristaudo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The capability of alloys used in cheap jewellery to release metal ions on contact with the skin causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is generally acknowledged. To reduce the diffusion of the Ni-induced ACD the Council Directive 94/27/EC [Council Directive 94/27/EC of 30 June 1994. Official Journal L 188, 22/07/1994, 1.] limited the total Ni content in alloys and its release rate in artificial sweat. In this work, three different aspects were explored: i) the frequency of skin sensitization to Ni-containing earrings in patients before and after the introduction of the Directive's limit; ii) metal composition of alloys by X-ray analysis; iii) metal leaching in artificial sweat followed by Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) quantification. Well-known allergenic metals, as Ni, Cr and Co, and possible emergent allergens, as Al, Ag, Au, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ir, Mn, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sn, V and Zn, were studied. Results showed that the frequency of allergy due to earrings did not decrease after the introduction of the Ni limit: in 1994 and in 2005 patients positive to Ni patch tests were 54.3% and 53.5%, respectively. The earring components analyzed were Fe-based or alloys of Cu/Zn or Fe/Cr/Ni, plated with a thin film of precious metal (Ag, Au) which, in several cases, was combined with a Ni layer beneath. Five out of 10 items were not in compliance with the Ni Directive 94/27/EC having a total Ni content > 0.05%. In three cases the release of Ni concentrations was higher than the safe sensitizing limit given by the above mentioned Regulation (i.e., 2 /week). The release of Cu and Zn was very variable among the different pieces (Cu: 0.134-30.9 μg/cm 2 /week; Zn: 0.141-160 μg/cm 2 /week); two objects released high amounts of Fe (358 and 586 μg/cm 2 /week) and one released considerable Mn (21 μg/cm 2 /week). Lead was released from 70% of the objects, while Ag, Al, Cd, Co, Cr and Sn from ca. 30% of the items and concentrations of these

  11. Pesticide analysis in coffee leaves using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe approach and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: Optimization of the clean-up step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Owen, Robert Wyn; Calatayud-Vernich, Pau; Breuer, Andrea; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-08-25

    An analytical method using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure for multi-residue determination of 52 pesticides in coffee leaf extractshas been developed and validated according to SANTE/11945/2015 guidelines. Different sorbent combinations for dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up as well as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) were tested. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the recovery of 87-94% of pesticides added to coffee leaf extracts,was ≤20% for samples spiked at concentrations up to 50ng*g -1 depending on the clean-up procedures. However, samples spiked with a 100ng*g -1 pesticide mixture gave RSDs>20% for most pesticides when d-SPE was carried out adding Supelclean ENVI-Carb 120/400. To explain this fact,the secondary metabolic profile was analyzed in all the extraction and clean-up procedures. Only in the clean-up procedure with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+, does caffeine show a constant adsorption between blank and spiked samples. In other clean-up procedures, the amount of caffeine was higher in those samples spiked with pesticides. This indicates competition between caffeine and pesticides for adsorption to the sorbent. Addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ to the procedure revealed only a 32% matrix effect, whereas using PSA+ C18 the matrix effect was close to 97%. The process efficiency is up to 54% with the addition of Supel QuE Z-Sep+ and just up to 7% for the other clean-up procedures. The method was successfully tested in coffee leaves from different types of cultivars. Pesticides were not detected in organic coffee leaf extracts, but thiametoxan was clearly detected in 50% of coffee leaf extracts harvested from coffee trees grown under traditional conditions as determined by UHPLC-TOFMSLC/QqTOF-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clustering dark energy and halo abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ronaldo C.; Marra, Valerio

    2017-11-01

    Within the standard paradigm, dark energy is taken as a homogeneous fluid that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and does not contribute to the mass of collapsed objects such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. The abundance of galaxy clusters—measured through a variety of channels—has been extensively used to constrain the normalization of the power spectrum: it is an important probe as it allows us to test if the standard ΛCDM model can indeed accurately describe the evolution of structures across billions of years. It is then quite significant that the Planck satellite has detected, via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, less clusters than expected according to the primary CMB anisotropies. One of the simplest generalizations that could reconcile these observations is to consider models in which dark energy is allowed to cluster, i.e., allowing its sound speed to vary. In this case, however, the standard methods to compute the abundance of galaxy clusters need to be adapted to account for the contributions of dark energy. In particular, we examine the case of clustering dark energy—a dark energy fluid with negligible sound speed—with a redshift-dependent equation of state. We carefully study how the halo mass function is modified in this scenario, highlighting corrections that have not been considered before in the literature. We address modifications in the growth function, collapse threshold, virialization densities and also changes in the comoving scale of collapse and mass function normalization. Our results show that clustering dark energy can impact halo abundances at the level of 10%-30%, depending on the halo mass, and that cluster counts are modified by about 30% at a redshift of unity.

  13. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  14. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  15. Inferring Carbon Abatement Costs in Electricity Markets: A Revealed Preference Approach using the Shale Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Cullen; Erin T. Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how much carbon emissions from the electricity industry would decrease in response to a carbon price. We show how both carbon prices and cheap natural gas reduce, in a nearly identical manner, the historic cost advantage of coal-fired power plants. The shale revolution has resulted in unprecedented variation in natural gas prices that we use to estimate the short-run price elasticity of abatement. Our estimates imply that a price of $10 ($60) per ton of carbon dioxide woul...

  16. The Galaxy Clustering Crisis in Abundance Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Lange, Johannes U.; Jiang, Fangzhou; Villarreal, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Galaxy clustering on small scales is significantly under-predicted by sub-halo abundance matching (SHAM) models that populate (sub-)haloes with galaxies based on peak halo mass, Mpeak. SHAM models based on the peak maximum circular velocity, Vpeak, have had much better success. The primary reason Mpeak based models fail is the relatively low abundance of satellite galaxies produced in these models compared to those based on Vpeak. Despite success in predicting clustering, a simple Vpeak based SHAM model results in predictions for galaxy growth that are at odds with observations. We evaluate three possible remedies that could "save" mass-based SHAM: (1) SHAM models require a significant population of "orphan" galaxies as a result of artificial disruption/merging of sub-haloes in modern high resolution dark matter simulations; (2) satellites must grow significantly after their accretion; and (3) stellar mass is significantly affected by halo assembly history. No solution is entirely satisfactory. However, regardless of the particulars, we show that popular SHAM models based on Mpeak cannot be complete physical models as presented. Either Vpeak truly is a better predictor of stellar mass at z ˜ 0 and it remains to be seen how the correlation between stellar mass and Vpeak comes about, or SHAM models are missing vital component(s) that significantly affect galaxy clustering.

  17. Electricity production from microbial fuel cell by using yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorasingha, A.; Souvakon, C.; Boonchom, K.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous search for methods to generate electricity from renewable sources such as water, solar energy, wind, nuclear or chemicals was discussed with particular focus on attaining the full power of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Under ideal environmental conditions, the only byproducts of a biofuel cell would be water and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The production of energy from renewables such as biomass is important for sustainable development and reducing global emissions of CO 2 . Hydrogen can also be an important component of an energy infrastructure that reduces CO 2 emissions if the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources and used in fuel cells. Hydrogen gas can be biologically produced at high concentration from the fermentation of high sugar substrates such as glucose and sucrose. Some of the issues of MFC design were addressed, including the use of cheap substrates to derive microbial electricity. In the MFC, yeast donates electrons to a chemical electron mediator, which in turn transfers the electrons to an electrode, producing electricity. Experimental results showed that glucose yielded the highest peak voltage, but a semi-processed sugar and molasses were similar to glucose in the electricity production pattern. It was noted that this technology is only at the research stages, and more research is needed before household microbial fuel cells can be made available for producing power for prolonged periods of time. Future research efforts will focus on increasing the efficiency, finding alternatives to hazardous electron mediators and finding new microbes. 12 refs., 6 figs

  18. DAWN GRAND MAP VESTA HYDROGEN ABUNDANCE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A global map of the abundance of hydrogen in micrograms/g within the regolith of asteroid 4 Vesta is provided for two-degree equal-angle pixels. Hydrogen abundances...

  19. Is the geographic pattern in the abundance of south African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two general, alternative hypotheses can explain the abundance pattern: either pre-recruitment factors, those affecting the abundance of larvae, settlers and juveniles (5 mm in basal diameter), are significantly different ...

  20. Abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Stasinska, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The methods of abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae are described, with emphasis on the underlying assumptions and inherent problems. Recent results on abundances in Galactic HII regions and in Galactic and extragalactic Planetary Nebulae are reviewed.

  1. Cosmological implications of light element abundances: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D N

    1993-06-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the hot Big Bang cosmological model (versus alternative explanations for the observed Hubble expansion). The standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation fits the light element abundances ranging from 1H at 76% and 4He at 24% by mass through 2H and 3He at parts in 105 down to 7Li at parts in 1010. It is also noted how the recent Large Electron Positron Collider (and Stanford Linear Collider) results on the number of neutrinos (Nnu) are a positive laboratory test of this standard Big Bang scenario. The possible alternate scenario of quark-hadron-induced inhomogeneities is also discussed. It is shown that when this alternative scenario is made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density (Omegab) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus adding to the robustness of the standard model and the conclusion that Omegab approximately 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for nonbaryonic dark matter (assuming total density Omegatotal = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since the density of visible matter Omegavisible < Omegab. The recent Population II B and Be observations are also discussed and shown to be a consequence of cosmic ray spallation processes rather than primordial nucleosynthesis. The light elements and Nnu successfully probe the cosmological model at times as early as 1 sec and a temperature (T) of approximately 10(10) K (approximately 1 MeV). Thus, they provided the first quantitative arguments that led to the connections of cosmology to nuclear and particle physics.

  2. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. I. Nucleosynthesis and abundance ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetrone, M; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A

    We have used the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's). We measure the abundances of alpha-, iron peak, first s-process, second

  3. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  4. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  5. Controlling Electrical Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...). In general, OSHA's electrical standards are based on the National Fire Protection Associations Standard NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, and in turn, from the National Electrical Code (NEC...

  6. Prices on electricity and transmission of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication contains data on prices of electric energy and transmission of electricity valid from 1 January 2003. The purpose is to illustrate the price changes on the electricity market in terms of prices for different customer categories. All companies holding network concessions for areas and all companies trading in electricity are included in this report, which is produced on an annual basis.The prices for transmission services 1 January 2003 were on the whole unchanged compared to the preceding year. For households the mean annual cost was SEK 882 for flats, SEK 4 335 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 1 925 for those without electric heating. Electricity prices rose considerably on 1 January 2003 compared to the year before. The mean price per kWh for households with standard agreements was SEK 0.519 for deliveries to flats, SEK 0.447 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 0.471 without electric heating. As a result, the mean annual cost increased by SEK 326 for flats, SEK 3 012 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating, and by SEK 774 for those houses without electric heating. The high costs of electricity may be explained in part by the development on the Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), where the spot price increased by about 290 per cent during 2002 (1 USD is about 8 SEK)

  7. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  8. Distribution and Abundance of Candacia Dana , 1846 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are more abundant during the southeast monsoon period and less so during the northeast monsoon. Abundance decreases with increasing depth, from a maximum of 880 ind.100/m3 at the surface to a minimum of 10 ind.100/m3 in the deep layers. The Candaciidae are least abundant at the depths ranging of 400 to ...

  9. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.

  10. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  11. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  12. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  13. Electric engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byeong Won; Eom, Sang Ho

    1999-03-01

    It is divided into nine chapters, which includes electricity theory such as structure of material and current, nature of electricity, static, magnetic force and magnetic attraction, attraction of current and a storage battery, electric circuit on a direct current circuit, single phase circuit and 3-phase current circuit electricity machine like DC generator, DC motor, alternator, electric transformer, single-phase induction motor, 3-phase induction motor, synchronous motor, synchro electric machine, semiconductor such as diode, transistor, FET, UJT, silicon symmetrical switch, electronic circuit like smoothing circuit and Bistable MV. circuit, automatic control, measurement of electricity, electric application and safety.

  14. The political economy of Canadian hydro-electricity : between old provincial hydros and neoliberal regional energy regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netherton, A.

    2007-01-01

    In economic terms, hydro-electricity is considered as a quasi-staple, as it prone to the classic staples problem of excess capacity. However, neither water nor hydroelectricity in Canada is produced primarily for export markets. Hydroelectric systems are often thought of as politicized monopolies. This paper discussed changes that have occurred in hydroelectric organizations over time, as they have been governed by a formative mixed regime; postwar provincial hydro systems; a megaprojects regime; and an emerging sustainability regionalization regime. The origins of electricity generation and transmission in Canada were discussed, as well as the ecological footprint of large mega-projects on rivers. The development of provincial hydro monopolies during the mid- to late- twentieth century was also outlined, as well as the sustainability and regionalization regime that developed after 1990. During the mature staples period of the mid-century, rents in hydro-electric organizations were distributed through cheap rates to subsidize and facilitate the development of mass production and mass consumption. However, post-staples consumption has now replaced mass consumption, and demand side management is replacing earlier cheap power policies. Nonetheless, the lack of systematic integration of networks has led to inefficiencies. Provincial grids are now being integrated into interconnected North American regional networks regulated by the United States. It was concluded that the Canadian electricity regime is increasingly influenced by the the supranational role that the United States is playing in structuring markets. 83 refs

  15. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  16. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihama, Y.; Schmidt, T.; Rappsilber, J.

    2008-01-01

    sample. Using a combination of LC-MS/MS approaches with protein and peptide fractionation steps we identified 1103 proteins from the cytosolic fraction of the Escherichia coli strain MC4100. A measure of abundance is presented for each of the identified proteins, based on the recently developed em...... protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion: Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work represent the most complete study of protein abundance in a bacterial cell so far. We show significant associations between the abundance of a protein and its...

  17. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Challenges of transferring models of fish abundance between coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Mellin, Camille; Lozano-Montes, Hector M; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Vanderklift, Mathew A; Haywood, Michael D E; Babcock, Russell C; Caley, M Julian

    2018-01-01

    Reliable abundance estimates for species are fundamental in ecology, fisheries, and conservation. Consequently, predictive models able to provide reliable estimates for un- or poorly-surveyed locations would prove a valuable tool for management. Based on commonly used environmental and physical predictors, we developed predictive models of total fish abundance and of abundance by fish family for ten representative taxonomic families for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) using multiple temporal scenarios. We then tested if models developed for the GBR (reference system) could predict fish abundances at Ningaloo Reef (NR; target system), i.e., if these GBR models could be successfully transferred to NR. Models of abundance by fish family resulted in improved performance (e.g., 44.1% fish abundance (9% fish species richness from the GBR to NR, transferability for these fish abundance models was poor. When compared with observations of fish abundance collected in NR, our transferability results had low validation scores ( R 2   0.05). High spatio-temporal variability of patterns in fish abundance at the family and population levels in both reef systems likely affected the transferability of these models. Inclusion of additional predictors with potential direct effects on abundance, such as local fishing effort or topographic complexity, may improve transferability of fish abundance models. However, observations of these local-scale predictors are often not available, and might thereby hinder studies on model transferability and its usefulness for conservation planning and management.

  19. An Alternative to Precious Metals: Hg(ClO4)2·3H2O as a Cheap and Water-Tolerant Catalyst for the Cycloisomerization of Allenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Luna, Amparo; Soriano, Elena

    2015-07-17

    Hg(ClO4)2·3H2O, a cheap, water-tolerant, and stable salt, catalyzes the cycloisomerization reaction or α-allenols to 2,5-dihydrofurans in an efficient and selective manner. The reaction is general and can be applied to differently functionalized substrates, including alkyl-substituted, aryl-substituted, enantiopure, and tertiary allenols. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain insight into various aspects of the controlled reactivity of α-allenols under mercury catalysis. They suggest a dual activation of the allenol by the Hg complex that drives the reaction to the chemoselective formation of 2,5-dihydrofurans.

  20. Beryllium abundances in Hg-Mn stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesgaard, A.M.; Heacox, W.D.; Wolff, S.C.; Borsenberger, J.; Praderie, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Hg-Mn stars show anomalous line strengths of many chemical elements including Be. We have observed the Be ii resonance doublet at lambdalambda 3130, 3131 at 6.7 A mm -1 in 43 Hg-Mn stars and 10 normal stars in the same temperature range with the coude spectrograph of the 2.24 m University of Hawaii telescope at Mauna Kea. Measured equivalent widths of the two lines and/or the blend of the doublet have been compared with predictions from (1) LTE model atmospheres and (2) non-LTE line formation on non-LTE model atmospheres. (For strong Be ii lines, the LTE calculations result in more Be by factors of 2 to 4 than do the non-LTE calculations.) Overabundances of factors of 20--2 x 10 4 relative to solar have been found for 75% of the Hg-Mn stars. The 25% with little or no Be are typically among the cooler Hg-Mn stars, but for the stars with Be excesses, there is only marginal evidence for a correlationi of the size of the overabundance and temperature. It is suggested that diffusion driven by radiation pressure is responsible for the observed Be abundance anomalies

  1. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  2. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Remi

    2011-01-01

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  3. Chloroflexi bacteria are more diverse, abundant, and similar in high than in low microbial abundance sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Susanne; Deines, Peter; Behnam, Faris; Wagner, Michael; Taylor, Michael W

    2011-12-01

    Some marine sponges harbor dense and phylogenetically complex microbial communities [high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges] whereas others contain only few and less diverse microorganisms [low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges]. We focused on the phylum Chloroflexi that frequently occurs in sponges to investigate the different associations with three HMA and three LMA sponges from New Zealand. By applying a range of microscopical and molecular techniques a clear dichotomy between HMA and LMA sponges was observed: Chloroflexi bacteria were more abundant and diverse in HMA than in LMA sponges. Moreover, different HMA sponges contain similar Chloroflexi communities whereas LMA sponges harbor different and more variable communities which partly resemble Chloroflexi seawater communities. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of our own and publicly available sponge-derived Chloroflexi 16S rRNA gene sequences (> 780 sequences) revealed the enormous diversity of this phylum within sponges including 29 sponge-specific and sponge-coral clusters (SSC/SCC) as well as a 'supercluster' consisting of > 250 sponge-derived and a single nonsponge-derived 16S rRNA gene sequence. Interestingly, the majority of sequences obtained from HMA sponges, but only a few from LMA sponges, fell into SSC/SCC clusters. This indicates a much more specific association of Chloroflexi bacteria with HMA sponges and suggests an ecologically important role for these prominent bacteria. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss Department of Energy has published electricity statistics for 1982. This report presents them in tabular form. The tables are classified under the following headings: important reference numbers, Swiss electricity review, production of electrical energy, use of electrical energy, load diagrams and coping with user requirements, import and export of energy 1982, possible building of power stations before 1989, finance, appendix

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  6. Power Supply, Electrical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a method for evaluation of electrical power supply operational and performance characteristics; identifies supporting tests...report is applicable to conversion type electrical supplies, rotary and static converters, but not applicable to power supply converters that convert energy in any form other than electrical to electrical energy.

  7. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  8. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  9. Electricity Market Interconnections and Electricity Price Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Nuno; Duque, João

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of changes in electricity price returns in the context of interconnected electricity markets. This model predicts an inverse relationship between the increase in interconnection capacity and the volatility of price returns in the corresponding electricity markets. This means that an increase of interconnection between two markets leads to a decrease in the volatility of their prices. We support our model with empirical results from the Australian, European an...

  10. Prices on electricity and transmission of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains data on prices of electric energy and transmission of electricity valid on 1 January 2002. The purpose is to illustrate the price changes on the electricity market in terms of prices for different customer categories. All companies holding network concessions for areas and all companies trading in electricity are included in this report, which is produced on an annual basis. The prices for transmission services 1 January 2002 were on the whole unchanged compared to the preceding year. For households the mean annual cost was SEK 856 for flats, SEK 4,194 one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 1,881 without electric heating. (1 SEK ∼ 0.1 USD). Electricity prices rose considerably on 1 January 2002 compared to the year before. The mean price per kWh for households according to standard agreement was SEK 0.356 for deliveries to flats, SEK 0.296 for apartments in one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 0.316 without electric heating. That means that the mean annual cost increased by SEK 171 for flats. For one- or two-family houses with electric heating, costs increased by SEK 1,424, and by SEK 379 for those houses without electric heating. The high costs of electricity may be explained in part by the development on the Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), where the spot price increased by 75 per cent during 2001. The price development for household customers during 1996-2002 is shown in a diagram

  11. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  12. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-08

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Electricity market 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment

  14. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  15. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Emily C.; Kamke, Janine; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Taylor, Michael W.; Hentschel, Ute; Ravasi, Timothy; Schmitt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either 'low microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'high microbial abundance' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacteri...

  16. History and current understanding of the Suess abundance curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, K.; Zeh, H.D.; Heidelberg Universitaet, West Germany)

    1985-01-01

    By means of a gamma ray sum spectrometer currently under development, many neutron capture cross sections will be determined with high accuracy, thereby facilitating the inferrence of the abundance ratios of neighboring elements with the same accuracy. Attention is presently given to this and other prospects emerging in the study of nuclide abundances and the data base for theories of element synthesis. Poorly understood structures in the abundance curve are discussed in view of recent models on nuclear structure and stability. 43 references

  17. Modelling tick abundance using machine learning techniques and satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

    satellite images to run Boosted Regression Tree machine learning algorithms to predict overall distribution (presence/absence of ticks) and relative tick abundance of nymphs and larvae in southern Scandinavia. For nymphs, the predicted abundance had a positive correlation with observed abundance...... the predicted distribution of larvae was mostly even throughout Denmark, it was primarily around the coastlines in Norway and Sweden. Abundance was fairly low overall except in some fragmented patches corresponding to forested habitats in the region. Machine learning techniques allow us to predict for larger...... the collected ticks for pathogens and using the same machine learning techniques to develop prevalence maps of the ScandTick region....

  18. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  19. Differential electricity pricing and energy efficiency in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    By international standards the economy of South Africa is extremely energy intensive with only a few countries having higher intensities. SA's primary energy use per unit of GDP is amongst the highest in the world. The high energy and electricity intensity of the economy partly reflects SA's resource endowments (in particular the abundance of coal) but is also a function of the historical under-pricing of coal and electricity by the authorities. South African mining and industrial electricity efficiency is particularly concerning and considerably lower than the global average. This paper sets out to fill a significant gap in the South African energy literature by highlighting the importance of incorporating electricity demand factors as part of the country's energy policy and electricity planning horizon. The paper focuses its attention on modelling the electricity consumption of SA's industrial and mining sectors given these account for the lion's share of electricity demand. A differential electricity pricing policy which targets electricity intensive industrial and mining activities (as practised in China since 2004) is viewed by the author to be a superior policy to blanket electricity price increases administered by authorities in an effort to encourage electricity savings and improve energy efficiency in South Africa. - Highlights: • SA's primary energy use per unit of GDP is amongst the highest in the world. • SA industrial electricity efficiency is considerably lower than the global average. • A differential electricity pricing policy which targets electricity intensive activities. • Differential tariffs raise the cost of energy inefficiency and induces energy saving. • Highlights importance of energy demand modelling in electricity supply planning

  20. Tailoring of the electrical and thermal properties using ultra-short period non-symmetric superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Komar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric modules based on half-Heusler compounds offer a cheap and clean way to create eco-friendly electrical energy from waste heat. Here we study the impact of the period composition on the electrical and thermal properties in non-symmetric superlattices, where the ratio of components varies according to (TiNiSnn:(HfNiSn6−n, and 0 ⩽ n ⩽ 6 unit cells. The thermal conductivity (κ showed a strong dependence on the material content achieving a minimum value for n = 3, whereas the highest value of the figure of merit ZT was achieved for n = 4. The measured κ can be well modeled using non-symmetric strain relaxation applied to the model of the series of thermal resistances.

  1. electrical and thermo-electric characterization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-04

    Sep 4, 2005 ... The thermo-electric power of the. films investigated in the temperature range from room temperature to 473K gave values in the range (3 -120) V/K. Data treatment suggests that the dominant carrier scattering mode is by ionized impurities. Keywords: C d0 thin films, electrical conductivity thermoe lectric ...

  2. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  3. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  4. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  5. Security attack detection algorithm for electric power gis system based on mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Feng, Renjun; Wang, Liming; Huang, Wei; Guo, Yajuan

    2017-05-01

    Electric power GIS is one of the key information technologies to satisfy the power grid construction in China, and widely used in power grid construction planning, weather, and power distribution management. The introduction of electric power GIS based on mobile applications is an effective extension of the geographic information system that has been widely used in the electric power industry. It provides reliable, cheap and sustainable power service for the country. The accurate state estimation is the important conditions to maintain the normal operation of the electric power GIS. Recent research has shown that attackers can inject the complex false data into the power system. The injection attack of this new type of false data (load integrity attack LIA) can successfully bypass the routine detection to achieve the purpose of attack, so that the control center will make a series of wrong decision. Eventually, leading to uneven distribution of power in the grid. In order to ensure the safety of the electric power GIS system based on mobile application, it is very important to analyze the attack mechanism and propose a new type of attack, and to study the corresponding detection method and prevention strategy in the environment of electric power GIS system based on mobile application.

  6. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Electricity market 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  8. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  9. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-07-16

    The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003-2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011-2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect

  10. Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, R. T.

    2016-10-01

    1. Electrostatics: fundamental facts; 2. Electricity as a measurable quantity; 3. Measurement of electric force and potential; 4. Condensers; 5. Electrical machines; 6. Measurement of potential and electric force; 7. Magnetic attraction and repulsion; 8. Laws of magnetic force; 9. Experiments with magnets; 10. Magnetic calculations; 11. Magnetic measurements; 12. Terrestrial magnetism; 13. The electric current; 14. Relation between electromagnetic force and current; 15. Measurement of current; 16. Measurement of resistance and electromotive force; 17. Measurement of quantity of electricity, condensers; 18. Thermal activity of a current; 19. The voltaic cell (theory); 20. Electromagnetism; 21. Magnetisation of iron; 22. Electromagnetic instruments; 23. Electromagnetic induction; 24. Applications of electromagnetic induction; 25. Telegraphy and telephony; 26. Electric waves; 27. Transference of electricity through gases: corpuscles and electrons; Answers to examples; Index.

  11. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  12. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  13. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...

  14. Abundance and productivity of birds over an elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn L. Purcell

    2002-01-01

    This study is investigating the abundance and productivity of birds breeding in four forest types over an elevational gradient in conifer forests of the southern Sierra Nevada of California to identify the most productive habitats for each species, and to examine elevational shifts in abundance, especially as they relate to temperature and precipitation. Species...

  15. Species composition, abundance and activity pattern of birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23.81%) were irregular. The species composition decreased during the wet season due to the departure of migratory birds. But, the abundance of birds during the wet season was greater than during the dry season. The most abundant species ...

  16. A protocol for sampling vascular epiphyte richness and abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Gradstein, S.R.; Nadkarni, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sampling of epiphytes is fraught with methodological difficulties. We present a protocol to sample and analyse vascular epiphyte richness and abundance in forests of different structure (SVERA). Epiphyte abundance is estimated as biomass by recording the number of plant components in a range of

  17. Spatio-temporal Variations of Abundance, Biomass, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatio-seasonal variations of Pseudodiaptomus hessei abundance, biomass and reproductive parameters were investigated in the Grand-Lahou lagoon at five stations during the dry and wet (or rainy) seasons from September 2005 to August 2006. In all sampling stations, abundance and biomass of P. hessei in the dry ...

  18. Community structure and abundance of avian and non-avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing the inselberg and their environs to increase the abundance of birds and other fauna may be achieved through restorative management of degraded habitats, which should include reforestation with native flora. This will facilitate increase in vertebrate diversity and abundance. As a means of preserving its unique ...

  19. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution, abundance and physico-chemical parameters affecting the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda were studied in a shallow lagoon (Albion) of Mauritius. Visual censuses were conducted along the 2 Km lagoon and GPS coordinates around sponge assemblages (patches) were noted. Sponge abundance ...

  20. The distribution and abundance of baboons ( Papio anubis ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Base line information on animal population distribution and abundance is crucial to planning and implementation of effective management strategies for the conservation of species. There is paucity of information on the distribution and abundance of papio anubis in Sambisa game reserve. Therefore, this study was carried ...

  1. Zinc abundances in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Tolstoy, E.; Salvadori, S.; Hill, V.; Pettini, M.

    2017-01-01

    From ESO VLT/FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra, abundance measurements of Zn have been made in ≈100 individual red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This is the largest sample of individual Zn abundance measurements within a stellar system beyond the Milky Way. In the observed

  2. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data on arthr...

  3. Activity of abundant and rare bacteria in a coastal ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara J; Yu, Liying; Heidelberg, John F; Kirchman, David L

    2011-08-02

    The surface layer of the oceans and other aquatic environments contains many bacteria that range in activity, from dormant cells to those with high rates of metabolism. However, little experimental evidence exists about the activity of specific bacterial taxa, especially rare ones. Here we explore the relationship between abundance and activity by documenting changes in abundance over time and by examining the ratio of 16S rRNA to rRNA genes (rDNA) of individual bacterial taxa. The V1-V2 region of 16S rRNA and rDNA was analyzed by tag pyrosequencing in a 3-y study of surface waters off the Delaware coast. Over half of the bacterial taxa actively cycled between abundant and rare, whereas about 12% always remained rare and potentially inactive. There was a significant correlation between the relative abundance of 16S rRNA and the relative abundance of 16S rDNA for most individual taxa. However, 16S rRNA:rDNA ratios were significantly higher in about 20% of the taxa when they were rare than when abundant. Relationships between 16S rRNA and rDNA frequencies were confirmed for five taxa by quantitative PCR. Our findings suggest that though abundance follows activity in the majority of the taxa, a significant portion of the rare community is active, with growth rates that decrease as abundance increases.

  4. The end of abundance. Economic solutions to water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetland, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In a past of abundance, we had clean water to meet our demands for showers, pools, farms and rivers. Our laws and customs did not need to regulate or ration demand. Over time, our demand has grown, and scarcity has replaced abundance. We don't have as much clean water as we want. We can respond to

  5. Abundance – A new window on how disruptive innovation occurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahto, Raj V.; Belousova, Olga; Ahluwalia, Saurabh

    2018-01-01

    The economic philosophy of abundance has provided a new portal to view disruptive innovation. After decades of the world's middle class shrinking and the poor becoming poorer the abundance concept has created an interest in the “Rising Billion” transforming the poor into a more viable economic force

  6. Fire and faunal abundance and diversity in the Natal Drakensberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Natal Drakensberg the abundance and diversity of francolins, small mammals and antelope were related to time elapsed since the last fire. Greatest abundance and diversity occurred up to 3 years after fire, and on areas rarely or never burnt. Under an intermediate frequency of fire, the numbers of both species and ...

  7. Inferring recent historic abundance from current genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palsboll, Per J.; Peery, M. Zachariah; Olsen, Morten T.; Beissinger, Steven R.; Berube, Martine

    Recent historic abundance is an elusive parameter of great importance for conserving endangered species and understanding the pre-anthropogenic state of the biosphere. The number of studies that have used population genetic theory to estimate recent historic abundance from contemporary levels of

  8. Waterfowl abundance and diversity in relation to season, wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waterfowl abundance and diversity in relation to season, wetland characteristics and land-use in semi-arid South Africa. ... were not abundant in the wet season, and were rare to absent in the dry season. Divers only responded positively to the characteristics of natural wetlands, including greater surface area, percent ...

  9. Spatial patterns of zooplankton distribution and abundance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial patterns and abundance of zooplankton in aquatic habitats are important determinants for production of fish species, invertebrates and availability of phytoplankton. Weekly monitoring for zooplankton abundance was conducted in Shirati Bay, Lake Victoria, to explore their spatial patterns in relation to phytoplankton, ...

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillariophyta was the most abundant group (48.17% of total phytoplankton) and was uniformly distributed in all waters, followed by Cyanobacteria (33.33%), which decreased with distance offshore. Chlorophyta, the third highest in abundance (15.5%), increased with distance offshore. A total of 92 phytoplankton species ...

  11. Abundance of birds in Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Kawatsu, Kencho; Nishiumi, Isao; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Keisuke; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of radiation on abundance of common birds in Fukushima can be assessed from the effects of radiation in Chernobyl. Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation, with a significant difference between Fukushima and Chernobyl. Analysis of 14 species common to the two areas revealed a negative effect of radiation on abundance, differing between areas and species. The relationship between abundance and radiation was more strongly negative in Fukushima than in Chernobyl for the same 14 species, demonstrating a negative consequence of radiation for birds immediately after the accident on 11 March 2011 during the main breeding season in March–July, when individuals work close to their maximum sustainable level. - Highlights: ► Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation in Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Effects of radiation on abundance differed between Chernobyl and Fukushima and among species. ► For 14 species common to the two areas the effects of radiation on abundance were stronger in Fukushima than in Chernobyl. - The negative effect of radiation on abundance of birds in Fukushima exceeded that for the same species in Chernobyl.

  12. Oxygen Abundance Methods in SDSS: View from Modern Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Our purpose is to find which is the most reliable one among various oxygen abundance determination methods. We will test the validity of several different oxygen abundance determination methods using methods of modern statistics. These methods include Bayesian analysis and information scoring.

  13. Abundance, length-weight relationship and condition factors of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most abundant fish species recorded in Ogbomoso reservoir are O. niloticus, C. nigrodigitatus, S. galilaeus, S. mystus with percentage abundance of 24.8%, 23.9%, 18.2% and 13.3% respectively. The values of b in C. nigrodigitatus, C. gariepinus, P. obscura and O. niloticus showed a positive allometric growth pattern.

  14. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  15. Abundances and Habitat Sensitivities of Some River Fishes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater fishes from a diverse array of 11 families, some dominated by marine species and others containing only a few species, were collected by electrofishing from 84 locations on small rivers in central Thailand and their abundances related to habitat characteristics. Abundances were largest for Channa gachua, ...

  16. Relation between grade and abundance of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    to arrive at an abundance value for that station. Similarly, samples 0.5 kg/m2 abundance were analysed for bulk chemistry and an average grade value (Ni + Cu) for the station is arrived at. Correlation coefficients were calculated between chemical variables...

  17. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  18. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  19. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  20. Mastering one's electricity purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)

  1. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  2. Electric field analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorti, Sivaji

    2015-01-01

    This book prepares newcomers to dive into the realm of electric field analysis. The book details why one should perform electric field analysis and what are its practical implications. It emphasizes both the fundamentals and modern computational methods of electric machines. The book covers practical applications of the numerical methods in high voltage equipment, including transmission lines, power transformers, cables, and gas insulated systems.

  3. The electricity market 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. We now have a common Nordic electricity market that includes all of the Nordic countries, with the exception of Iceland. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and increased trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish Energy Agency is the supervisory authority specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of 'The Electricity Market 2003' publication is to meet the need for generalized and easily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. The publication also includes summaries of the information from recent years concerning power generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  4. REACH. Electricity Units. Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Sappe, Hoyt

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals and electric motors. Each unit follows a typical format that includes a unit sheet,…

  5. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  6. Electric dipole moments reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupertsberger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The electric dipole moments of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and their connection to the electric susceptibility are discussed for stationary states. Assuming rotational invariance it is emphasized that for such states only in the case of a parity and time reversal violating interaction the considered particles can obtain a nonvanishing expectation value for the electric dipole moment. 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)

  7. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  8. Schneider Electric sozdajot set

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Maailma juhtiv elektriseadmete müüja Schneider Electric ühendab oma ettevõtted Balti- ja Põhjamaades uude divisjoni, mille nimeks saab Schneider Nordic Baltic. Eestis luuakse AS Schneider Electric Eesti, mis seni tegutses AS-i Lexel Electric nime all

  9. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  10. Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The changing face of energy production in Europe necessitates a rethink in the way that electricity markets are structured. The ‘5s’ (Future Electricity Markets) project is a multi-disciplinary project that is looking to challenge the current approach to the design and operation of electricity...

  11. Star formation and the interstellar medium in low surface brightness galaxies - I. Oxygen abundances and abundance gradients in low surface brightness disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    We present measurements of the oxygen abundances in 64 HII regions in 12 LSB galaxies. We find that oxygen abundances are low. No regions with solar abundance have been found, and most have oxygen abundances similar to 0.5 to 0.1 solar. The oxygen abundance appears to be constant as a function of

  12. Star formation and the interstellar medium in low surface brightness galaxies; 1, Oxygen abundances and abundance gradients in low surface brightness disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; Hulst, J. M. van der

    1998-01-01

    Submitted to: Astron. Astrophys. Abstract: We present measurements of the oxygen abundances in 64 HII regions in 12 LSB galaxies. We find that oxygen abundances are low. No regions with solar abundance have been found, and most have oxygen abundances $sim 0.5$ to 0.1 solar. The oxygen abundance

  13. Double stars measurements with cheap CCD sensors (French Title: Mesures d'étoiles doubles visuelles réalisées à l'aide de capteurs dtc de grande diffusion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losse, F.

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents 262 measurements of visual binaries. They essentially come from a three years evaluation period of cheap CCD sensors coupled with either off the shelves or modified webcam electronics. The evaluation cycle and results are largely described in Bulletin n°40 de la Commission des Etoiles Doubles (Sept. 2002 - Société Astronomique de France). These devices can produce measurements as consistent as those obtained with a filar micrometer on the same 8" telescope. The most recent measurements (epoch 2004+) were obtained with an "Audine" camera shipped with a KAF400. Besides the stars visited for evaluation purpose, we present some systems of interest : 17 orbital binaries, 35 neglected systems, 15 confirmations and 2 discoveries of a third component in already known systems.

  14. Analysis of organo-chlorine pesticides residue in raw coffee with a modified "quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe" extraction/clean up procedure for reducing the impact of caffeine on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresin, Bruno; Piol, Maria; Fabbro, Denis; Mancini, Maria Antonietta; Casetta, Bruno; Del Bianco, Clorinda

    2015-01-09

    The control of pesticide residues on raw coffee is a task of great importance due to high consumption of this beverage in Italy and in many other countries. High caffeine content can hamper extraction and measurement of any pesticide residue. A tandem extraction protocol has been devised by exploiting the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) scheme for extraction, coupled to a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) in order to drastically reduce caffeine content in the final extract. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used for quantification of organo-chlorine pesticides in single ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Method has been validated and performances meet the criteria prescribed by European Union regulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  16. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  17. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  18. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  19. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...

  20. Electricity in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1985-01-01

    European electricity consumption and demand is summarized in Chapter 1. The relationship between government and electricity producers is touched on. Five further chapters examine aspects of electricity in Europe. Chapter 2 discusses the electricity trade (import and export of electricity). The next looks at the current status of nuclear power in individual European countries. The environmental impact of generating electricity (eg acid rain, radioactive waste disposal) is assessed next and then the price of electricity in Europe is reviewed (with comparisons between the countries). Profiles of the situation in each country are presented in the last chapter. There are 72 tables presenting the facts and figures on which the text is based. (U.K.)

  1. Economics of electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdmann G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following text is an introduction into the economic theory of electricity supply and demand. The basic approach of economics has to reflect the physical peculiarities of electric power that is based on the directed movement of electrons from the minus pole to the plus pole of a voltage source. The regular grid supply of electricity is characterized by a largely constant frequency and voltage. Thus, from a physical point of view electricity is a homogeneous product. But from an economic point of view, electricity is not homogeneous. Wholesale electricity prices show significant fluctuations over time and between regions, because this product is not storable (in relevant quantities and there may be bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids. The associated non-homogeneity is the starting point of the economic analysis of electricity markets.

  2. Pervasive Electricity Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Tahir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Now a days a country cannot become economically strong until and unless it has enough electrical power to fulfil industrial and domestic needs. Electrical power being the pillar of any country’s economy, needs to be used in an efficient way. The same step is taken here by proposing a new system for energy distribution from substation to consumer houses, also it monitors the consumer consumption and record data. Unlike traditional manual Electrical systems, pervasive electricity distribution system (PEDS introduces a fresh perspective to monitor the feeder line status at distribution and consumer level. In this system an effort is taken to address the issues of electricity theft, manual billing, online monitoring of electrical distribution system and automatic control of electrical distribution points. The project is designed using microcontroller and different sensors, its GUI is designed in Labview software.

  3. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  4. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  5. Determinants of protein abundance and translation efficiency in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamir Tuller

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The translation efficiency of most Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes remains fairly constant across poor and rich growth media. This observation has led us to revisit the available data and to examine the potential utility of a protein abundance predictor in reinterpreting existing mRNA expression data. Our predictor is based on large-scale data of mRNA levels, the tRNA adaptation index, and the evolutionary rate. It attains a correlation of 0.76 with experimentally determined protein abundance levels on unseen data and successfully cross-predicts protein abundance levels in another yeast species (Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The predicted abundance levels of proteins in known S. cerevisiae complexes, and of interacting proteins, are significantly more coherent than their corresponding mRNA expression levels. Analysis of gene expression measurement experiments using the predicted protein abundance levels yields new insights that are not readily discernable when clustering the corresponding mRNA expression levels. Comparing protein abundance levels across poor and rich media, we find a general trend for homeostatic regulation where transcription and translation change in a reciprocal manner. This phenomenon is more prominent near origins of replications. Our analysis shows that in parallel to the adaptation occurring at the tRNA level via the codon bias, proteins do undergo a complementary adaptation at the amino acid level to further increase their abundance.

  6. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480–19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and inaccurate removal rates, we suggest auxiliary information that could be collected and included in the model as covariates (e

  7. Understanding and reducing statistical uncertainties in nebular abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.; Stock, D. J.; Scicluna, P.

    2012-06-01

    Whenever observations are compared to theories, an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the observations is vital if the comparison is to be meaningful. However, many or even most determinations of temperatures, densities and abundances in photoionized nebulae do not quote the associated uncertainty. Those that do typically propagate the uncertainties using analytical techniques which rely on assumptions that generally do not hold. Motivated by this issue, we have developed Nebular Empirical Analysis Tool (NEAT), a new code for calculating chemical abundances in photoionized nebulae. The code carries out a standard analysis of lists of emission lines using long-established techniques to estimate the amount of interstellar extinction, calculate representative temperatures and densities, compute ionic abundances from both collisionally excited lines and recombination lines, and finally to estimate total elemental abundances using an ionization correction scheme. NEATuses a Monte Carlo technique to robustly propagate uncertainties from line flux measurements through to the derived abundances. We show that, for typical observational data, this approach is superior to analytic estimates of uncertainties. NEAT also accounts for the effect of upward biasing on measurements of lines with low signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to accurately quantify the effect of this bias on abundance determinations. We find not only that the effect can result in significant overestimates of heavy element abundances derived from weak lines, but also that taking it into account reduces the uncertainty of these abundance determinations. Finally, we investigate the effect of possible uncertainties in R, the ratio of selective-to-total extinction, on abundance determinations. We find that the uncertainty due to this parameter is negligible compared to the statistical uncertainties due to typical line flux measurement uncertainties.

  8. Geographical factors of the abundance of flora in Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselkin, D. V.; Tretyakova, A. S.; Senator, S. A.; Saksonov, S. V.; Mukhin, V. A.; Rozenberg, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    An analysis of data on the species abundance of flora in 89 cities (urban flora) of the Russian Federation facilitated determination of its main factors. It has been revealed that the factors determining the abundance of native and alien components of urban flora vary. The city area and population number are the main factors of the total number of species and of the abundance of native species in urban flora. The diversity and participation of alien species increase in parallel with. the urbanization rate, anthropogenic transformation of the regions, and the age of cities and are in adverse correlation with the climate severity.

  9. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...... differences in terminology and ecological point of view. Realizing and accounting for these differences facilitates integration, so that the relative contributions of each mechanism may be evaluated. Here, we review all the mechanisms that have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships...

  10. The millimeter-wave spectrum of AlOH. [in relevance to its high cosmic abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apponi, A. J.; Barclay, W. L., Jr.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of the AlOH and AlOD molecules in their X 1Sigma(+) (v = 0) ground electric states has been measured in the laboratory using direct absorption millimeter/submillimeter spectroscopy. The species were produced by the reaction of aluminum vapor, created in a Broida-type oven, with hydrogen peroxide or D2O2. Eight rotational transitions of AlOH and five transitions for AlOD were measured in the frequency range of 157-378 GHz to an accuracy better than +/- 75 kHz. Electric quadrupole interactions, arising from the aluminum nuclear spin of 5/2, were observed in the J = 4 - 5 and the J = 5 - 6 transitions of AlOH. The rotational constants of these molecules have been determined from a nonlinear least-squares fit to the data. The electric quadrupole coupling constant, eqQ, has been measured as well, and was found to have a value of -42.4 +/- 4.3 MHz. The spectra are consistent with quasi-linear ground states for AlOH and AlOD, as predicted by theory. AlOH is of astrophysical interest because of the relatively high cosmic abundance of aluminum.

  11. Relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    Seven hundred fifty-nine transects having a total length of 1,191 km were walked during 1981--1986 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The abundance of tortoises on NTS was low to very low relative to other populations in the Mojave Desert. Sign of tortoises was found from 880 to 1,570 m elevation and was more abundant above 1,200 m than has been reported previously for Nevada. Tortoises were more abundant on NTS on the upper alluvial fans and slopes of mountains than in valley bottoms. They also were more common on or near limestone and dolomite mountains than on mountains of volcanic origin

  12. Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on various surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi

    Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on aluminium, fibreglass and stainless steel were studied from Dona Paula waters of the Zuari Estuary. Both these forms were reversibly attached in large numbers to surfaces during the initial 24 hr...

  13. Methanotrophic abundance and community fingerprint in pine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methanotrophs) is important to assess the microbial oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in soil under different land uses. Soil samples were collected from two plantation plots of pine and tea in southern China. Methanotrophic abundance ...

  14. Relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O`Farrell, T.P.

    1993-12-31

    Seven hundred fifty-nine transects having a total length of 1,191 km were walked during 1981--1986 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The abundance of tortoises on NTS was low to very low relative to other populations in the Mojave Desert. Sign of tortoises was found from 880 to 1,570 m elevation and was more abundant above 1,200 m than has been reported previously for Nevada. Tortoises were more abundant on NTS on the upper alluvial fans and slopes of mountains than in valley bottoms. They also were more common on or near limestone and dolomite mountains than on mountains of volcanic origin.

  15. Factors influencing long-term and seasonal waterbird abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... influence waterbird communities include rainfall quantity and distribution, waterbird movement, breeding and moulting; anthropogenic drivers include activities such as fishing and agriculture. Results suggest that seasonal variations in resource availability influenced the waterbird community composition and abundance, ...

  16. Detecting novel low-abundant transcripts in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sanggyu; Bao, Jingyue; Zhou, Guolin

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low-abundant transcripts may play fundamental roles in biological processes. In an attempt to estimate the prevalence of low-abundant transcripts in eukaryotic genomes, we performed a transcriptome analysis in Drosophila using the SAGE technique. We collected 244......,313 SAGE tags from transcripts expressed in Drosophila embryonic, larval, pupae, adult, and testicular tissue. From these SAGE tags, we identified 40,823 unique SAGE tags. Our analysis showed that 55% of the 40,823 unique SAGE tags are novel without matches in currently known Drosophila transcripts...... in the Drosophila genome. Our study reveals the presence of a significant number of novel low-abundant transcripts in Drosophila, and highlights the need to isolate these novel low-abundant transcripts for further biological studies. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jun...

  17. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the abundance of molecular components is an important prerequisite for building quantitative predictive models of cellular behavior. Proteins are central components of these models, since they carry out most of the fundamental processes in the cell. Thus far, protein concentrations have been difficult to measure on a large scale, but proteomic technologies have now advanced to a stage where this information becomes readily accessible. Results Here, we describe an experimental scheme to maximize the coverage of proteins identified by mass spectrometry of a complex biological sample. Using a combination of LC-MS/MS approaches with protein and peptide fractionation steps we identified 1103 proteins from the cytosolic fraction of the Escherichia coli strain MC4100. A measure of abundance is presented for each of the identified proteins, based on the recently developed emPAI approach which takes into account the number of sequenced peptides per protein. The values of abundance are within a broad range and accurately reflect independently measured copy numbers per cell. As expected, the most abundant proteins were those involved in protein synthesis, most notably ribosomal proteins. Proteins involved in energy metabolism as well as those with binding function were also found in high copy number while proteins annotated with the terms metabolism, transcription, transport, and cellular organization were rare. The barrel-sandwich fold was found to be the structural fold with the highest abundance. Highly abundant proteins are predicted to be less prone to aggregation based on their length, pI values, and occurrence patterns of hydrophobic stretches. We also find that abundant proteins tend to be predominantly essential. Additionally we observe a significant correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work

  18. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Detailed Age and Abundance Gradients using DR12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Thompson, Benjamin A.; O'Connell, Julia; Meyer, Brianne; Donor, John; Majewski, Steven R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Zasowski, Gail; Beers, Timothy C.; Beaton, Rachael; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Hearty, Fred; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Smith, Verne V.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed abundance results for Galactic open clusters as part of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey, which is based primarily on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/ Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment. Using 100 open clusters from the uniformly observed complete SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 DR12 dataset, we present age and multi-element abundance gradients for the disk of the Milky Way.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  19. Incorporating breeding abundance into spatial assignments on continuous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Clark S; Marra, Peter P; Studds, Colin E

    2017-06-01

    Determining the geographic connections between breeding and nonbreeding populations, termed migratory connectivity, is critical to advancing our understanding of the ecology and conservation of migratory species. Assignment models based on stable isotopes historically have been an important tool for studying migratory connectivity of small-bodied species, but the low resolution of these assignments has generated interest into combining isotopes with other sources in information. Abundance is one of the most appealing data sources to include in isotope-based assignments, but there are currently no statistical methods or guidelines for optimizing the contribution of stable isotopes and abundance for inferring migratory connectivity. Using known-origin stable-hydrogen isotope samples of six Neotropical migratory bird species, we rigorously assessed the performance of assignment models that differentially weight the contribution of the isotope and abundance data. For two species with adequate sample sizes, we used Pareto optimality to determine the set of models that simultaneously minimized both assignment error rate and assignment area. We then assessed the ability of the top models from these two species to improve assignments of the remaining four species compared to assignments based on isotopes alone. We show that the increased precision of models that include abundance is often offset by a large increase in assignment error. However, models that optimally weigh the abundance data relative to the isotope data can result in higher precision and, in some cases, lower error than models based on isotopes alone. The top models, however, depended on the distribution of relative breeding abundance, with patchier distributions requiring stronger downweighting of abundance, and we present general guidelines for future studies. These results confirm that breeding abundance can be an important source of information for studies investigating broad-scale movements of

  20. Dynamical explanation for the high water abundance detected in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1979-01-01

    Shock wave chemistry is suggested as the likely explanation for the high water abundance which has been recently detected in Orion by Phyllips et al. The existence of such a shock and its inferred properties are in agreement with other observations of Orion such as the broad velocity feature and H 2 vibration emission. Shock waves are proposed as the likely explanation for high water abundances observed in other sources such as the strong H 2 O masers

  1. Measuring 14 Elemental Abundances with R = 1800 LAMOST Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Conroy, Charlie; Ho, Anna Y. Q.; Lin, Jane

    2017-11-01

    The LAMOST survey has acquired low-resolution spectra (R = 1800) for 5 million stars across the Milky Way, far more than any current stellar survey at a corresponding or higher spectral resolution. It is often assumed that only very few elemental abundances can be measured from such low-resolution spectra, limiting their utility for Galactic archaeology studies. However, Ting et al. used ab initio models to argue that low-resolution spectra should enable precision measurements of many elemental abundances, at least in theory. Here, we verify this claim in practice by measuring the relative abundances of 14 elements from LAMOST spectra with a precision of ≲ 0.1 dex for objects with {{S}}/{{{N}}}{LAMOST}≳ 30 (per pixel). We employ a spectral modeling method in which a data-driven model is combined with priors that the model gradient spectra should resemble ab initio spectral models. This approach assures that the data-driven abundance determinations draw on physically sensible features in the spectrum in their predictions and do not just exploit astrophysical correlations among abundances. Our analysis is constrained to the number of elemental abundances measured in the APOGEE survey, which is the source of the training labels. Obtaining high quality/resolution spectra for a subset of LAMOST stars to measure more elemental abundances as training labels and then applying this method to the full LAMOST catalog will provide a sample with more than 20 elemental abundances, which is an order of magnitude larger than current high-resolution surveys, substantially increasing the sample size for Galactic archaeology.

  2. A protocol for sampling vascular epiphyte richness and abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Gradstein, S.R.; Nadkarni, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sampling of epiphytes is fraught with methodological difficulties. We present a protocol to sample and analyse vascular epiphyte richness and abundance in forests of different structure (SVERA). Epiphyte abundance is estimated as biomass by recording the number of plant components in a range of size cohorts. Epiphyte species biomass is estimated on 35 sample-trees, evenly distributed over six trunk diameter-size cohorts (10 trees with dbh > 30 cm). Tree height, dbh and number of forks (di...

  3. New Abundant Microbial Groups in Aquatic Hypersaline Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ghai, Rohit; Pa?i?, Lejla; Fern?ndez, Ana Beatriz; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; McMahon, Katherine D.; Papke, R. Thane; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Rodriguez-Brito, Beltran; Rohwer, Forest; S?nchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio; Rodr?guez-Valera, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    We describe the microbiota of two hypersaline saltern ponds, one of intermediate salinity (19%) and a NaCl saturated crystallizer pond (37%) using pyrosequencing. The analyses of these metagenomes (nearly 784 Mb) reaffirmed the vast dominance of Haloquadratum walsbyi but also revealed novel, abundant and previously unsuspected microbial groups. We describe for the first time, a group of low GC Actinobacteria, related to freshwater Actinobacteria, abundant in low and intermediate salinities. M...

  4. THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL ABUNDANCES ON NITROGEN IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-01-01

    The dominant form of nitrogen provided to most solar system bodies is currently unknown, though available measurements show that the detected nitrogen in solar system rocks and ices is depleted with respect to solar abundances and the interstellar medium. We use a detailed chemical/physical model of the chemical evolution of a protoplanetary disk to explore the evolution and abundance of nitrogen-bearing molecules. Based on this model, we analyze how initial chemical abundances provided as either gas or ice during the early stages of disk formation influence which species become the dominant nitrogen bearers at later stages. We find that a disk with the majority of its initial nitrogen in either atomic or molecular nitrogen is later dominated by atomic and molecular nitrogen as well as NH 3 and HCN ices, where the dominant species varies with disk radius. When nitrogen is initially in gaseous ammonia, it later becomes trapped in ammonia ice except in the outer disk where atomic nitrogen dominates. For a disk with the initial nitrogen in the form of ammonia ice, the nitrogen remains trapped in the ice as NH 3 at later stages. The model in which most of the initial nitrogen is placed in atomic N best matches the ammonia abundances observed in comets. Furthermore, the initial state of nitrogen influences the abundance of N 2 H + , which has been detected in protoplanetary disks. Strong N 2 H + emission is found to be indicative of an N 2 abundance greater than n N 2 /n H 2 >10 −6 in addition to tracing the CO snow line. Our models also indicate that NO is potentially detectable, with lower N gas abundances leading to higher NO abundances

  5. Literature survey of isotopic abundance data for 1987-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-08-09

    I have compiled all of the data on isotopic abundance measurements and their variation in nature for the time period since the last General Assembly. Most of the data deals with the variations in the abundances as given by per mil deviations from some standard. As such, they are not of major interest to the Atomic Weights Commission. However, there were some measurements which are of general interest in this list.

  6. Silicon and Oxygen Abundances in Planet-Host Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Brugamyer, Erik; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Cochran, William D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The positive correlation between planet detection rate and host star iron abundance lends strong support to the core accretion theory of planet formation. However, iron is not the most significant mass contributor to the cores of giant planets. Since giant planet cores are thought to grow from silicate grains with icy mantles, the likelihood of gas giant formation should depend heavily on the oxygen and silicon abundance of the planet formation environment. Here we compare the silicon and oxy...

  7. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Karanth, K. Ullas; Nichols, James D.; Kumar, N. Samba; Link, William A.; Hines, James E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and...

  8. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to the limitations of traditional ground survey and remote sensing classification techniques. In ...

  9. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  10. Electricity securitization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Chang [Renmin University of China, Beijing (China). School of Business; Wang, J.H. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (United States). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xie, Jun [Wuhan University of Technology (China). School of Management

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses the past and the status quo of electricity securitization in China. First, the stranded cost securitization in American electricity industry and the ongoing securitization progress in emerging market countries are investigated, which enlightens the way of electricity securitization in China. Through analysis of electricity industry in China, the paper proposes constructive policy suggestions for regulators who intend to prompt securitization to develop electricity infrastructure, and detailed recommendations for companies who plan to raise money at reduced cost. It is concluded that even though it is at the very beginning stage in China, securitization not only provides financing for investment projects, but also speeds up the reform by stranded cost securitization, a novel idea for electricity industry in China. (author)

  11. Electrical system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  12. SULFUR ABUNDANCES IN THE ORION ASSOCIATION B STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daflon, Simone; Cunha, Katia; De la Reza, Ramiro; Holtzman, Jon; Chiappini, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur abundances are derived for a sample of 10 B main-sequence star members of the Orion association. The analysis is based on LTE plane-parallel model atmospheres and non-LTE line formation theory by means of a self-consistent spectrum synthesis analysis of lines from two ionization states of sulfur, S II and S III. The observations are high-resolution spectra obtained with the ARCES spectrograph at the Apache Point Observatory. The abundance distribution obtained for the Orion targets is homogeneous within the expected errors in the analysis: A(S) = 7.15 ± 0.05. This average abundance result is in agreement with the recommended solar value (both from modeling of the photospheres in one-dimensional and three-dimensional, and meteorites) and indicates that little, if any, chemical evolution of sulfur has taken place in the last ∼4.5 billion years. The sulfur abundances of the young stars in Orion are found to agree well with results for the Orion Nebulae, and place strong constraints on the amount of sulfur depletion onto grains as being very modest or nonexistent. The sulfur abundances for Orion are consistent with other measurements at a similar galactocentric radius: combined with previous results for other OB-type stars produce a relatively shallow sulfur abundance gradient with a slope of -0.037 ± 0.012 dex kpc -1 .

  13. Nuclear abundances and evolution of the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannier, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of molecular and elemental abundances in the interstellar medium (ISM) are reviewed, with special attention given to isotope ratios. The derivation of molecular isotope abundances for the ISM is discussed, along with H and C fractionation. Millimeter- and centimeter-wave spectra of giant clouds are examined with respect to isotope abundances of C, O, N, Si, S, and D. Evidence for the current enrichment of the ISM by mass loss from evolved stars is considered, together with chemical abundance gradients in H II regions and planetary nebulae. Cosmic-ray observations pertaining to abundances in the ISM are summarized, with emphasis on available results for Ne, Mg, Si, Fe, and Ni. The observations reviewed are shown to support arguments in favor of: (1) the cosmological production of D and He-3 (2) the production of the CNO elements by hydrostatic hydrogen burning (3) the nucleosynthesis of Ne, Mg, Si, S, Fe, and Ni as a result of He burning (4) solar abundances of interstellar S, Fe, and Ni and (5) a direct association between observed inhomogeneities in the ISM and mass loss from evolved stellar objects

  14. SPECTRAL UNMIXING BASED CONSTRUCTION OF LUNAR MINERAL ABUNDANCE MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bernhardt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3 instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  15. Cattle and rainfall affect tick abundance in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S; Young, Truman P; Allan, Brian F

    2018-03-01

    East Africa is a global hot spot for the diversity of ixodid ticks. As ectoparasites and as vectors of pathogens, ticks negatively affect the well-being of humans, livestock and wildlife. To prevent tick infestations, livestock owners and managers typically treat livestock with acaricides that kill ticks when they attempt to feed on livestock hosts. Because of the costs of preventing and mitigating tick parasitism, predicting where and when ticks will be abundant is an important challenge in this region. We used a 7-year monthly record of tick abundance on large experimental plots to assess the effects of rainfall, wildlife and cattle on larvae, nymphs and adults of two common tick species, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Rhipicephalus praetextatus. Nymphal and adult ticks were more abundant when there had been high cumulative rainfall in the prior months. They were less abundant when cattle were present than when only large wild mammals were. Larval abundance was not affected by the presence of cattle, and larvae did not appear to be sensitive to rainfall in prior months, though they were less abundant in our surveys when rainfall was high in the sampling month. The challenges of managing ticks in this region are being exacerbated rapidly by changes in rainfall patterns wrought by climate change, and by overall increases in livestock, making efforts to predict the impacts of these drivers all the more pressing.

  16. CHROMOSPHERIC MODELS AND THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H.; Kurucz, R. L., E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    Realistic stellar atmospheric models of two typical metal-poor giant stars in Omega Centauri, which include a chromosphere (CHR), influence the formation of optical lines of O i: the forbidden lines (λ6300, λ6363) and the infrared triplet (λλ7771−7775). One-dimensional semi-empirical non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) models are constructed based on observed Balmer lines. A full non-LTE formulation is applied for evaluating the line strengths of O i, including photoionization by the Lyman continuum and photoexcitation by Lyα and Lyβ. Chromospheric models (CHR) yield forbidden oxygen transitions that are stronger than those in radiative/convective equilibrium (RCE) models. The triplet oxygen lines from high levels also appear stronger than those produced in an RCE model. The inferred oxygen abundance from realistic CHR models for these two stars is decreased by factors of ∼3 as compared to values derived from RCE models. A lower oxygen abundance suggests that intermediate-mass AGB stars contribute to the observed abundance pattern in globular clusters. A change in the oxygen abundance of metal-poor field giants could affect models of deep mixing episodes on the red giant branch. Changes in the oxygen abundance can impact other abundance determinations that are critical to astrophysics, including chemical tagging techniques and galactic chemical evolution.

  17. Spectral Unmixing Based Construction of Lunar Mineral Abundance Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, V.; Grumpe, A.; Wöhler, C.

    2017-07-01

    In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL) algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  18. Temperature-associated dynamics of songbird winter distributions and abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J Russell; MacMynowski, Dena P; Laurent, Chad; Root, Terry L

    2007-12-01

    Using Christmas Bird Count data, we analyze the annual spatio-temporal abundances of six passerine species in the upper Great Plains, US (1960-1990). This study provides new insight into how global warming could cause separation of species within present-day communities. We find that winter relative abundances of similarly-sized songbirds are differentially affected by ambient winter temperature. As such, average annual winter temperature fluctuations (i.e., severity of winter) are significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the relative abundances of three species while the other three are not. Our conditional probability-of-occurrence analysis indicates that the abundances of the three temperature-associated species declined markedly below -4 degrees C while the abundances of the other three species fluctuated little from 8 degrees C to -16 degrees C. We conclude that even in colder climates i) the winter distributions of some, but not all, songbirds are directly or indirectly limited by temperature; and ii) these birds have dynamic abundances that can quickly respond to temperature changes.

  19. Essays on electricity theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Keva Ullanda

    Electricity theft is a relatively unknown crime with high economic costs. In this dissertation, I try to identify the factors that motivate persons to steal electricity. First, I use a panel dataset of 97 countries spanning the five year period 2003--2007 to estimate a model that describes the effect of the unemployment rate, GDP per capita, male population and urbanization on theft, robbery and homicide rates. The results are consistent with previous empirical work on crime and economic opportunity. The second and main contribution of this paper is to estimate the same model using distribution loss as a proxy for electricity theft. The results show that the unemployment rate, a key explanatory economic factor for crime, cannot explain variation in electricity theft, although there is some evidence, albeit weak, supporting correlation in rich countries. Therefore, policies that target the reduction of property crime through a reduction in unemployment will have no effect on electricity theft. The third contribution relates to the role that political institutions play in the incentives to steal electricity. After control for socioeconomic factors, I find that there is no relationship between political governance indicators and electricity theft. In the second and third chapters, I compare the United States, a high income, low electricity theft country with Jamaica, a middle income, high electricity theft country. The effect of unemployment on electricity theft mirrors the results found in the first chapter. In the United States, electricity theft is affected by changes in economic conditions but in Jamaica, it is not. These results suggest that the state of institutions plays a role in how social norms are determined. Poor countries will be more likely than rich countries to have weak institutions with social norms that encourage electricity theft.

  20. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  1. Competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines expanded wholesale and retail competition and the effect that they are likely to have on the electric power industry. The author believes that expanded wholesale competition is good and will bring immediate benefit to all electric consumers; however, based on the experience of the natural gas industry and the electric power industry in California and other parts of the world, the author counsels caution in moving toward expanded retail competition

  2. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  3. Operational electricity transmission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    1997-01-01

    In a liberalized electricity market both the consumers and the producers of electricity must pay for the use of the power transmission network. Thus, the net manager has unlimited options to realize efficiency improvements. A neutral and transparent management of the power grid is necessary to avoid disturbance of the market. KEMA Consulting translated abstract ideas and strategic advices to operational concepts in its report 'A framework for the determination of tariffs of the transport in the Dutch electricity sector'

  4. Electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Historical background; The Nationalisation Law of 1946 and the present electricity regulatory framework; Other regulations and policies having an impact on the French electricity system; Forces for and against Liberalisation; The legislative framework in preparation; Electricity costs and prices; The main industrial player. EdF; Key nuclear issues; EdF and the HV transmission network; The non-nationalised distributors; Other players on the generation side; Conclusions. (Author)

  5. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  6. Electric engineering summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sing Eun; Park, Seong Taek; Lim, Yong Un

    1975-03-01

    This book is made up six parts, which deals with circuit theory about sinusoidal alternating current, basic current circuit, wave power, distorted wave, two terminal network, distributed circuit, laplace transformation and transfer function, power engineering on line, failure analysis transmission of line, substation and protection device and hydroelectric power plant, electricity machine like DC machine, electric transformer, induction machine and rectifier, electromagnetic on dielectric substance current, electromagnetic, electricity application like lighting engineering, heat transfer and electricity chemistry, industry, industry math with integer, rational number, factorization, matrix and differential.

  7. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  8. Electric Field Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields....

  9. Fire protection electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Min

    2000-03-15

    This book concentrates of electricity with current, voltage, power, ohms law, access of resistance, electrolytic analysis and battery, static on frictional electricity and electrostatic induction, coulomb's law, Gauss's law, condenser and capacity, magmatism on magnetic field and magnetic line of force, magnetic circuit, electromagnetic force, electromotive current, basic alternating current circuit, circuit network analysis, three-phase current, non-sinusoidal alternating current, transient phenomena, semiconductor, electric measurement on measurement over resistance, power, power rate and circuit tester, automatic control on introduction, term, classification, foundation of sequence control, logic circuit and basic logic circuit and electric equipment.

  10. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  11. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  12. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  13. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  14. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  15. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  16. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  17. Chemical-to-Electricity Carbon: Water Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sisi; Zhang, Yueyu; Qiu, Longbin; Zhang, Longsheng; Xie, Yun; Pan, Jian; Chen, Peining; Wang, Bingjie; Xu, Xiaojie; Hu, Yajie; Dinh, Cao Thang; De Luna, Phil; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Wang, Zhiqiang; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Gong, Xingao; Zhang, Bo; Peng, Huisheng; Sargent, Edward H

    2018-03-26

    The ability to release, as electrical energy, potential energy stored at the water:carbon interface is attractive, since water is abundant and available. However, many previous reports of such energy converters rely on either flowing water or specially designed ionic aqueous solutions. These requirements restrict practical application, particularly in environments with quiescent water. Here, a carbon-based chemical-to-electricity device that transfers the chemical energy to electrical form when coming into contact with quiescent deionized water is reported. The device is built using carbon nanotube yarns, oxygen content of which is modulated using oxygen plasma-treatment. When immersed in water, the device discharges electricity with a power density that exceeds 700 mW m -2 , one order of magnitude higher than the best previously published result. X-ray absorption and density functional theory studies support a mechanism of operation that relies on the polarization of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms. The devices are incorporated into a flexible fabric for powering personal electronic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  19. Development of a solar-powered electric bicycle in bike sharing transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhisuwignjo, S.; Siradjuddin, I.; Rifa'i, M.; Putri, R. I.

    2017-06-01

    The increasing mobility has directly led to deteriorating traffic conditions, extra fuel consumption, increasing automobile exhaust emissions, air pollution and lowering quality of life. Apart from being clean, cheap and equitable mode of transport for short-distance journeys, cycling can potentially offer solutions to the problem of urban mobility. Many cities have tried promoting cycling particularly through the implementation of bike-sharing. Apparently the fourth generation bikesharing system has been promoted utilizing electric bicycles which considered as a clean technology implementation. Utilization of solar power is probably the development keys in the fourth generation bikesharing system and will become the standard in bikesharing system in the future. Electric bikes use batteries as a source of energy, thus they require a battery charger system which powered from the solar cells energy. This research aims to design and implement electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. It is necessary to develop an electric bicycle battery charging system with solar energy sources using fuzzy logic algorithm. The study was conducted by means of experimental method which includes the design, manufacture and testing controller systems. The designed fuzzy algorithm have been planted in EEPROM microcontroller ATmega8535. The charging current was set at 1.2 Amperes and the full charged battery voltage was observed to be 40 Volts. The results showed a fuzzy logic controller was able to maintain the charging current of 1.2 Ampere with an error rate of less than 5% around the set point. The process of charging electric bike lead acid batteries from empty to fully charged was 5 hours. In conclusion, the development of solar-powered electric bicycle controlled using fuzzy logic controller can keep the battery charging current in solar-powered electric bicycle to remain stable. This shows that the fuzzy algorithm can be used as

  20. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  1. Non-LTE aluminium abundances in late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: Aluminium plays a key role in studies of the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy and of globular clusters. However, strong deviations from LTE (non-LTE) are known to significantly affect the inferred abundances in giant and metal-poor stars. Methods: We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modeling of aluminium using recent and accurate atomic data, in particular utilizing new transition rates for collisions with hydrogen atoms, without the need for any astrophysically calibrated parameters. For the first time, we perform 3D NLTE modeling of aluminium lines in the solar spectrum. We also compute and make available extensive grids of abundance corrections for lines in the optical and near-infrared using one-dimensional model atmospheres, and apply grids of precomputed departure coefficients to direct line synthesis for a set of benchmark stars with accurately known stellar parameters. Results: Our 3D NLTE modeling of the solar spectrum reproduces observed center-to-limb variations in the solar spectrum of the 7835 Å line as well as the mid-infrared photospheric emission line at 12.33 μm. We infer a 3D NLTE solar photospheric abundance of A(Al) = 6.43 ± 0.03, in exact agreement with the meteoritic abundance. We find that abundance corrections vary rapidly with stellar parameters; for the 3961 Å resonance line, corrections are positive and may be as large as +1 dex, while corrections for subordinate lines generally have positive sign for warm stars but negative for cool stars. Our modeling reproduces the observed line profiles of benchmark K-giants, and we find abundance corrections as large as -0.3 dex for Arcturus. Our analyses of four metal-poor benchmark stars yield consistent abundances between the 3961 Å resonance line and lines in the UV, optical and near-infrared regions. Finally, we discuss implications for the galactic chemical evolution of aluminium.

  2. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  3. Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Meineke

    Full Text Available Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer.

  4. TOWARDS THE ELECTRIC PROPULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Victor PRICOP

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents benefits and drawbacks of the electric propulsion for the case of a ten seat commuter aircraft. An efficiency evaluation is made for an electric version of AEROTAXI, considered as a reference. The evaluation is projected to 2020, trying to meet the expected progresses in energy storage systems.

  5. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  6. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  7. Atoms to Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle, and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to meet the national energy demand. Major topic areas discussed include: the role of nuclear power; the role of electricity; generating electricity with the…

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  9. Static and Current Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Murtha, Kathy T.

    This is a copy of the script for the electrical relationships unit in an auto-tutorial physical science course for non-science majors, offered at the University of Maine at Orono. The unit includes 15 simple experiments designed to allow the student to discover various fundamental electrical relationships. The student has the option of reading the…

  10. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable electricity generation by the plant microbial fuel cell Fossil fuels are currently the main source of electricity production. Combustion of fossil fuels causes air pollution severely affecting human health and nature. This results in an increasing demand for renewable

  11. Sustainable Use of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    An overview is presented of the need for keeping electricity consumption low, including a suggested definition of sustainable development. Specific attention is devoted to present and future electricity production´s contribution to the environmental problems. Prognoses are shown from before any...

  12. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable electricity generation by the plant microbial fuel cell

    Fossil fuels are currently the main source of electricity production. Combustion of fossil fuels causes air pollution severely affecting human health and nature. This results in an increasing demand for

  13. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  14. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  15. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development of elect......In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...

  16. The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a first part proposing predictions for electricity production and consumption for 2016, for the turnovers of electricity suppliers and producers, an indication of important recent important events regarding enterprises belonging to the sector, and a dashboard of the sector activity, an annual report proposes a detailed overview of trends and of the competition context for the electricity market. It identifies the main market opportunities for electricity suppliers, identifies eight determining factors for the sector activity, gives an overview of the sector context evolution between 2004 and 2014 (temperatures, rainfalls, manufacturing industry production, housing and office building stock, projected housing and office building). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity by presenting and commenting various activity indicators and financial performance of electricity producers. It analyses the sector economic structure: evolution of the economic fabric, presentation of various structural characteristics (cross-border exchanges, production capacities per energy source, nuclear plant fleet, thermal plant fleet, location, electricity supply market). It proposes a presentation of the various actors and of their respective market shares, and presentations of groups, electricity suppliers, and electricity producers. It indicates highlights and presents various rankings of the main enterprises in 2014

  17. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  18. [Birth of medical electricity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Claude

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-eighteenth century Jallabert treated an hemiplegia using electrostatic electricity and published the patient's recovery. Immediately, physicians and clergymen started to use the Nollet's machine to treat many neurological diseases and published their results. The Galvani's constant was also a medical seism when he though the had discovered animal electricity. Galvanism entered immediately medical practice for a long time.

  19. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  20. Ecological interactions and the distribution, abundance, and diversity of sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Although abiotic factors may be important first-order filters dictating which sponge species can thrive at a particular site, ecological interactions can play substantial roles influencing distribution and abundance, and thus diversity. Ecological interactions can modify the influences of abiotic factors both by further constraining distribution and abundance due to competitive or predatory interactions and by expanding habitat distribution or abundance due to beneficial interactions that ameliorate otherwise limiting circumstances. It is likely that the importance of ecological interactions has been greatly underestimated because they tend to only be revealed by experiments and time-series observations in the field. Experiments have revealed opportunistic predation to be a primary enforcer of sponge distribution boundaries that coincide with habitat boundaries in several systems. Within habitats, by contrast, dramatic effects of predators on sponge populations seem to occur primarily in cases of unusually high recruitment rates or unusually low mortality rates for the predators, which are often specialists on the sponge species affected. Competitive interactions have been demonstrated to diminish populations or exclude sponge species from a habitat in only a few cases. Cases in which competitive interactions have appeared obvious have often turned out to be neutral or even beneficial interactions when observed over time. Especially striking in this regard are sponge-sponge interactions in dense sponge-dominated communities, which may promote the continued coexistence of all participating species. Mutualistic symbioses of sponges with other animals, plants, or macroalgae have been demonstrated to increase abundance, habitat distribution, and diversity of all participants. Symbiotic microbes can enhance sponge distribution and abundance but also render their hosts more vulnerable to environmental changes. And while photosynthetic symbionts can boost growth and

  1. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  2. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  3. Electric automobile: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1992-01-01

    Performance results during one-month test driving of a small FIAT car (normally equipped with a 30-45 Hp internal combustion engine), retrofitted to operate with a set of electric batteries delivering 15 Hp, demonstrated that, unless the design of an electric car's transmission and control systems are based completely on electric power operation, the vehicle loses its competitiveness with conventional cars. Making reference to the findings of an ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) electric powered vehicle R ampersand D program, this paper assesses the feasibility of electric powered vehicles and points out their major drawbacks: battery volume, weight, cost and recharging requirements in densely populated urban environments. The paper also notes that mass conversion to these vehicles by itself will not solve the urban traffic congestion problem for which optimum traffic control and parking areas are required

  4. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  5. Electricity Bill [second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.; Williams, C.C.P.; Ezra, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Energy introduced the second reading of the Electricity Bill which provides for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Three features at the heart of the Government's proposals are mentioned - first that the proposals will promote competition in electricity generation and supply of electricity so there will be a downward pressure on costs and prices, second is a new deal for customers and third is the security of electricity supply which will be ensured by the diversity of suppliers. The benefits of the scheme are outlined and then specific details of the Bill are considered. The debate which followed lasted six hours and is reported verbatim. The issues raised included environmental effects, efficiency, energy conservation, research and development and investment. (UK)

  6. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  7. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  8. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  9. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  10. Development of Earth-Abundant and Non-Toxic Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Helen Hejin

    Although solar energy is the most abundant energy resource available, photovoltaic solar cells must consist of sufficiently abundant and environmentally friendly elements, for scalable low-cost production to provide a major amount of the world's energy supply. However, scalability is limited in current thin-film solar cell technologies based on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 and CdTe due to scarce, expensive, and toxic elements. Thin-film solar cells consisting of earth-abundant and non-toxic materials were made from pulsed chemical vapor deposition (pulsed-CVD) of SnS as the p-type absorber layer and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Zn(O,S) as the n-type buffer layer. Solar cells with a structure of Mo/SnS/Zn(O,S)/ZnO/ITO were studied by varying the synthesis conditions of the SnS and Zn(O,S) layers. Annealing SnS in hydrogen sulfide increased the mobility by more than one order of magnitude, and improved the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell devices. Solar cell performance can be further optimized by adjusting the stoichiometry of Zn(O,S), and by tuning the electrical properties of Zn(O,S) through various in situ or post-annealing treatments. Zn(O,S) can be post-annealed in oxygen atmosphere or doped with nitrogen, by ammonium hydroxide or ammonia gas, during the ALD growth to reduce the carrier concentration, which can be critical for reducing interface recombination at the p-n junction. High carrier concentration buffer layers can be critical for reducing contact resistance with the ITO layer. Zn(O,S) can also be incorporated with aluminum by trimethylaluminum (TMA) doses to either increase or decrease the carrier concentration based on the stoichiometry of Zn(O,S).

  11. Effect of land use on the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in neotropical streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, B C G; Lansac-Tôha, F A; Higuti, J

    2015-11-01

    Streams may exhibit differences in community structure of invertebrate drift, which may be a reflex of variation in environmental factors, able to change in conditions of anthropogenic interventions. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in two neotropical streams under different land use and to identify the environmental factors involved in determining such patterns. 54 taxa of aquatic insects were identified in urban and rural streams. The results indicated significant differences in species composition due to the replacement of specialist species by generalist species in the urban stream. Higher diversity of taxa was recorded in the rural stream, with high levels of dissolved oxygen and high water flow, which favored the occurrence of sensitive groups to environmental disturbances, such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera taxa, that living mainly in clean and well oxygenated waters. On the other hand, a higher density of insects drifting, especially Chironomidae, was observed in the urban stream, where high values of pH, electrical conductivity and nitrogen were observed. These larvae are able to explore a wide range of environmental conditions, owing to their great capacity for physiological adaptation. Despite observing the expected patterns, there were no significant differences between streams for the diversity and abundance of species. Thus, the species composition can be considered as the best predictor of impacts on the drifting insect community.

  12. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.

  13. Effect of land use on the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in neotropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. G. Gimenez

    Full Text Available Abstract Streams may exhibit differences in community structure of invertebrate drift, which may be a reflex of variation in environmental factors, able to change in conditions of anthropogenic interventions. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in two neotropical streams under different land use and to identify the environmental factors involved in determining such patterns. 54 taxa of aquatic insects were identified in urban and rural streams. The results indicated significant differences in species composition due to the replacement of specialist species by generalist species in the urban stream. Higher diversity of taxa was recorded in the rural stream, with high levels of dissolved oxygen and high water flow, which favored the occurrence of sensitive groups to environmental disturbances, such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera taxa, that living mainly in clean and well oxygenated waters. On the other hand, a higher density of insects drifting, especially Chironomidae, was observed in the urban stream, where high values of pH, electrical conductivity and nitrogen were observed. These larvae are able to explore a wide range of environmental conditions, owing to their great capacity for physiological adaptation. Despite observing the expected patterns, there were no significant differences between streams for the diversity and abundance of species. Thus, the species composition can be considered as the best predictor of impacts on the drifting insect community.

  14. Effect of nuclear reaction rates on primordial abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Basu, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. The effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight has been investigated. Also the study have been taken of these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. Here it has been found that using these new reaction rates results in only a little increase in helium mass fraction over that obtained previously in BBN calculations. This allows insights into the role of the nuclear reaction rates in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We observe that most of these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the standard BBN abundance yields of 6 Li and 7 Li

  15. Abundance of carbon and magnesium in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinotto, M.; Patriarchi, P.

    1980-01-01

    The Orion nebula has been observed in two positions with IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) in the low-resolution mode (approx.7 A) and in the spectral range 1150--3200 A. Emission lines of C II], C III], [O II], and He I have been measured and used to determine what is probably the first reliable abundance of carbon in H II regions. The logarithmic total abundance of carbon is found to be 8.4 close to the solar value. In contrast with the situation in the planetary nebula of similar excitation, IC 418, where the resonance Mg II lambda2800 line is observed to be relatively strong, in the Orion nebula the lambda2800 line is not detectable. an upper limit for the magnesium abundance of the order of 10 times smaller than in the Sun is suggested

  16. Elemental abundances of intermediate-age open cluster NGC 3680

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschang, A. W.; De Silva, G. M.; Zucker, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    We present a new abundance analysis of the intermediate-age Galactic open cluster NGC 3680, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio VLT/UVES spectroscopic data. Several element abundances are presented for this cluster for the first time, but most notably we derive abundances for the light and heavy s-process elements Y, Ba, La and Nd. The serendipitous measurement of the rare-earth r-process element Gd is also reported. This cluster exhibits a significant enhancement of Na in giants as compared to dwarfs, which may be a proxy for an O to Na anticorrelation as observed in Galactic globular clusters but not open clusters. We also observe a step-like enhancement of heavy s-process elements towards higher atomic number, contrary to expectations from asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis models, suggesting that the r process played a significant role in the generation of both La and Nd in this cluster.

  17. Carbon and sulfur distributions and abundances in lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Moore, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Total sulfur abundances have been determined for 20 Apollo 14, 15, and 16 soil samples and one Apollo 14 breccia. Sulfur concentrations range from 474 to 844 microg S/g. Volatilization experiments on selected samples have been carried out using step-wise heating. Sample residues have been analyzed for their total carbon and sulfur abundances to establish the material balance in lunar fines for these two elements. Volatilization experiments have established that between 31 to 54 microg C/g remains in soils which have been heated at 1100 C for 24 hours under vacuum. The residual carbon is believed to be indigenous lunar carbon whereas all forms of carbon lost from samples below 1100 C is extralunar carbon. Total carbon and sulfur abundances taken from the literature have been used to show the depletion of volatile elements with increasing grade for the Apollo 14 breccias.

  18. Chemical Abundances in the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew; Barger, Kat; Wakker, Bart; Antwi-Danso, Jacqueline; Richter, Philipp; Casetti, Dana; Howk, Chris; Lehner, Nicolas; D'Onghia, Elena; Crowther, Paul

    2018-01-01

    A vast debris field connects the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. Known as the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream, this network of gas clouds represents an active site of gas accretion onto the Milky Way. Previously only one chemical abundance measurement had been made in the Leading Arm, toward the AGN NGC 3783. Here we present new chemical abundance measurements along seven Leading Arm sightlines using Hubble/COS spectra of background AGN. We focus on the O/H and S/H abundances, which have small dust depletion and ionization corrections. These measurements provide important constraints on the origin of the Leading Arm and its relationship to the trailing Stream, and can be used to constrain numerical simulations of Leading Arm formation.

  19. The abundant world: Paul Feyerabend's metaphysics of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Feyerabend's metaphysics of science as found in late works like Conquest of Abundance and Tyranny of Science. Feyerabend's late metaphysics consists of an attempt to criticize and provide a systematic alternative to traditional scientific realism, a package of views he sometimes referred to as "scientific materialism." Scientific materialism is objectionable not only on metaphysical grounds, nor because it provides a poor ground for understanding science, but because it implies problematic claims about the epistemic and cultural authority of science, claims incompatible with situating science properly in democratic societies. I show how Feyerabend's metaphysical view, which I call "the abundant world" or "abundant realism," constitute a sophisticated and challenging form of ontological pluralism that makes interesting connections with contemporary philosophy of science and issues of the political and policy role of science in a democratic society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A large area experiment to determine cosmic ray isotopic abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, B. G.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Heinrich, W.; Simon, M.; Tittel, H. O.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the isotopic composition of cosmic rays have shown that the cosmic ray isotope ratios, Ne-22/Ne-20 and (Mg-25 + Mg-26)/Mg-24, exceed the solar abundance ratios by factors of 2.7 and 1.8, respectively. There are several processes which could be responsible for the observed excess of neutron-rich isotopes. The considered models imply neutron enrichment in the case of other, less abundant species, and a measurement of the involved isotopic abundances could provide a basis for the determination of the dominating processes occurring in cosmic ray sources. However, an experiment utilizing special equipment is necessary to conduct the required measurements. Such an experiment, the Aluminum Isotopic Composition Experiment (Alice), is being designed in a joint effort involving NASA and a West German university. Alice uses a Cherenkov-range technique to determine the isotopic composition of elements from oxygen through argon.

  1. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E.; Shideler, Geoffrey S.; Araújo, Rafael J.; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as “mangrove-dependent”. Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  2. One Percent Determination of the Primordial Deuterium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2018-03-01

    We report a reanalysis of a near-pristine absorption system, located at a redshift {z}abs}=2.52564 toward the quasar Q1243+307, based on the combination of archival and new data obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck telescope. This absorption system, which has an oxygen abundance [O/H] = ‑2.769 ± 0.028 (≃1/600 of the solar abundance), is among the lowest metallicity systems currently known where a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance is afforded. Our detailed analysis of this system concludes, on the basis of eight D I absorption lines, that the deuterium abundance of this gas cloud is {log}}10({{D}}/{{H}})=-4.622+/- 0.015, which is in very good agreement with the results previously reported by Kirkman et al., but with an improvement on the precision of this single measurement by a factor of ∼3.5. Combining this new estimate with our previous sample of six high precision and homogeneously analyzed D/H measurements, we deduce that the primordial deuterium abundance is {log}}10{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=-4.5974+/- 0.0052 or, expressed as a linear quantity, {10}5{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=2.527+/- 0.030; this value corresponds to a one percent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance. Combining our result with a big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculation that uses the latest nuclear physics input, we find that the baryon density derived from BBN agrees to within 2σ of the latest results from the Planck cosmic microwave background data. Based on observations collected at the W.M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  3. The Iron Abundance of IOTA Herculis From Ultraviolet Iron Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, J.; Mulliss, C.; Baer, G.

    1995-03-01

    We have obtained (Adelman 1992, 1993, private comunication) coadded, high-resolution IUE spectra of Iota Herculis (B3 IV) in both short wavelength (SWP) and long wavelength (LWP) regions. The spectra span the ultraviolet spectrum from 110 - 300 nm and have a SNR of roughly 30 -50; they are described in Adelman et. al. (1993, ApJ 419, 276). Abundance indicators were 54 lines of Fe II and 26 lines of Fe III whose atomic parameters have been measured in the laboratory. LTE synthetic spectra for comparison with observations were produced with the Kurucz model atmosphere and spectral synthesis codes ATLAS9/SYNTHE (Kurucz 1979, ApJS 40,1; Kurucz and Avrett 1981, SAO Special Report 391). Model parameters were chosen from the literature: effective temperature = 17500 K, log g =3.75, v sin i= 11 km/s, and turbulent velocity = 0 km/s. (Peters and Polidan 1985, in IAU Symposium 111, ed. D. S. Hayes et al. (Dordrecht: Reidel), 417). We determined the equivalent widths of the chosen lines by fitting gaussian profiles to the lines and by measuring the equivalent widths of the gaussians. We derived abundances by fitting a straight line to a plot of observed equivalent widths vs. synthetic equivalent widths; we adjusted the iron abundance of the models until a slope of unity was achieved. The abundances derived from the different ionization stages are in agreement: Fe II lines indicate an iron abundance that is 34 +15/-10% the solar value([Fe/H]=-0.47 +0.16-0.15dex), while from Fe III lines we obtain 34 +/- 10% ([Fe/H]=-0.47 +0.11/-0.15 dex). A search of the literature suggests that no previous investigations of this star's iron abundance have found agreement between the different ionization stages. We thank Saul Adelman for his generous assistance, and the Faculty Research Fund Board of Wittenberg University for support of this research.

  4. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  5. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  6. A COMPARISON OF STELLAR ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE TECHNIQUES AND MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Adibekyan, Vardan; Mena, Elisa Delgado; Sousa, Sergio G.; Santos, Nuno C. [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Carlberg, Joleen K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Liu, Fan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Nordlander, Thomas; Korn, Andreas; Gruyters, Pieter; Heiter, Ulrike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jofré, Paula [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Soubiran, Caroline, E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [CNRS/Univ. Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France)

    2016-09-01

    Stellar elemental abundances are important for understanding the fundamental properties of a star or stellar group, such as age and evolutionary history, as well as the composition of an orbiting planet. However, as abundance measurement techniques have progressed, there has been little standardization between individual methods and their comparisons. As a result, different stellar abundance procedures determine measurements that vary beyond the quoted error for the same elements within the same stars. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the systematic variations between methods and offer recommendations for producing more accurate results in the future. We invited a number of participants from around the world (Australia, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) to calculate 10 element abundances (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, Ba, and Eu) using the same stellar spectra for four stars (HD 361, HD 10700, HD 121504, and HD 202206). Each group produced measurements for each star using (1) their own autonomous techniques, (2) standardized stellar parameters, (3) a standardized line list, and (4) both standardized parameters and a line list. We present the resulting stellar parameters, absolute abundances, and a metric of data similarity that quantifies the homogeneity of the data. We conclude that standardization of some kind, particularly stellar parameters, improves the consistency between methods. However, because results did not converge as more free parameters were standardized, it is clear there are inherent issues within the techniques that need to be reconciled. Therefore, we encourage more conversation and transparency within the community such that stellar abundance determinations can be reproducible as well as accurate and precise.

  7. A COMPARISON OF STELLAR ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE TECHNIQUES AND MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Adibekyan, Vardan; Mena, Elisa Delgado; Sousa, Sergio G.; Santos, Nuno C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Liu, Fan; Nordlander, Thomas; Korn, Andreas; Gruyters, Pieter; Heiter, Ulrike; Jofré, Paula; Soubiran, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Stellar elemental abundances are important for understanding the fundamental properties of a star or stellar group, such as age and evolutionary history, as well as the composition of an orbiting planet. However, as abundance measurement techniques have progressed, there has been little standardization between individual methods and their comparisons. As a result, different stellar abundance procedures determine measurements that vary beyond the quoted error for the same elements within the same stars. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the systematic variations between methods and offer recommendations for producing more accurate results in the future. We invited a number of participants from around the world (Australia, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) to calculate 10 element abundances (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, Ba, and Eu) using the same stellar spectra for four stars (HD 361, HD 10700, HD 121504, and HD 202206). Each group produced measurements for each star using (1) their own autonomous techniques, (2) standardized stellar parameters, (3) a standardized line list, and (4) both standardized parameters and a line list. We present the resulting stellar parameters, absolute abundances, and a metric of data similarity that quantifies the homogeneity of the data. We conclude that standardization of some kind, particularly stellar parameters, improves the consistency between methods. However, because results did not converge as more free parameters were standardized, it is clear there are inherent issues within the techniques that need to be reconciled. Therefore, we encourage more conversation and transparency within the community such that stellar abundance determinations can be reproducible as well as accurate and precise.

  8. Baade's window and APOGEE. Metallicities, ages, and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, M.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; García Pérez, A. E.; Jönsson, H.; Hayden, M.; Nandakumar, G.; Cunha, K.; Allende Prieto, C.; Holtzman, J. A.; Beers, T. C.; Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Carrera, R.; Cohen, R. E.; Geisler, D.; Hearty, F. R.; Fernandez-Tricado, J. G.; Maraston, C.; Minnitti, D.; Nitschelm, C.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schneider, D. P.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Baade's window (BW) is one of the most observed Galactic bulge fields in terms of chemical abundances. Owing to its low and homogeneous interstellar absorption it is considered the perfect calibration field for Galactic bulge studies. Aims: In the era of large spectroscopic surveys, calibration fields such as BW are necessary for cross calibrating the stellar parameters and individual abundances of the APOGEE survey. Methods: We use the APOGEE BW stars to derive the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and individual abundances for α- and iron-peak elements of the APOGEE ASPCAP pipeline (DR13), as well as the age distribution for stars in BW. Results: We determine the MDF of APOGEE stars in BW and find a remarkable agreement with that of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). Both exhibit a clear bimodal distribution. We also find that the Mg-metallicity planes of the two surveys agree well, except for the metal-rich part ([Fe/H] > 0.1), where APOGEE finds systematically higher Mg abundances with respect to the GES. The ages based on the [C/N] ratio reveal a bimodal age distribution, with a major old population at 10 Gyr, with a decreasing tail towards younger stars. A comparison of stellar parameters determined by APOGEE and those determined by other sources reveals detectable systematic offsets, in particular for spectroscopic surface gravity estimates. In general, we find a good agreement between individual abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from APOGEE with that of literature values. Conclusions: We have shown that in general APOGEE data show a good agreement in terms of MDF and individual chemical abundances with respect to literature works. Using the [C/N] ratio we found a significant fraction of young stars in BW.

  9. SILICON AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN PLANET-HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugamyer, Erik; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Cochran, William D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The positive correlation between planet detection rate and host star iron abundance lends strong support to the core accretion theory of planet formation. However, iron is not the most significant mass contributor to the cores of giant planets. Since giant planet cores are thought to grow from silicate grains with icy mantles, the likelihood of gas giant formation should depend heavily on the oxygen and silicon abundance of the planet formation environment. Here we compare the silicon and oxygen abundances of a set of 76 planet hosts and a control sample of 80 metal-rich stars without any known giant planets. Our new, independent analysis was conducted using high resolution, high signal-to-noise data obtained at McDonald Observatory. Because we do not wish to simply reproduce the known planet-metallicity correlation, we have devised a statistical method for matching the underlying [Fe/H] distributions of our two sets of stars. We find a 99% probability that planet detection rate depends on the silicon abundance of the host star, over and above the observed planet-metallicity correlation. We do not detect any such correlation for oxygen. Our results would thus seem to suggest that grain nucleation, rather than subsequent icy mantle growth, is the important limiting factor in forming giant planets via core accretion. Based on our results and interpretation, we predict that planet detection should correlate with host star abundance for refractory elements responsible for grain nucleation and that no such trends should exist for the most abundant volatile elements responsible for icy mantle growth.

  10. Optimisation of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Alabi, Taofic; Nieus, Clément; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Éric; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-01-30

    The health status of the indigenous people of Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared with that of the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The development of crickets, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest. Diets based on cassava leaves seem to be the most promising. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiments must be devised in which cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Multilevel structures of Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon nanocomposites derived from hybrid V-MOFs for long-life and cheap lithium ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Chuanjiang; Fang, Leyong

    2017-10-01

    The Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon (LVP/P-C) nanocomposites with multilevel structures (such as spheroidal, foam, prism and flower-like structures) are synthesized via one-pot in-situ synthesis using hybrid vanadium metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) as precursor. The structure and morphology of the LVP/P-C nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and element mapping. The results show that the multilevel structures are generated from the assemblies of the hybrid surfactant templates in the glass fiber drawing wastewater (GFDW) and the hybrid V-MOFs. The structure of LVP/P-C nanocomposite is controlled by V-MOFs. The nanocomposites exhibit a long service life, a discharge capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at 10 C with 90% capacity retention after 1100 cycles. The high cycling stability is attributed to the multilevel structures, which is ideal for making rechargeable lithium ion batteries. More importantly, our results have demonstrated that GFDW can be transformed into treasure of multilevel structure nanocomposites for cheap Li ion batteries.

  12. Multiresidue analysis of 36 pesticides in soil using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides, including 15 organophosphorus, six carbamate, and some other pesticides in soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The extraction and clean-up steps were optimized based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The data were acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode combined with enhanced product ion to increase confidence of the analytical results. Validation experiments were performed in soil samples. The average recoveries of pesticides at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg) ranged from 63 to 126% with relative standard deviation below 20%. The limits of detection of pesticides were 0.04-0.8 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.1-2.6 μg/kg. The correlation coefficients (r(2) ) were higher than 0.990 in the linearity range of 0.5-200 μg/L for most of the pesticides. The method allowed for the analysis of the target pesticides in the lower μg/kg concentration range. The optimized method was then applied to the test of real soil samples obtained from several areas in China, confirming the feasibility of the method. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in crop plants by the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a calibration based on a single level standard addition in the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Mariela S; Rizzetti, Tiele M; de Souza, Maiara P; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, optimized by a 2 3 full factorial design, was developed for the determination of 72 pesticides in plant parts of carrot, corn, melon, rice, soy, silage, tobacco, cassava, lettuce and wheat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Considering the complexity of these matrices and the need of use calibration in matrix, a new calibration approach based on single level standard addition in the sample (SLSAS) was proposed in this work and compared with the matrix-matched calibration (MMC), the procedural standard calibration (PSC) and the diluted standard addition calibration (DSAC). All approaches presented satisfactory validation parameters with recoveries from 70 to 120% and relative standard deviations≤20%. SLSAS was the most practical from the evaluated approaches and proved to be an effective way of calibration. Method limit of detection were between 4.8 and 48μgkg -1 and limit of quantification were from 16 to 160μgkg -1 . Method application to different kinds of plants found residues of 20 pesticides that were quantified with z-scores values≤2 in comparison with other calibration approaches. The proposed QuEChERS method combined with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis and using an easy and effective calibration procedure presented satisfactory results for pesticide residues determination in different crop plants and is a good alternative for routine analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electricity from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially open-quotes freeclose quotes fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as open-quotes controlled landfillingclose quotes. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills

  15. Electricity and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Symposium was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the environmental and health factors as well as the economic factors involved in supplying electricity services, and to suggest a framework within which these issues should be taken into account in making future plans and decisions on electricity production and use. The potential role of different ways of meeting electricity service requirements was also to be analysed, taking into consideration both demand side and supply side options in the light of their comparative economic, environmental and health related impacts. Four Expert Groups considered key issues: the environmental implications of energy and electricity supply and demand; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. During the Symposium, keynote addresses and invited papers presented by leading experts and policy makers provided additional related information. The Proceedings contain all the addresses and papers presented (which are also indexed separately) together with summaries of the discussions that took place. The Key Issues Papers are presented in a separate publication. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Electricity and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the Symposium was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the environmental and health factors as well as the economic factors involved in supplying electricity services, and to suggest a framework within which these issues should be taken into account in making future plans and decisions on electricity production and use. The potential role of different ways of meeting electricity service requirements was also to be analysed, taking into consideration both demand side and supply side options in the light of their comparative economic, environmental and health related impacts. Four Expert Groups considered key issues: the environmental implications of energy and electricity supply and demand; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. During the Symposium, keynote addresses and invited papers presented by leading experts and policy makers provided additional related information. In this volume the background papers are presented. The proceedings have been published separately, and the individual papers in both volumes have been indexed separately for INIS. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Dark matter relic abundance and light sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yi-Lei [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Shou-hua [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics & State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-09

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass ≲100 GeV in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such a case, if the Yukawa coupling y{sub N} between the Higgs and the sterile neutrino is small, this process gives rise to a larger Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} so we need a larger coupling between the dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  18. Instruction manual for ORNL tandem high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Chrisite, W.H.; Walker, R.L.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    This manual describes the physical characteristics of the tandem mass spectrometer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Specific requirements met include ability to run small samples, high abundance sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and adequate sample throughput. The instrument is capable of running uranium samples as small as 10 -12 g and has an abundance sensitivity in excess of 10 6 . Precision and accuracy are enhanced by a special sweep control circuit. Sample throughput is 6 to 12 samples per day. Operating instructions are also given

  19. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  20. Asteroseismic estimate of helium abundance of 16 Cyg A, B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The helium ionization zone in a star leaves a characteristic signature on its oscillation frequencies, which can be used to estimate the helium content in the envelope of the star. We use the oscillation frequencies of 16 Cyg A and B, obtained using 2.5 years of Kepler data, to estimate the envelope helium abundance of these stars. We find the envelope helium abundance to lie in the range 0.231–0.251 for 16 Cyg A and 0.218–0.266 for 16 Cyg B.

  1. What drives the efficiency of hard coal fuelled electricity generation? : an empirical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Tim; Voigt, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of electricity generation in hard coal fired power plants varies considerably from country to country and over time. These differences occur both between developing and developed countries and between industrialised nations. The econometric analysis presented in this paper tests for the reasons of these discrepancies. In this examination abundance of hard coal and the price of hard coal are the two variables of our major interest. We assume that countries with an abundance of h...

  2. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  3. Atoms to electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for some 12 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1982. In the 1990's, it is expected to become second only to coal as a source of our electric power, almost doubling its present contribution to our national electricity supply. 14 references, 40 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  5. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  6. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  7. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  8. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  9. Atoms to electricity. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for over 16 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1986 and was second only to coal as a source of our electric power. In the 1990s, nuclear energy is expected to provide almost 20 percent of the Nation's electricity. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Electricity from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    1998-11-01

    Electricity from biomass assesses the potential of biomass electricity for displacing other more polluting power sources and providing a relatively clean and ecologically friendly source of energy; discusses its environmental and economic effects, while analysing political and institutional initiatives and constraints; evaluates key factors, such as energy efficiency, economics, decentralisation and political repurcussions; considers the processes and technologies employed to produce electricity from biomass; and discusses the full range of incentives offered to producers and potential producers and the far-reaching implications it could have for industry, society and the environment. (author)

  11. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  12. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  13. Seasonal and Spatial Environmental Influence on Opisthorchis viverrini Intermediate Hosts, Abundance, and Distribution: Insights on Transmission Dynamics and Sustainable Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sunyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov is a complex-life-cycle trematode affecting 10 million people in SEA (Southeast Asia. Human infection occurs when infected cyprinid fish are consumed raw or undercooked. Ov requires three hosts and presents two free-living parasitic stages. As a consequence Ov transmission and infection in intermediate and human hosts are strongly mediated by environmental factors and understanding how environmental variability influences intermediate host abundance is critical. The objectives of this study were 1 to document water parameters, intermediate hosts abundance and infection spatio-temporal variation, 2 to assess their causal relationships and identify windows of transmission risk.Fish and snails were collected monthly for one year at 12 sites in Lawa Lake, an Ov-endemic region of Khon Kaen Province in Northeast Thailand. Physicochemical water parameters [pH, temperature (Tp, dissolved oxygen (DO, Salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, lead (Pb, total coliform bacteria (TCB and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB] were measured. Multivariate analyses, linear models and kriging were used to characterize water parameter variation and its influence on host abundance and infection prevalence. We found that sampling sites could be grouped in three clusters and discriminated along a nitrogen-salinity gradient where higher levels in the lake's southern region predicted higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05 and lower snail and fish species diversity (P<0.05. Highest Bithynia abundance occurred during rainy season (P<0.001, independently of site influence. Cyprinids were the most abundant fish family and higher cyprinid relative abundance was found in areas with higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05. Ov infection in snails was anecdotal while Ov infection in fish was higher in the southern region (P<0.001 at sites showing high FCB.Our results indicate that water contamination

  14. Do patients really want cheap lenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetting, R A; Andrews, C

    1979-09-01

    There is a strong possibility that many patients perceive newspaper advertisements as a sign of dependability or prestige rather than the evidence of unethical behavior that professionals traditionally frown upon. "Confidence in the doctor" was the foremost reason given for seeking professional service in a survey by a major commercial optical corporation. Two hundred fifty patients interviewed in a contact lens practice agreed, and the tabulated results would indicate that price alone is not a major factor.

  15. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  16. Cheap two axis sun following device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.; Georgiev, A.; Boudinov, H.

    2005-01-01

    A sun following system was constructed and tested. The tracker gives the possibility for automatic measuring of direct solar radiation with a phetylureum. The mechanism is operated by a digital program in the control system, situated separately from the mechanical part. The position of the sun is calculated, and the pointing errors appearing during its daily work are stored for later analysis. Additionally, in the active operation mode, the tracker uses the signal of a sun detecting linear sensor to control the pointing. Two stepper motors move the instrument platform, keeping the sun's beam at the center of the sensor. The mechanism was created at the Laboratory 'Evaluation Solar' of the Technical University Faradaic Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso, Chile. The experiments show good results. The described sun tracker gives similar results as the Swiss sun tracker INTRA at a very much lower price

  17. Frugivores and cheap fruits make fruiting fruitful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encinas-Viso, F.; Revilla, T. A.; Van Velzen, E.; Etienne, R. S.

    Animal seed dispersal provides an important ecosystem service by strongly benefiting plant communities. There are several theoretical studies on the ecology of plant-animal seed-disperser interactions, but few studies have explored the evolution of this mutualism. Moreover, these studies ignore

  18. Eliciting Demand Information through Cheap Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisell, Lars; Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.

    2008-01-01

    A uniform pricing rule may enable the communication of demand information from buyer to seller in situations where this would not have been possible if the seller could price discriminate. Importantly, such a rule can benefit both buyer and seller....

  19. Acid rain control: success on the cheap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    At the time of the fourth Conference of the Parties to the climate change convention in Buenos Aires, the article discusses whether the flexible free-market approach developed in the USA to control acid rain (under the Clean Air Act Amendments) could be adopted to control greenhouse gases around the world. The economic success of Phase I and the effects of Phase II (to start in 2000), with several uncertainties, are discussed. The article quotes opinions of many government officials and also of non-governmental environmentalists. 3 figs

  20. Simulated trust: a cheap social learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Ahn, René M C; Barakova, Emilia I

    2009-11-01

    Animals use heuristic strategies to determine from which conspecifics to learn socially. This leads to directed social learning. Directed social learning protects them from copying non-adaptive information. So far, the strategies of animals, leading to directed social learning, are assumed to rely on (possibly indirect) inferences about the demonstrator's success. As an alternative to this assumption, we propose a strategy that only uses self-established estimates of the pay-offs of behavior. We evaluate the strategy in a number of agent-based simulations. Critically, the strategy's success is warranted by the inclusion of an incremental learning mechanism. Our findings point out new theoretical opportunities to regulate social learning for animals. More broadly, our simulations emphasize the need to include a realistic learning mechanism in game-theoretic studies of social learning strategies, and call for re-evaluation of previous findings.