WorldWideScience

Sample records for abundance species richness

  1. The effects of forest destruction on the abundance, species richness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-04-25

    Apr 25, 2013 ... The effects of forest destruction on the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies in the. Bosomkese Forest Reserve, Brong Ahafo Region,. Ghana. Addai, G. and Baidoo P. K*. Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,. Kumasi ...

  2. Bird species richness and abundance in different forest types at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avifauna of differently disturbed forest types of Kakamega Afrotropical forest were compared from December 2004 to May 2005. A total of 11 220 individual birds comprising of 129 bird species were recorded. Significant differences in abundance of birds among Psidium guajava, Bischoffia javanica, mixed indigenous, ...

  3. Effects of crop diversity on bird species richness and abundance in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of crop diversity on bird species richness and abundance in a highland East African agricultural landscape. P Kariuki Ndang'ang'a, John BM Njoroge, Kamau Ngamau, Wariara Kariuki, Philip W Atkinson, Juliet Vickery ...

  4. Species richness and abundance estimates of small mammals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was high similarity in the number of species caught during the two seasons (Sørensen Coefficient (CCs)=0.92), implying there to be minimal migration of the species in the area. A total of 159 individuals were caught during the dry season, rodents accounting for 89.3% of the total catch and insectivores 10.7%.

  5. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  6. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Myczko

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  7. species richness and abundance of large mammals in zaraninge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Orycteropus afer). Hunting dog (Lycaon pictus) a non-forest species was encountered only once. METHODS. Dense vegetation cover imposes some ..... Mturi FO 1991 The feeding ecology and behaviour of the red colobus monkey. Colobus badius kirkii.

  8. Abundance and species richness of lombric macrofauna in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of earthworms for soils has evolved over time. Our study was conducted in the forest of Ouled yagoub (North East Algerian). Sampling at three different altitudes resulted in a total of forty-nine individuals (49) and only three species were identified: Octodrilus complanatus, Allolobophora molleri and ...

  9. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elena L E S; Roche, Dominique G; Binning, Sandra A; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes), live coral cover and patch size (volume). The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  10. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L.E.S. Wagner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes, live coral cover and patch size (volume. The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  11. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam

    2014-01-01

    species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales.......0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts...

  12. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Dexter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin.

  13. Landscape and Local Correlates of Bee Abundance and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, Robyn D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2016-03-31

    Urban gardens may preserve biodiversity as urban population densities increase, but this strongly depends on the characteristics of the gardens and the landscapes in which they are embedded. We investigated whether local and landscape characteristics are important correlates of bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) abundance and species richness in urban community gardens. We worked in 19 gardens in the California central coast and sampled bees with aerial nets and pan traps. We measured local characteristics (i.e., vegetation and ground cover) and used the USGS National Land Cover Database to classify the landscape surrounding our garden study sites at 2 km scales. We classified bees according to nesting type (i.e., cavity, ground) and body size and determined which local and landscape characteristics correlate with bee community characteristics. We found 55 bee species. One landscape and several local factors correlated with differences in bee abundance and richness for all bees, cavity-nesting bees, ground-nesting bees, and different sized bees. Generally, bees were more abundant and species rich in bigger gardens, in gardens with higher floral abundance, less mulch cover, more bare ground, and with more grass. Medium bees were less abundant in sites surrounded by more medium intensity developed land within 2 km. The fact that local factors were generally more important drivers of bee abundance and richness indicates a potential for gardeners to promote bee conservation by altering local management practices. In particular, increasing floral abundance, decreasing use of mulch, and providing bare ground may promote bees in urban gardens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Consequences of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity for species richness and abundance of farmland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Henrik G; Dänhardt, Juliana; Lindström, Ake; Rundlöf, Maj

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that organic farming may benefit farmland biodiversity more in landscapes that have lost a significant part of its former landscape heterogeneity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bird species richness and abundance during the breeding season in organic and conventional farms, matched to eliminate all differences not directly linked to the farming practice, situated in either homogeneous plains with only a little semi-natural habitat or in heterogeneous farmland landscapes with abundant field borders and semi-natural grasslands. The effect of farm management on species richness interacted with landscape structure, such that there was a positive relationship between organic farming and diversity only in homogeneous landscapes. This pattern was mainly dependent on the species richness of passerine birds, in particular those that were invertebrate feeders. Species richness of non-passerines was positively related to organic farming independent of the landscape context. Bird abundance was positively related to landscape heterogeneity but not to farm management. This was mainly because the abundance of passerines, particularly invertebrate feeders, was positively related to landscape heterogeneity. We suggest that invertebrate feeders particularly benefit from organic farming because of improved foraging conditions through increased invertebrate abundances in otherwise depauperate homogeneous landscapes. Although many seed-eaters also benefit from increased insect abundance, they may also utilize crop seed resources in homogeneous landscapes and conventional farms. The occurrence of an interactive effect of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity on bird diversity will have consequences for the optimal allocation of resources to restore the diversity of farmland birds.

  15. Helminth parasitism in two closely related South African rodents: abundance, prevalence, species richness and impinging factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickett, Andrea; Junker, Kerstin; Krasnov, Boris R; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Matthee, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    We investigated patterns of helminth infection in two closely related rodents (social Rhabdomys pumilio occurring mainly in xeric habitats and solitary R. dilectus occurring mainly in mesic habitats) at 20 localities in different biomes of South Africa and asked if between-species differences were mainly caused by difference in sociality or difference in environmental conditions of their respective habitats. Helminths recovered from the gastrointestinal tract totalled 11 nematode and 5 cestode species from R. pumilio and 19 nematode and 7 cestode species from R. dilectus. In both hosts, mean abundance and prevalence of nematodes were higher compared to cestodes. Cestode infection as well as nematode abundance, species richness or prevalence did not differ between the two rodents. However, incidence of nematode infection was significantly higher in R. dilectus than in R. pumilio. Moreover, nematode numbers and species richness in infracommunities of R. pumilio inhabiting the relatively more xeric Karoo biome were significantly lower than in those inhabiting the relatively less xeric Fynbos biome. Although we could not unequivocally distinguish between effects of host sociality and environmental factors on the number of individuals and species of helminths in the two hosts, differences in the incidence of nematode infection between R. pumilio and R. dilectus as well as differences in the number of nematode individuals and species between R. pumilio from the Fynbos and the Karoo suggested the effect of environmental conditions on helminth infection to be more important than that of sociality.

  16. Are parasite richness and abundance linked to prey species richness and individual feeding preferences in fish hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Stouffer, Daniel B; Poulin, Robert; Lagrue, Clément

    2016-01-01

    Variations in levels of parasitism among individuals in a population of hosts underpin the importance of parasites as an evolutionary or ecological force. Factors influencing parasite richness (number of parasite species) and load (abundance and biomass) at the individual host level ultimately form the basis of parasite infection patterns. In fish, diet range (number of prey taxa consumed) and prey selectivity (proportion of a particular prey taxon in the diet) have been shown to influence parasite infection levels. However, fish diet is most often characterized at the species or fish population level, thus ignoring variation among conspecific individuals and its potential effects on infection patterns among individuals. Here, we examined parasite infections and stomach contents of New Zealand freshwater fish at the individual level. We tested for potential links between the richness, abundance and biomass of helminth parasites and the diet range and prey selectivity of individual fish hosts. There was no obvious link between individual fish host diet and helminth infection levels. Our results were consistent across multiple fish host and parasite species and contrast with those of earlier studies in which fish diet and parasite infection were linked, hinting at a true disconnect between host diet and measures of parasite infections in our study systems. This absence of relationship between host diet and infection levels may be due to the relatively low richness of freshwater helminth parasites in New Zealand and high host-parasite specificity.

  17. Species richness and relative species abundance of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in three forests with different perturbations in the North-Central Caribbean of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Carolyn; Sánchez, Ragde

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance.

  18. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  19. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Elek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Europe. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old, young (15 yr after planting, middle-aged (30 yr after planting, old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting, and a native submontane beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae as a control stand were compared.

    Our results showed that deciduous forest species decreased significantly in abundance in the plantations, and appeared in high abundance only in the native beech forest. Furthermore, open habitat species increased remarkably in abundance in the recently established plantation. Carabids were significantly more abundant and species rich in the native forest than in the plantations, while differences were not significant among the plantations. Multiple regression between the abundance and species richness of carabids and twelve environmental measurements showed that pH of the soil, herb cover and density of the carabids’ prey had a significant effect in determining abundance and species richness.

    Our results showed that plantation of non-native Norway spruce species had a detrimental effect on the composition of carabid communities and no regeneration could be observed during the growth of plantations even 50 yr after the establishment. This emphasises the importance of an active nature management practice to facilitate the recolonization of the native species.

  20. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz dos Anjos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset

  1. Higher species richness and abundance of fish and benthic invertebrates around submarine groundwater discharge in Obama Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Utsunomiya

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights: Species richness, abundance and biomass of fishes and abundance and biomass of turban snail and hermit crab were significantly higher in the area with high 222Rn concentration. Abundance of gammarids, the most major prey item of the fishes, was 18 times higher in the area with high 222Rn concentration. Since the turban snail, hermit crab and gammarids feed on producers (phytoplankton and benthic microalgae, submarine groundwater are concluded to increase species richness and production of fishes and invertebrates through providing nutrients and enhancing primary production.

  2. Variation in local abundance and species richness of stream fishes in relation to dispersal barriers: Implications for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislow, K.H.; Hudy, M.; Letcher, B.H.; Smith, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    1.Barriers to immigration, all else being equal, should in principle depress local abundance and reduce local species richness. These issues are particularly relevant to stream-dwelling species when improperly designed road crossings act as barriers to migration with potential impacts on the viability of upstream populations. However, because abundance and richness are highly spatially and temporally heterogeneous and the relative importance of immigration on demography is uncertain, population- and community-level effects can be difficult to detect. 2.In this study, we tested the effects of potential barriers to upstream movements on the local abundance and species richness of a diverse assemblage of resident stream fishes in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, U.S.A. Fishes were sampled using simple standard techniques above- and below road crossings that were either likely or unlikely to be barriers to upstream fish movements (based on physical dimensions of the crossing). We predicted that abundance of resident fishes would be lower in the upstream sections of streams with predicted impassable barriers, that the strength of the effect would vary among species and that variable effects on abundance would translate into lower species richness. 3.Supporting these predictions, the statistical model that best accounted for variation in abundance and species richness included a significant interaction between location (upstream or downstream of crossing) and type (passable or impassable crossing). Stream sections located above predicated impassable culverts had fewer than half the number of species and less than half the total fish abundance, while stream sections above and below passable culverts had essentially equivalent richness and abundance. 4.Our results are consistent with the importance of immigration and population connectivity to local abundance and species richness of stream fishes. In turn, these results suggest that when measured at

  3. Climatic controls on the global distribution, abundance, and species richness of mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Feher, Laura C.; Griffith, Kereen; Cavanaugh, Kyle C.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Day, Richard H.; Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Howard, Rebecca J.; Grace, James B.; Rogers, Kerrylee

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive tidal saline wetland ecosystems found along sheltered tropical and subtropical coasts. Ecologists have long assumed that climatic drivers (i.e., temperature and rainfall regimes) govern the global distribution, structure, and function of mangrove forests. However, data constraints have hindered the quantification of direct climate-mangrove linkages in many parts of the world. Recently, the quality and availability of global-scale climate and mangrove data have been improving. Here, we used these data to better understand the influence of air temperature and rainfall regimes upon the distribution, abundance, and species richness of mangrove forests. Although our analyses identify global-scale relationships and thresholds, we show that the influence of climatic drivers is best characterized via regional range limit-specific analyses. We quantified climatic controls across targeted gradients in temperature and/or rainfall within 14 mangrove distributional range limits. Climatic thresholds for mangrove presence, abundance, and species richness differed among the 14 studied range limits. We identified minimum temperature-based thresholds for range limits in eastern North America, eastern Australia, New Zealand, eastern Asia, eastern South America, and southeast Africa. We identified rainfall-based thresholds for range limits in western North America, western Gulf of Mexico, western South America, western Australia, Middle East, northwest Africa, east central Africa, and west central Africa. Our results show that in certain range limits (e.g., eastern North America, western Gulf of Mexico, eastern Asia), winter air temperature extremes play an especially important role. We conclude that rainfall and temperature regimes are both important in western North America, western Gulf of Mexico, and western Australia. With climate change, alterations in temperature and rainfall regimes will affect the global distribution, abundance, and

  4. Species Richness and Abundance of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico; Relationships with Phenological Changes in the Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, F A; Ortega-Huerta, M A; Zaragoza-Caballero, S; González-Soriano, E; Ramírez-García, E

    2017-07-26

    Cerambycidae have an important ecological role in initiating the degradation process of dead wood, but few studies have evaluated Cerambycidae community attributes in relation to ecosystem phenology. We surveyed the cerambicid fauna of the tropical dry forest in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, and explored the relationship of Cerambycidae species richness and abundance with phenological changes in vegetation. We applied three collecting methods of light traps, direct collection, and Malaise traps to survey Cerambycidae throughout 2005. To determine seasonal variations, we collected samples in the dry season month of February in the rainy season of May-July and August-September, and in the transition months of October and November through. We collected and identified 145 species, 88 genera, 37 tribes, and four subfamilies. The subfamily with the highest number of species was Cerambycinae (100 species), and the tribe with the highest number of genera and species was Elaphidiini with 13 genera and 33 species. The ICE non-parametric estimator determined an overall expected richness of 373 species, while the overall Shannon Diversity Index was 4.1. Both species richness and abundance varied seasonally, with the highest values recorded in the rainy season and the lowest in the dry season. Overall species abundance was not significantly correlated to monthly rainfall or EVI neither, only for "direct collecting" the EVI vs Richness and EVI vs Shannon Diversity Index were significantly correlated. We propose that the seemingly contradictory relationships between seasonal richness patterns of Cerambycidae and the greening/senescence of vegetation (EVI) may be explained by the seasonal availability of dead organic matter, flowers, or leafy vegetation that may be synchronized with the behavior of different cerambycid species.

  5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the collapse of anuran species richness and abundance in the Upper Manu National Park, Southeastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Lehr, Edgar; Rodriguez, Lily O; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2011-04-01

    Amphibians are declining worldwide, but these declines have been particularly dramatic in tropical mountains, where high endemism and vulnerability to an introduced fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is associated with amphibian extinctions. We surveyed frogs in the Peruvian Andes in montane forests along a steep elevational gradient (1200-3700 m). We used visual encounter surveys to sample stream-dwelling and arboreal species and leaf-litter plots to sample terrestrial-breeding species. We compared species richness and abundance among the wet seasons of 1999, 2008, and 2009. Despite similar sampling effort among years, the number of species (46 in 1999) declined by 47% between 1999 and 2008 and by 38% between 1999 and 2009. When we combined the number of species we found in 2008 and 2009, the decline from 1999 was 36%. Declines of stream-dwelling and arboreal species (a reduction in species richness of 55%) were much greater than declines of terrestrial-breeding species (reduction of 20% in 2008 and 24% in 2009). Similarly, abundances of stream-dwelling and arboreal frogs were lower in the combined 2008-2009 period than in 1999, whereas densities of frogs in leaf-litter plots did not differ among survey years. These declines may be associated with the infection of frogs with Bd. B. dendrobatidis prevalence correlated significantly with the proportion of species that were absent from the 2008 and 2009 surveys along the elevational gradient. Our results suggest Bd may have arrived at the site between 1999 and 2007, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this pathogen is spreading in epidemic waves along the Andean cordilleras. Our results also indicate a rapid decline of frog species richness and abundance in our study area, a national park that contains many endemic amphibian species and is high in amphibian species richness. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Plant species richness and abundance in residential yards across a tropical watershed: implications for urban sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P. Vila-Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green spaces within residential areas provide important contributions to the sustainability of urban systems. Therefore, studying the characteristics of these areas has become a research priority in cities worldwide. This project evaluated various aspects of the plant biodiversity of residential yards (i.e., front yards and back yards within the Río Piedras watershed in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. Our work included gathering information on vegetation composition and abundance of woody species (i.e., trees, shrubs, palms, ferns and large herbs (>2 m height, species origin (native vs. introduced, and species uses (ornamental, food, and medicinal plants. A total of 424 yards were surveyed within an area of 187,191 m². We found 383 woody species, with shrubs being the most abundant plant habitat. As expected, residential yards hosted a disproportionate amount of introduced species (69.5%. The most common shrub species were all non-native ornamentals, whereas the most common tree species included food trees as well as ornamental plants and two native species. Front yards hosted more ornamental species per unit area than backyards, while the latter had more food plants. The high amount of introduced species may present a challenge in terms of implementation of plant conservation initiatives if there is no clear definition of urban conservation goals. On the other hand, the high frequency of yards containing food plants may facilitate the development of residential initiatives that could provide future adaptive capacity to food shortages.

  7. Species richness and relative species abundance of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera in three forests with different perturbations in the North-Central Caribbean of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively. The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3: 919-928. Epub 2014 September 01.

  8. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1 which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants are more affected by land abandonment; (2 at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3 whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4 how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size  = 0.2109, P<0.0001 plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no "one-size-fits-all" conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity.

  9. Species richness and abundance of hesperioidea and papilionoidea (lepidoptera) in Las Delicias natural reserve, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Zapata, Maria A; Martinez Hernandez, Neis Jose; Gutierrez Moreno, Luis C and others

    2011-01-01

    In the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, are formations of dry tropical secondary forest hosting a fauna representative of lepidoptera, which can be used as an indicator of group condition, because of their sensitivity to intervention and specificity in the use of resources; in the present study the changes in richness and abundance of butterflies hesperioidea papilionoidea in nature reserve Las Delicias were evaluated. Two sampling sites with different degrees of intervention were selected. The first site is located between 400- 550 over sea level, while the second at 200 m. We performed four samples, from April to July 2008; using two networks lepidopterist and 10 van someren rydon traps baited with macerated fruit and fish. We captured 432 individuals belonging to 66 species, distributed in 52 genera. Nymphalidae were the most rich family (42) and abundance (250); highlighting the species mechanitis lysimnia fabricius (41 specimens), typical in forest with very good coverage. Site 2, was the most diverse (48) and abundance (236), because in this place there was a greater stratification and tree coverage, and the presence of water resources during the sampling. With the arrival of rain in June and July, there was greater flowering and fruiting of vegetation in the area, increasing the availability of resources and therefore a greater richness and abundance of papilionoidea and hesperioidea in the study area.

  10. Monitoring species richness and abundance of shorebirds in the western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Nils; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, Lewis W.

    1998-01-01

    Broad-scale avian surveys have been attempted within North America with mixed results. Arid regions, such as the Great Basin, are often poorly sampled because of the vastness of the region, inaccessibility of sites, and few ornithologists. In addition, extreme variability in wetland habitat conditions present special problems for conducting censuses of species inhabiting these areas. We examined these issues in assessing multi-scale shorebird (order: Charadriiformes) censuses conducted in the western Great Basin from 1992-1997. On ground surveys, we recorded 31 species of shorebirds, but were unable to accurately estimate population size. Conversely, on aerial surveys we were able to estimate regional abundance of some shorebirds, but were unable to determine species diversity. Aerial surveys of three large alkali lakes in Oregon (Goose, Summer, and Abert Lakes) revealed > 300,000 shorebirds in one year of this study, of which 67% were American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and 30% phalaropes (Phalaropus spp.). These lakes clearly meet Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network guidelines for designation as important shorebird sites. Based upon simulations of our monitoring effort and the magnitude and variation of numbers of American Avocets, detection of S-10% negative declines in populations of these birds would take a minimum of 7-23 years of comparable effort. We conclude that a combination of ground and aerial surveys must be conducted at multiple sites and years and over a large region to obtain an accurate picture of the diversity, abundance, and trends of shorebirds in the western Great Basin.

  11. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  12. Regional Variation in Parasite Species Richness and Abundance in the Introduced Range of the Invasive Lionfish, Pterois volitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Sellers

    Full Text Available Parasites can play an important role in biological invasions. While introduced species often lose parasites from their native range, they can also accumulate novel parasites in their new range. The accumulation of parasites by introduced species likely varies spatially, and more parasites may shift to new hosts where parasite diversity is high. Considering that parasitism and disease are generally more prevalent at lower latitudes, the accumulation of parasites by introduced hosts may be greater in tropical regions. The Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans has become widely distributed across the Western Atlantic. In this study, we compared parasitism across thirteen locations in four regions, spanning seventeen degrees of latitude in the lionfish's introduced range to examine potential spatial variation in parasitism. In addition, as an initial step to explore how indirect effects of parasitism might influence interactions between lionfish and ecologically similar native hosts, we also compared parasitism in lionfish and two co-occurring native fish species, the graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata, and the lizardfish, Synodus intermedius, in the southernmost region, Panama. Our results show that accumulation of native parasites on lionfish varies across broad spatial scales, and that colonization by ectoparasites was highest in Panama, relative to the other study sites. Endoparasite richness and abundance, on the other hand, were highest in Belize where lionfish were infected by twice as many endoparasite species as lionfish in other regions. The prevalence of all but two parasite species infecting lionfish was below 25%, and we did not detect an association between parasite abundance and host condition, suggesting a limited direct effect of parasites on lionfish, even where parasitism was highest. Further, parasite species richness and abundance were significantly higher in both native fishes compared to lionfish, and parasite

  13. Richness and abundance of caterpillars on Byrsonima (Malpighiaceae species in an area of cerrado vegetation in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We sampled lepidopteran caterpillars on three Byrsonima species (Malpighiaceae in Central Brazil: Byrsonima crassa , Byrsonima verbascifolia and Byrsonima coccolobifolia between May 1993 and July 1994. Fifteen individuals of each plant species were censused weekly. Our main goal was to estimate the abundance and richness of lepidopteran larvae within each plant species. Only 13% of the 1 621 sampled plants had caterpillars on their leaves. This percentage was similar within each plant species. We found a pattern of low abundance and high richness of lepidopteran species associated with Byrsonima. There were 48 morphospecies and 46% of them occurred just once. There was a higher similarity between the fauna of B. crassa and B. verbascifolia than between these and B. coccolobifolia. Once it is known that hairy leaves can affect herbivore colonization and foraging strategy, we suggest that differences in the lepidopteran community associated with Byrsonima spp. are linked with different levels of pubescence on the leaf surface of each plant species. This tendency in Byrsonima is supported by the small number of caterpillars found on young leaves of B. crassa and B. verbascifolia, which are quite hairy.Hicimos un registro cuantitativo de larvas de Lepidoptera que se alimentán de tres espécies de Byrsonima (Malpighiaceae que ocurren en el Brasil Central: B. crassa Nied , B. verbascifolia L. Rich and B. coccolobifolia (Spr. Kunth. Nuestro principal objetivo fué estimar la abundancia y riqueza de orugas en cada una de las espécies de planta. Encontramos un patrón de baja abundancia y alta riqueza de espécies de orugas asociadas a las espécies de Byrsonima. Verificamos, todavía, que la similaridade entre la fauna de B. crassa y B. verbascifolia fué más alta que entre estas espécies y B. coccolobifolia. Una vez que se sabe que hojas con mayor cantidad de vellos pueden afectar la colonización y estratégias de forrageo de herb

  14. Shrew species richness and abundance in relation to vernal pond habitat in southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Katherine L. Doyle

    2001-01-01

    Vernal ponds are important aquatic habitat for many species of amphibians and invertebrates. While many aspects of such ponds have been investigated, small mammal populations in the adjacent upland [catchment] habitat are largely unstudied. We selected three ponds in central Massachusetts to determine whether the presence of vernal ponds in forested habitat influences...

  15. Abundance and species richness of snakes along the Middle Rio Grande riparian forest in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Howard L. Snell; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    To understand the effects of removal of non-native plants and fuels on wildlife in the riparian forest of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, we monitored snakes from 2000 to 2006 using trap arrays of drift fences, pitfalls, and funnel traps. We recorded 158 captures of 13 species of snakes from 12 study sites. We captured more snakes in funnel traps than in pitfalls...

  16. Photoperiod Differences in Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species Richness and Abundance in Caves in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, A M; Dos Santos, C L C; Stumpp, R; Da Silva, L H D; Maia, R A; Paglia, A P; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Caves are unique habitats that are inhabited by a diverse and singular biota. Among these inhabitants are sand flies, which are of great epidemiological interest in the Neotropical region because they are vectors of Leishmania The period of activity of these insects is usually crepuscular and nocturnal, but there are reports of diurnal activity of sand flies in caves. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the periodicity of daily activity of sand flies in cave environments in the municipality of Pains, Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected with light traps, which were operated for 5 consecutive days in the rainy season and in the dry season. Samples were collected every 12 h and separated between photophase and scotophase periods. In total, 1,777 sand flies of 23 species were collected. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia renei (Martins, Falcão, and Silva) (44%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (15%), Evandromyia edwardsi (Mangabeira) (11%), and Micropygomyia quinquefer (Costa Lima) (6%). The richness and abundance of total sand flies and the abundance of male and female sand flies in the aphotic zone of the caves did not differ between the photophase and scotophase, but differed between photoperiods at the entrance and at sites surrounding the caves. From our study of the daily activity of these insects in this ecotope, it will be possible to know which period of the day is of greatest risk of exposure of vertebrates who visit or live in these environments, including the human population. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Can Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS and Forest Estimates Derived from Satellite Images Be Used to Predict Abundance and Species Richness of Birds and Beetles in Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lindberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In managed landscapes, conservation planning requires effective methods to identify high-biodiversity areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning (ALS and forest estimates derived from satellite images extracted at two spatial scales for predicting the stand-scale abundance and species richness of birds and beetles in a managed boreal forest landscape. Multiple regression models based on forest data from a 50-m radius (i.e., corresponding to a homogenous forest stand had better explanatory power than those based on a 200-m radius (i.e., including also parts of adjacent stands. Bird abundance and species richness were best explained by the ALS variables “maximum vegetation height” and “vegetation cover between 0.5 and 3 m” (both positive. Flying beetle abundance and species richness, as well as epigaeic (i.e., ground-living beetle richness were best explained by a model including the ALS variable “maximum vegetation height” (positive and the satellite-derived variable “proportion of pine” (negative. Epigaeic beetle abundance was best explained by “maximum vegetation height” at 50 m (positive and “stem volume” at 200 m (positive. Our results show that forest estimates derived from satellite images and ALS data provide complementary information for explaining forest biodiversity patterns. We conclude that these types of remote sensing data may provide an efficient tool for conservation planning in managed boreal landscapes.

  18. Three dimensional marine seismic survey has no measurable effect on species richness or abundance of a coral reef associated fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ian; Cripps, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A marine seismic survey was conducted at Scott Reef, North Western Australia. • Effects of the survey on demersal fish were gauged using underwater visual census. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species abundance. • There was no detectable impact of the seismic survey on species richness. -- Abstract: Underwater visual census was used to determine the effect of a three dimensional seismic survey on the shallow water coral reef slope associated fish community at Scott Reef. A census of the fish community was conducted on six locations at Scott Reef both before and after the survey. The census included small site attached demersal species belonging to the family Pomacentridae and larger roving demersal species belonging to the non-Pomacentridae families. These data were combined with a decade of historical data to assess the impact of the seismic survey. Taking into account spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and observer variability, modelling showed no significant effect of the seismic survey on the overall abundance or species richness of Pomacentridae or non-Pomacentridae. The six most abundant species were also analysed individually. In all cases no detectable effect of the seismic survey was found on the abundance of these fish species at Scott Reef

  19. Species richness and seasonal abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi in plantations of Eucalyptus dunnii and Pinus taeda in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachini, Admir J; Souza, Luiz A B; Oliveira, Vetúria L

    2004-12-01

    The abundance and diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) was assessed based on the collection of basidiocarps during 12 months comprising the spring of 1995, and the summer, autumn, and winter of 1996, in three stands of young, middle-aged, and rotation age plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus dunnii, in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A total of 3,085 collections yielded 34 presumed EMF taxa in ten genera, including mushroom-like and sequestrate species. Fruiting patterns of EMF differed with host and season, and host specificity was apparent in some. The overall relative importance (RI) and the Shannon diversity index (H) suggested that stands of E. dunnii had a more diverse aboveground EMF community than those of P. taeda. Overall, species of Scleroderma and Laccaria were not only the most abundant but also had the highest biomass values. The results show that a small number of species of abundant biomass and a larger number of species of less-abundant biomass characterize each forest class.

  20. SPECIES RICHNESS AND INDICES OF ABUNDANCE OF MEDIUM-SIZED MAMMALS IN ANDEAN FOREST AND REFORESTATIONS WITH ANDEAN ALDER: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNCHEZ FRANCISCO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the species richness and two indices of abundance of medium-sizedmammals in areas with Andean forest and Andean alder (Alnus acuminatareforestations in a reserve at the Central Andes of Colombia. Since reforested areashave a less complex habitat structure and lower plant diversity than native forests, wepredicted that they have lower richness of mammals than areas with Andean forest.We obtained the indices of abundance from direct contacts in transects and from theuse of track stations. Our results suggest that, indeed, areas with Andean forest hada higher richness of mammals than reforestations, but this pattern may be modifiedby anthropogenic factors. We found no differences between the indices of abundanceof the squirrel, Sciurus granatensis, in the two forest types. In contrast, the coatiswere recorded more frequently in the reforestations than in areas with Andean forestat the reserve.

  1. Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations.

  2. Using underwater cameras to assess the effects of snorkeler and SCUBA diver presence on coral reef fish abundance, family richness, and species composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, P; Theberge, M; Yasué, M

    2010-04-01

    The results of underwater visual fish censuses (UVC) could be affected by fish changing their behavior in response to the snorkeler or diver conducting the survey. We used an underwater video camera to assess how fish abundance, family richness, and community composition were affected by the presence of snorkelers (n = 12) and self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) divers (n = 6) on a coral reef in Thailand. The total number of families, abundance of some fish families, and overall species composition showed significant differences before and during snorkeling disturbances. We did not detect significant and consistent changes to these parameters in the presence of a SCUBA diver; however, this could be a result of lower statistical power. We suggest that the use of a stationary video camera may help cross-check data that is collected through UVC to assess the true family composition and document the presence of rare and easily disturbed species.

  3. Three dimensional marine seismic survey has no measurable effect on species richness or abundance of a coral reef associated fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ian; Cripps, Edward

    2013-12-15

    Underwater visual census was used to determine the effect of a three dimensional seismic survey on the shallow water coral reef slope associated fish community at Scott Reef. A census of the fish community was conducted on six locations at Scott Reef both before and after the survey. The census included small site attached demersal species belonging to the family Pomacentridae and larger roving demersal species belonging to the non-Pomacentridae families. These data were combined with a decade of historical data to assess the impact of the seismic survey. Taking into account spatial, temporal, spatio-temporal and observer variability, modelling showed no significant effect of the seismic survey on the overall abundance or species richness of Pomacentridae or non-Pomacentridae. The six most abundant species were also analysed individually. In all cases no detectable effect of the seismic survey was found on the abundance of these fish species at Scott Reef. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary Estimate of Earthworm Abundance and Species Richness in Spathodea campanulata Beauv. Forests in Northern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARIEL E. LUGO; OSCAR J. ABELLEIRA; SONIA BORGES; LAUREN J. COLÓN; SYNDI MELÉNDEZ; MARIELA A. RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-01-01

    The alien tree species Spathodea campanulata forms monodominant stands in abandoned agricultural lands in Puerto Rico. In July 2005, we excavated three replicate randomly located soil pits (25 by 25 by 30 cm) in each of six stands of Spathodea. Three of the stands were located in the moist alluvial geoclimatic zone and three were in the moist karst geoclimatic zone,...

  5. Riqueza, abundância e sazonalidade de Sphingidae (Lepidoptera num fragmento de Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil Species richness, abundance and seasonality of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera in a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Duarte Júnior

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Na Mata Atlântica de Pernambuco, NE-Brasil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho foi realizado um levantamento de Sphingidae de dezembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Os esfingídeos foram coletados com luz de vapor de mercúrio durante duas noites consecutivas por mês, próximo ao novilúnio. Foram determinadas riqueza de espécies, abundância e sazonalidade. Oitenta e nove espécimes de 23 espécies em 13 gêneros foram registrados; 84% dos indivíduos foram machos. Muitas espécies foram raras e de 13 espécies foi coletado apenas um exemplar. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] foram registradas pela primeira vez no Nordeste do Brasil. A esfingofauna não mostrou nenhum padrão de sazonalidade, e riqueza e abundância de espécies de esfingídeos não se correlacionaram com precipitação mensal e temperatura.In the Atlantic Rainforest of Pernambuco, NE-Brazil (Reserva Biológica de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho a survey of Sphingidae was performed from December 2002 to November 2003. The hawkmoths were collected with vapor mercury light during two consecutive nights per months near new moon. Species richness, abundance and seasonality were determined. Eighty-nine specimens of 23 species in13 genera were recorded; 84% the individuals were males. Most species were rare and from 13 species only one exemplar was collected. Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878, X. libya (Druce, 1878, Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779, Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779, Manduca brasilensis (Jordan, 1911, M. hannibal (Cramer, 1779, Adhemarius gannascus (Stoll, 1790 e Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875] were recorded for the first time in Northeastern Brazil. The sphingofauna showed no seasonal patterns and

  6. Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Longo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate shredders may have been overlooked in tropical streams due to the geographical bias of early studies, methodological limitations, and the complex influences of local-scale factors. While shredders seem to be scarce in most oceanic island streams, we here test if they are abundant in a continental island. Gut content analyses of benthic macroinvertebrates were used to identify shredding taxa in streams located in different types of forest in Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific. General dietary overlap (GO was quantified and relative biomass, relative frequency and the leaf litter percentage in the guts were used to establish the relative importance of each taxon in the shredding guild. Various indices were used to identify the spatial arrangement (i.e. contagious or random of each taxon and shredding guild among streams. We identified 31 shredding taxa that were divided into specialist-shredders (14 taxa, generalist-shredders (10, and collector-shredders (7. There was a complete GO (0.75, p<0.001 for the guild. Cockroaches (Epilampra were the most represented shredders due to the greatest contribution to guild total biomass and to the highest content of leaf litter in their guts. These organisms were more important than shrimps and crabs in terms of abundance and biomass in leaf pack samples. Potimirin shrimps ranked second and Stenochironomus midges ranked third. Among aquatic insects, other secondarily important species were Leptohyphes (Ephemeroptera, Macrelmis, Anchytarsus and Tetraglosa (Coleoptera. Ten taxa exhibited contagious spatial pattern and twenty-one exhibited a random distribution. Resource distribution (i.e., leaf packs between streams was random too. The guild was contagiously distributed, but this result could be highly influenced by the taxa with contagious distribution. Mean abundance, richness and mean biomass of shredders were not significantly correlated with any of the environmental variables

  7. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  8. A protocol for sampling vascular epiphyte richness and abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Gradstein, S.R.; Nadkarni, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sampling of epiphytes is fraught with methodological difficulties. We present a protocol to sample and analyse vascular epiphyte richness and abundance in forests of different structure (SVERA). Epiphyte abundance is estimated as biomass by recording the number of plant components in a range of size cohorts. Epiphyte species biomass is estimated on 35 sample-trees, evenly distributed over six trunk diameter-size cohorts (10 trees with dbh > 30 cm). Tree height, dbh and number of forks (di...

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community structure, abundance and species richness changes in soil by different levels of heavy metal and metalloid concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy

    Full Text Available Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF play major roles in ecosystem functioning such as carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, and plant growth promotion. It is important to know how this ecologically important soil microbial player is affected by soil abiotic factors particularly heavy metal and metalloid (HMM. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of soil HMM concentration on AMF abundance and community structure in the contaminated sites of South Korea. Soil samples were collected from the vicinity of an abandoned smelter and the samples were subjected to three complementary methods such as spore morphology, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE for diversity analysis. Spore density was found to be significantly higher in highly contaminated soil compared to less contaminated soil. Spore morphological study revealed that Glomeraceae family was more abundant followed by Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae in the vicinity of the smelter. T-RFLP and DGGE analysis confirmed the dominance of Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices in all the study sites. Claroideoglomus claroideum, Funneliformis caledonium, Rhizophagus clarus and Funneliformis constrictum were found to be sensitive to high concentration of soil HMM. Richness and diversity of Glomeraceae family increased with significant increase in soil arsenic, cadmium and zinc concentrations. Our results revealed that the soil HMM has a vital impact on AMF community structure, especially with Glomeraceae family abundance, richness and diversity.

  10. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  11. A protocol for sampling vascular epiphyte richness and abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Gradstein, S.R.; Nadkarni, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sampling of epiphytes is fraught with methodological difficulties. We present a protocol to sample and analyse vascular epiphyte richness and abundance in forests of different structure (SVERA). Epiphyte abundance is estimated as biomass by recording the number of plant components in a range of

  12. Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Magnolia Longo; Juan F. Blanco

    2014-01-01

    Macroinvertebrate shredders may have been overlooked in tropical streams due to the geographical bias of early studies, methodological limitations, and the complex influences of local-scale factors. While shredders seem to be scarce in most oceanic island streams, we here test if they are abundant in a continental island. Gut content analyses of benthic macroinvertebrates were used to identify shredding taxa in streams located in different types of forest in Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern P...

  13. Abundância e riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae (Diptera em áreas de borda e interior de floresta no Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil Abundance and species richness of Syrphidae (Diptera in the interior and edges of forest in the State Park of Vila Velha, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Marinoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar a fauna local de insetos foram obtidas amostras semanais, de setembro/1999 a agosto/2000, utilizando-se armadilhas Malaise instaladas na borda da floresta e no seu interior. Uma análise temporal foi realizada com as espécies de Syrphidae coletadas há, aproximadamente, dezessete anos no mesmo local, dentro da floresta. A abundância e a riqueza de espécies também foram avaliadas. Tanto a riqueza quanto a abundância foram maiores na borda da floresta. Comparando-se os dados atuais com aqueles obtidos em 1986/1987, observa-se um decréscimo na abundância e também na riqueza de espécies de Syrphidae. A espécie mais abundante na borda foi Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936 e no interior (1999/2000, Ocyptamus sativus (Curran, 1941. Os espécimens de Toxomerus Macquart, 1855 foram os mais abundantes na armadilha localizada na borda da floresta e os de Ocyptamus Macquart, 1834 no interior. Noventa e cinco espécies foram identificadas em 22 gêneros. Ocyptamus foi o gênero com maior riqueza de espécies (23. Na seqüência estão Copestylum Macquart, 1846 (15, Toxomerus (15 e Microdon Meigen, 1803 (10. Sete espécies foram comuns aos três levantamentos: Allograpta neotropica; Copestylum selectum (Curran, 1939; Leucopodella gracilis (Williston, 1891; Mixogaster polistes Hull, 1954; Ocyptamus funebris Macquart, 1834; Toxomerus procrastinatus Metz, 2001 e Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann, 1830. Três novas espécies de Microdon, uma de Toxomerus, uma de Aristosyrphus Curran, 1941 e uma de Myolepta Newman, 1838 foram identificadas.To characterize the local insect fauna, samples were obtained weekly from September/1999 to August/2000 through Malaise traps installed at the edge and inside the forest. A temporal analysis of Syrphidae species collected approximately 17 years ago at the same local, inside the forest, was made. Also, the abundance and species richness between the areas were analyzed. The syrphids were more

  14. Stochastic species abundance models involving special copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2018-01-01

    Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.

  15. Forested landscapes promote richness and abundance of native bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in Wisconsin apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J C; Wolf, A T; Ascher, J S

    2011-06-01

    Wild bees provide vital pollination services for many native and agricultural plant species, yet the landscape conditions needed to support wild bee populations are not well understood or appreciated. We assessed the influence of landscape composition on bee abundance and species richness in apple (Malus spp.) orchards of northeastern Wisconsin during the spring flowering period. A diverse community of bee species occurs in these apple orchards, dominated by wild bees in the families Andrenidae and Halictidae and the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Proportion of forest area in the surrounding landscape was a significant positive predictor of wild bee abundance in orchards, with strongest effects at a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) buffer distance of 1,000 m or greater. Forest area also was positively associated with species richness, showing strongest effects at a buffer distance of 2,000 m. Nonagricultural developed land (homes, lawns, etcetera) was significantly negatively associated with species richness at buffer distances >750 m and wild bee abundance in bowl traps at all distances. Other landscape variables statistically associated with species richness or abundance of wild bees included proportion area of pasture (positive) and proportion area of roads (negative). Forest area was not associated with honey bee abundance at any buffer distance. These results provide clear evidence that the landscape surrounding apple orchards, especially the proportion of forest area, affects richness and abundance of wild bees during the spring flowering period and should be a part of sustainable land management strategies in agro-ecosystems of northeastern Wisconsin and other apple growing regions.

  16. Bracken: estimating species abundance in metagenomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic experiments attempt to characterize microbial communities using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Identification of the microorganisms in a sample provides information about the genetic profile, population structure, and role of microorganisms within an environment. Until recently, most metagenomics studies focused on high-level characterization at the level of phyla, or alternatively sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA gene that is present in bacterial species. As the cost of sequencing has fallen, though, metagenomics experiments have increasingly used unbiased shotgun sequencing to capture all the organisms in a sample. This approach requires a method for estimating abundance directly from the raw read data. Here we describe a fast, accurate new method that computes the abundance at the species level using the reads collected in a metagenomics experiment. Bracken (Bayesian Reestimation of Abundance after Classification with KrakEN uses the taxonomic assignments made by Kraken, a very fast read-level classifier, along with information about the genomes themselves to estimate abundance at the species level, the genus level, or above. We demonstrate that Bracken can produce accurate species- and genus-level abundance estimates even when a sample contains multiple near-identical species.

  17. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  18. Species Richness and Diversity Reveal that Human-Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spider abundance differed significantly between habitat types and was influenced by the sampling methods used. Family diversity and richness showed no significant differences across the sites. The spider species consisted of primarily three functional groups: ground wanderers, web builders and plant wanderers, and ...

  19. Tree species richness of upper Amazonian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Alwyn H.

    1988-01-01

    Upper Amazonian data for tree species richness in 1-hectare plots are reported. All plants ≥10 cm diameter were censused and identified in six plots in Amazonian Peru and one on the Venezuela-Brazil border. The two plots from the everwet forests near Iquitos, Peru, are the most species-rich in the world, with ≈300 species ≥10 cm diameter in single hectares; all of the Peruvian plots are among the most species-rich ever reported. Contrary to accepted opinion, upper Amazonian forest, and perhap...

  20. A biogeographical perspective on species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that multiple processes can generate similar shapes of species abundance distributions (SADs), with the result that the fit of a given SAD model cannot unambiguously provide evidence in support of a given theory or model. An alternative approach to comparing...

  1. species composition, relative abundance and distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    However, wet season had an effect on the avian abundance in eucalyptus plantation. (t=2.952, P <0.05). Eucalyptus plantation, soil ... distribution of bird species in the country is quite complex (Urban, 1980). Most of the the birds that .... size, shape, colour, songs and calls were considered as important parameters (Afework.

  2. Species richness, area and climate correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Aim Species richness-area theory predicts that more species should be found if one samples a larger area. To avoid biases from comparing species richness in areas of very different sizes, area is often controlled by counting the numbers of co-occupying species in near-equal area grid cells...... affects: (1) the selection of climate variables entering a species richness model; and (2) the accuracy of models in predicting species richness in unsampled grid cells. Location Western Europe. Methods Models are developed for European plant, breeding bird, mammal and herptile species richness using...... seven climate variables. Generalized additive models are used to relate species richness, climate and area. Results We found that variation in the grid cell area was large (50 × 50 km: 8-3311 km2; 220 × 220: 193-55,100 km2), but this did not affect the selection of variables in the models. Similarly...

  3. Richness and Abundance of Ichneumonidae in a Fragmented Tropical Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerra, B; Hanson, P; Guevara, R; Dirzo, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of the magnitude of land use currently occurring in tropical regions, the local loss of animal species due to habitat fragmentation has been widely studied, particularly in the case of vertebrates. Many invertebrate groups and the ichneumonid wasps in particular, however, have been poorly studied in this context, despite the fact that they are one of the most species-rich groups and play an important role as regulators of other insect populations. Here, we recorded the taxonomic composition of ichneumonid parasitoids and assessed their species richness, abundance, similarity, and dominance in the Los Tuxtlas tropical rain forest, Mexico. We compared two forest types: a continuous forest (640 ha) and a forest fragment (19 ha). We sampled ichneumonids using four malaise traps in both forest types during the dry (September-October) and rainy (March-April) seasons. A total of 104 individuals of Ichneumonidae belonging to 11 subfamilies, 18 genera, and 42 species were collected in the continuous forest and 11 subfamilies, 15 genera, and 24 species were collected in the forest fragment. Species richness, abundance, and diversity of ichneumonids were greater in the continuous forest than in the forest fragment. We did not detect differences between seasons. Species rank/abundance curves showed that the ichneumonid community between the forest types was different. Species similarity between forest types was low. The most dominant species in continuous forest was Neotheronia sp., whereas in the forest fragment, it was Orthocentrus sp. Changes in the ichneumonid wasp community may compromise important tropical ecosystem processes.

  4. Local and Landscape Drivers of Parasitoid Abundance, Richness, and Composition in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Julia M; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization negatively affects biodiversity, yet some urban habitat features can support diversity. Parasitoid wasps, an abundant and highly diverse group of arthropods, can inhabit urban areas and do well in areas with higher host abundance, floral resources, or local or landscape complexity. Parasitoids provide biological control services in many agricultural habitats, yet few studies have examined diversity and abundance of parasitoids in urban agroecosystems to understand how to promote conservation and function. We examined the local habitat and landscape drivers of parasitoid abundance, superfamily and family richness, and parasitoid composition in urban gardens in the California central coast. Local factors included garden size, ground cover type, herbaceous plant species, and number of trees and shrubs. Landscape characteristics included land cover and landscape diversity around gardens. We found that garden size, mulch cover, and urban cover within 500 m of gardens predicted increases in parasitoid abundance within gardens. The height of herbaceous vegetation and tree and shrub richness predicted increases in superfamily and family richness whereas increases in urban cover resulted in declines in parasitoid richness. Abundance of individual superfamilies and families responded to a wide array of local and landscape factors, sometimes in opposite ways. Composition of parasitoid communities responded to changes in garden size, herbaceous plant cover, and number of flowers. Thus, both local scale management and landscape planning may impact the abundance, diversity, and community composition of parasitoids in urban gardens, and may result in differences in the effectiveness of parasitoids in biological control. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A global database of ant species abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  6. Climatic Variables Do Not Directly Predict Spider Richness and Abundance in Semiarid Caatinga Vegetation, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Sebastian, Nicholas; Araújo, Helder F P; Dias, Sidclay C; Venticinque, Eduardo; Brescovit, Antonio D; Vasconcellos, Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    Spiders are abundant in tropical ecosystems and exert predatory pressure on a wide variety of invertebrate populations and also serve as prey for many others organisms, being part of complex interrelationships influenced directly and indirectly by a myriad of factors. We examined the influence of biotic (i.e., prey availability) and abiotic (i.e., temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, real evapotranspiration) factors on species richness and abundance during a two-year period in the semiarid Caatinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil. Data were analyzed through partial autocorrelation functions, cross correlations, and a path analysis. A total of 2522 spiders were collected with beating tray, pit-fall traps, and malaise traps, comprising 91 species and 34 families. Spider abundance peaked in the rainy season. Our results suggest that total invertebrate abundance has a direct influence on spider richness and abundance, whereas the effects of precipitation were mainly indirectly related to most spider assemblage parameters. The increase in vegetation cover with the rainy season in the Caatinga provides more breeding and foraging sites for spiders and stimulates their activities. Additionally, rainfall in arid and semiarid ecosystems stimulated the activity and reproduction of many herbivore and detritivore invertebrates dependent on plant biomass and necromass consumption, leading to an increase in spider prey availability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Increased energy differentially increases richness and abundance of optimal body sizes in deep-sea wood falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Craig R; Barry, James P; Webb, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies suggest that the total energy available in natural communities influences body size as well as patterns of abundance and diversity. But the precise mechanisms underlying these relationships or how these three ecological properties relate remain elusive. We identify five hypotheses relating energy availability, body size distributions, abundance, and species richness within communities, and we use experimental deep-sea wood fall communities to test their predicted effects both on descriptors describing the species-richness-body-size distribution, and on trends in species richness within size classes over an energy gradient (size-class-richness relationships). Invertebrate communities were taxonomically identified, weighed, and counted from 32 Acacia sp. logs ranging in size from 0.6 to 20.6 kg (corresponding to different levels of energy available), which were deployed at 3,203 m in the Northeast Pacific Ocean for 5 and 7 yr. Trends in both the species-richness-body-size distribution and the size-class-richness distribution with increasing wood fall size provide support for the Increased Packing hypothesis: species richness increases with increasing wood fall size but only in the modal size class. Furthermore, species richness of body size classes reflected the abundance of individuals in that size class. Thus, increases in richness in the modal size class with increasing energy were concordant with increases in abundance within that size class. The results suggest that increases in species richness occurring as energy availability increases may be isolated to specific niches, e.g., the body size classes, especially in communities developing on discrete and energetically isolated resources such as deep sea wood falls. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, P. A. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study how endemic, native and introduced arthropod species richness, abundance, diversity and community composition vary between four different habitat types (native forest, exotic forest of Cryptomeria japonica, semi-natural pasture and intensive pasture) and how arthropod richness and abunda......We study how endemic, native and introduced arthropod species richness, abundance, diversity and community composition vary between four different habitat types (native forest, exotic forest of Cryptomeria japonica, semi-natural pasture and intensive pasture) and how arthropod richness......), native, or introduced. The native forest had the highest values for species richness of Azorean endemics, SIEs and natives; and also had highest values of Azorean endemic diversity (Fisher’s alpha). In contrast, the intensive pasture had the lowest values for endemic and native species richness...... and diversity, but the highest values of total arthropod abundance and introduced species richness and diversity. Arthropod community composition was significantly different between the four habitat types. In the semi-natural pasture, the number of SIE species decreased with increasing distance from the native...

  9. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP, and their relationship with depth. Methods Three reef sites were selected: (1 Bonanza, (2 Bocana, and (3 Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef, 6–8 m (fore-reef, and 10–12 m (fore-reef. Results A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Discussion Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  10. Efeito das atividades de ecoturismo sobre a riqueza e a abundância de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte na região do Cristalino, Mato Grosso, Brasil Effect of ecotourism activities on richness and abundance of species of medium and large mammals in the Cristalino region, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2012-12-01

    , empreendimentos de ecoturismo se apresentam como importante atividade econômica a ser desenvolvida em áreas com potencial turístico na Amazônia.This study was carried out in the Private Natural Heritage Reserves Lote Cristalino (670 ha, Cristalino (6,539 ha and in Cristalino State Park (184,900 ha. These protected areas are contiguous and are located in the extreme north-central State of Mato Grosso, in areas considered priorities for conservation due to the high biodiversity and endemism and the high human pressure. Thus, this study focused to evaluate and compare the structure of populations of medium and large mammals in terms of richness and abundance in environments without tourism and with ecotourism activities in Cristalino region. Therefore, in the period from May 2008 to February 2010, primary forest environments with two levels of anthropogenic disturbance were sampled: no tourism at all and ecotourism activities. Data were collected by using the distance samplings in linear transect, totalizing 468,3 kilometers traveled during daytime and nighttime, and the record of footprints in previously prepared plots (n = 660 surveyed plots, in addition to river corridors in Cristalino River and random searches in places with difficult access due to the lack of roads. Records of 37 species of mammals were obtained, which 33 were medium and large size and four small ones. There was no statistically significant difference in species richness of the environments without tourism and with ecotourism, and the similarity of species among them was quite high (88%. However, three taxa were less abundant in environments with tourism: Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1766, Mazama spp. and Dasypus kappleri Krauss, 1862. Therefore, it can be observed that the negative impact of ecotourism activities developed in the study area presented a small magnitude, in terms of richness and abundance of medium and large mammals. Thus, ecotourism ventures are presented as important economic activity to

  11. Temporal Variation in the Abundance and Richness of Foliage-Dwelling Ants Mediated by Extrafloral Nectar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Belchior

    Full Text Available Plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are common in the Brazilian cerrado savanna, where climatic conditions having marked seasonality influence arboreal ant fauna organization. These ant-plant interactions have rarely been studied at community level. Here, we tested whether: 1 EFN-bearing plants are more visited by ants than EFN-lacking plants; 2 ant visitation is higher in the rainy season than in dry season; 3 plants producing young leaves are more visited than those lacking young leaves in the rainy season; 4 during the dry season, plants with old leaves and flowers are more visited than plants with young leaves and bare of leaves or flowers; 5 the composition of visiting ant fauna differs between plants with and without EFNs. Field work was done in a cerrado reserve near Uberlândia, MG State, Brazil, along ten transects (total area 3,000 m2, in the rainy (October-January and dry seasons (April-July of 2010-2011. Plants (72 species; 762 individuals were checked three times per season for ant presence. Results showed that 21 species (29% and 266 individuals (35% possessed EFNs. These plants attracted 38 ant species (36 in rainy, 26 in dry season. In the rainy season, plants with EFNs had higher ant abundance/richness than plants without EFNs, but in the dry season, EFN presence did not influence ant visitation. Plant phenology affected ant richness and abundance in different ways: plants with young leaves possessed higher ant richness in the rainy season, but in the dry season ant abundance was higher on plants possessing old leaves or flowers. The species composition of plant-associated ant communities, however, did not differ between plants with and without EFNs in either season. These findings suggest that the effect of EFN presence on a community of plant-visiting ants is context dependent, being conditioned to seasonal variation.

  12. Evaluation of NDVI to assess avian abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, T.M.; van Riper, Charles; Johnson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Remote-sensing models have become increasingly popular for identifying, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting avian habitat but have largely focused on single bird species. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been shown to positively correlate with avian abundance and richness and has been successfully applied to southwestern riparian systems which are uniquely composed of narrow bands of vegetation in an otherwise dry landscape. Desert riparian ecosystems are important breeding and stopover sites for many bird species but have been degraded due to altered hydrology and land management practices. Here we investigated the use of NDVI, coupled with vegetation, to model the avian community structure along the San Pedro River, Arizona. We also investigated how vegetation and physical features measured locally compared to those data that can be gathered through remote-sensing. We found that NDVI has statistically significant relationships with both avian abundance and species richness, although is better applied at the individual species level. However, the amount of variation explained by even our best models was quite low, suggesting that NDVI habitat models may not presently be an accurate tool for extensive modeling of avian communities. We suggest additional studies in other watersheds to increase our understanding of these bird/NDVI relationships.

  13. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  14. Modelling community dynamics based on species-level abundance models from detection/nondetection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Royle, J. Andrew; Kuboi, Kouji; Tada, Tsuneo; Ikeno, Susumu; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2011-01-01

    1. In large-scale field surveys, a binary recording of each species' detection or nondetection has been increasingly adopted for its simplicity and low cost. Because of the importance of abundance in many studies, it is desirable to obtain inferences about abundance at species-, functional group-, and community-levels from such binary data. 2. We developed a novel hierarchical multi-species abundance model based on species-level detection/nondetection data. The model accounts for the existence of undetected species, and variability in abundance and detectability among species. Species-level detection/nondetection is linked to species- level abundance via a detection model that accommodates the expectation that probability of detection (at least one individuals is detected) increases with local abundance of the species. We applied this model to a 9-year dataset composed of the detection/nondetection of forest birds, at a single post-fire site (from 7 to 15 years after fire) in a montane area of central Japan. The model allocated undetected species into one of the predefined functional groups by assuming a prior distribution on individual group membership. 3. The results suggest that 15–20 species were missed in each year, and that species richness of communities and functional groups did not change with post-fire forest succession. Overall abundance of birds and abundance of functional groups tended to increase over time, although only in the winter, while decreases in detectabilities were observed in several species. 4. Synthesis and applications. Understanding and prediction of large-scale biodiversity dynamics partly hinge on how we can use data effectively. Our hierarchical model for detection/nondetection data estimates abundance in space/time at species-, functional group-, and community-levels while accounting for undetected individuals and species. It also permits comparison of multiple communities by many types of abundance-based diversity and similarity

  15. Estimating tree species richness from forest inventory plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2007-01-01

    Montreal Process Criterion 1, Conservation of Biological Diversity, expresses species diversity in terms of number of forest dependent species. Species richness, defined as the total number of species present, is a common metric for analyzing species diversity. A crucial difficulty in estimating species richness from sample data obtained from sources such as inventory...

  16. Pathogen richness and abundance predict patterns of adaptive major histocompatibility complex variation in insular amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Supen; Liu, Conghui; Wilson, Anthony B; Zhao, Na; Li, Xianping; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Xu; Liu, Xuan; Li, Yiming

    2017-09-01

    The identification of the factors responsible for genetic variation and differentiation at adaptive loci can provide important insights into the evolutionary process and is crucial for the effective management of threatened species. We studied the impact of environmental viral richness and abundance on functional diversity and differentiation of the MHC class Ia locus in populations of the black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), an IUCN-listed species, on 24 land-bridge islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and three nearby mainland sites. We found a high proportion of private MHC alleles in mainland and insular populations, corresponding to 32 distinct functional supertypes, and strong positive selection on MHC antigen-binding sites in all populations. Viral pathogen diversity and abundance were reduced at island sites relative to the mainland, and islands housed distinctive viral communities. Standardized MHC diversity at island sites exceeded that found at neutral microsatellites, and the representation of key functional supertypes was positively correlated with the abundance of specific viruses in the environment (Frog virus 3 and Ambystoma tigrinum virus). These results indicate that pathogen-driven diversifying selection can play an important role in maintaining functionally important MHC variation following island isolation, highlighting the importance of considering functionally important genetic variation and host-pathogen associations in conservation planning and management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Predictors of leafhopper abundance and richness in a coffee agroecosystem in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdine, Justin D; Domínguez Martínez, Gabriel H; Philpott, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Coffee agroecosystems with a vegetatively complex shade canopy contain high levels of biodiversity. However, as coffee management is intensified, diversity may be lost. Most biodiversity studies in coffee agroecosystems have examined predators and not herbivores, despite their importance as potential coffee pests and coffee disease vectors. We sampled one abundant herbivore group of leafhoppers on an organic coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico. We sampled leafhoppers with elevated pan traps in high- and moderate-shade coffee during the dry and wet seasons of 2011. The two major objectives were to 1) compare leafhopper abundance and richness during the wet and dry seasons and 2) examine the correlations between habitat characteristics (e.g., vegetation, elevation, and presence of aggressive ants) and leafhopper richness and abundance. We collected 2,351 leafhoppers, representing eight tribes and 64 morphospecies. Leafhopper abundance was higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Likewise, leafhopper richness was higher in the dry season. Several vegetation and other habitat characteristics correlated with abundance and richness of leafhoppers. The number of Inga trees positively correlated with leafhopper abundance, and other significant correlates of abundance included vegetation complexity. Leafhopper richness was correlated with the number of Inga trees. As leafhoppers transmit important coffee diseases, understanding the specific habitat factors correlating with changes in abundance and richness may help predict future disease outbreaks.

  18. [Abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated to the submerged roots of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) at Bocaripo Lagoon, Sucre, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, Jennellis; Jiménez Prieto, Mayré; Pereda, Luisana; Allen, Thays

    2010-10-01

    Mangrove roots are important habitats for many species. The abundance and richness of mollusks and crustaceans associated with the roots demerged of Rhizophora mangle was studied. The samples were gathered between February 2005 and January 2006, in Bocaripo lagoon, north coast of Sucre state, Venezuela. Five stations were established inside the lagoon; on every station two roots were chosen at random, put in plastic bags and scraped. The associated organisms were separated by taxa and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. One thousand ninety two specimens of mollusks, distributed in two classes: Bivalve and Gastropod were collected. Bivalve was the most abundant with 943 individuals. The most representative family was Mytilidae with 6 species, being Musculus lateralis the dominant species. The crustaceans were represented by 372 organisms, belonging to the class Malacostraca, where Panopeus herbstii (169 ind.) was the most abundant species. The families Panopeidae, Porcellanidae and Majidae had the highest number of species. Maximum abundance was in February (224 ind.), with a richness of 25 species and the minimums in November (45 ind.) and a richness of 12 species. The stations 1 and 5 presented the major abundance and richness of organisms, which could be related to environmental conditions favorable, as the major availability of microhabitats and nourishing offer; on the contrary the station 4, presented a more inhospitable environment, due to the high values in the salinity and temperature, which contributes with the minor abundance and richness of the present species.

  19. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  20. Species composition, abundance and activity pattern of birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23.81%) were irregular. The species composition decreased during the wet season due to the departure of migratory birds. But, the abundance of birds during the wet season was greater than during the dry season. The most abundant species ...

  1. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data on arthr...

  2. A global database of ant species abundances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibb, H.; Dunn, R. R.; Sanders, N. J.; Grossman, B. F.; Photakis, M.; Abril, S.; Agosti, D.; Andersen, A. N.; Angulo, E.; Armbrecht, I.; Arnan, X.; Baccaro, F. B.; Bishop, T. R.; Boulay, R.; Brühl, C.; Castracani, C.; Cerdá, X.; Del Toro, I.; Delsinne, T.; Diaz, M.; Donoso, D. A.; Ellison, A. M.; Enríquez, M. L.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Feener, D. H.; Fisher, B. L.; Fisher, R. N.; Fitzpatrick, M. C.; Gómez, C.; Gotelli, N. J.; Gove, A.; Grasso, D. A.; Groc, S.; Guenard, B.; Gunawardene, N.; Heterick, B.; Hoffmann, B.; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, C.; Kaspari, M.; Klimeš, Petr; Lach, L.; Laeger, T.; Lattke, J.; Leponce, M.; Lessard, J.-P.; Longino, J.; Lucky, A.; Luke, S. H.; Majer, J.; McGlynn, T. P.; Menke, S.; Mezger, D.; Mori, A.; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, T. C.; Pacheco, R.; Paknia, O.; Pearce-Duvet, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Philpott, S. M.; Resasco, J.; Retana, J.; Silva, R. R.; Sorger, M. D.; Souza, J.; Suarez, A.; Tista, M.; Vasconcelos, H. L.; Vonshak, M.; Weisser, M. D.; Yates, M.; Parr, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2017), s. 883-884 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G; GA ČR GAP505/12/2467; GA ČR GPP505/12/P875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : abundance * ants * database Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecy.1682/abstract

  3. Species composition, abundance, distribution and habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 371 captures of rodents and shrews from live-trapping and 73 captures from snaps. Seven species of rodents (Stenocephalemys albipes, Lophuromys flavopunctatus, Arvicanthis abyssinicus, Desmomys harringtoni, Mastomys natalensis, Mus mahomet and Rattus rattus) and two species of shrews (Crocidura ...

  4. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  5. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  6. Chemical abundances in the extremely carbon-rich and xenon-rich halo planetary nebula H4-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tajitsu, Akito, E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: tajitsu@subaru.naoj.org [Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We performed detailed chemical abundance analysis of the extremely metal-poor ([Ar/H] ∼ –2) halo planetary nebula (PN) H4-1 based on the multi-wavelength spectra from Subaru/HDS, GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer/IRS and determined the abundances of 10 elements. The C and O abundances were derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and are almost consistent with abundances from recombination lines (RLs). We demonstrated that the large discrepancy in the C abundance between CEL and RL in H4-1 can be solved using the temperature fluctuation model. We reported the first detection of the [Xe III] λ5846 line in H4-1 and determination of its elemental abundance ([Xe/H] > +0.48). H4-1 is the most Xe-rich PN among the Xe-detected PNe. The observed abundances are close to the theoretical prediction by a 2.0 M {sub ☉} single star model with an initially element rich ([r/Fe] = +2.0 dex) rapid neutron-capture process (r-process). The observed Xe abundance would be a product of the r-process in primordial supernovae. The [C/O]-[Ba/(Eu or Xe)] diagram suggests that the progenitor of H4-1 shares the evolution with carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP)-r/s and CEMP-no stars. The progenitor of H4-1 is presumably a binary formed in an r-process-rich environment.

  7. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...

  8. Climate induced increases in species richness of marine fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, J.G.; Hofstede, ter R.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change has been predicted to lead to changes in local and regional species richness through species extinctions and latitudinal ranges shifts. Here, we show that species richness of fish in the North Sea, a group of ecological and socio-economical importance, has increased over a 22-year

  9. Distribution and abundance of diatom species from coastal waters of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, F. N.; Burhan, Z.; Iqbal, P.; Abbasi, J.; Siddiqui, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive study on the distribution and abundance of diatom species from the coastal and nearshore waters of Karachi, Pakistan, bordering northern Arabian Sea. A total of 20 genera are recorded in high abundance (Cerataulina, Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Cylindrotheca, Eucampia, Guinardia, Haslea, Hemiaulus, Lauderia, Lennoxia, Leptocylindrus, Navicula, Nitzschia, Trieres, Planktoniella, Pleurosigma, Pseudo-nitzschia, Rhizosolenia, Thalassionema and Thalassiosira). The most abundant genera were observed Guinardia, Chaetoceros, Leptocylindrus, Nitzschia and Lennoxia at all stations. Manora coastal station (MI-1) had high abundance corresponding with high Chlorophyll a (130 meu gL- l) values. Minimum abundance and low chlorophyll a value (0.05μgL-l) were observed at Mubarak Village coastal station (MV-1). Diatom abundance showed significant correlation with Chlorophyll a. In present study 12 centric and 8 pennate forms were recorded and similarly high diversity of centric taxa was observed compared to pennate forms. A total of 134 species are recorded of which 40 species were observed at four stations, 31species at three stations, 23 at two stations and 40 species only at one station. The total phytoplankton and diatom peak abundance was observed during NE monsoon (winter season) associated with nutrient loading through up-sloping of nutrient rich water upwelled off of Oman during South West monsoon. Overall higher diversity was observed at Manora coastal and nearshore stations (MI-1, MI-2) indicating the influence of organic pollution loading from Layari and Malir rivers. (author)

  10. Species richness, abundance, and composition of hypogeous and epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps in young, rotation-age, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; D.L. Luoma; D. McKay; M.A. Castellano; T. Lebel; Y. Valachovic

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi among successional forest age-classes is critical for conserving fungal species diversity. Hypogeous and epigeous sporocarps were collected from three replicate stands in each of three forest age-classes (young, rotation-age, and old-growth) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  11. High species richness of Chironomidae (Diptera) in temporary flooded wetlands associated with high species turn-over rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, J O; Brodin, Y; Schäfer, M L; Vinnersten, T Z Persson; Ostman, O

    2010-08-01

    Species richness and species turn-over of Chironomidae was studied in irregularly flooded wetlands of the River Dalälven flood-plains in central Sweden. The chironomid fauna, sampled with emergence traps in six wetlands over six summers, contained as much as 135 species, and the cumulative species curves indicated that the regional species pool contain several more species. Recurrent irregular floods may have induced this high chironomid species richness and the high species turn-over in the temporary wetlands, as the dominance between terrestrial and aquatic species shifted between years. Half of the wetlands were treated with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) against larvae of the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus. These treatments had no significant effect on chironomid species richness, but there was a higher species turn-over between years of primarily low abundance species in the treated wetlands. The cumulative number of species was also higher in the Bti-treated experimental wetlands than in the untreated reference wetlands. Thus, Bti treatment against mosquito larvae seemed to have only small effects on chironomid species richness but seemed to increase the colonisation-extinction dynamics.

  12. The Global Distribution and Drivers of Alien Bird Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ellie E.; Cassey, Phillip; Redding, David W.; Collen, Ben; Franks, Victoria; Gaston, Kevin J.; Jones, Kate E.; Kark, Salit; Orme, C. David L.; Blackburn, Tim M.

    2017-01-01

    Alien species are a major component of human-induced environmental change. Variation in the numbers of alien species found in different areas is likely to depend on a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors, with anthropogenic factors affecting the number of species introduced to new locations, and when, and environmental factors influencing how many species are able to persist there. However, global spatial and temporal variation in the drivers of alien introduction and species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse an extensive new database of alien birds to explore what determines the global distribution of alien species richness for an entire taxonomic class. We demonstrate that the locations of origin and introduction of alien birds, and their identities, were initially driven largely by European (mainly British) colonialism. However, recent introductions are a wider phenomenon, involving more species and countries, and driven in part by increasing economic activity. We find that, globally, alien bird species richness is currently highest at midlatitudes and is strongly determined by anthropogenic effects, most notably the number of species introduced (i.e., “colonisation pressure”). Nevertheless, environmental drivers are also important, with native and alien species richness being strongly and consistently positively associated. Our results demonstrate that colonisation pressure is key to understanding alien species richness, show that areas of high native species richness are not resistant to colonisation by alien species at the global scale, and emphasise the likely ongoing threats to global environments from introductions of species. PMID:28081142

  13. Fish species composition and abundance on a subtropical, artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition and abundance of fish species on a derelict rocky pier on the Durban beachfront, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed by means of underwater visual census, using transects. A total of 74 species were recorded on the reef, with convict surgeons (Acanthurus triostegus), sash damsels ...

  14. Factors determining plant species richness in Alaskan artic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, van der M.E.W.; Vermeulen, P.J.; Shaver, G.R.; Berendse, F.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the relationship between plant N:P ratio, soil characteristics and species richness in wet sedge and tussock tundra in northern Alaska at seven sites. We also collected data on soil characteristics, above-ground biomass, species richness and composition. The N:P ratio of the vegetation

  15. Research Note Herbaceous plant species richness and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between grazing veld condition and herbaceous plant species richness in the moist Midlands Mistbelt Grassland in KwaZulu-Natal. The observed herbaceous plant species richness and composition of 12 sample plots (50 m x 50 m) was determined in three study sites using quadrat ...

  16. SPECIES RICHNESS AND UNIFORMITY CONTRIBUTIONS TO BIRD DIVERSITY IN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS IN THE SOUTHEAST OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Altamirano González Ortega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of the richness and uniformity in the diversity of birds, and their relationship with covariates of vegetation in a coffee landscape in southern Mexico. Species richness and abundance was recorded in 2010 and 2011 in evergreen forests and three different types of coffee production systems. Changes in the values of species richness and uniformity were detected by a SHE analysis (S = species richness, H = diversity and E = evenness. True diversity (the actual number of species actually represent the diversity of species in the samples was also estimated. The tree cover, shrub cover and tree height were covariates of vegetation that explained the variation in species richness and abundance. SHE analysis indicated that cumulative values of bird diversity increased in all plots with species richness, while the values of uniformity of species decreased. This condition changed with management activities of coffee and / or the arrival of migratory birds. The true diversity, when all species had a weight proportional to its abundance (q = 1, was higher in all plots when they were given greater weight to the dominant species (q = 2. Management practices of tree cover and shrubs and bird migration could explain changes in species richness and uniformity during the agricultural cycle.

  17. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...... differences in terminology and ecological point of view. Realizing and accounting for these differences facilitates integration, so that the relative contributions of each mechanism may be evaluated. Here, we review all the mechanisms that have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships...

  18. Estimating abundance in the presence of species uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry A.; Hossack, Blake R.; Fishback, LeeAnn; Davenport, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    1.N-mixture models have become a popular method for estimating abundance of free-ranging animals that are not marked or identified individually. These models have been used on count data for single species that can be identified with certainty. However, co-occurring species often look similar during one or more life stages, making it difficult to assign species for all recorded captures. This uncertainty creates problems for estimating species-specific abundance and it can often limit life stages to which we can make inference. 2.We present a new extension of N-mixture models that accounts for species uncertainty. In addition to estimating site-specific abundances and detection probabilities, this model allows estimating probability of correct assignment of species identity. We implement this hierarchical model in a Bayesian framework and provide all code for running the model in BUGS-language programs. 3.We present an application of the model on count data from two sympatric freshwater fishes, the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), ad illustrate implementation of covariate effects (habitat characteristics). In addition, we used a simulation study to validate the model and illustrate potential sample size issues. We also compared, for both real and simulated data, estimates provided by our model to those obtained by a simple N-mixture model when captures of unknown species identification were discarded. In the latter case, abundance estimates appeared highly biased and very imprecise, while our new model provided unbiased estimates with higher precision. 4.This extension of the N-mixture model should be useful for a wide variety of studies and taxa, as species uncertainty is a common issue. It should notably help improve investigation of abundance and vital rate characteristics of organisms’ early life stages, which are sometimes more difficult to identify than adults.

  19. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480–19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and inaccurate removal rates, we suggest auxiliary information that could be collected and included in the model as covariates (e

  20. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    species richness. Using both conventional and spatial regression models, we show that for sub-Saharan African birds, the apparent role of productivity diminishes with decreasing range size, whereas the significance of topographic heterogeneity increases. The relative importance of geometric constraints...... from the continental edge is moderate. Our findings highlight the failure of traditional species richness models to account for narrow-ranging species that frequently are also threatened....

  1. The rainy season increases the abundance and richness of the aquatic insect community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Santana

    Full Text Available Alterations in aquatic systems and changes in water levels, whether due to rains or dam-mediated control can cause changes in community structure, forcing the community to readjust to the new environment. This study tested the hypothesis that there is an increase in the richness and abundance of aquatic insects during the rainy season in the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, with the premise that increasing the reservoir level provides greater external material input and habitat diversity, and, therefore, conditions that promote colonization by more species. We used the paired t test to test the differences in richness, beta diversity, and abundance, and a Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS was performed to identify patterns in the community under study. Additionally, Pearson correlations were analyzed between the richness, abundance, and beta diversity and the level of the reservoir. We collected 35,028 aquatic insect larvae (9,513 in dry period and 25,515 in the rainy season, predominantly of the Chironomidae family, followed by orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Odonata. Among the 33 families collected, only 12 occurred in the dry season, while all occurred in the rainy season. These families are common in lentic environments, and the dominance of Chironomidae was associated with its fast colonization, their behavior of living at high densities and the great tolerance to low levels of oxygen in the environment. The hypothesis was confirmed, as the richness, beta diversity, and abundance were positively affected by the increase in water levels due to the rainy season, which most likely led to greater external material input, greater heterogeneity of habitat, and better conditions for colonization by several families.

  2. abundance and species richness of lombric macrofauna in a semi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Ababsa

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... area of ecology [20], According to Chao et al., [21] quantifying and assessing changes in biological diversity are central to many ecological studies, however, exact methods for estimating the biological diversity of sampling data are difficult to achieve. In this study to refine the analysis of the specific diversity ...

  3. Species abundance, length weight relationships of selected fishes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal abundance and length-weight relationships of 25 species of fish inhabiting the fresh water ecosystem of Mu river, - Fiidi-Makurdi were estimated from 441 specimens caught with different kinds of gears (set basket ... The parameters (a and b) of length -weight relationship of the form (a* Lb= VV) were estimated.

  4. Relative abundance of mosquito species in Katsina Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on the relative abundance of mosquito species, around selected areas of Katsina metropolis, Katsina State, Nigeria during the months of January, February, April and June 2010. Mosquitoes were collected from five sampling sites: Kofar Durbi, Kofar Kaura, Kofar Marusa, GRA and Layout. These were ...

  5. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle E Merriam; Jon E. Keeley; Jan L. Beyers

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment...

  6. fish species and size distribution and abundance in different areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The study was carried out to investigate fish species distribution and abundance in different areas and size structure variations according to depth in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Data were collected using a bottom trawl net during rainy and dry seasons in 2002. The results show that there were significant ...

  7. Fish species composition, diversity and abundance of the lower New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thirteen-week investigation to determine the fish species composition, diversity and abundance of the Lower New Calabar River, in Rivers State, aimed at providing information on the fish stock and their status for documentation, knowledge improvement, and development of conservation and management strategies was ...

  8. The distribution, composition and abundance of fish species in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish composition and abundance of two Gold mine reservoir were investigated between May, 2008 and May, 2009. Seven fish families comprising of twelve species of fish were caught during the period of study. The families of fish caught included Anabantidae, Channidae, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Melanopluridae, Mormyridae ...

  9. Phytoplankton species diversity and abundance in the near shore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey was carried out in January/February and July/August 2002 to investigate phytoplankton species diversity, spatial distribution, numerical abundance and total biomass (chlorophyll a concentration) in 10 selected stations on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria. At each station, samples for diversity data were ...

  10. Fish species composition and abundance on a subtropical, artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition and abundance of fish species on a derelict rocky pier on the Durban beachfront, KwaZulu-. Natal, South Africa, were assessed by means of underwater visual census, using transects. A total of 74 spe- cies were recorded on the reef, with convict surgeons (Acanthurus triostegus), sash damsels ...

  11. Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the Avian Fauna of Entoto Natural Park and Escarpment, Addis Ababa. ... Eucalyptus plantation, soil erosion, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, settlement and land degradation were the main threats for the distribution of birds in the present study area.

  12. Host preferences and differential contributions of deciduous tree species shape mycorrhizal species richness in a mixed Central European forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christa; Seven, Jasmin; Polle, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Mycorrhizal species richness and host ranges were investigated in mixed deciduous stands composed of Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp., Carpinus betulus, Acer spp., and Fraxinus excelsior. Acer and Fraxinus were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizas and contributed 5% to total stand mycorrhizal fungal species richness. Tilia hosted similar and Carpinus half the number of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxa compared with Fagus (75 putative taxa). The relative abundance of the host tree the EM fungal richness decreased in the order Fagus > Tilia > Carpinus. After correction for similar sampling intensities, EM fungal species richness of Carpinus was still about 30-40% lower than that of Fagus and Tilia. About 10% of the mycorrhizal species were shared among the EM forming trees; 29% were associated with two host tree species and 61% with only one of the hosts. The latter group consisted mainly of rare EM fungal species colonizing about 20% of the root tips and included known specialists but also putative non-host associations such as conifer or shrub mycorrhizas. Our data indicate that EM fungal species richness was associated with tree identity and suggest that Fagus secures EM fungal diversity in an ecosystem since it shared more common EM fungi with Tilia and Carpinus than the latter two among each other.

  13. Program SimAssem: software for simulating species assemblages and estimating species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon C. Reese; Kenneth R. Wilson; Curtis H. Flather

    2013-01-01

    1. Species richness, the number of species in a defined area, is the most frequently used biodiversity measure. Despite its intuitive appeal and conceptual simplicity, species richness is often difficult to quantify, even in well surveyed areas, because of sampling limitations such as survey effort and species detection probability....

  14. Processes at multiple scales affect richness and similarity of non-native plant species in mountains around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim Seipel; Christoph Kueffer; Lisa J. Rew; Curtis C. Daehler; Aníbal Pauchard; Bridgett J. Naylor; Jake M. Alexander; Peter J. Edwards; Catherine G. Parks; Jose Ramon Arevalo; Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Hansjorg Dietz; Gabi Jakobs; Keith McDougall; Rudiger Otto; Neville. Walsh

    2012-01-01

    We compared the distribution of non-native plant species along roads in eight mountainous regions. Within each region, abundance of plant species was recorded at 41-84 sites along elevational gradients using 100-m2 plots located 0, 25 and 75 m from roadsides. We used mixed-effects models to examine how local variation in species richness and...

  15. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  16. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Kasangaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  17. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  18. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Amphibians Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are aggregations of the presence grids data at the family level. They are...

  19. Estimating species richness and status of solitary bees and bumblebees in agricultural semi-natural habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Estimation of Western Europe number of bee species varies between 2000 and 4500 (Williams 1995) but there are substantial indications of a decline in bee species in Europe and other regions. In Denmark, wild bee species richness, distribution, and abundance have not been studied in detail for about...... 75 years, and nothing is known about which species are potentially vulnerable or endangered. A rough estimate of solitary bees and bumblebees includes approximately 238 species (26 genera) and 29 species respectively. In a pan-trap survey of six kilometres of semi-natural habitats in a Danish...... agricultural landscape, 72 solitary bee species and 19 species of bumblebees were recorded, several of which are considered vulnerable or endangered in neighbouring countries. Nesting conditions for rare cavity-nesting species and the possible role of the semi-natural habitats as corridors for species...

  20. Estimating species richness and status of solitary bees and bumblebees in agricultural semi-natural habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    75 years, and nothing is known about which species are potentially vulnerable or endangered. A rough estimate of solitary bees and bumblebees includes approximately 238 species (26 genera) and 29 species respectively. In a pan-trap survey of six kilometres of semi-natural habitats in a Danish...... agricultural landscape, 72 solitary bee species and 19 species of bumblebees were recorded, several of which are considered vulnerable or endangered in neighbouring countries. Nesting conditions for rare cavity-nesting species and the possible role of the semi-natural habitats as corridors for species......Estimation of Western Europe number of bee species varies between 2000 and 4500 (Williams 1995) but there are substantial indications of a decline in bee species in Europe and other regions. In Denmark, wild bee species richness, distribution, and abundance have not been studied in detail for about...

  1. Effects of fire management on the richness and abundance of central North American grassland land snail faunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekola, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The land snail faunas from 72 upland and lowland grassland sites from central North America were analyzed. Sixteen of these had been exposed to fire management within the last 15 years, while the remainder had not. A total of 91,074 individuals in 72 different species were observed. Richness was reduced by approximately 30% on burned sites, while abundance was reduced by 50-90%. One-way ANOVA of all sites (using management type as the independent variable, a full 2-way ANOVA (using management and grassland type of all sites, and a 2-way ANOVA limited to 26 sites paired according to their habitat type and geographic location, demonstrated in all cases a highly significant (up to p < 0.0005 reduction in richness and abundance on fire managed sites. Contingency table analysis of individual species demonstrated that 44% experienced a significant reduction in abundance on fire-managed sites. Only six species positively responded to fire. Comparisons of fire response to the general ecological preferences of these species demonstrated that fully 72% of turf-specialists were negatively impacted by fire, while 67% of duff-specialists demonstrated no significant response. These differences were highly significant (p = 0.0006. Thus, frequent use of fire management represents a significant threat to the health and diversity of North American grassland land snail communities. Protecting this fauna will require the preservation of site organic litter layers, which will require the increase of fire return intervals to 15+ years in conjunction with use of more diversified methods to remove woody and invasive plants.

  2. Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To explore biogeographic patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Maine, USA using techniques that would describe local and spatial correlations with the environment. Location: Maine, USA. Methods: We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 275 species using literature and expert review. Ranges were combined into species richness maps, and compared to geomorphology, climate, and woody plant distributions. Methods were adapted that compared richness of all vertebrate classes to each environmental correlate, rather than assessing a single explanatory theory. We partitioned variation in species richness into components using tree and multiple linear regression. Methods were used that allowed for useful comparisons between tree and linear regression results. For both methods we partitioned variation into broad-scale (spatially autocorrelated) and fine-scale (spatially uncorrelated) explained and unexplained components. By partitioning variance, and using both tree and linear regression in analyses, we explored the degree of variation in species richness for each vertebrate group that Could be explained by the relative contribution of each environmental variable. Results: In tree regression, climate variation explained richness better (92% of mean deviance explained for all species) than woody plant variation (87%) and geomorphology (86%). Reptiles were highly correlated with environmental variation (93%), followed by mammals, amphibians, and birds (each with 84-82% deviance explained). In multiple linear regression, climate was most closely associated with total vertebrate richness (78%), followed by woody plants (67%) and geomorphology (56%). Again, reptiles were closely correlated with the environment (95%), followed by mammals (73%), amphibians (63%) and birds (57%). Main conclusions: Comparing variation explained using tree and multiple linear regression quantified the importance of nonlinear relationships and local interactions between species

  3. Richness and Abundance of Lianas with Different Diameter Classes in Permanent Plots in the Amazon in Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Ferraz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are an important component of the structure and diversity of tropical forests and the Amazon biome is one of few natural protected areas that still support the highest level of biodiversity in the world. Generally in disturbed forests high densities of lianas are found than mature forests. The aim of this study is to investigate the richness among families and lianas abundance with different diameter classes in permanent plots in the Amazon of Mato Grosso. To the survey were placed 8 plots of 40 x 250 in a forest fragment that has been management for 30 years, where we sampled lianas species with diameter breast height (DBH ≥ 1 cm. There were sampled 3970 stems in the permanent plots, and the two most abundant were 2 and 6 with 594 and 573 individuals respectively. The richest families were Sapindaceae, Dilleniaceae, Menispermaceae and Fabaceae. These results confirm the hypothesis that disturbed areas have more density of lianas with small DBH.

  4. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES OF THE SUPER-METAL-RICH OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Jeffrey D. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion 160-C Casilla, Concepcion (Chile); Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Maderak, Ryan M. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Twarog, Bruce, E-mail: jcummings@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: con@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: maderak@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu, E-mail: btwarog@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    High-resolution CTIO 4 m/HYDRA spectroscopy of the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6253 ([Fe/H] = +0.43 {+-} 0.01) has been used to study the stellar lithium (Li) abundances near the cluster's turnoff. NGC 6253 greatly expands the range of [Fe/H] for clusters that have a Li abundance analysis. This is important for studying the complicated effects of, and potential correlations with, stellar Fe abundance on surface Li abundance. Comparisons to the younger and less-metal-rich Hyades and to the similarly aged but solar-metallicity M67 show that NGC 6253's Li abundances are qualitatively consistent with the prediction, from Standard Stellar Evolution Theory, that higher-metallicity stars have a greater Li depletion. Comparison with M67 provides evidence that the more-metal-rich NGC 6253 had a higher initial Li, which is consistent with expectations from models of Galactic Li production. NGC 6253 is also compared to the intermediate-aged NGC 3680, NGC 752, and IC 4651 open clusters. Comparison of the Li-gap positions in all six clusters shows that (1) the gap's position in T{sub eff} is independent of metallicity, but (2) higher-metallicity clusters have their gaps in higher-mass stars. In addition, the Li gap's position is shown not to evolve with age, which provides an important constraint for the non-standard depletion mechanisms that may create the Li gap.

  5. Coronal Thermal Structure and Abundance of Super-Metal-Rich Late-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers the NASA grant NAG5-9943 for Cycle 1 XMM Guest Observer Program. The project is entitled 'Coronal Thermal Structure and Abundances of Super-Metal-Rich Late-Type Stars.' This observation is for grating spectroscopy of 30 Ari, a late-type star with very high metallicity (about twice solar). The goal is to use extreme cases to help understand how abundances change from the photosphere to the corona. The target was obtained by XMM-Newton on 2001 January 16 for 28000 sec. Data processing could not proceed until last fall because the SAS RGS software did not work. A poster was presented at the conference 'New Visions of the X-ray Universe in the XMM-Newton and Chandra Era,' held in Noordwijk 26-30 November 2001. The paper was entitled,'Coronal Abundances and Thermal Structure of the Super-Metal-Rich Star 30 Ari,'. The poster presented analysis of EPIC and RGS data to determine the individual abundances from the star and the emission measure distribution as a function of temperature. Results were compared with previous results on this star by our team using ASCA data.

  6. Species richness and composition of bird community in Abalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of avifaunal survey made in Abalo-Gunacho forest, southern Ethiopia, in May 2014 to determine the species richness and to examine guild composition of bird community of the forest. Birds were surveyed using Timed-Species Count technique along eight randomly selected transects. Fifty-one ...

  7. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types, and the only two species common to both are Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea sericea infestation in ...

  8. Spatial heterogeneity influences native and nonnative plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Chong, Geneva W

    2006-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity may have differential effects on the distribution of native and nonnative plant species richness. We examined the effects of spatial heterogeneity on native and nonnative plant species richness distributions in the central part of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Spatial heterogeneity around vegetation plots was characterized using landscape metrics, environmental/topographic variables (slope, aspect, elevation, and distance from stream or river), and soil variables (nitrogen, clay, and sand). The landscape metrics represented five components of landscape heterogeneity and were measured at four spatial extents (within varying radii of 120, 240, 480, and 960 m) using the FRAGSTATS landscape pattern analysis program. Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size (AICc) was used to select the best models from a set of multiple linear regression models developed for native and nonnative plant species richness at four spatial extents and three levels of ecological hierarchy (i.e., landscape, land cover, and community). Both native and nonnative plant species richness were positively correlated with edge density, Simpson's diversity index and interspersion/juxtaposition index, and were negatively correlated with mean patch size. The amount of variation explained at four spatial extents and three hierarchical levels ranged from 30% to 70%. At the landscape level, the best models explained 43% of the variation in native plant species richness and 70% of the variation in nonnative plant species richness (240-m extent). In general, the amount of variation explained was always higher for nonnative plant species richness, and the inclusion of landscape metrics always significantly improved the models. The best models explained 66% of the variation in nonnative plant species richness for both the conifer land cover type and lodgepole pine community. The relative influence of the components of spatial heterogeneity differed for

  9. Abundance modelling of invasive and indigenous Culicoides species in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Ducheyne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel methodology applied in Spain to model spatial abundance patterns of potential vectors of disease at a medium spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km using a countrywide database with abundance data for five Culicoides species, random regression Forest modelling and a spatial dataset of ground measured and remotely sensed eco-climatic and environmental predictor variables. First the probability of occurrence was computed. In a second step a direct regression between the probability of occurrence and trap abundance was established to verify the linearity of the relationship. Finally the probability of occurrence was used in combination with the set of predictor variables to model abundance. In each case the variable importance of the predictors was used to biologically interpret results and to compare both model outputs, and model performance was assessed using four different accuracy measures. Results are shown for C. imicola, C. newsteadii, C. pulicaris group, C. punctatus and C. obsoletus group. In each case the probability of occurrence is a good predictor of abundance at the used spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km. In addition, the C. imicola and C. obsoletus group are highly driven by summer rainfall. The spatial pattern is inverse between the two species, indicating that the lower and upper thresholds are different. C. pulicaris group is mainly driven by temperature. The patterns for C. newsteadii and C. punctatus are less clear. It is concluded that the proposed methodology can be used as an input to transmission-infection-recovery (TIR models and R0 models. The methodology will become available to the general public as part of the VECMAPTM software.

  10. Effects of trophic skewing of species richness on ecosystem functioning in a diverse marine community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Reynolds

    Full Text Available Widespread overharvesting of top consumers of the world's ecosystems has "skewed" food webs, in terms of biomass and species richness, towards a generally greater domination at lower trophic levels. This skewing is exacerbated in locations where exotic species are predominantly low-trophic level consumers such as benthic macrophytes, detritivores, and filter feeders. However, in some systems where numerous exotic predators have been added, sometimes purposefully as in many freshwater systems, food webs are skewed in the opposite direction toward consumer dominance. Little is known about how such modifications to food web topology, e.g., changes in the ratio of predator to prey species richness, affect ecosystem functioning. We experimentally measured the effects of trophic skew on production in an estuarine food web by manipulating ratios of species richness across three trophic levels in experimental mesocosms. After 24 days, increasing macroalgal richness promoted both plant biomass and grazer abundance, although the positive effect on plant biomass disappeared in the presence of grazers. The strongest trophic cascade on the experimentally stocked macroalgae emerged in communities with a greater ratio of prey to predator richness (bottom-rich food webs, while stronger cascades on the accumulation of naturally colonizing algae (primarily microalgae with some early successional macroalgae that recruited and grew in the mesocosms generally emerged in communities with greater predator to prey richness (the more top-rich food webs. These results suggest that trophic skewing of species richness and overall changes in food web topology can influence marine community structure and food web dynamics in complex ways, emphasizing the need for multitrophic approaches to understand the consequences of marine extinctions and invasions.

  11. Drivers of species richness in European Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Ulrich, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) and the latitudinal gradient in species richness are the most widespread and best-documented patterns in ecology, yet few studies have explored how the two patterns are interrelated. We used tenebrionid beetles as a species rich invertebrate group to investigate how area, habitat heterogeneity, climate, and ecological history act together in shaping species richness across Europe. We tested the effects of various climatic gradients on tenebrionid richness, with separate analyses for endemics and non-endemics. To take into account differences in area size among geographical units, we included species-area relationships using simultaneous autoregressive models. Although area had a significant effect on richness, the signal associated with temperature is so strong that it is still evident as a major driver. Also, the effect of area was only apparent when the effect of spatial coordinates had been accounted for, which has important implications for the use of SARs to locate diversity hotspots. The influence of latitude was mainly explained by a temperature gradient. Our findings support a postglacial European colonisation mainly from glacial southern refuges. Large Mediterranean islands were also important refugial areas.

  12. Environmental heterogeneity–species richness relationships from a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial environmental heterogeneity (EH is considered one of the most important factors promoting species richness, but no general consent about the EH–richness relationship exists so far. This is because research methods and study settings vary widely, and because non-significant and negative associations have also been reported. My thesis provides a comprehensive review of the different measurements and terminologies of EH used in the literature, and presents strong quantitative evidence of a generally positive relationship between biotic and abiotic EH and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals from landscape to global extents. In a meta-analysis and a subsequent case study comparing multiple EH measures and their association with mammal species richness worldwide, I furthermore reveal that the outcome of EH–richness studies depends strongly on study design, including both the EH measure chosen and spatial scale. My research contributes to a better understanding of the EH–richness relationship, while identifying future research needs.

  13. Likeability of Garden Birds: Importance of Species Knowledge & Richness in Connecting People to Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Interacting with nature is widely recognised as providing many health and well-being benefits. As people live increasingly urbanised lifestyles, the provision of food for garden birds may create a vital link for connecting people to nature and enabling them to access these benefits. However, it is not clear which factors determine the pleasure that people receive from watching birds at their feeders. These may be dependent on the species that are present, the abundance of individuals and the species richness of birds around the feeders. We quantitatively surveyed urban households from towns in southern England to determine the factors that influence the likeability of 14 common garden bird species, and to assess whether people prefer to see a greater abundance of individuals or increased species richness at their feeders. There was substantial variation in likeability across species, with songbirds being preferred over non-songbirds. Species likeability increased for people who fed birds regularly and who could name the species. We found a strong correlation between the number of species that a person could correctly identify and how connected to nature they felt when they watched garden birds. Species richness was preferred over a greater number of individuals of the same species. Although we do not show causation this study suggests that it is possible to increase the well-being benefits that people gain from watching birds at their feeders. This could be done first through a human to bird approach by encouraging regular interactions between people and their garden birds, such as through learning the species names and providing food. Second, it could be achieved through a bird to human approach by increasing garden songbird diversity because the pleasure that a person receives from watching an individual bird at a feeder is dependent not only on its species but also on the diversity of birds at the feeder.

  14. Likeability of Garden Birds: Importance of Species Knowledge & Richness in Connecting People to Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T. C.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Interacting with nature is widely recognised as providing many health and well-being benefits. As people live increasingly urbanised lifestyles, the provision of food for garden birds may create a vital link for connecting people to nature and enabling them to access these benefits. However, it is not clear which factors determine the pleasure that people receive from watching birds at their feeders. These may be dependent on the species that are present, the abundance of individuals and the species richness of birds around the feeders. We quantitatively surveyed urban households from towns in southern England to determine the factors that influence the likeability of 14 common garden bird species, and to assess whether people prefer to see a greater abundance of individuals or increased species richness at their feeders. There was substantial variation in likeability across species, with songbirds being preferred over non-songbirds. Species likeability increased for people who fed birds regularly and who could name the species. We found a strong correlation between the number of species that a person could correctly identify and how connected to nature they felt when they watched garden birds. Species richness was preferred over a greater number of individuals of the same species. Although we do not show causation this study suggests that it is possible to increase the well-being benefits that people gain from watching birds at their feeders. This could be done first through a human to bird approach by encouraging regular interactions between people and their garden birds, such as through learning the species names and providing food. Second, it could be achieved through a bird to human approach by increasing garden songbird diversity because the pleasure that a person receives from watching an individual bird at a feeder is dependent not only on its species but also on the diversity of birds at the feeder. PMID:26560968

  15. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, Jose L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adrian; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Garcia-Gomez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceicao, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitan, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gomez-Gonzalez, Susana; Gutie, Julio R.; Hernandez, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Anibal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramirez-Collantes, David A.; Romao, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Diaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, Jose P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and the buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report here on a global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth's land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that the preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands.

  16. Global variation in woodpecker species richness shaped by tree availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Sigrid Kistrup; Kissling, W. Daniel; Fjeldså, Jon

    2017-01-01

    heterogeneity and biogeographical region. We further used structural equation models to test for direct and indirect effects of predictor variables. Results: There was a strong positive relationship between woodpecker species richness and current tree cover and annual precipitation, respectively. Precipitation...... a negative indirect effect on woodpecker species richness. Main conclusions: Global species richness of woodpeckers is primarily shaped by current tree cover and precipitation, reflecting a strong biotic association between woodpeckers and trees. Human influence can have a negative effect on woodpecker...... diversity when humans reduce tree availability. Hence, woodpeckers exemplify how broad-scale diversity patterns are predominantly shaped by a biotic factor, and how climate and human influence can have indirect effects on animal biodiversity via the effects on tree availability and forest cover....

  17. Long-term temporal and spatial changes in the richness and relative abundance of the inshore fish community of the British North Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in temporal and spatial composition of the British inshore North Sea fish community are reviewed. Sampling from the cooling water filter screens of power stations bordering the North Sea commenced in the early 1960s. To date, a total of 112 marine fish species have been recorded, a high proportion of the total inshore fish species complement of shallow North Sea British waters. The unrecorded top predators, such as large sharks, swordfish and tuna are not regularly observed in waters abundance, taxa form a core inshore community throughout the region in both estuarine and marine waters. They show a high level of concordance in relative abundance along the British east coast from the 1970s to the present. A second group of 20 species are abundant, but more restricted in habitat. Where they do occur, this group are usually always present and form together with the ubiquitous taxa the local core community. The third group of 67 species, are never abundant and are restricted in occurrence both spatially and temporally. Total species richness declines between 50 and 56°N, probably because high summer temperatures allow the southern North Sea to support summer migrants entering via the English Channel. Since the 1960s there has been a notable recovery in fish diversity and abundance in large industrialised estuaries such as the Thames and the Firth of Forth. Linked to spawning and nursery habitat gain, smelt, Osmerus eperlangus, and bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, have greatly increased in abundance. There is no evidence for a decline in species richness since the 1970s. However, elasmobranch species number has declined while two species Raja clavata and Scyliorhinus canicula have remained abundant and one, Mustelus asterias, has increased in abundance. It is argued that overexploitation and habitat destruction remain, as they have been for the last 300 years, the most serious threats to the health of North Sea inshore fish communities. There are no clear signs that

  18. Producing diversity: Agroforests Sustain Avian Richness and Abundance in India's Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, protected areas have long been the corner stone of biodiversity conservation efforts. In India’s Western Ghats, small and isolated protected areas are embedded in a matrix of multiple land-uses, most of which include agroforests. These agroforests are being increasingly recognized for their supplementary role in conserving wildlife. We examined bird species richness and densities in areca (Areca catechu, coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis agroforests in the Western Ghats. We developed a priori hypotheses, predicting that bird species richness and guild density would be highest in coffee, followed by areca and rubber agroforests. We carried out 551 point-count surveys involving 386 hours of sampling in 187 agroforests across a 29,634 km2 area of the Ghats. We observed 204 bird species, of which 170 were residents. The average estimated richness per agroforest was higher in coffee (60.5 compared to rubber (45.4 and areca (34.1. We modeled species richness as a function of relevant biogeographic and environmental covariates. The most influential factors were tree cover, tree density and rainfall in all agroforests, but the strength of these effects varied. Coffee supported higher densities in all four habitat and three feeding guilds compared to areca and rubber. We integrated extensive field sampling with modeling that accounted for imperfect detection, while assessing bird richness and densities across multiple agroforest types. We establish that coffee agroforests are substantially richer in birds than rubber and areca, but all three agroforests play an important role in providing subsidiary habitats for birds in the Ghats. Policy decisions and markets must incorporate such biodiversity values and services provided by these agroforests to sustain and facilitate long-term biodiversity conservation.

  19. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  20. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Paz Silva

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2 distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC, building density (BD, impervious surface (IS,municipal green space (MG,non-municipal green space (NG, domestic garden space (DG, distance to the periphery (DP, social welfare index (SW, and vegetation diversity (RV. Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat

  1. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E; Estay, Sergio A; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  2. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cristóbal E.; Estay, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for

  3. Analyzing fractal property of species abundance distribution and diversity indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang

    2016-03-07

    Community diversity is usually characterized by numerical indexes; however it indeed depends on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Diversity indexes and SAD are based on the same information but treating as separate themes. Ranking species abundance from largest to smallest, the decreasing pattern can give the information about the SAD. Frontier proposed such SAD might be a fractal structure, and first applied the Zipf-Mandelbrot model to the SAD study. However, this model fails to include the Zipf model, and also fails to ensure an integer rank. In this study, a fractal model of SAD was reconstructed, and tested with 104 community samples from 8 taxonomic groups. The results show that there was a good fit of the presented model. Fractal parameter (p) determines the SAD of a community. The ecological significance of p relates to the "dominance" of a community. The correlation between p and classical diversity indexes show that Shannon index decreases and Simpson index increases as p increases. The main purpose of this paper is not to compare with other SADs models; it simply provides a new interpretation of SAD model construction, and preliminarily integrates diversity indexes and SAD model into a broader perspective of community diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fishing elevates variability in the abundance of exploited species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Reiss, Christian S; Hunter, John R; Beddington, John R; May, Robert M; Sugihara, George

    2006-10-19

    The separation of the effects of environmental variability from the impacts of fishing has been elusive, but is essential for sound fisheries management. We distinguish environmental effects from fishing effects by comparing the temporal variability of exploited versus unexploited fish stocks living in the same environments. Using the unique suite of 50-year-long larval fish surveys from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations we analyse fishing as a treatment effect in a long-term ecological experiment. Here we present evidence from the marine environment that exploited species exhibit higher temporal variability in abundance than unexploited species. This remains true after accounting for life-history effects, abundance, ecological traits and phylogeny. The increased variability of exploited populations is probably caused by fishery-induced truncation of the age structure, which reduces the capacity of populations to buffer environmental events. Therefore, to avoid collapse, fisheries must be managed not only to sustain the total viable biomass but also to prevent the significant truncation of age structure. The double jeopardy of fishing to potentially deplete stock sizes and, more immediately, to amplify the peaks and valleys of population variability, calls for a precautionary management approach.

  5. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares Correa Dias, A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  6. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  7. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The middle shore is primarily occupied by cirolanids and bivalves, and hippid crabs, bivalves and amphipods dominate the lower beach. Generally, species richness increases from upper to lower beach levels. Studies carried out on exposed sandy beaches of south-central Chile (ca. 40°S) show that different beach states ...

  8. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Zoologia, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile. Received 22 Occobcr 1993; accepted 19 Jan.uary 1994. Species richness of the intertidal macroinfauna of exposed sandy beaches around South America is reviewed in relation to geographic location. This macrolnfauna is dominated by drolanid isopods ...

  9. Relationships between Plant Biomass and Species Richness under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in a montane grassland of Kokosa District, West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between aboveground plant biomass and species richness in three farming systems and four grazing management systems. A total of 180 ...

  10. Impact of physicochemical factors on zooplankton species richness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thermometer, pH meter, Secchi disk, DO meter and EC/TDS meter respectively. Monthly sampling was conducted between January, 2009 and December, 2010. Result showed reduced zooplankton species richness between 2009 and 2010 of 33 spp. and 21 spp. respectively. Likewise there was observed reduction in ...

  11. Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, C; Graves, G R

    2001-01-01

    The search for a common cause of species richness gradients has spawned more than 100 explanatory hypotheses in just the past two decades. Despite recent conceptual advances, further refinement of the most plausible models has been stifled by the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases ...

  12. Restoration of species-rich grasslands on reconstructed river dikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, C.I.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Up until 30 years ago an extensive, flower-rich grassland vegetation containing many species rare in the Netherlands used to be common on Dutch river dikes. However, the deterioration of the flora on dikes was already being reported at the end of the 1960s. At that time too, ecologists

  13. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a

  14. Changes in plant species richness induce functional shifts in soil nematode communities in experimental grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Eisenhauer

    Full Text Available Changes in plant diversity may induce distinct changes in soil food web structure and accompanying soil feedbacks to plants. However, knowledge of the long-term consequences of plant community simplification for soil animal food webs and functioning is scarce. Nematodes, the most abundant and diverse soil Metazoa, represent the complexity of soil food webs as they comprise all major trophic groups and allow calculation of a number of functional indices.We studied the functional composition of nematode communities three and five years after establishment of a grassland plant diversity experiment (Jena Experiment. In response to plant community simplification common nematode species disappeared and pronounced functional shifts in community structure occurred. The relevance of the fungal energy channel was higher in spring 2007 than in autumn 2005, particularly in species-rich plant assemblages. This resulted in a significant positive relationship between plant species richness and the ratio of fungal-to-bacterial feeders. Moreover, the density of predators increased significantly with plant diversity after five years, pointing to increased soil food web complexity in species-rich plant assemblages. Remarkably, in complex plant communities the nematode community shifted in favour of microbivores and predators, thereby reducing the relative abundance of plant feeders after five years.The results suggest that species-poor plant assemblages may suffer from nematode communities detrimental to plants, whereas species-rich plant assemblages support a higher proportion of microbivorous nematodes stimulating nutrient cycling and hence plant performance; i.e. effects of nematodes on plants may switch from negative to positive. Overall, food web complexity is likely to decrease in response to plant community simplification and results of this study suggest that this results mainly from the loss of common species which likely alter plant-nematode interactions.

  15. Changes in plant species richness induce functional shifts in soil nematode communities in experimental grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Migunova, Varvara D; Ackermann, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Changes in plant diversity may induce distinct changes in soil food web structure and accompanying soil feedbacks to plants. However, knowledge of the long-term consequences of plant community simplification for soil animal food webs and functioning is scarce. Nematodes, the most abundant and diverse soil Metazoa, represent the complexity of soil food webs as they comprise all major trophic groups and allow calculation of a number of functional indices. We studied the functional composition of nematode communities three and five years after establishment of a grassland plant diversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In response to plant community simplification common nematode species disappeared and pronounced functional shifts in community structure occurred. The relevance of the fungal energy channel was higher in spring 2007 than in autumn 2005, particularly in species-rich plant assemblages. This resulted in a significant positive relationship between plant species richness and the ratio of fungal-to-bacterial feeders. Moreover, the density of predators increased significantly with plant diversity after five years, pointing to increased soil food web complexity in species-rich plant assemblages. Remarkably, in complex plant communities the nematode community shifted in favour of microbivores and predators, thereby reducing the relative abundance of plant feeders after five years. The results suggest that species-poor plant assemblages may suffer from nematode communities detrimental to plants, whereas species-rich plant assemblages support a higher proportion of microbivorous nematodes stimulating nutrient cycling and hence plant performance; i.e. effects of nematodes on plants may switch from negative to positive. Overall, food web complexity is likely to decrease in response to plant community simplification and results of this study suggest that this results mainly from the loss of common species which likely alter plant-nematode interactions.

  16. Diversity and abundance of amphibian species in the Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeje Kassie Teme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the population status, abundance and diversity of amphibians found in Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland. Methods: The present study dealed with amphibian diversity at Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland during the period of August 2015 to September 2015. Transect line and visual encounter survey methods were used in careful visual estimation and amphibians were recorded in all possible habitats of the study area. Results: The total of 251 individuals of amphibians within 12 species grouped into 5 families were recorded in the Guguftu highland and Chefa wetland. Chefa wetland had the highest species abundance as well as richness with a total of 231 individuals falling in 11 species. Conclusions: This study reveals that the Chefa wetland is rich in amphibian diversity and supports many more species. Further studies are needed on molecular basis, population structure, habitat use by amphibians for better understanding and also imposing several conservation strategies in Chefa wetland.

  17. Marine diversity: the paradigms in patterns of species richness examined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Gray

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The two central paradigms of marine diversity are that there is a latitudinal cline of increasing species richness from poles to tropics and that species richness increases with depth to a maximum around 2,000 m and thereafter decreases. However, these paradigms were based on data collected in the late 1950´s and early 1960´s. Here I show that the 1960´s data, are not representative and thus the paradigms need re-examination. New data from coastal areas in the northern hemisphere record species richness as high as the highest recorded in the deep-sea. Whilst this suggests that the cline of increasing diversity from shallow to deep-sea does not exist, however, the database for the deep sea is not sufficient to draw such a conclusion. The basic problem with the data from the 1960s is that samples were taken on ecological scales and yet they are used to answer evolutionary questions. The questions that such data were to answer were why do the tropics have higher species richness than polar regions or why do deep-sea sediments have more species than coastal sediments? Evolutionary questions need data from much larger spatial areas. Recently, data representative of large scales have been collected from coastal areas in the northern hemisphere and show that there is a cline of increasing species richness from the Arctic to the tropics, but there does not yet seem to be a similar cline in the southern hemisphere. A number of hypotheses have been proposed for the observed patterns in biodiversity. In terrestrial ecology the energy-productivity hypothesis has gained wide acceptance as an explanation for the latitudinal gradient. Here I examine this and other hypotheses critically. Finally an analysis of research priorities is made. Assessment is urgently needed of the spatial scales and dynamics of species richness from point samples to assemblages, habitats and landscapes, especially in coastal areas and in the tropics, where the threats to

  18. Herbivores, tidal elevation, and species richness simultaneously mediate nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily; Williams, Susan L

    2011-05-01

    In order for research into the consequences of biodiversity changes to be more applicable to real-world ecosystems, experiments must be conducted in the field, where a variety of factors other than diversity can affect the rates of key biogeochemical and physiological processes. Here, we experimentally evaluate the effects of two factors known to affect the diversity and composition of intertidal seaweed assemblages--tidal elevation and herbivory--on nitrate uptake by those assemblages. Based on surveys of community composition at the end of a 1.5-year press experiment, we found that both tide height and herbivores affected seaweed community structure. Not surprisingly, seaweed species richness was greater at lower tidal elevations. Herbivores did not affect richness, but they altered the types of species that were present; seaweed species characterized by higher rates of nitrate uptake were more abundant in herbivore-removal plots. Both tide height and herbivores affected nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages. Individual seaweed species, as well as entire seaweed assemblages, living higher on the shore had greater rates of biomass-specific nitrate uptake, particularly at high ambient nitrate concentrations. Grazed seaweed assemblages exhibited reduced nitrate uptake, but only at low nitrate concentrations. We evaluated the effect of seaweed richness on nitrate uptake, both alone and after accounting for effects of tidal elevation and herbivores. When only richness was considered, we found no effect on uptake. However, when simultaneous effects of richness, tide height, and herbivores on uptake were evaluated, we found that all three had relatively large and comparable effects on nitrate uptake coefficients and that there was a negative relationship between seaweed richness and nitrate uptake. Particularly because effects of richness on uptake were not apparent unless the effects of tide height and herbivory were also considered, these results highlight the

  19. Patterns of species richness and diversity of insects associated with cucurbit fruits in the southern part of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokam, Didi Gaëlle; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Bilong Bilong, Charles-Félix

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of species diversity and community structure of insects associated with fruits of domesticated cucurbits were investigated from January 2009 to 2011 in three localities from two agroecological zones in the southern part of Cameroon. Rarefaction curves combined with nonparametric estimators of species richness were used to extrapolate species richness beyond our own data. Sampling efforts of over 92% were reached in each of the three study localities. Data collected revealed a total of 66 insect morphospecies belonging to 37 families and five orders, identified from a set of 57,510 insects. The orders Diptera (especially Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) and Hymenoptera (mainly Braconidae and Eulophidae) were the most important, in terms of both abundance and species richness on the one hand, and effects on agronomic performance on the other. Values for both the species diversity (Shannon and Simpson) and the species richness indices (Margalef and Berger-Parker) calculated showed that the insect communities were species-rich but dominated, all to a similar extent, by five main species (including four fruit fly species and one parasitoid). Species abundance distributions in these communities ranged from the Zipf-Mandelbrot to Mandelbrot models. The communities are structured as tritrophic networks, including cucurbit fruits, fruit-feeding species (fruit flies) and carnivorous species (parasitoids). Within the guild of the parasitoids, about 30% of species, despite their low abundance, may potentially be of use in biological control of important pests. Our field data contribute in important ways to basic knowledge of biodiversity patterns in agrosystems and constitute baseline data for the planned implementation of biological control in Integrated Pest Management. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Astrochem: Abundances of chemical species in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Sébastien; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2015-07-01

    Astrochem computes the abundances of chemical species in the interstellar medium, as function of time. It studies the chemistry in a variety of astronomical objects, including diffuse clouds, dense clouds, photodissociation regions, prestellar cores, protostars, and protostellar disks. Astrochem reads a network of chemical reactions from a text file, builds up a system of kinetic rates equations, and solves it using a state-of-the-art stiff ordinary differential equation (ODE) solver. The Jacobian matrix of the system is computed implicitly, so the resolution of the system is extremely fast: large networks containing several thousands of reactions are usually solved in a few seconds. A variety of gas phase process are considered, as well as simple gas-grain interactions, such as the freeze-out and the desorption via several mechanisms (thermal desorption, cosmic-ray desorption and photo-desorption). The computed abundances are written in a HDF5 file, and can be plotted in different ways with the tools provided with Astrochem. Chemical reactions and their rates are written in a format which is meant to be easy to read and to edit. A tool to convert the chemical networks from the OSU and KIDA databases into this format is also provided. Astrochem is written in C, and its source code is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

  1. Asymptotic size determines species abundance in the marine size spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The majority of higher organisms in the marine environment display indeterminate growth; that is, they continue to grow throughout their life, limited by an asymptotic size. We derive the abundance of species as a function of their asymptotic size. The derivation is based on size-spectrum theory......, where population structure is derived from physiology and simple arguments regarding the predator-prey interaction. Using a hypothesis of constant satiation, which states that the average degree of satiation is independent of the size of an organism, the number of individuals with a given size is found...... to be proportional to the weight raised to the power -2.05, independent of the predator/prey size ratio. This is the first time the spectrum exponent has been derived solely on the basis of processes at the individual level. The theory furthermore predicts that the parameters in the von Bertalanffy growth function...

  2. An extensive comparison of species-abundance distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Elita; Harris, David J; Xiao, Xiao; White, Ethan P

    2016-01-01

    A number of different models have been proposed as descriptions of the species-abundance distribution (SAD). Most evaluations of these models use only one or two models, focus on only a single ecosystem or taxonomic group, or fail to use appropriate statistical methods. We use likelihood and AIC to compare the fit of four of the most widely used models to data on over 16,000 communities from a diverse array of taxonomic groups and ecosystems. Across all datasets combined the log-series, Poisson lognormal, and negative binomial all yield similar overall fits to the data. Therefore, when correcting for differences in the number of parameters the log-series generally provides the best fit to data. Within individual datasets some other distributions performed nearly as well as the log-series even after correcting for the number of parameters. The Zipf distribution is generally a poor characterization of the SAD.

  3. An extensive comparison of species-abundance distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elita Baldridge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of different models have been proposed as descriptions of the species-abundance distribution (SAD. Most evaluations of these models use only one or two models, focus on only a single ecosystem or taxonomic group, or fail to use appropriate statistical methods. We use likelihood and AIC to compare the fit of four of the most widely used models to data on over 16,000 communities from a diverse array of taxonomic groups and ecosystems. Across all datasets combined the log-series, Poisson lognormal, and negative binomial all yield similar overall fits to the data. Therefore, when correcting for differences in the number of parameters the log-series generally provides the best fit to data. Within individual datasets some other distributions performed nearly as well as the log-series even after correcting for the number of parameters. The Zipf distribution is generally a poor characterization of the SAD.

  4. Estimation of avian population sizes and species richness across a boreal landscape in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Swanson, S.A.; Nigro, Debora A.; Matsuoka, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the distribution of birds breeding within five ecological landforms in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, a 10,194-km2 roadless conservation unit on the Alaska-Canada border in the boreal forest zone. Passerines dominated the avifauna numerically, comprising 97% of individuals surveyed but less than half of the 115 species recorded in the Preserve. We used distance-sampling and discrete-removal models to estimate detection probabilities, densities, and population sizes across the Preserve for 23 species of migrant passerines and five species of resident passerines. Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) and Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) were the most abundant species, together accounting for 41% of the migrant passerine populations estimated. White-winged Crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), Boreal Chickadees (Poecile hudsonica), and Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were the most abundant residents. Species richness was greatest in the Floodplain/Terrace landform flanking the Yukon River but densities were highest in the Subalpine landform. Species composition was related to past glacial history and current physiography of the region and differed notably from other areas of the northwestern boreal forest. Point-transect surveys, augmented with auxiliary observations, were well suited to sampling the largely passerine avifauna across this rugged landscape and could be used across the boreal forest region to monitor changes in northern bird distribution and abundance. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  5. Modeling broad-scale patterns of avian species richness across the Midwestern United States with measures of satellite image texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff; Veronique St-Louis; Curtis H. Flather; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon

    2012-01-01

    Avian biodiversity is threatened, and in order to prioritize limited conservation resources and conduct effective conservation planning a better understanding of avian species richness patterns is needed. The use of image texture measures, as a proxy for the spatial structure of land cover and vegetation, has proven useful in explaining patterns of avian abundance and...

  6. Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W; Cleveland, Christopher A; Dallas, Tad A; Corn, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions.

  7. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  8. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldén, Anna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Kotiaho, Janne S; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Halme, Panu

    2014-01-01

    Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L.) retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered) and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old-growth forests.

  9. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  10. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies.

  11. Rodents of Italy: species richness maps and forma Italiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most effective way of mapping species diversity, is to choose an abundant, sedentary, small and widespread taxon, such as rodents are. At present, thanks to a recent improvement of karyology and genetics, knowledge is growing faster at the macro - regional level than at the local level. This is due to a delay in assessing the whole territory. In fact new findings often come from one or very few and small localities. This implies new problems in mapping species richness. Indeed today, even less than in the past, Richness can be evaluated directly by the crude species number, without any kind of standardisation of data a/o weighing. A study of maps of Italian rodents has shown that the more up to date the maps are, the more they coincide with theoretical calculations based on consolidated ecological and biogeographical rules. Richness maps (i.e., weighted and standardised species number show an even more satisfactory representation of the general geo-ecological outline of the Italian peninsula and its subpeninsulae.

  12. Polynesian ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) species richness and distribution: a regional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lloyd W.

    1997-11-01

    Thirteen Polynesian islands, including five true atolls, an uplifted atoll, and seven high volcanic islands of varying ages, were surveyed for ants by hand collecting techniques. Ten of the thirteen islands had been surveyed previously, and more and species were found in the present survey than were known from all earlier surveys combined, with two exception (Ducie Atoll and Easter Island). This represents the first report of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile Mayr, from Easter Island. L. humile is a very successful pest species which has only recently invaded Easter Island, and is now very abundant and widespread, occurring at 16 of the 17 sample sites scattered across the island. The introduction of this species is almost certainly responsible for the apparent decline in species richness on Easter Island. In general, more species were present on high islands than atolls of a similar size, and elevation was significant while log (area) and latitude were not in a multiple linear regression with ant species number as the dependent variable. Not enough time was spent on the islands to survey their ant faunas completely, and extrapolations from species effort curves and jackknife estimators of earlier, thorough surverys for ants in the society Islands suggest that only about 50% of the total species were collected in the present survey, at least on the high islands. My collections were probably more complete on the atolls. The increase in species numbers from the present survey relative to known species richnesses (particularly when a large fraction of the species actually present were probably not included in the present survey) supports the hypothesis that remote Polynesian islands are not as depauperate in terms of ant species numbers as previously thought.

  13. RELATIONSHIPS OF ALIEN PLANT SPECIES ABUNDANCE TO RIPARIAN VEGETATION, ENVIRONMENT, AND DISTURBANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian ecosystems are often invaded by alien species. We evaluated vegetation, environment, and disturbance conditions and their interrelationships with alien species abundance along reaches of 29 streams in eastern Oregon, USA. Using flexible-BETA clustering, indicator species...

  14. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA, leaf N concentration (LN, and total leaf area per twig size (TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

  15. Linking Associations of Rare Low-Abundance Species to Their Environments by Association Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Karpinets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of microbial communities by targeted sequencing of rRNA genes lead to recovering numerous rare low-abundance taxa with unknown biological roles. We propose to study associations of such rare organisms with their environments by a computational framework based on transformation of the data into qualitative variables. Namely, we analyze the sparse table of putative species or OTUs (operational taxonomic units and samples generated in such studies, also known as an OTU table, by collecting statistics on co-occurrences of the species and on shared species richness across samples. Based on the statistics we built two association networks, of the rare putative species and of the samples respectively, using a known computational technique, Association networks (Anets developed for analysis of qualitative data. Clusters of samples and clusters of OTUs are then integrated and combined with metadata of the study to produce a map of associated putative species in their environments. We tested and validated the framework on two types of microbiomes, of human body sites and that of the Populus tree root systems. We show that in both studies the associations of OTUs can separate samples according to environmental or physiological characteristics of the studied systems.

  16. Local and Landscape Correlates of Spider Activity Density and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoshi, Michelle D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Urbanization is a major threat to arthropod biodiversity and abundance due to reduction and loss of suitable natural habitat. Green spaces and small-scale agricultural areas may provide habitat and resources for arthropods within densely developed cities. We studied spider activity density (a measure of both abundance and degree of movement) and diversity in urban gardens in Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Monterey counties in central California, USA. We sampled for spiders with pitfall traps and sampled 38 local site characteristics for 5 mo in 19 garden sites to determine the relative importance of individual local factors. We also analyzed 16 landscape variables at 500-m and 1-km buffers surrounding each garden to determine the significance of landscape factors. We identified individuals from the most common families to species and identified individuals from other families to morphospecies. Species from the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae composed 81% of total adult spider individuals. Most of the significant factors that correlated with spider activity density and richness were local rather than landscape factors. Spider activity density and richness increased with mulch cover and flowering plant species, and decreased with bare soil. Thus, changes in local garden management have the potential to promote diversity of functionally important spiders in urban environments. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae de Lagoas, município de Buriticupu, Amazônia Maranhense. I - Riqueza e abundância relativa das espécies em área de colonização recente Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae of Lagoas, municipal district of Buriticupu, Amazonia of Maranhão. I - Richness and relative abundance of the species in area of recent colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Macário Rebêlo

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo determinou a riqueza de espécies e a abundância relativa dos flebotomíneos da comunidade de Lagoas, em Buriticupu, na Amazônia Maranhense. O estudo consistiu na captura de formas adultas com auxílio de armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC e armadilha de Shannon, das 18 às 6 horas, uma vez por mês, de dezembro/95 a janeiro/97, em ambiente florestal e extraflorestal (peri e intradomicílios. No total, capturou-se 9.392 espécimens (4.302 machos e 5.090 fêmeas distribuídos em 38 espécies (1 Brumptomyia e 37 Lutzomyia. A riqueza e abundância de espécies foram maiores na mata, seguida do peri e intradomicílio. Na mata, as espécies mais freqüentes foram Lutzomyia whitmani (64,9%, L. migonei (27% e L. serrana (3,6%. No peridomicílio, predominaram L. evandroi (55,4%, L. whitmani (33,4% e L. migonei (6,4% e no intra, L. evandroi (97,9%. O predomínio no ambiente silvestre resulta das potencialidades ainda encontradas nas glebas remanescentes da floresta tão explorada pelas atividades madeireira e agropecuária. Por outro lado, a peridomiciliação de 7,7% das espécies reverteu-se de grande importância epidemiológica, haja visto a existência de pacientes com leishmanioses que julgam ter adquirido a infecção nas proximidades de suas habitações.In this study the diversity of the species and relative abundance of the sand flies in the Amazonian community of Lagoas, in Buriticupu, Maranhão State, was determined. The study consisted of adult sandflies captured with CD light-traps, Shannon-trap and manual aspiration tube, between 18 PM and 6 AM, once a month, from December/95 to January/97, in a forest fragment and in the domestic environment (peri and intra. In all, 9,393 specimens were captured (4,302 males and 5,140 females distributed among 38 species (1 Brumptomyia and 37 Lutzomyia. The diversity and abundance of species was higher in the forest, followed by the peri and intra. The predominance in the wild ambient is a

  18. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  19. Biogeography of species richness gradients : Linking adaptive traits, demography and diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Brotons, Lluis; Stefanescu, Constanti; Penuelas, Josep

    Here we review how adaptive traits contribute to the emergence and maintenance of species richness gradients through their influence on demographic and diversification processes. We start by reviewing how demographic dynamics change along species richness gradients. Empirical studies show that

  20. Macroparasite community of the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris): poor species richness and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Claudia; Pisanu, Benoît; Ferrari, Nicola; Basset, Franck; Tillon, Laurent; Wauters, Lucas A; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2013-10-01

    The Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is the only naturally occurring tree squirrel throughout its range. We aim at improving current knowledge on its macroparasite fauna, expecting that it will have a poor parasite diversity because in species that have no sympatric congeners parasite richness should be lower than in hosts sharing their range with several closely related species, where host-switching events and lateral transmission are promoted. We examined gastro-intestinal helminth and ectoparasite communities (excluding mites) of, respectively, 147 and 311 red squirrel roadkills collected in four biogeographic regions in Italy and France. As expected, the macroparasite fauna was poor: we found five species of nematodes and some unidentified cestodes, three fleas, two sucking lice and two hard ticks. The helminth community was dominated by a single species, the oxyurid Trypanoxyuris (Rodentoxyuris) sciuri (prevalence, 87%; mean abundance, 373 ± 65 worms/host). Its abundance varied among seasons and biogeographic regions and increased with body mass in male hosts while decreased in females. The most prevalent ectoparasites were the flea Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sciurorum (28%), whose presence was affected by season, and the generalist tick Ixodes (Ixodes) ricinus that was found only in France (34%). All the other helminths and arthropod species were rare, with prevalence below 10%. However, the first record of Strongyloides robustus, a common nematode of North American Eastern grey squirrels (S. carolinensis), in two red squirrels living in areas where this alien species co-inhabits, deserves further attention, since low parasite richness could result in native red squirrels being particularly vulnerable to parasite spillover.

  1. Pollen Deposition Is More Important than Species Richness for Seed Set in Luffa Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A

    2016-10-01

    In the context of global biodiversity decline, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of bee communities for sustaining the vital ecosystem service of pollination. Bee species can be assigned to functional groups (average difference among species in functionally related traits) on the basis of complementarity (trait variations exhibited by individual organisms) in their behavior but is not yet known which functional group trait is most important for seed set. In this study, first, the functional groups of bees were made based on their five selected traits (pollen deposition, visitation rate, stay time, visiting time of the day, body size) and then related to the seed set of obligate cross-pollinated Luffa gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca). We found that bee diversity and abundance differed significantly among the studied plots, but only the bee species richness was positively related to the seed set. Functional group diversity in terms of pollen deposition explained even more of the variance in seed set (r 2  = 0.74) than did the species richness (r 2  = 0.53) making it the most important trait of bee species for predicting the crop reproductive success.

  2. Lower richness of small wild mammal species and chagas disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier

    Full Text Available A new epidemiological scenario involving the oral transmission of Chagas disease, mainly in the Amazon basin, requires innovative control measures. Geospatial analyses of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the wild mammals have been scarce. We applied interpolation and map algebra methods to evaluate mammalian fauna variables related to small wild mammals and the T. cruzi infection pattern in dogs to identify hotspot areas of transmission. We also evaluated the use of dogs as sentinels of epidemiological risk of Chagas disease. Dogs (n = 649 were examined by two parasitological and three distinct serological assays. kDNA amplification was performed in patent infections, although the infection was mainly sub-patent in dogs. The distribution of T. cruzi infection in dogs was not homogeneous, ranging from 11-89% in different localities. The interpolation method and map algebra were employed to test the associations between the lower richness in mammal species and the risk of exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection. Geospatial analysis indicated that the reduction of the mammal fauna (richness and abundance was associated with higher parasitemia in small wild mammals and higher exposure of dogs to infection. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM demonstrated that species richness and positive hemocultures in wild mammals were associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Domestic canine infection rates differed significantly between areas with and without Chagas disease outbreaks (Chi-squared test. Geospatial analysis by interpolation and map algebra methods proved to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of areas of T. cruzi transmission. Dog infection was shown to not only be an efficient indicator of reduction of wild mammalian fauna richness but to also act as a signal for the presence of small wild mammals with high parasitemia. The lower richness of small mammal species is discussed as a risk factor for the re-emergence of Chagas disease.

  3. Fish and Phytoplankton Exhibit Contrasting Temporal Species Abundance Patterns in a Dynamic North Temperate Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Carey, Cayelan C.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal patterns of species abundance, although less well-studied than spatial patterns, provide valuable insight to the processes governing community assembly. We compared temporal abundance distributions of two communities, phytoplankton and fish, in a north temperate lake. We used both 17 years of observed relative abundance data as well as resampled data from Monte Carlo simulations to account for the possible effects of non-detection of rare species. Similar to what has been found in other communities, phytoplankton and fish species that appeared more frequently were generally more abundant than rare species. However, neither community exhibited two distinct groups of “core” (common occurrence and high abundance) and “occasional” (rare occurrence and low abundance) species. Both observed and resampled data show that the phytoplankton community was dominated by occasional species appearing in only one year that exhibited large variation in their abundances, while the fish community was dominated by core species occurring in all 17 years at high abundances. We hypothesize that the life-history traits that enable phytoplankton to persist in highly dynamic environments may result in communities dominated by occasional species capable of reaching high abundances when conditions allow. Conversely, longer turnover times and broad environmental tolerances of fish may result in communities dominated by core species structured primarily by competitive interactions. PMID:25651399

  4. Species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytnes, John Arvid; Heegaard, Einar; Ihlen, Per G.

    2006-05-01

    Species richness patterns of ground-dwelling vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (310-1135 m a.s.l.), in western Norway. Total species richness peaked at intermediate altitudes, vascular plant species richness peaked immediately above the forest limit (at 600-700 m a.s.l.), bryophyte species richness had no statistically significant trend, whereas lichen richness increased from the lowest point and up to the forest limit, with no trend above. It is proposed that the pattern in vascular plant species richness is enhanced by an ecotone effect. Bryophyte species richness responds to local scale factors whereas the lichen species richness may be responding to the shading from the forest trees.

  5. Cascade effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, PeiJian; Hui, Cang; Men, XingYuan; Zhao, ZiHua; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng; Jin, XianShi; Cao, HaiFeng; Li, B Larry

    2014-07-01

    Understanding how plant species richness influences the diversity of herbivorous and predatory/parasitic arthropods is central to community ecology. We explore the effects of crop species richness on the diversity of pest insects and their natural enemies. Using data from a four-year experiment with five levels of crop species richness, we found that crop species richness significantly affected the pest species richness, but there were no significant effects on richness of the pests' natural enemies. In contrast, the species richness of pest insects significantly affected their natural enemies. These findings suggest a cascade effect where trophic interactions are strong between adjacent trophic levels, while the interactions between connected but nonadjacent trophic levels are weakened by the intermediate trophic level. High crop species richness resulted in a more stable arthropod community compared with communities in monoculture crops. Our results highlight the complicated cross-trophic interactions and the crucial role of crop diversity in the food webs of agro-ecosystems.

  6. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  7. Relations of Environmental Factors with Mussel-Species Richness in the Neversink River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    the Neversink Reservoir that mimic the river?s original flow patterns have recently been proposed by TNC and could benefit the established mussel populations and aquatic communities. The ability to protect mussel populations and the potential to increase mussel richness in the Neversink River is unknown, however, because the environmental factors that affect the seven mussel species are poorly defined, and the distribution of mussel beds is patchy and thus difficult to quantify. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with TNC, began a 6-year study along the Neversink River and its tributaries to (1) document the current distribution of each mussel species, (2) assess environmental factors in relation to mussel-species richness and distribution, and (3) identify the factors that most strongly affect mussel populations and develop an equation that relates environmental factors to mussel-species richness. This report (a) summarizes the methods used to quantify or qualify environmental factors and mussel-species distribution and abundance, (b) presents a list of environmental factors that were correlated with mussel-species richness, and (c) offers an empirical model to predict richness of mussel species in benthic communities throughout the basin.

  8. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate

  9. Temporal-spatial dynamics in orthoptera in relation to nutrient availability and plant species richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J J Hendriks

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability in ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last century. Excess reactive nitrogen deposition is known to negatively impact plant communities, e.g. by changing species composition, biomass and vegetation structure. In contrast, little is known on how such impacts propagate to higher trophic levels. To evaluate how nitrogen deposition affects plants and herbivore communities through time, we used extensive databases of spatially explicit historical records of Dutch plant species and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets, a group of animals that are particularly susceptible to changes in the C:N ratio of their resources. We use robust methods that deal with the unstandardized nature of historical databases to test whether nitrogen deposition levels and plant richness changes influence the patterns of richness change of Orthoptera, taking into account Orthoptera species functional traits. Our findings show that effects indeed also propagate to higher trophic levels. Differences in functional traits affected the temporal-spatial dynamics of assemblages of Orthoptera. While nitrogen deposition affected plant diversity, contrary to our expectations, we could not find a strong significant effect of food related traits. However we found that species with low habitat specificity, limited dispersal capacity and egg deposition in the soil were more negativly affected by nitrogen deposition levels. Despite the lack of significant effect of plant richness or food related traits on Orthoptera, the negative effects of nitrogen detected within certain trait groups (e.g. groups with limited disperse ability could be related to subtle changes in plant abundance and plant quality. Our results, however, suggest that the changes in soil conditions (where many Orthoptera species lay their eggs or other habitat changes driven by nitrogen have a stronger influence than food related traits. To fully evaluate the negative effects of nitrogen

  10. Responses of Cryptofaunal Species Richness and Trophic Potential to Coral Reef Habitat Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Manzello

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are declining worldwide as a result of many anthropogenic disturbances. This trend is alarming because coral reefs are hotspots of marine biodiversity and considered the ‘rainforests of the sea. As in the rainforest, much of the diversity on a coral reef is cryptic, remaining hidden among the cracks and crevices of structural taxa. Although the cryptofauna make up the majority of a reef’s metazoan biodiversity, we know little about their basic ecology or how these communities respond to reef degradation. Emerging research shows that the species richness of the motile cryptofauna is higher among dead (framework vs. live coral substrates and, surprisingly, increases within successively more eroded reef framework structures, ultimately reaching a maximum in dead coral rubble. Consequently, the paradigm that abundant live coral is the apex of reef diversity needs to be clarified. This provides guarded optimism amidst alarming reports of declines in live coral cover and the impending doom of coral reefs, as motile cryptic biodiversity should persist independent of live coral cover. Granted, the maintenance of this high species richness is contingent on the presence of reef rubble, which will eventually be lost due to physical, chemical, and biological erosion if not replenished by live coral calcification and mortality. The trophic potential of a reef, as inferred from the abundance of cryptic organisms, is highest on live coral. Among dead framework substrates, however, the density of cryptofauna reaches a peak at intermediate levels of degradation. In summary, the response of the motile cryptofauna, and thus a large fraction of the reef’s biodiversity, to reef degradation is more complex and nuanced than currently thought; such that species richness may be less sensitive than overall trophic function.

  11. Experimental factors affecting PCR-based estimates of microbial species richness and evenness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Chen, Feng; Ochman, Howard; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for microbial community profiling can, for equivalent costs, yield greater than two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than traditional PCR-cloning and Sanger sequencing. With this increased sensitivity and the ability to analyze multiple samples in parallel, it has become possible to evaluate several technical aspects of PCRbased community structure profiling methods. We tested the effect of amplicon length and primer pair on estimates of species richness number of species and evenness relative abundance of species by assessing the potentially tractable microbial community residing in the termite hindgut. Two regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced from one of two common priming sites, spanning the V1-V2 or V8 regions, using amplicons ranging n length from 352 to 1443 bp. Our results demonstrate that both amplicon length and primer pair markedly influence estimates of richness and evenness. However, estimates of species evenness are consistent among different primer pairs targeting the same region. These results highlight the importance of experimental methodology when comparing diversity estimates across communities.

  12. High species richness of native pollinators in Brazilian tomato crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Silva-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded. Floral visitors were observed and collected. Flower buds opened around 6h30 and closed around 18h00. They reopened on the following day at the same time in the morning, lasting on average 48 hours. The highest pollen availability occurred during the first hours of anthesis. Afterwards, the number of pollen grains declined, especially between 10h00 to 12h00, which is consistent with the pollinator visitation pattern. Forty bee species were found in the tomato fields, 30 of which were considered pollinators. We found that during the flowering period, plants offered an enormous amount of pollen to their visitors. These may explain the high richness and amount of bees that visit the tomato flowers in the study areas. The period of pollen availability and depletion throughout the day overlapped with the bees foraging period, suggesting that bees are highly effective in removing pollen grains from anthers. Many of these grains probably land on the stigma of the same flower, leading to self-pollination and subsequent fruit development. Native bees (Exomalopsis spp. are effective pollinators of tomato flowers and are likely to contribute to increasing crop productivity. On the other hand, here tomato flowers offer large amounts of pollen resource to a high richness and amount of bees, showing a strong plant-pollinator interaction in the

  13. Factors influencing when species are first named and estimating global species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Costello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of global species richness should consider what factors influence the rate of species discovery at global scales. However, past studies only considered regional scales and/or samples representing <0.4% of all named species. Here, we analysed trends in the rate of description for all fish species (2% of all named species. We found that the number of species described has slowed for (a brackish compared to marine and freshwater species, (b large compared to small sized fish, (c geographically widespread compared to localised, (d species occurring in the tropics and northern hemisphere compared to southern hemisphere, and (e neritic (coastal species compared to pelagic (offshore species. Most (68% of the variation in year of description was related to geographic location and depth, and contrary to expectations, body size was a minor factor at just 6% (on a standardised scale. Thus most undiscovered species will have small geographic ranges, but will not necessarily be of smaller body size than currently known species. Accordingly, global assessments of how many species may exist on Earth need to account for geographic variation.

  14. On the dependence of speciation rates on species abundance and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    abundance largely determines the rate of generation of intraspecific endogenous genetic variation, the result obtained suggests that the latter rate is not a limiting factor for speciation. Furthermore, the observed approximate constancy of speciation rates in different taxa cannot be accounted for by assuming a neutral or ...

  15. The definition of species richness used by species sensitivity distributions approximates observed effects of salinity on stream macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Marchant, Richard; Schaefer, Ralf B.; Metzeling, Leon; Dunlop, Jason E.; Choy, Satish C.; Goonan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The risk of chemicals for ecological communities is often forecast with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) which are used to predict the concentration which will protect p% of species (PC p value). However, at the PC p value, species richness in nature would not necessary be p% less than at uncontaminated sites. The definition of species richness inherent to SSDs (contaminant category richness) contrasts with species richness typically measured in most field studies (point richness). We determine, for salinity in eastern Australia, whether these definitions of stream macroinvertebrate species richness are commensurable. There were strong relationships (r 2 ≥ 0.87) between mean point species, family and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera species richness and their respective contamination category richness. Despite differences in the definition of richness used by SSDs and field biomonitoring, their results in terms of relative species loss from salinity in south-east Australia are similar. We conclude that in our system both definitions are commensurable. - Definitions of species richness inherit in SSDs and biomonitoring are for salinity in south-east Australia commensurable.

  16. The definition of species richness used by species sensitivity distributions approximates observed effects of salinity on stream macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@uts.edu.a [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Centre for Environmental Sustainability, Department of Environmental Science, University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Marchant, Richard [Department of Entomology, Museum of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Schaefer, Ralf B. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Victoria (Australia); Metzeling, Leon [EPA Victoria, Macleod, Victoria (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Queensland (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Queensland (Australia); Goonan, Peter [South Australia Environment Protection Authority, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    The risk of chemicals for ecological communities is often forecast with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) which are used to predict the concentration which will protect p% of species (PC{sub p} value). However, at the PC{sub p} value, species richness in nature would not necessary be p% less than at uncontaminated sites. The definition of species richness inherent to SSDs (contaminant category richness) contrasts with species richness typically measured in most field studies (point richness). We determine, for salinity in eastern Australia, whether these definitions of stream macroinvertebrate species richness are commensurable. There were strong relationships (r{sup 2} {>=} 0.87) between mean point species, family and Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera species richness and their respective contamination category richness. Despite differences in the definition of richness used by SSDs and field biomonitoring, their results in terms of relative species loss from salinity in south-east Australia are similar. We conclude that in our system both definitions are commensurable. - Definitions of species richness inherit in SSDs and biomonitoring are for salinity in south-east Australia commensurable.

  17. Confronting different models of community structure to species-abundance data : a Bayesian model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, RS; Olff, H

    Species abundances are undoubtedly the most widely available macroecological data, but can we use them to distinguish among several models of community structure? Here we present a Bayesian analysis of species-abundance data that yields a full joint probability distribution of each model's

  18. Confronting different models of community structure to species-abundance data: a Bayesian model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.; Olff, H.

    2005-01-01

    Species abundances are undoubtedly the most widely available macroecological data, but can we use them to distinguish among several models of community structure? Here we present a Bayesian analysis of species-abundance data that yields a full joint probability distribution of each model's

  19. On the dependence of speciation rates on species abundance and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    n = e(S – E)T,. (1) where n ~ 107 is the current number of species in the bio- sphere (May and Nee 1995); S ≡ 1/ts is the mean speci- ation rate; E ≡ 1/td is the mean extinction rate. Using these values of n and T and taking the average species duration to be about td ~ 4⋅106 years (Raup 1991a), we obtain from eq. (1):.

  20. Geography, topography, and history affect realized-to-potential tree species richness patterns in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens-Christian Svenning; Matthew C. Fitzpatrick; Signe Normand; Catherine H. Graham; Peter B. Pearman; Louis R. Iverson; Flemming. Skov

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions and biotic interactions are generally thought to influence local species richness. However, immigration and the evolutionary and historical factors that shape regional species pools should also contribute to determining local species richness because local communities arise by assembly from regional species pools. Using the European tree flora...

  1. Effects of Habitat and Human Activities on Species Richness and Assemblages of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in the Baltic Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Irmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the staphylind fauna was studied in six habitats of the Baltic Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany. The following habitats lagoon, sandy beach, shingle beach, primary dune, wooded cliff, and woodless cliff were significantly separated by their species composition. Vegetation and soil moisture were the most important factors separating the assemblages. Lagoons exhibited the most species-rich habitat. Sandy beaches provided the highest number of endangered species. Both sandy beaches and woodless cliffs showed the highest number of exclusive species. A loss of species was determined in the gradient from sandy to shingle beaches. Few species preferred shingle beaches; abundance of Cafius xantholoma increased with the increasing amount of shingle. More species preferred the sandy conditions, for example, Polystomota grisea, P. punctatella, and Phytosus spinifer. Anotylus insecatus and Bledius defensus require distinct mixtures of sand and silt on woodless cliffs. Tourist impact on sandy beaches accounts for approximately 50% loss of species.

  2. Hierarchical analysis of species distributions and abundance across environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery Diez; Ronald H. Pulliam

    2007-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic processes operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales to shape many ecological processes, including species distributions and demography. Current debate about the relative roles of niche-based and stochastic processes in shaping species distributions and community composition reflects, in part, the challenge of understanding how these processes...

  3. Changes in the trophic structure, abundance and species diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decreases in mean trophic level, the biomass of high trophic level species and indices of species diversity between 1990 and 2009 were observed in commercial catches. These decreases were then related to changes in fishing pressure, fishing strategy and the combined effects of fishing and environmental factors (as ...

  4. Abundance, distribution and species composition of fish larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attemptwas made to correlate the data with environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity and rainfall. The ichthyoplankton of the Swartkops is dominated by few species. The family Gobiidae (59,44%) and a clupeid species, Gilchristella aestuarius (31,12%), accounted for 90,56% of all the fish larvae sampled.

  5. Seasonal abundance and habitat use of bird species in and around Wondo Genet Forest, south-central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Zerihun; Mamo, Yosef; Mengesha, Girma; Verma, Ashok; Asfaw, Tsyon

    2017-05-01

    The habitat use and seasonal migratory pattern of birds in Ethiopia is less explored as compared to diversity studies. To this end, this study aimed at investigating the patterns of distribution related to seasonality and the effect of habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, and average vegetation height) on habitat use of birds of Wondo Genet Forest Patch. A stratified random sampling design was used to assess the avian fauna across the four dominant habitat types found in the study area: natural forest, wooded grassland, grassland, and agroforestry land. A point transect count was employed to investigate avian species richness and abundance per habitat type per season. Ancillary data, such as elevation above sea level, latitude and longitude, average vegetation height, and percent slope inclination, were recorded with a GPS and clinometers per plot. A total of 33 migratory bird species were recorded from the area, of which 20 species were northern (Palearctic) migrants while 13 were inter-African migrants. There was a significant difference in the mean abundance of migratory bird species between dry and wet seasons ( t  = 2.13, p  = .038, df  = 44). The variation in mean abundance per plot between the dry and wet seasons in the grassland habitat was significant ( t  = 2.35, p  = .051, df  = 7). In most habitat types during both dry and wet seasons, omnivore birds were the most abundant. While slope was a good predictor for bird species abundance in the dry season, altitude and average vegetation height accounted more in the wet season. The patch of forest and its surrounding is an important bird area for migratory, endemic, and global threatened species. Hence, it is conservation priority area, and the study suggests that conservation coupled with ecotourism development is needed for its sustainability.

  6. Urbanization Alters the Influence of Weather and an Index of Forest Productivity on Avian Community Richness and Guild Abundance in the Seattle Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Shryock

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in weather and forest productivity influence the abundance and richness of bird populations, however in a rapidly urbanizing landscape the relative importance of each factor may vary. We assessed this possibility in the Seattle, WA, USA region by correlating 10 years of bird richness and relative abundance of nine guilds indicative of their tolerance of human development, migration, diet and use of human food subsidies with an annual index of forest productivity (vegetation greenness derived from a 250 m resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product from the MODIS satellite and weather (variation in the Oceanic Niño Index, which estimates the strength of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, a major driver of local temperature and precipitation. We found that variation in NDVI exerted a strong influence on the richness of the avian community and the abundance of guilds in landscapes undergoing active development, but was less influential in areas of established housing development or forested reserves. Relative to NDVI, weather was much less influential on the abundance of guilds at actively changing sites, and slightly more influential in forest reserves and established developments. Following the warm winter and during the dry summer associated with a strong El Niño, migrants and herbivores declined in changing landscapes, insectivores declined in established developments, and herbivores declined while synanthropic species increased in reserves. These changes may presage the effects of climate change in the Pacific Northwest, which are expected to be similar to El Niño conditions. To buffer these changes in native bird communities, planners, developers, regulators, and home owners should minimize the loss of vegetation during development and attempt to quickly achieve mature landscaping that preferably provides food and shelter for birds.

  7. Associations of Two Ecologically Significant Social Insect Taxa in the Litter of an Amazonian Rainforest: Is There a Relationship between Ant and Termite Species Richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Mertl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the ecological dominance of Neotropical ants and termites, little is understood about how their interactions influence their species richness and distribution. We surveyed ground-dwelling termite and ant species in a primary rainforest in Ecuador and analyzed ecological correlates of diversity. Termite richness was positively correlated with ant richness and abundance of twig-nesting ants. We found no evidence of competition for twigs between termites and ants. No ecological factors were correlated with termite diversity although elevation and twig and log abundance influenced ant diversity. When ant richness was compared to the richness of termites employing different predator defenses, a positive correlation was found with soldierless termites, but not genera employing chemical or mechanical defense. Our results suggest that multiple ecological factors influence ant and termite diversity, and that ant predation on termites may have a greater effect than competition between ant and termites for nest sites and food sources.

  8. Species richness, habitable volume, and species densities in freshwater, the sea, and on land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Dawson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 0.5–2.0 million eukaryotic species inhabit the seas, whereas 2.0–10.0 million inhabit freshwater or the land. Much has been made of this several-fold difference in species richness but there is little consensus about the causes. Here, I ask a related question: what is the relative density of species in marine and non-marine realms? I use recent estimates of global eukaryotic species richness and published estimates of the areal coverage and depth of habitat for freshwater, marine, and terrestrial biomes. I find that the marine realm harbors ~99.83% of the habitable volume on this planet. Eukaryotic species density of the marine realm is ~3600-fold (i.e., 3-4 orders of magnitude less than that of non-marine environments. Species–volume relationships (SVRs help reconcile actinopterygian fish diversity with global primary productivity and emphasize the interacting roles of abiotic and biotic complexity in shaping patterns of biodiversity in freshwater, the sea, and on land. Comparing SVRs of habitats within and across realms may help resolve the factors and interactions that influence species density.

  9. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, Steve; Thorne, James H; Holguin, Andrew; Schwartz, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for significant losses of species richness or biodiversity, even within protected natural areas, is mounting. Managers are increasingly being asked to monitor biodiversity, yet estimating biodiversity is often prohibitively expensive. As a cost-effective option, we estimated the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness for four taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians), and plants) within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks using only existing biological studies undertaken within the Parks and the Parks' long-term wildlife observation database. We used a rarefaction approach to model species richness for the four taxonomic groups and analyzed those groups by habitat type, elevation zone, and time period. We then mapped the spatial distributions of species richness values for the four taxonomic groups, as well as total species richness, for the Parks. We also estimated changes in species richness for birds, mammals, and herpetofauna since 1980. The modeled patterns of species richness either peaked at mid elevations (mammals, plants, and total species richness) or declined consistently with increasing elevation (herpetofauna and birds). Plants reached maximum species richness values at much higher elevations than did vertebrate taxa, and non-flying mammals reached maximum species richness values at higher elevations than did birds. Alpine plant communities, including sagebrush, had higher species richness values than did subalpine plant communities located below them in elevation. These results are supported by other papers published in the scientific literature. Perhaps reflecting climate change: birds and herpetofauna displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at low and middle elevations and mammals displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at all elevations.

  10. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wathen

    Full Text Available Evidence for significant losses of species richness or biodiversity, even within protected natural areas, is mounting. Managers are increasingly being asked to monitor biodiversity, yet estimating biodiversity is often prohibitively expensive. As a cost-effective option, we estimated the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness for four taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians, and plants within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks using only existing biological studies undertaken within the Parks and the Parks' long-term wildlife observation database. We used a rarefaction approach to model species richness for the four taxonomic groups and analyzed those groups by habitat type, elevation zone, and time period. We then mapped the spatial distributions of species richness values for the four taxonomic groups, as well as total species richness, for the Parks. We also estimated changes in species richness for birds, mammals, and herpetofauna since 1980. The modeled patterns of species richness either peaked at mid elevations (mammals, plants, and total species richness or declined consistently with increasing elevation (herpetofauna and birds. Plants reached maximum species richness values at much higher elevations than did vertebrate taxa, and non-flying mammals reached maximum species richness values at higher elevations than did birds. Alpine plant communities, including sagebrush, had higher species richness values than did subalpine plant communities located below them in elevation. These results are supported by other papers published in the scientific literature. Perhaps reflecting climate change: birds and herpetofauna displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at low and middle elevations and mammals displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at all elevations.

  11. Explaining the species richness of birds along a subtropical elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yongjie; Colwell, Robert K.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    AimTo document the species richness pattern of birds in the Hengduan Mountains and to understand its causes. LocationHengduan Mountains, China. MethodsSpecies richness of 738 breeding bird species was calculated for each 100-m elevational band along a gradient from 100 to 6000m a.s.l. Climate data......) in each elevational band. Simple and multiple regression models were used to test the explanatory power of variables associated with different factors proposed to account for elevational species richness gradients. ResultsThe elevational pattern in species richness, for all breeding birds, was hump...... and energy factors along the elevational gradients; seasonality and productivity had a strong statistical relationship with species richness of montane birds in this study, with geometric constraints contributing to richness patterns for larger-ranged species endemic to the gradient. Main conclusionsWe found...

  12. Stochastic species turnover and stable coexistence in a species-rich, fire-prone plant community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Thuiller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that maintain diversity is important for managing ecosystems for species persistence. Here we used a long-term data set to understand mechanisms of coexistence at the local and regional scales in the Cape Floristic Region, a global hotspot of plant diversity. We used a dataset comprising 81 monitoring sites, sampled in 1966 and again in 1996, and containing 422 species for which growth form, regeneration mode, dispersal distance and abundances at both the local (site and meta-community scales are known. We found that species presence and abundance were stable at the meta-community scale over the 30 year period but highly unstable at the local scale, and were not influenced by species' biological attributes. Moreover, rare species were no more likely to go extinct at the local scale than common species, and that alpha diversity in local communities was strongly influenced by habitat. We conclude that stochastic environmental fluctuations associated with recurrent fire buffer populations from extinction, thereby ensuring stable coexistence at the meta-community scale by creating a "neutral-like" pattern maintained by niche-differentiation.

  13. Relative species richness and community completeness: avian communities and urbanization in the mid-Atlantic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.; Flather, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The idea that local factors govern local richness has been dominant for years, but recent theoretical and empirical studies have stressed the influence of regional factors on local richness. Fewer species at a site could reflect not only the influence of local factors, but also a smaller regional pool. The possible dependency of local richness on the regional pool should be taken into account when addressing the influence of local factors on local richness. It is possible to account for this potential dependency by comparing relative species richness among sites, rather than species richness per se. We consider estimation of a metric permitting assessment of relative species richness in a typical situation in which not all species are detected during sampling sessions. In this situation, estimates of absolute or relative species richness need to account for variation in species detection probability if they are to be unbiased. We present a method to estimate relative species richness based on capture-recapture models. This approach involves definition of a species list from regional data, and estimation of the number of species in that list that are present at a site-year of interest. We use this approach to address the influence of urbanization on relative richness of avian communities in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. There is a negative relationship between relative richness and landscape variables describing the level of urban development. We believe that this metric should prove very useful for conservation and management purposes because it is based on an estimator of species richness that both accounts for potential variation in species detection probability and allows flexibility in the specification of a 'reference community.' This metric can be used to assess ecological integrity, the richness of the community of interest relative to that of the 'original' community, or to assess change since some previous time in a community.

  14. Bioturbation activity of three macrofaunal species and the presence of meiofauna affect the abundance and composition of benthic bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Élise; Piot, Adeline; Archambault, Philippe; McKindsey, Christopher W; Nozais, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Given concerns of increasing rates of species extinctions, the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has become a major research focus over the past two decades. Many studies have shown that biodiversity per se (e.g. species richness) or species-specific traits may be good predictors of changes in ecosystem function. Although numerous studies on this subject have focused on terrestrial systems, few have evaluated benthic marine systems. We used the Limecola balthica community as a model to test whether the number or identity of three well-studied macrofaunal species influence the sediment bacterial compartment, which drives important biogeochemical processes and influence ecosystem functioning. We also investigated the poorly known role of meiofauna in the interactions between macrofauna and bacteria. Eight combinations of 0-3 species were maintained in microcosms for 34 days in the presence or absence of meiofauna. The abundance and composition of the bacterial community, defined by the relative percentage of cells with a high (HNA) vs low (LNA) nucleic acid content, were measured. Species identity of macrofauna was a better indicator of changes in the microbial compartment than was species richness per se. In particular, the gallery-diffuser behaviour of the polychaete Alitta virens likely induced strong changes in sediment physical and geochemical properties with a major impact on the bacterial compartment. Moreover, the presence of meiofauna modulated the influence of macrofauna on bacterial communities. This study provides evidence that species identity provides greater explanatory power than species richness to predict changes in the bacterial compartment. We propose that multi-compartment approaches to describe interactions amongst different size classes of organisms and their ecological roles should be further developed to improve our understanding of benthic ecosystem functioning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution, diversity and abundance of anuran species in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most amphibian species were observed and collected between the 18h-21h sampling time frame which confers them as mostly nocturnal in habit. Conservation efforts must be enforced to protect the vegetative structure against unsustainable forest practices in order to protect and maintain the biodiversity status of the region ...

  16. Fish species and size distribution and abundance in different areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science ... The results show that there were significant differences in catch rates between rainy and dry seasons (F (12, 12) = 2.69; p < 0.05). ... The distribution of the fish species in different areas recorded a significant difference during the dry season (Q = 18.254, df = 8, P < 0.001), while during the rainy ...

  17. Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Fisheries Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological indices such as Shannon-Wiener diversity index, equitability and Sørenson's similarity index were used to analyse the data. Specimens from Winneba, Saltpond and Cape Coast comprise 56 species belonging to 30 families. Carangidae, Haemulidae, Clupeidae and Sciaenidae were some of the families, where ...

  18. Species diversity, abundance and seasonal occurrence of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of biting dipterans was conducted in Kaura LGA of Kaduna State between November 2000 and October 2001. Fifteen species of biting flies were caught in two families, Tabanidae and Muscidae distributed in the following 4 genera: Tabanus 10, Haematopota 2, Chrysops 1 and Stomoxys 2. The genus Stomoxys ...

  19. Limited sampling hampers “big data” estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J.; Sandel, Brody Steven

    2015-01-01

    in Ecuador, one of the most species-rich and climatically heterogeneous biodiversity hotspots. Species richness estimates were calculated based on 205,735 georeferenced specimens of 15,788 species using the Margalef diversity index, the Chao estimator, the second-order Jackknife and Bootstrapping resampling...

  20. Determinants of species richness patterns in the Netherlands across multiple taxonomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Verweij, P.A.; Barendrecht, A.; Kleukers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the species richness patterns of five different species groups (mosses, reptiles and amphibians, grasshoppers and crickets, dragonflies, and hoverflies) in the Netherlands (41,500 km2) using sampling units of 5 × 5 km. We compared the spatial patterns of species richness of the five

  1. Changes of bacterioplankton apparent species richness in two ornamental fish aquaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Meziti, Alexandra; Hotos, George N; Mente, Eleni

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the 16S rRNA gene diversity within the bacterioplankton community in the water column of the ornamental fish Pterophyllum scalare and Archocentrus nigrofasciatus aquaria during a 60-day growth experiment in order to detect any dominant bacterial species and their possible association with the rearing organisms. The basic physical and chemical parameters remained stable but the bacterial community at 0, 30 and 60 days showed marked differences in bacterial cell abundance and diversity. We found high species richness but no dominant phylotypes were detected. Only few of the phylotypes were found in more than one time point per treatment and always with low relative abundance. The majority of the common phylotypes belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum and were closely related to Acinetobacter junii, Pseudomonas sp., Nevskia ramosa, Vogesella perlucida, Chitinomonas taiwanensis, Acidovorax sp., Pelomonas saccharophila and the rest belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, candidate division OP11 and one unaffiliated group. Several of these phylotypes were closely related to known taxa including Sphingopyxis chilensis, Flexibacter aurantiacus subsp. excathedrus and Mycobacterium sp. Despite the high phylogenetic diversity most of the inferred ecophysiological roles of the found phylotypes are related to nitrogen metabolism, a key process for fish aquaria.

  2. Topographic variables improve climate models of forage species abundance in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species distribution modeling has most commonly been applied to presence-only data and to woody species, but detailed predicted abundance maps for forage species would be of great value for agricultural management and land use planning. We used field data from 107 farms across the northeastern Unite...

  3. Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small odontocetes estimated using density surface modeling with line transect sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Yu; Okazaki, Makoto; Miyashita, Tomio

    2017-06-01

    Spatial patterns of distribution, abundance, and species diversity of small odontocetes including species in the Delphinidae and Phocoenidae families were investigated using long-term dedicated sighting survey data collected between 1983 and 2006 in the North Pacific. Species diversity indices were calculated from abundance estimated using density surface modeling of line-transect data. The estimated abundance ranged from 19,521 individuals in killer whale to 1,886,022 in pantropical spotted dolphin. The predicted density maps showed that the habitats of small odontocetes corresponded well with distinct oceanic domains. Species richness was estimated to be highest between 30 and 40°N where warm- and cold-water currents converge. Simpson's Diversity Index showed latitudinal diversity gradients of decreasing species numbers toward the poles. Higher diversity was also estimated in the coastal areas and the zonal areas around 35-42°N. Coastal-offshore gradients and latitudinal gradients are known for many taxa. The zonal areas around 35°N and 40°N coincide with the Kuroshio Current and its extension and the subarctic boundary, respectively. These results suggest that the species diversity of small odontocetes primarily follows general patterns of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, while the confluence of faunas originating in distinct water masses increases species diversify in frontal waters around 30-40°N. Population densities tended to be higher for the species inhabiting higher latitudes, but were highest for intermediate latitudes at approximately 35-40°N. According to latitudinal gradients in water temperature and biological productivity, the costs for thermoregulation will decrease in warmer low latitudes, while feeding efficiency will increase in colder high latitudes. These trade-offs could optimize population density in intermediate latitudes.

  4. Cellulose contents of some abundant Indian seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhanta, Arup K; Kumar, Sanjay; Mehta, Gaurav K; Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Oza, Mihir D; Sanandiya, Naresh D; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Godiya, Chirag B; Kondaveeti, Stalin

    2013-04-01

    Crude cellulose as well as alpha- and beta-celluloses were estimated in thirty-four seaweed species of fifteen orders of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta of Indian waters. The greatest yields of crude cellulose and a-cellulose were obtained from Chaetomorpha aerea (approx. 20.0% and 18.5%, respectively), and of beta-cellulose (approx. 3.1%) from Caulerpa imbricata. The lowest crude cellulose, and alpha-and beta-contents were recorded for the calcareous red alga Liagora indica (approx. 0.90%, 0.70% and 0.10%, respectively). There was little variation in cellulose content among the brown algae, while wide variations in the yields were found in the green and red algae. The present work contributes to the repertoire of 67 Indian seaweed species studied to now for their cellulose contents in our laboratory. The combined studies highlight that Chaetomorpha aerea, Acrosiphonia orientalis, Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum tenerrimum, Hydroclathrus clathratus and Gelidiella acerosa possess relatively high (> 10%) cellulose contents, which could be of potential utility.

  5. Temporal variation in the abundance of waterbird species in a coastal lagoon in the northern Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Castro Tavares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of different rainfall regimes on numerical fluctuations of waterbird species in Ribeira Lagoon, Quissamã, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Bird counts were conducted on a monthly basis between August 2008 and July 2009, totaling 12 visits. Rainfall data were obtained at the nearest meteorological automatic station. A total of 50 species were classified into 6 functional groups. Bird richness and abundance were greater during the dry season (May/August. Spearman’s coefficient between bird abundance and monthly rainfall was -0.77 (P = 0.003. Similarly, there was a significant negative correlation between rainfall values and the abundance of dabbling, diving, and gleaning bird groups. The exponential prediction model was the most appropriate to the dataset (R² = 0.53, with a correlation coefficient between predicted and observed abundance values of 0.76 (P = 0.006. The model obtained predicts a significant decline in the total number of birds in months with rainfall over 100 mm in Ribeira Lagoon.

  6. Context-dependent interactions and the regulation of species richness in freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Andrew S.; Harvey, Eric; McCune, Jenny L.; Nilsson, Karin A.; Bennett, Joseph; Firn, Jennifer; Bartley, Timothy; Grace, James B.; Kelly, Jocelyn; Tunney, Tyler D.; McMeans, Bailey; Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S.; Kadoya, Taku; Esch, Ellen; Cazelles, Kevin; Lester, Nigel; McCann, Kevin S.

    2018-01-01

    Species richness is regulated by a complex network of scale-dependent processes. This complexity can obscure the influence of limiting species interactions, making it difficult to determine if abiotic or biotic drivers are more predominant regulators of richness. Using integrative modeling of freshwater fish richness from 721 lakes along an 11olatitudinal gradient, we find negative interactions to be a relatively minor independent predictor of species richness in lakes despite the widespread presence of predators. Instead, interaction effects, when detectable among major functional groups and 231 species pairs, were strong, often positive, but contextually dependent on environment. These results are consistent with the idea that negative interactions internally structure lake communities but do not consistently ‘scale-up’ to regulate richness independently of the environment. The importance of environment for interaction outcomes and its role in the regulation of species richness highlights the potential sensitivity of fish communities to the environmental changes affecting lakes globally.

  7. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern Iran forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P-A Bourque

    Full Text Available Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content, yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ≥ 33% of all trees in a plot, than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species. This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently

  8. Changes in the relative abundance of two Saccharomyces species from oak forests to wine fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eDashko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its sibling species S. paradoxus are known to inhabit temperate arboreal habitats across the globe. Despite their sympatric distribution in the wild, S. cerevisiae is predominantly associated with human fermentations. The apparent ecological differentiation of these species is particularly striking in Europe where S. paradoxus is abundant in forests and S. cerevisiae is abundant in vineyards. However, ecological differences may be confounded with geographic differences in species abundance. To compare the distribution and abundance of these two species we isolated Saccharomyces strains from over 1,200 samples taken from vineyard and forest habitats in Slovenia. We isolated numerous strains of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus as well as small number of S. kudriavzevii strains from both vineyard and forest environments. We find S. cerevisiae less abundant than S. paradoxus on oak trees both within and outside the vineyard, but more abundant on grapevines and associated substrates. Analysis of the uncultured microbiome shows that both S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus are rare species in soil and bark samples, but can be much more common in grape must. In contrast to S. paradoxus, European strains of S. cerevisiae have acquired multiple traits thought to be important for life in the vineyard and dominance of wine fermentations. We conclude that S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus currently share both vineyard and non-vineyard habitats in Slovenia and we discuss factors relevant to their global distribution and relative abundance.

  9. ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF NATIVE FORAGE SPECIES IN PASTORAL KARAMOJA SUB-REGION, UGANDA

    OpenAIRE

    EGERU, Anthony; WASONGA, Oliver; MACOPIYO, Laban; MBURU, John; MAJALIWA, Mwanjalolo G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Low input pastoral production systems rely exclusively on natural forage resourcesin space and time. Information on the abundance and diversity of such pastures is vitalin improving livestock production and managing the biodiversity of grazing landscapes. Thisstudy documented grass and browse forage species utilised in pastoral Karamoja, and determinedtheir relative abundance by district, season and grazing land cover. Up to 65 grass and110 browse species were utilised in Karamoja Sub-region....

  10. Ordinal abundance and richness of millipedes (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) in a subtropical wet forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina M. Murphy; Grizelle Gonzalez; Juliana. Belén

    2008-01-01

    Millipedes, among other soil fauna, are important components of ecosystems because of their role in nutrient cycling. In this study, we quantified the density, biomass, and richness (in terms of order) of millipedes along a toposequence (ridges, slopes, and valleys) and different ground layers (litter, humus, 0-5 cm soil depth, and 5-10 cm soil depth) in a subtropical...

  11. Ecological pattern of lichen species abundance in mixed forests of Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Vicol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this study consists in the knowledge of the ecological attributes characteristic to mixed forestry habitats and how they affect the structure of the lichen species abundances. The field activities were performed within five forest habitat types from Moldavia Province, characterised mainly by oak mixed forests, riparian mixed forests and mixed beech forests. The habitat variables, tree variables and the lichen species abundances were analysed to get informations on the structural disimilarities, on the one hand, and relationships on the other hand. Within this study no significant disimilarities were found out from abundance lichen species point of view. The lichen species abundances are a result of interactions between components of their microhabitat and macrohabitat. The correlation analysis pointed out the preferences of lichen species to their host trees, especially Quercus and Fraxinus, altitude and tree level variables as are aspect and mosses coverage. The regression analysis has highlighted that the changes in lichen species abundances are caused by macrohabitat level predictors such as host trees represented by Fraxinus. This study demonstrates that, structure of lichen species is influenced by attributes of mixed forest habitats; therefore maintaining the diversity of tree species and ensuring the continuous occurrence of forestry land is necessary for lichen and their habitat conservation.

  12. Population Genetic Structure, Abundance, and Health Status of Two Dominant Benthic Species in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands: Montastraea cavernosa and Xestospongia muta

    OpenAIRE

    de Bakker, Didier M.; Meesters, Erik H. W. G.; van Bleijswijk, Judith D. L.; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Breeuwer, Hans J. A. J.; Becking, Leontine E.

    2016-01-01

    Saba Bank, a submerged atoll in the Caribbean Sea with an area of 2,200 km2, has attained international conservation status due to the rich diversity of species that reside on the bank. In order to assess the role of Saba Bank as a potential reservoir of diversity for the surrounding reefs, we examined the population genetic structure, abundance and health status of two prominent benthic species, the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Xestospongia muta. Sequence data were collected fr...

  13. Population dynamics of species-rich ecosystems: the mixture of matrix population models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Frédéric; Rossi, Vivien; Guillot, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Matrix population models are widely used to predict population dynamics, but when applied to species-rich ecosystems with many rare species, the small population sample sizes hinder a good fit of species-specific models. This issue can be overcome by assigning species to groups to increase the size...... species with similar population dynamics....

  14. Climate-induced lake drying causes heterogeneous reductions in waterfowl species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Dennis B.

    2015-01-01

    ContextLake size has declined on breeding grounds for international populations of waterfowl.ObjectivesOur objectives were to (1) model the relationship between waterfowl species richness and lake size; (2) use the model and trends in lake size to project historical, contemporary, and future richness at 2500+ lakes; (3) evaluate mechanisms for the species–area relationship (SAR); and (4) identify species most vulnerable to shrinking lakes.MethodsMonte Carlo simulations of the richness model were used to generate projections. Correlations between richness and both lake size and habitat diversity were compared to identify mechanisms for the SAR. Patterns of nestedness were used to identify vulnerable species.ResultsSpecies richness was greatest at lakes that were larger, closer to rivers, had more wetlands along their perimeters and were within 5 km of a large lake. Average richness per lake was projected to decline by 11 % from 1986 to 2050 but was heterogeneous across sub-regions and lakes. Richness in sub-regions with species-rich lakes was projected to remain stable, while richness in the sub-region with species-poor lakes was projected to decline. Lake size had a greater effect on richness than did habitat diversity, suggesting that large lakes have more species because they provide more habitat but not more habitat types. The vulnerability of species to shrinking lakes was related to species rarity rather than foraging guild.ConclusionsOur maps of projected changes in species richness and rank-ordered list of species most vulnerable to shrinking lakes can be used to identify targets for conservation or monitoring.

  15. Chemical content of the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich AGB star R Doradus. Non-LTE abundance analysis of CO, SiO, and HCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Sande, M.; Decin, L.; Lombaert, R.; Khouri, T.; de Koter, A.; Wyrowski, F.; De Nutte, R.; Homan, W.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The stellar outflows of low- to intermediate-mass stars are characterised by a rich chemistry. Condensation of molecular gas species into dust grains is a key component in a chain of physical processes that leads to the onset of a stellar wind. In order to improve our understanding of the coupling between the micro-scale chemistry and macro-scale dynamics, we need to retrieve the abundance of molecules throughout the outflow. Aims: Our aim is to determine the radial abundance profile of SiO and HCN throughout the stellar outflow of R Dor, an oxygen-rich AGB star with a low mass-loss rate. SiO is thought to play an essential role in the dust-formation process of oxygen-rich AGB stars. The presence of HCN in an oxygen-rich environment is thought to be due to non-equilibrium chemistry in the inner wind. Methods: We analysed molecular transitions of CO, SiO, and HCN measured with the APEX telescope and all three instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory, together with data available in the literature. Photometric data and the infrared spectrum measured by ISO-SWS were used to constrain the dust component of the outflow. Using both continuum and line radiative transfer methods, a physical envelope model of both gas and dust was established. We performed an analysis of the SiO and HCN molecular transitions in order to calculate their abundances. Results: We have obtained an envelope model that describes the dust and the gas in the outflow, and determined the abundance of SiO and HCN throughout the region of the stellar outflow probed by our molecular data. For SiO, we find that the initial abundance lies between 5.5 × 10-5 and 6.0 × 10-5 with respect to H2. The abundance profile is constant up to 60 ± 10 R∗, after which it declines following a Gaussian profile with an e-folding radius of 3.5 ± 0.5 × 1013 cm or 1.4 ± 0.2 R∗. For HCN, we find an initial abundance of 5.0 × 10-7 with respect to H2. The Gaussian profile that describes the decline

  16. Assessing the sensitivity of avian species abundance to land cover and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Jaymi J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Dijak, William D.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate projections for the Midwestern United States predict southerly climates to shift northward. These shifts in climate could alter distributions of species across North America through changes in climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation), or through climate-induced changes on land cover. Our objective was to determine the relative impacts of land cover and climate on the abundance of five bird species in the Central United States that have habitat requirements ranging from grassland and shrubland to forest. We substituted space for time to examine potential impacts of a changing climate by assessing climate and land cover relationships over a broad latitudinal gradient. We found positive and negative relationships of climate and land cover factors with avian abundances. Habitat variables drove patterns of abundance in migratory and resident species, although climate was also influential in predicting abundance for some species occupying more open habitat (i.e., prairie warbler, blue-winged warbler, and northern bobwhite). Abundance of northern bobwhite increased with winter temperature and was the species exhibiting the most significant effect of climate. Models for birds primarily occupying early successional habitats performed better with a combination of habitat and climate variables whereas models of species found in contiguous forest performed best with land cover alone. These varied species-specific responses present unique challenges to land managers trying to balance species conservation over a variety of land covers. Management activities focused on increasing forest cover may play a role in mitigating effects of future climate by providing habitat refugia to species vulnerable to projected changes. Conservation efforts would be best served focusing on areas with high species abundances and an array of habitats. Future work managing forests for resilience and resistance to climate change could benefit species already susceptible to climate impacts.

  17. Influence of fire history and soil properties on plant species richness and functional diversity in a neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Muniz Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in plant species richness and composition are associated with soil properties and disturbances such as fire, which can therefore be key determinants of species occurrence in savanna plant communities. We measured species richness, using nine plant functional traits and abundance to calculate three functional diversity indices. We then used model selection analyses to select the best model for predicting functional diversity and richness based on soil variables at sites with three different fire frequencies. We also calculated the community-weighted mean of each trait and used ordination to examine how traits changed across fire frequencies. We found higher species richness and functional dispersion at sites that were more fertile and where fire was frequent, and the opposite at such sites where fire was infrequent. However, soil properties influenced functional evenness and divergence only where fire was infrequent, with higher values where soils were poorer. Fire can change functional traits directly by hindering development of plants and indirectly by altering competition. Different fire frequencies lead to different plant-soil relationships, which can affect the functioning of tropical savanna communities. Functional diversity components and functional identity of the communities are both affected by fire frequency and soil conditions.

  18. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  19. Estimating species occurrence, abundance, and detection probability using zero-inflated distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J; Freeman, Mary C

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have developed methods to account for imperfect detection of species with either occupancy (presence absence) or count data using replicated sampling. We show how these approaches can be combined to simultaneously estimate occurrence, abundance, and detection probability by specifying a zero-inflated distribution for abundance. This approach may be particularly appropriate when patterns of occurrence and abundance arise from distinct processes operating at differing spatial or temporal scales. We apply the model to two data sets: (1) previously published data for a species of duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and (2) data for a stream fish species, Etheostoma scotti. We show that in these cases, an incomplete-detection zero-inflated modeling approach yields a superior fit to the data than other models. We propose that zero-inflated abundance models accounting for incomplete detection be considered when replicate count data are available.

  20. Coleoptera in the Altai Mountains (Mongolia: species richness and community patterns along an ecological gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyundelger Khurelpurev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Altai Mountains located in western Mongolia comprise diverse habitats including forest, mountain steppe, dry steppe, semidesert, and desert. This study used advanced statistics to examine how diversity and species composition of beetle communities depend on vegetation pattern and environmental factors along an ecological gradient from steppe to desert. Our study included the beetle families Tenebrionidae, Carabidae, Curculionidae, and Coccinellidae, which account for the majority of the known beetle fauna in the area. The most abundant Coleoptera in all plots were Harpalus limbaris, Corsyra fusula, and Anatolica cellicola; otherwise, we caught a large number of rare species. The beta diversity of communities was correlated with distance between plots. Species richness of beetles was positively impacted by plant cover and correlated negatively with rising temperatures, whereas Shannon diversity of beetle communities was significantly higher in areas with higher precipitation. Distribution and community composition of Coleopterans were governed by environmental factors, especially plant diversity, mean annual temperature, and summer precipitation, as revealed by redundancy analysis.

  1. On the Chemical Abundances of Miras in Clusters: V1 in the Metal-rich Globular NGC 5927

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Orazi, V.; Magurno, D.; Bono, G.; Matsunaga, N.; Braga, V. F.; Elgueta, S. S.; Fukue, K.; Hamano, S.; Inno, L.; Kobayashi, N.; Kondo, S.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Przybilla, N.; Sameshima, H.; Saviane, I.; Taniguchi, D.; Thevenin, F.; Urbaneja-Perez, M.; Watase, A.; Arai, A.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; Dall’Ora, M.; Da Silva, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Fiorentino, G.; Francois, P.; Gilmozzi, R.; Iannicola, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Jian, M.; Kawakita, H.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Lemasle, B.; Marengo, M.; Marinoni, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Minniti, D.; Neeley, J.; Otsubo, S.; Prieto, J. L.; Proxauf, B.; Romaniello, M.; Sanna, N.; Sneden, C.; Takenaka, K.; Tsujimoto, T.; Valenti, E.; Yasui, C.; Yoshikawa, T.; Zoccali, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first spectroscopic abundance determination of iron, α-elements (Si, Ca, and Ti), and sodium for the Mira variable V1 in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927. We use high-resolution (R ∼ 28,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (∼200) spectra collected with WINERED, a near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph covering simultaneously the wavelength range 0.91–1.35 μm. The effective temperature and the surface gravity at the pulsation phase of the spectroscopic observation were estimated using both optical (V) and NIR time-series photometric data. We found that the Mira is metal-rich ([Fe/H] = ‑0.55 ± 0.15) and moderately α-enhanced ([α/Fe] = 0.15 ± 0.01, σ = 0.2). These values agree quite well with the mean cluster abundances based on high-resolution optical spectra of several cluster red giants available in the literature ([Fe/H] = ‑ 0.47 ± 0.06, [α/Fe] = + 0.24 ± 0.05). We also found a Na abundance of +0.35 ± 0.20 that is higher than the mean cluster abundance based on optical spectra (+0.18 ± 0.13). However, the lack of similar spectra for cluster red giants and that of corrections for departures from local thermodynamical equilibrium prevents us from establishing whether the difference is intrinsic or connected with multiple populations. These findings indicate a strong similarity between optical and NIR metallicity scales in spite of the difference in the experimental equipment, data analysis, and in the adopted spectroscopic diagnostics. Based on spectra collected with the WINERED spectrograph available as a visitor instrument at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), La Silla, Chile (ESO Proposal: 098.D-0878(A), PI: G. Bono).

  2. Deficit in community species richness as explained by area and isolation of sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The potential community species richness was predicted for 85 patches of seminatural grassland in an agricultural landscape in Denmark. The basis of the prediction was a very large dataset on the vegetation, soil pH and topography in Danish grasslands and related communities. Species were inserte......, community richness deficit, varied considerably among patches. Community richness deficit exhibited a negative relationship with patch area, and for small patches a positive relationship with patch isolation....

  3. [Species-abundance distribution patterns along succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-min; Fan, Cheng-fang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing-pei; Fang, Kai; Fan, Fang-li; Yang, Guang-yao

    2015-12-01

    To detect the ecological process of the succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain, five niche models, i.e., broken stick model (BSM), niche preemption model (NPM), dominance preemption model (DPM), random assortment model (RAM) and overlap- ping niche model (ONM) were employed to describe the species-abundance distribution patterns (SDPs) of 15 samples. χ² test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to test the fitting effects of the five models. The results showed that the optimal SDP models for P. glauca forest, bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broadleaved forest were DPM (χ² = 35.86, AIC = -69.77), NPM (χ² = 1.60, AIC = -94.68) and NPM (χ² = 0.35, AIC = -364.61), respectively. BSM also well fitted the SDP of bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broad-leaved forest, while it was unsuitable to describe the SDP of P. glauca forest. The fittings of RAM and ONM in the three forest types were all rejected by the χ² test and AIC. With the development of community succession from P. glauca forest to broadleaved forest, the species richness and evenness increased, and the optimal SDP model changed from DPM to NPM. It was inferred that the change of ecological process from habitat filtration to interspecific competition was the main driving force of the forest succession. The results also indicated that the application of multiple SDP models and test methods would be beneficial to select the best model and deeply understand the ecological process of community succession.

  4. Regional-scale directional changes in abundance of tree species along a temperature gradient in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi N; Ishihara, Masae I; Hidaka, Amane

    2015-09-01

    Climate changes are assumed to shift the ranges of tree species and forest biomes. Such range shifts result from changes in abundances of tree species or functional types. Owing to global warming, the abundance of a tree species or functional type is expected to increase near the colder edge of its range and decrease near the warmer edge. This study examined directional changes in abundance and demographic parameters of forest trees along a temperature gradient, as well as a successional gradient, in Japan. Changes in the relative abundance of each of four functional types (evergreen broad-leaved, deciduous broad-leaved, evergreen temperate conifer, and evergreen boreal conifer) and the demography of each species (recruitment rate, mortality, and population growth rate) were analyzed in 39 permanent forest plots across the Japanese archipelago. Directional changes in the relative abundance of functional types were detected along the temperature gradient. Relative abundance of evergreen broad-leaved trees increased near their colder range boundaries, especially in secondary forests, coinciding with the decrease in deciduous broad-leaved trees. Similarly, relative abundance of deciduous broad-leaved trees increased near their colder range boundaries, coinciding with the decrease in boreal conifers. These functional-type-level changes were mainly due to higher recruitment rates and partly to the lower mortality of individual species at colder sites. This is the first report to show that tree species abundances in temperate forests are changing directionally along a temperature gradient, which might be due to current or past climate changes as well as recovery from past disturbances. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A new model to describe the relationship between species richness and sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the sampling of species richness, the number of newly found species declines as increase of sample size, and the number of distinct species tends to an upper asymptote as sample size tends to the infinity. This leads to a curve of species richness vs. sample size. In present study, I follow my principle proposed earlier (Zhang, 2016, and re-develop the model, y=K(1-e^(-rx/K, for describing the relationship between species richness (y and sample size (x, where K is the expected total number of distinct species, and r is the maximum variation of species richness per sample size (i.e., max dy/dx. Computer software and codes were given.

  6. Determinants of Mammal and Bird Species Richness in China Based on Habitat Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Xu

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial patterns in species richness is a central issue in macroecology and biogeography. Analyses that have traditionally focused on overall species richness limit the generality and depth of inference. Spatial patterns of species richness and the mechanisms that underpin them in China remain poorly documented. We created a database of the distribution of 580 mammal species and 849 resident bird species from 2376 counties in China and established spatial linear models to identify the determinants of species richness and test the roles of five hypotheses for overall mammals and resident birds and the 11 habitat groups among the two taxa. Our result showed that elevation variability was the most important determinant of species richness of overall mammal and bird species. It is indicated that the most prominent predictors of species richness varied among different habitat groups: elevation variability for forest and shrub mammals and birds, temperature annual range for grassland and desert mammals and wetland birds, net primary productivity for farmland mammals, maximum temperature of the warmest month for cave mammals, and precipitation of the driest quarter for grassland and desert birds. Noteworthily, main land cover type was also found to obviously influence mammal and bird species richness in forests, shrubs and wetlands under the disturbance of intensified human activities. Our findings revealed a substantial divergence in the species richness patterns among different habitat groups and highlighted the group-specific and disparate environmental associations that underpin them. As we demonstrate, a focus on overall species richness alone might lead to incomplete or misguided understanding of spatial patterns. Conservation priorities that consider a broad spectrum of habitat groups will be more successful in safeguarding the multiple services of biodiversity.

  7. Species richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: associations with grassland plant richness and biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiiesalu, Inga; Pärtel, M.; Davison, J.; Gerhold, P.; Metsis, M.; Moora, M.; Öpik, M.; Vasar, M.; Zobel, M.; Wilson, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 1 (2014), s. 233-244 ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : belowground plant richness * diversity * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  8. Orchid Species Richness along Elevational and Environmental Gradients in Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao Zhang

    Full Text Available The family Orchidaceae is not only one of the most diverse families of flowering plants, but also one of the most endangered plant taxa. Therefore, understanding how its species richness varies along geographical and environmental gradients is essential for conservation efforts. However, such knowledge is rarely available, especially on a large scale. We used a database extracted from herbarium records to investigate the relationships between orchid species richness and elevation, and to examine how elevational diversity in Yunnan Province, China, might be explained by mid-domain effect (MDE, species-area relationship (SAR, water-energy dynamics (WED, Rapoport's Rule, and climatic variables. This particular location was selected because it is one of the primary centers of distribution for orchids. We recorded 691 species that span 127 genera and account for 88.59% of all confirmed orchid species in Yunnan. Species richness, estimated at 200-m intervals along a slope, was closely correlated with elevation, peaking at 1395 to 1723 m. The elevational pattern of orchid richness was considerably shaped by MDE, SAR, WED, and climate. Among those four predictors, climate was the strongest while MDE was the weakest for predicting the elevational pattern of orchid richness. Species richness showed parabolic responses to mean annual temperature (MAT and mean annual precipitation (MAP, with maximum richness values recorded at 13.7 to 17.7°C for MAT and 1237 to 1414 mm for MAP. Rapoport's Rule also helped to explain the elevational pattern of species richness in Yunnan, but those influences were not entirely uniform across all methods. These results suggested that the elevational pattern of orchid species richness in Yunnan is collectively shaped by several mechanisms related to geometric constraints, size of the land area, and environments. Because of the dominant role of climate in determining orchid richness, our findings may contribute to a better

  9. Orchid Species Richness along Elevational and Environmental Gradients in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Chen, Wen-Yun; Huang, Jia-Lin; Bi, Ying-Feng; Yang, Xue-Fei

    2015-01-01

    The family Orchidaceae is not only one of the most diverse families of flowering plants, but also one of the most endangered plant taxa. Therefore, understanding how its species richness varies along geographical and environmental gradients is essential for conservation efforts. However, such knowledge is rarely available, especially on a large scale. We used a database extracted from herbarium records to investigate the relationships between orchid species richness and elevation, and to examine how elevational diversity in Yunnan Province, China, might be explained by mid-domain effect (MDE), species-area relationship (SAR), water-energy dynamics (WED), Rapoport's Rule, and climatic variables. This particular location was selected because it is one of the primary centers of distribution for orchids. We recorded 691 species that span 127 genera and account for 88.59% of all confirmed orchid species in Yunnan. Species richness, estimated at 200-m intervals along a slope, was closely correlated with elevation, peaking at 1395 to 1723 m. The elevational pattern of orchid richness was considerably shaped by MDE, SAR, WED, and climate. Among those four predictors, climate was the strongest while MDE was the weakest for predicting the elevational pattern of orchid richness. Species richness showed parabolic responses to mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP), with maximum richness values recorded at 13.7 to 17.7°C for MAT and 1237 to 1414 mm for MAP. Rapoport's Rule also helped to explain the elevational pattern of species richness in Yunnan, but those influences were not entirely uniform across all methods. These results suggested that the elevational pattern of orchid species richness in Yunnan is collectively shaped by several mechanisms related to geometric constraints, size of the land area, and environments. Because of the dominant role of climate in determining orchid richness, our findings may contribute to a better understanding of

  10. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehling, D.M.; Hof, C.; Brandle, M.

    2010-01-01

    of species richness. We tested whether habitat availability can account for the differences in species richness patterns between European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Location Europe. Methods We compiled occurrence data of 1959 lentic and 2445 lotic species as well as data on the amount of lentic......Aim In Europe, the relationships between species richness and latitude differ for lentic (standing water) and lotic (running water) species. Freshwater animals are highly dependent on suitable habitat, and thus the distribution of available habitat should strongly influence large-scale patterns...... with latitude. Main conclusions Habitat availability and diversity are poor predictors of species richness of the European freshwater fauna across large scales. Our results indicate that the distributions of European freshwater animals are probably not in equilibrium and may still be influenced by history...

  11. Global species richness patterns and their drivers among the order Anseriformes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; McGill, Brian J.; Fox, Anthony David

    2012-01-01

    predictors and response by using regression trees we found day length in the breeding season to be the most important predictor followed by annual actual- or potential evapotranspiration conditioned on short or long days respectively. Predictors commonly used to explain large-scale richness patterns of birds......Birds (class Aves) follow the latitudinal gradient in species richness (more species are found closer to the tropics). However lowering the taxonomic scale to orders other patterns can emerge which can be instructive about mechanism. For example, in the order Anseriformes the pattern is reversed so...... richness increases towards higher and lower latitudes. This divergence from the latitudinal gradient in species richness, as well as the divergence from other marcoecological rules (e.g. Lack’s rule), calls for a study of the drivers of species richness in this order. Here we studied the spatial pattern...

  12. Effects of habitat and landscape characteristics on medium and large mammal species richness and composition in northern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Andrade-Núñez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population and demand for food and other products has accelerated the conversion of natural habitats into agricultural lands, plantations and urban areas. Changes in habitat and landscape characteristics due to land-use change can have a significant effect on species presence, abundance, and distribution. Multi-scale approaches have been used to determine the proper spatial scales at which species and communities are responding to habitat transformation. In this context, we evaluated medium and large mammal species richness and composition in gallery forest (n = 10, grassland (n = 10, and exotic tree plantation (n = 10 in a region where grasslands have been converted into exotic tree plantations. We quantified mammal species richness and composition with camera traps and track surveys. The composition of the mammal community was related with local habitat variables, and landscape variables measured at seven spatial scales. We found 14 mammal species in forest, 11 species in plantation, and 7 mammal species in grassland. Two species are exotics, the wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 and the European hare Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778. The most common species are the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766, the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 and the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira G. Fischer, 1814 which are generalist species. Our results showed significant differences in mammal species richness and composition among the three habitat types. Plantations can have positive and negative effects on the presence of species restricted to grasslands. Positive effects are reflected in a wider local distribution of some forest species that rarely use grassland. The most important habitat and landscape variables that influenced mammal species richness and composition were vertical structure index, canopy cover, tree species diversity, percentage of grass, and the percentage of forest and grassland

  13. Effects of spatial heterogeneity on butterfly species richness in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Simonson, S.E.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated butterfly responses to plot-level characteristics (plant species richness, vegetation height, and range in NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index]) and spatial heterogeneity in topography and landscape patterns (composition and configuration) at multiple spatial scales. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data on butterfly species richness from seventy-six 20 ?? 50 m plots. The plant species richness and average vegetation height data were collected from 76 modified-Whittaker plots overlaid on 76 butterfly plots. Spatial heterogeneity around sample plots was quantified by measuring topographic variables and landscape metrics at eight spatial extents (radii of 300, 600 to 2,400 m). The number of butterfly species recorded was strongly positively correlated with plant species richness, proportion of shrubland and mean patch size of shrubland. Patterns in butterfly species richness were negatively correlated with other variables including mean patch size, average vegetation height, elevation, and range in NDVI. The best predictive model selected using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc), explained 62% of the variation in butterfly species richness at the 2,100 m spatial extent. Average vegetation height and mean patch size were among the best predictors of butterfly species richness. The models that included plot-level information and topographic variables explained relatively less variation in butterfly species richness, and were improved significantly after including landscape metrics. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity greatly influences patterns in butterfly species richness, and that it should be explicitly considered in conservation and management actions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Species Richness, Community Organization, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Earthworms in the Pineapple Agroecosystems of Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that plant communities may have on underground faunal diversity is unclear. Therefore, understanding the links between plants and organisms is of major interest. Earthworm population dynamics were studied in the pineapple agroecosystems of Tripura to evaluate the impact of monoculture plantation on earthworm communities. A total of thirteen earthworm species belonging to four families and five genera were collected from different sampling sites. Application of sample-based rarefaction curve and nonparametric richness estimators reveal 90–95% completeness of sampling. Earthworm community of pineapple agroecosystems was dominated by endogeic earthworms and Drawida assamensis was the dominant species with respect to its density, biomass, and relative abundance. Vertical distribution of earthworms was greatly influenced by seasonal variations. Population density and biomass of earthworms peaked during monsoon and postmonsoon period, respectively. Overall density and biomass of earthworms were in increasing trend with an increase in plantation age and were highest in the 30–35-year-old plantation. Significant decrease in the Shannon diversity and evenness index and increase in Simpson’s dominance and spatial aggregation index with an increase in the age of pineapple plantation were recorded. Soil temperature and soil moisture were identified as the most potent regulators of earthworm distribution in the pineapple plantation.

  15. Seasonal variation of tsetse fly species abundance and prevalence of trypanosomes in the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnko, Happiness J; Ngonyoka, Anibariki; Salekwa, Linda; Estes, Anna B; Hudson, Peter J; Gwakisa, Paul S; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2017-06-01

    Tsetse flies, the vectors of trypanosomiasis, represent a threat to public health and economy in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite these concerns, information on temporal and spatial dynamics of tsetse and trypanosomes remain limited and may be a reason that control strategies are less effective. The current study assessed the temporal variation of the relative abundance of tsetse fly species and trypanosome prevalence in relation to climate in the Maasai Steppe of Tanzania in 2014-2015. Tsetse flies were captured using odor-baited Epsilon traps deployed in ten sites selected through random subsampling of the major vegetation types in the area. Fly species were identified morphologically and trypanosome species classified using PCR. The climate dataset was acquired from the African Flood and Drought Monitor repository. Three species of tsetse flies were identified: G. swynnertoni (70.8%), G. m. morsitans (23.4%), and G.pallidipes (5.8%). All species showed monthly changes in abundance with most of the flies collected in July. The relative abundance of G. m. morsitans and G. swynnertoni was negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperature, respectively. Three trypanosome species were recorded: T. vivax (82.1%), T. brucei (8.93%), and T. congolense (3.57%). The peak of trypanosome infections in the flies was found in October and was three months after the tsetse abundance peak; prevalence was negatively correlated with tsetse abundance. A strong positive relationship was found between trypanosome prevalence and temperature. In conclusion, we find that trypanosome prevalence is dependent on fly availability, and temperature drives both tsetse fly relative abundance and trypanosome prevalence. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. Using species abundance distribution models and diversity indices for biogeographical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Rigal, François; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether Species Abundance Distribution models (SADs) and diversity indices can describe how species colonization status influences species community assembly on oceanic islands. Our hypothesis is that, because of the lack of source-sink dynamics at the archipelago scale, Single Island Endemics (SIEs), i.e. endemic species restricted to only one island, should be represented by few rare species and consequently have abundance patterns that differ from those of more widespread species. To test our hypothesis, we used arthropod data from the Azorean archipelago (North Atlantic). We divided the species into three colonization categories: SIEs, archipelagic endemics (AZEs, present in at least two islands) and native non-endemics (NATs). For each category, we modelled rank-abundance plots using both the geometric series and the Gambin model, a measure of distributional amplitude. We also calculated Shannon entropy and Buzas and Gibson's evenness. We show that the slopes of the regression lines modelling SADs were significantly higher for SIEs, which indicates a relative predominance of a few highly abundant species and a lack of rare species, which also depresses diversity indices. This may be a consequence of two factors: (i) some forest specialist SIEs may be at advantage over other, less adapted species; (ii) the entire populations of SIEs are by definition concentrated on a single island, without possibility for inter-island source-sink dynamics; hence all populations must have a minimum number of individuals to survive natural, often unpredictable, fluctuations. These findings are supported by higher values of the α parameter of the Gambin mode for SIEs. In contrast, AZEs and NATs had lower regression slopes, lower α but higher diversity indices, resulting from their widespread distribution over several islands. We conclude that these differences in the SAD models and diversity indices demonstrate that the study of these metrics is useful for

  17. Plant Species Richness is Associated with Canopy Height and Topography in a Neotropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassan S. Saatchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most plant species are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water, and nutrients. In tropical forests, these gradients result from biophysical processes related to the structure of the canopy and terrain, but how does species richness in tropical forests vary over such gradients, and can remote sensing capture this variation? Using airborne lidar, we tested the extent to which variation in tree species richness is statistically explained by lidar-measured structural variation in canopy height and terrain in the extensively studied, stem-mapped 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. We detected differences in species richness associated with variation in canopy height and topography across spatial scales ranging from 0.01-ha to 1.0-ha. However, species richness was most strongly associated with structural variation at the 1.0-ha scale. We developed a predictive generalized least squares model of species richness at the 1.0-ha scale (R2 = 0.479, RMSE = 8.3 species using the mean and standard deviation of canopy height, mean elevation, and terrain curvature. The model demonstrates that lidar-derived measures of forest and terrain structure can capture a significant fraction of observed variation in tree species richness in tropical forests on local-scales.

  18. Combining geodiversity with climate and topography to account for threatened species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiainen, Helena; Bailey, Joseph J; Field, Richard; Kangas, Katja; Hjort, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Understanding threatened species diversity is important for long-term conservation planning. Geodiversity-the diversity of Earth surface materials, forms, and processes-may be a useful biodiversity surrogate for conservation and have conservation value itself. Geodiversity and species richness relationships have been demonstrated; establishing whether geodiversity relates to threatened species' diversity and distribution pattern is a logical next step for conservation. We used 4 geodiversity variables (rock-type and soil-type richness, geomorphological diversity, and hydrological feature diversity) and 4 climatic and topographic variables to model threatened species diversity across 31 of Finland's national parks. We also analyzed rarity-weighted richness (a measure of site complementarity) of threatened vascular plants, fungi, bryophytes, and all species combined. Our 1-km 2 resolution data set included 271 threatened species from 16 major taxa. We modeled threatened species richness (raw and rarity weighted) with boosted regression trees. Climatic variables, especially the annual temperature sum above 5 °C, dominated our models, which is consistent with the critical role of temperature in this boreal environment. Geodiversity added significant explanatory power. High geodiversity values were consistently associated with high threatened species richness across taxa. The combined effect of geodiversity variables was even more pronounced in the rarity-weighted richness analyses (except for fungi) than in those for species richness. Geodiversity measures correlated most strongly with species richness (raw and rarity weighted) of threatened vascular plants and bryophytes and were weakest for molluscs, lichens, and mammals. Although simple measures of topography improve biodiversity modeling, our results suggest that geodiversity data relating to geology, landforms, and hydrology are also worth including. This reinforces recent arguments that conserving nature's stage

  19. Local versus landscape-scale effects of anthropogenic land-use on forest species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, G.; Del Vecchio, S.; Fantinato, E.; Milano, V.

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of human-induced landscape patterns on species richness in forests. For 80 plots of fixed size, we measured human disturbance (categorized as urban/industrial and agricultural land areas), at 'local' and 'landscape' scale (500 m and 2500 m radius from each plot, respectively), the distance from the forest edge, and the size and shape of the woody patch. By using GLM, we analyzed the effects of disturbance and patch-based measures on both total species richness and the richness of a group of specialist species (i.e. the 'ancient forest species'), representing more specific forest features. Patterns of local species richness were sensitive to the structure and composition of the surrounding landscape. Among the landscape components taken into account, urban/industrial land areas turned out as the most threatening factor for both total species richness and the richness of the ancient forest species. However, the best models evidenced a different intensity of the response to the same disturbance category as well as a different pool of significant variables for the two groups of species. The use of groups of species, such as the ancient forest species pool, that are functionally related and have similar ecological requirements, may represent an effective solution for monitoring forest dynamics under the effects of external factors. The approach of relating local assessment of species richness, and in particular of the ancient forest species pool, to land-use patterns may play an important role for the science-policy interface by supporting and strengthening conservation and regional planning decision making.

  20. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Earthquake impacts on microcrustacean communities inhabiting groundwater-fed springs alter species-abundance distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Galassi, Diana M P

    2018-01-24

    Earthquakes are important natural events, yet their impacts on animal communities are poorly known. Understanding earthquake impacts on groundwater communities is essential to assess their resilience and hence to perform conservation actions. We investigated how a 6.3 M w earthquake that occurred in 2009 altered the community structure (diversity, evenness, dominance, species abundance distributions and beta-diversity) of microcrustaceans (Crustacea Copepoda) inhabiting springs fed by the Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy). Sampling was done in low-discharge (1997), high-discharge (2005), and post-seismic (2012) hydrological years. Stygobites (obligate groundwater species) and non-stygobites (non-obligate groundwater species) showed different patterns. A high-water discharge in 2005 altered abundance patterns of non-stygobites. The earthquake re-established former abundance patterns. Stygobites were less affected by high-water discharge in 2005, and showed strong increases in diversity and evenness after the earthquake. This effect was due to the fact that the earthquake induced a strong population decline of previously dominant stygobites (especially of Nitocrella pescei) in the aquifer, and subsequently at the main spring outlets, thus allowing a more equitable species-abundance distribution. These results highlight the importance of considering species ecology to understand the effects of a significant earthquake event on animal communities.

  2. High tropical net diversification drives the New World latitudinal gradient in palm (Arecaceae) species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Borchsenius, Finn; Bjorholm, Stine Wendelboe

    2008-01-01

    Aim Species richness exhibits striking geographical variation, but the processes that drive this variation are unresolved. We investigated the relative importance of two hypothesized evolutionary causes for the variation in palm species richness across the New World: time for diversification......, and potential environmental and geographical drivers. Results Species richness increased with all net diversification measures. The regression models showed that richness and the net diversification measures increased with decreasing (absolute) latitude and, less strongly, with increasing energy....../temperature and water availability. These patterns therefore reflect net diversification at both deep and shallow levels in the phylogeny. Richness also increased with range in elevation, but this was only reflected in the MS/G pattern and therefore reflects recent diversification. Main conclusions The geographical...

  3. Geography, topography, and history affect realized-to-potential tree species richness patterns in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Normand, Signe

    2010-01-01

    by assembly from regional species pools. Using the European tree flora as our study system, we implemented a novel approach to assess the relative importance of local and regional mechanisms that control local species richness. We first identified species pools that tolerate particular local environments...

  4. Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, Rena R.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Groom, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    Birds, lizards and insects were surveyed in three sun and three shade coffee plantations in Puerto Rico to provide a comprehensive comparison of biodiversity between plantations types and to identify potential interrelationships (e.g., biological or natural control services) between members of each taxon and coffee pests. Abundance of avian species, including insectivorous species, was significantly higher in shade coffee. Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus were significantly more abundant in sun plantations whereas A. gundlachi and A. evermanni were detected more frequently in shade plantations. Insects in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, and Psocoptera were significantly more abundant in shade coffee, while orthopterans were more abundant in sun. The coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeela) and the flatid planthopper (Petrusa epilepsis) did not differ significantly between plantation types, nor did the abundance of the wasp complex that parasitizes the coffee leaf miner. These findings confirmed that shade plantations harbor a wide array of elements of biodiversity; but sun plantations may also harbor many elements of biodiversity, and in some cases, in higher abundance than in shade plantations.

  5. METAL-RICH ACCRETION AND THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES IN EXOPLANET-HOST STARS: CONSEQUENCES ON THE LIGHT ELEMENTS ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theado, Sylvie; Vauclair, Sylvie, E-mail: stheado@ast.obs-mip.fr [Institut de Recherches en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2012-01-10

    The early evolution of planetary systems is expected to depend on various periods of disk matter accretion onto the central star, which may include the accretion of metal-rich matter after the star settles on the main sequence. When this happens, the accreted material is rapidly mixed within the surface convective zone and induces an inverse mean-molecular-weight gradient, unstable for thermohaline convection. The induced mixing, which dilutes the metal excess, may also have important consequences on the light elements abundances. We model and analyze this process, and present the results according to various possible accretion scenarios. We give a detailed discussion of the different ways of treating thermohaline mixing, as proposed by previous authors, and converge on a consistent view, including the most recent numerical simulations. We show how the observations of light elements in stars can be used as tracers of such events.

  6. Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Weigelt, Patrick; Ott, David; Rembold, Katja; Farajallah, Achmad; Brose, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    High biodiversity and biomass of soil communities are crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. Using a dataset of 780 macro-invertebrate consumer species across 32 sites in tropical lowland rain forest and agricultural systems on Sumatra, Indonesia, we investigated the effects of basal resource stoichiometry (C:X ratios of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S in local leaf litter), litter mass (basal resource quantity and habitat space), plant species richness (surrogate for litter habitat heterogeneity), and soil pH (acidity) on consumer species richness and biomass across different consumer groups (i.e. 3 feeding guilds and 10 selected taxonomic groups). In order to distinguish the most important predictors of consumer species richness and biomass, we applied a standardised model averaging approach investigating the effects of basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and soil pH on both consumer community characteristics. This standardised approach enabled us to identify differences and similarities in the magnitude and importance of such effects on consumer species richness and biomass. Across consumer groups, we found litter mass to be the most important predictor of both species richness and biomass. Resource stoichiometry had a more pronounced impact on consumer species richness than on their biomass. As expected, taxonomic groups differed in which resource and habitat parameters (basal resource stoichiometry, litter mass, plant species richness and pH) were most important for modulating their community characteristics. The importance

  7. Environmental heterogeneity as a universal driver of species richness across taxa, biomes and spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Anke; Gerstner, Katharina; Kreft, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is regarded as one of the most important factors governing species richness gradients. An increase in available niche space, provision of refuges and opportunities for isolation and divergent adaptation are thought to enhance species coexistence, persistence and diversification. However, the extent and generality of positive heterogeneity-richness relationships are still debated. Apart from widespread evidence supporting positive relationships, negative and hump-shaped relationships have also been reported. In a meta-analysis of 1148 data points from 192 studies worldwide, we examine the strength and direction of the relationship between spatial environmental heterogeneity and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals. We find that separate effects of heterogeneity in land cover, vegetation, climate, soil and topography are significantly positive, with vegetation and topographic heterogeneity showing particularly strong associations with species richness. The use of equal-area study units, spatial grain and spatial extent emerge as key factors influencing the strength of heterogeneity-richness relationships, highlighting the pervasive influence of spatial scale in heterogeneity-richness studies. We provide the first quantitative support for the generality of positive heterogeneity-richness relationships across heterogeneity components, habitat types, taxa and spatial scales from landscape to global extents, and identify specific needs for future comparative heterogeneity-richness research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  9. Bat species richness and activity over an elevation gradient in mediterranean shrublands of Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Georgiakakis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The effect of elevation on bat species richness and activity was investigated in shrublands of central Crete (Greece using broad-band acoustic surveys. Recordings of echolocation calls were made in 15 transects equally distributed in three distinct elevation zones (500, 1000 and 1500 m a.s.l. during spring and autumn 2007-2008. Time-expanded calls were subsequently identified with the use of quadratic discriminant functions.
    Out of 13 species recorded, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Tadarida teniotis were the most common and abundant. Many Rhinolophus hipposideros were also recorded in all elevation zones. Thirteen species were recorded in the lower elevation zone, 7 species in the mid one and 8 species in the 1500 m a.s.l. sites. Species richness, the number of bat passes of the most abundant species, as well as the total number of bat passes were not significantly affected by elevation. In spring both species richness and bat activity were higher than in autumn, although the corresponding difference in temperature was not significant.
    The high variability in both bat activity and the number of species found per transect in each elevation zone probably depended on the presence of other habitat types in the close vicinity, while roost availability and location might also have played an important role.
    We suggest that the ability of bats to perform regular movements along the elevational gradient has to be taken in account when assessing elevational patterns in bat diversity and activity. The geology of the study area is also of considerable importance through its effect on foraging and roosting opportunities for bats.

    Riassunto
    Ricchezza specifica e attività dei chirotteri lungo un gradiente altitudinale nella macchia mediterranea di Creta
    L’effetto della quota su ricchezza in specie e

  10. How Rich is Rich? Placing Constraints on the Abundance of Spinel in the Pink Spinel Anorthosite Lithology on the Moon Through Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Isaacson, P. J.; Le, L.

    2015-01-01

    previously unknown lunar rock was recently recognized in the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(sup 3)) visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra. The rock type is rich in Mg-Al spinel (approximately 30%) and plagioclase and contains less than 5% mafic silicate minerals (olivine and pyroxene). The identification of this pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) at the Moscoviense basin has sparked new interest in lunar spinel. Pieters et al. suggested that these PSA deposits might be an important component of the lunar crust. However, Mg-Al spinel is rare in the Apollo and meteorite sample collections (only up to a few wt%), and occurs mostly in troctolites and troctolitic cataclastites. In this study, we are conducting a series of experiments (petrologic and space weathering) to investigate whether deposits of spinel identified by remote sensing are in high concentration (e.g. 30%) or whether the concentrations of spinel in these deposits are more like lunar samples, which contain only a few wt%. To examine the possibility of an impact-melt origin for PSA, conducted 1-bar crystallization experiments on rock compositions similar to pink spinel troctolite 65785. The VNIR spectral reflectance analyses of the low-temperature experiments yield absorption features similar to those of the PSA lithology detected at Moscoviense Basin. The experimental run products at these temperatures contain approximately 5 wt% spinel, which suggests that the spinel-rich deposits detected by M(sup 3) might not be as spinel-rich as previously thought. However, the effect of space weathering on spinel is unknown and could significantly alter its spectral properties including potential weakening of its diagnostic 2-micrometers absorption feature. Thus, weathered lunar rocks could contain more spinel than a comparison with the unweathered experimental charges would suggest. In this study, we have initiated space weathering experiments on 1) pure pink spinel, 2) spinel-anorthite mixtures, and 3) the low

  11. Species richness and the temporal stability of biomass production: a new analysis of recent biodiversity experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, K.; Cardinale, B.J.; Fox, J.W.; Gonzalez, A.; Loreau, M.; Polley, H.W.; Reich, P.B.; Ruijven, van J.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between biological diversity and ecological stability has fascinated ecologists for decades. Determining the generality of this relationship, and discovering the mechanisms that underlie it, are vitally important for ecosystem management. Here, we investigate how species richness

  12. Species richness pattern along altitudinal gradient in Central European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrivnák, R.; Gömöry, D.; Slezák, M.; Ujházy, K.; Hédl, Radim; Jarčuška, B.; Ujházyová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2014), s. 425-441 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : altitude * beech-dominated forest * species richness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  13. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Mammals of the Americas Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mammals of the Americas Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are aggregations of the presence grids data at the family level....

  14. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Birds of the Americas Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Birds of the Americas Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are the aggregations of the Presence Grids data at the family level....

  15. Simkin et al. 2016 PNAS data on herbaceous species richness and associated plot and covariate information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the geographic location (lat/lon) for 15,136 plots, as well as the herbaceous species richness, climate, soil pH, and other variables related...

  16. Species traits and local abundance affect bird-window collision frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Wittig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on bird-window collisions have generally drawn inferences about species' differential vulnerability from collision tallies. However, this common methodology is potentially biased because the number of collisions may simply reflect prevalence of species at the study site rather than species-specific vulnerability. Building on recent studies of abundance and collision rates, we offered a complementary methodology based on point count data that could be widely applied alongside carcass surveys. Additionally, we broadened our analysis beyond previously applied taxonomic and migratory classifications to include functional classifications of feeding guild, breeding status, and synanthropy. Our null hypothesis was that collision frequencies reflect a species' or classification group's prevalence at study sites. To test this possibility, we used collision data collected at three sites in the Research Triangle Area of North Carolina, United States. At one of these sites, Duke University's Main Campus, we also gathered relative abundances from the local bird community to develop a case study assessment of how background prevalence compared to number of collisions. Using the larger, three-site dataset, we developed an initial picture of collision susceptibility based solely on frequency, the standard practice. Then, by bootstrapping our Duke abundance data, we generated confidence intervals that simulated collision based on chance versus prevalence. We identified several instances where collision tallies produced misleading perception of species-specific vulnerability. In the most extreme case, frequencies from our Triangle Area dataset indicated locally breeding species were highly vulnerable to collisions while our abundance-based case study suggested this same group was actually adept at avoiding collisions. Through our case study, we also found that foliage gleaning was linked to increased risk, and omnivory and ground foraging were associated

  17. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  18. Some peculiarities of fish abundance, species and sizes distribution, and spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskas, A.; Bernotas, E.; Jovaisha, R.

    1995-01-01

    During the construction and exploitation process of Ignalina NPP the abundance of fishes has dropped, and especially stenothermic species (smelt and vendace). The general increase of fish abundance is observed in recent years (1992-1994). This is linked with changes of fish species and their adaptation to the new environmental conditions. Now the partial renovation of vendace abundance is observed, too. It is a result of free feeding recess coming out as the smelt dramatically decreased. Before now the ecosystem of the lake is greatly disbalanced due to antropogenetic impact of the NPP. It's partial stabilisation (but on the essentially high level) is possible only in some generations of fish living in the lake. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  19. Species richness and trophic diversity increase decomposition in a co-evolved food web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Baiser

    Full Text Available Ecological communities show great variation in species richness, composition and food web structure across similar and diverse ecosystems. Knowledge of how this biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning is important for understanding the maintenance of diversity and the potential effects of species losses and gains on ecosystems. While research often focuses on how variation in species richness influences ecosystem processes, assessing species richness in a food web context can provide further insight into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning and elucidate potential mechanisms underpinning this relationship. Here, we assessed how species richness and trophic diversity affect decomposition rates in a complete aquatic food web: the five trophic level web that occurs within water-filled leaves of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. We identified a trophic cascade in which top-predators--larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito--indirectly increased bacterial decomposition by preying on bactivorous protozoa. Our data also revealed a facultative relationship in which larvae of the pitcher-plant midge increased bacterial decomposition by shredding detritus. These important interactions occur only in food webs with high trophic diversity, which in turn only occur in food webs with high species richness. We show that species richness and trophic diversity underlie strong linkages between food web structure and dynamics that influence ecosystem functioning. The importance of trophic diversity and species interactions in determining how biodiversity relates to ecosystem functioning suggests that simply focusing on species richness does not give a complete picture as to how ecosystems may change with the loss or gain of species.

  20. Scale effects and human impact on the elevational species richness gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Araújo, M B; Romdal, T

    2008-01-01

    Despite two centuries of effort in characterizing environmental gradients of species richness in search of universal patterns, surprisingly few of these patterns have been widely acknowledged. Species richness along altitudinal gradients was previously assumed to increase universally from cool hi...... ability to detect universal patterns and impeding the search for universal diversity gradients to discover the mechanisms determining the distribution of biological diversity on Earth....

  1. Species richness and similarity of vascular plants in the Spanish dehesas at two spatial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Gómez, Sonia; García Del Barrio, Jose Manuel; Alonso Ponce, Rafael; Benavides, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Aims of study: The goals of this paper are to summarize and to compare plant species richness and floristic similarity at two spatial scales; mesohabitat (normal, eutrophic, and oligotrophic dehesas) and dehesa habitat; and to establish guidelines for conserving species diversity in dehesas. Area of study: We considered four dehesa sites in the western Peninsular Spain, located along a climatic and biogeographic gradient from north to south. Main results: Average alpha richness for mesohabita...

  2. A survey of fish species diversity and abundance in the White Volta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in the White Volta River at Nawuni to identify the fishing gears used by the fishermen, assess fish species composition and their relative abundance. The results indicated that fishing gears such as gill nets, traps and hook-and-line were used. Most of the net mesh sizes used by the fishermen did ...

  3. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake Kelly J. Benoit- Bird College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences 104...surrounding these aggregations to identify key parameters related to the distribution and behavior of these animals. These parameters will be used to...large sample size combined with careful measures of swimbladder shape, reproductive condition, stomach fullness, and other independent variables will

  4. Earthworm abundance and species composition in abandoned tropical croplands: comparisons of tree plantations and secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; S. Borges

    1996-01-01

    We compared patterns of earthworms abundance and species composition in tree plantation and secondary forest of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus caribea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930's; 1960's; and 1970's; secondary forests were naturally regenerated in areas adjacent to these plantations. We...

  5. A robust and accurate binning algorithm for metagenomic sequences with arbitrary species abundance ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Henry C M; Yiu, S M; Yang, Bin; Peng, Yu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Jingchi; Qin, Junjie; Li, Ruiqiang; Chin, Francis Y L

    2011-06-01

    With the rapid development of next-generation sequencing techniques, metagenomics, also known as environmental genomics, has emerged as an exciting research area that enables us to analyze the microbial environment in which we live. An important step for metagenomic data analysis is the identification and taxonomic characterization of DNA fragments (reads or contigs) resulting from sequencing a sample of mixed species. This step is referred to as 'binning'. Binning algorithms that are based on sequence similarity and sequence composition markers rely heavily on the reference genomes of known microorganisms or phylogenetic markers. Due to the limited availability of reference genomes and the bias and low availability of markers, these algorithms may not be applicable in all cases. Unsupervised binning algorithms which can handle fragments from unknown species provide an alternative approach. However, existing unsupervised binning algorithms only work on datasets either with balanced species abundance ratios or rather different abundance ratios, but not both. In this article, we present MetaCluster 3.0, an integrated binning method based on the unsupervised top--down separation and bottom--up merging strategy, which can bin metagenomic fragments of species with very balanced abundance ratios (say 1:1) to very different abundance ratios (e.g. 1:24) with consistently higher accuracy than existing methods. MetaCluster 3.0 can be downloaded at http://i.cs.hku.hk/~alse/MetaCluster/.

  6. Interdependence of environmental parameters and sand dwelling benthic species abundance: a multivariate approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    0.001). It is postulated that one can predict the occurrence of species and their abundance at a tropical beach under given condition and time at given place, provided there is no disturbance factor (s)-pollution and/or human interference....

  7. Do predators control prey species abundance? An experimental test with brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Earl W.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of predators on the abundance of prey species is a topic of ongoing debate in ecology; the effect of snake predators on their prey has been less debated, as there exists a general consensus that snakes do not negatively influence the abundance of their prey. However, this viewpoint has not been adequately tested. We quantified the effect of brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) predation on the abundance and size of lizards on Guam by contrasting lizards in two 1-ha treatment plots of secondary forest from which snakes had been removed and excluded vs. two 1-ha control plots in which snakes were monitored but not removed or excluded. We removed resident snakes from the treatment plots with snake traps and hand capture, and snake immigration into these plots was precluded by electrified snake barriers. Lizards were sampled in all plots quarterly for a year following snake elimination in the treatment plots. Following the completion of this experiment, we used total removal sampling to census lizards on a 100-m2 subsample of each plot. Results of systematic lizard population monitoring before and after snake removal suggest that the abundance of the skink, Carlia ailanpalai, increased substantially and the abundance of two species of gekkonids, Lepidodactylus lugubris and Hemidactylus frenatus, also increased on snake-free plots. No treatment effect was observed for the skink Emoia caeruleocauda. Mean snout–vent length of all lizard species only increased following snake removal in the treatment plots. The general increase in prey density and mean size was unexpected in light of the literature consensus that snakes do not control the abundance of their prey species. Our findings show that, at least where alternate predators are lacking, snakes may indeed affect prey populations.

  8. Metal tolerant species distribution and richness in and around the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Plant species growing in and around 38 metal welding workshops in Benin City, Nigeria, were surveyed. Eragrostis tenella occurred most frequently in all the sites, followed by Amaranthus spinosus, Eleusine indica, while Cucurbita pepo occurred least. The family Poaceae, was identified in all the sites visited.

  9. Understory species richness in an urban forest fragment, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ramos de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the floristic composition of the understory of Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, (08°01’15.1”S and 34°56’3.2”W, an area of about 370ha characterized as a lowland ombrophilous dense forest. The study included individuals with heights of up to 4.0m, such as treelets, shrubs, sub-bushes and terricolous herb plants, in fertile conditions. The collections were made every two weeks along a period of 24 months. A total of 108 species, belonging to 86 genera and 49 families, were recorded. The families with the highest number of species were Rubiaceae (14, Fabaceae (9 Melastomataceae (8, Asteraceae (8, Myrtaceae (6, and Poaceae (4. The Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae presented the highest number of understory species in this fragment. Generally, among the studies made in the Atlantic forest areas in Pernambuco, the presence of a set of tree species common to these forests is evidenced.

  10. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R

    2017-11-07

    Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.

  11. Efficient extraction of RNA from various Camellia species rich in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camellia species, an important economic plants widely distributed in Asia, are recalcitrant to RNA extraction. Here, we developed a method for high quality RNA isolation. Based on the RNA isolated from flower buds, deep transcriptome sequencing of Camellia oleifera, Camellia chekiangoleosa and Camellia brevistyla ...

  12. Can temporal and spatial NDVI predict regional bird-species richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of the species and its controls over biogeographic scales is still a major challenge in ecology. National Park Networks provide an opportunity to assess the relationship between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in areas with low human impacts. We tested the productivity–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the available energy, and the ​variability–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the diversity of habitats. The available energy and habitat heterogeneity estimated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was shown as a good predictor of bird-species richness for a diverse set of biomes in previously published studies. However, there is not a universal relationship between NDVI and bird-species richness. Here we tested if the NDVI can predict bird species richness in areas with low human impact in Argentina. Using a dataset from the National Park Network of Argentina we found that the best predictor of bird species richness was the minimum value of NDVI per year which explained 75% of total variability. The inclusion of the spatial heterogeneity of NDVI improved the explanation power to 80%. Minimum NDVI was highly correlated with precipitation and winter temperature. Our analysis provides a tool for assessing bird-species richness at scales on which land-use planning practitioners make their decisions for Southern South America.

  13. USING TAXONOMIC REVISION DATA TO ESTIMATE THE GLOBAL SPECIES RICHNESS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDESCRIBED SPECIES OF DIVING BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Nilsson-Örtman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many methods used for estimating species richness are either difficult to use on poorly known taxa or require input data that are laborious and expensive to collect. In this paper we apply a method which takes advantage of the carefully conducted tests of how the described diversity compares to real species richness that are inherent in taxonomic revisions. We analyze the quantitative outcome from such revisions with respect to body size, zoogeographical region and phylogenetic relationship. The best fitting model is used to predict the diversity of unrevised groups if these would have been subject to as rigorous species level hypothesis-testing as the revised groups. The sensitivity of the predictive model to single observations is estimated by bootstrapping over resampled subsets of the original data. The Dytiscidae is with its 4080 described species (end of May 2009 the most diverse group of aquatic beetles and have a world-wide distribution. Extensive taxonomic work has been carried out on the family but still the number of described species increases exponentially in most zoogeographical regions making many commonly used methods of estimation difficult to apply. We provide independent species richness estimates of subsamples for which species richness estimates can be reached through extrapolation and compare these to the species richness estimates obtained through the method using revision data. We estimate there to be 5405 species of dytiscids, a 1.32-fold increase over the present number of described species. The undescribed diversity is likely to be biased towards species with small body size from tropical regions outside of Africa.

  14. Elevational pattern of bird species richness and its causes along a central Himalaya gradient, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinyuan; Ding, Zhifeng; Hu, Yiming; Liang, Jianchao; Wu, Yongjie; Si, Xingfeng; Guo, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of six variables: area, the mid-domain effect, temperature, precipitation, productivity, and habitat heterogeneity on elevational patterns of species richness for breeding birds along a central Himalaya gradient in the Gyirong Valley, the longest of five canyons in the Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve. We conducted field surveys in each of twelve elevational bands of 300 m between 1,800 and 5,400 m asl four times throughout the entire wet season. A total of 169 breeding bird species were recorded and most of the species (74%) were small-ranged. The species richness patterns of overall, large-ranged and small-ranged birds were all hump-shaped, but with peaks at different elevations. Large-ranged species and small-ranged species contributed equally to the overall richness pattern. Based on the bivariate and multiple regression analyses, area and precipitation were not crucial factors in determining the species richness along this gradient. The mid-domain effect played an important role in shaping the richness pattern of large-ranged species. Temperature was negatively correlated with overall and large-ranged species but positively correlated with small-ranged species. Productivity was a strong explanatory factor among all the bird groups, and habitat heterogeneity played an important role in shaping the elevational richness patterns of overall and small-ranged species. Our results highlight the need to conserve primary forest and intact habitat in this area. Furthermore, we need to increase conservation efforts in this montane biodiversity hotspot in light of increasing anthropogenic activities and land use pressure. PMID:27833806

  15. Richness of Lichen Species, Especially of Threatened Ones, Is Promoted by Management Methods Furthering Stand Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m2 comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  16. Elevational pattern of bird species richness and its causes along a central Himalaya gradient, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinyuan; Ding, Zhifeng; Hu, Yiming; Liang, Jianchao; Wu, Yongjie; Si, Xingfeng; Guo, Mingfang; Hu, Huijian; Jin, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of six variables: area, the mid-domain effect, temperature, precipitation, productivity, and habitat heterogeneity on elevational patterns of species richness for breeding birds along a central Himalaya gradient in the Gyirong Valley, the longest of five canyons in the Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve. We conducted field surveys in each of twelve elevational bands of 300 m between 1,800 and 5,400 m asl four times throughout the entire wet season. A total of 169 breeding bird species were recorded and most of the species (74%) were small-ranged. The species richness patterns of overall, large-ranged and small-ranged birds were all hump-shaped, but with peaks at different elevations. Large-ranged species and small-ranged species contributed equally to the overall richness pattern. Based on the bivariate and multiple regression analyses, area and precipitation were not crucial factors in determining the species richness along this gradient. The mid-domain effect played an important role in shaping the richness pattern of large-ranged species. Temperature was negatively correlated with overall and large-ranged species but positively correlated with small-ranged species. Productivity was a strong explanatory factor among all the bird groups, and habitat heterogeneity played an important role in shaping the elevational richness patterns of overall and small-ranged species. Our results highlight the need to conserve primary forest and intact habitat in this area. Furthermore, we need to increase conservation efforts in this montane biodiversity hotspot in light of increasing anthropogenic activities and land use pressure.

  17. The richness and diversity of Lepidoptera species in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant one in the parc with 32.48%. The diversity index (H' and H'max) and the equitability (E) calculated for the 6 types of habitats is H'= 2,74 bits, H'max = 4,09 bits and E = 0,67 bits, meaning that the Lepidoptera species are at equilibrium with the different types of habitat which ...

  18. Species richness of vertebrates in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Šímová, P.; Šálek, M.; Anděra, M.; Bejček, V.; Hanák, V.; Hanel, L.; Lusk, Stanislav; Mikátová, B.; Moravec, J.; Šťastný, K.; Zima, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 452-464 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mapping squares * species numbers * environmental variables * PCA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/4/452-464_MS1417.pdf

  19. Recent Changes in Tree Species Abundance: Patterns, Trends, and Drivers Across Northeastern US Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudex-Cross, D.; Pontius, J.; Adams, A.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring trends in the abundance and distribution of tree species is essential to understanding potential impacts of climate change on forested ecosystems. Related studies to date have largely focused on modeling distributional shifts according to future climate scenarios or used field inventory data to examine compositional changes across broader landscapes. Here, we leverage a novel remote sensing technique that utilizes field data, multitemporal Landsat imagery, and spectral unmixing to model regional changes in the abundance (percent basal area) of key northeastern US species over a 30-year period (1985-2015). We examine patterns in how species abundance has changed, as well as their relationship with climate, landscape, and soil characteristics using spatial regression models. Results show significant declines in overall abundance for sugar maple ( 8.6% 30-yr loss), eastern hemlock ( 7.8% 30-yr loss), balsam fir ( 5.0% 30-yr loss), and red spruce ( 3.8% total 30-yr loss). Species that saw significant increasing abundance include American beech ( 7.0% 30-yr gain) and red maple ( 2.5% 30-yr gain). However, these changes were not consistent across the landscape. For example, red spruce is increasing at upper elevations with concurrent losses in balsam fir and birch species. Similarly, sugar maple decreases are concentrated at lower elevations, likely due to increases in American beech. Various abiotic factors were significantly associated with changes in species composition including landscape position (e.g. longitude, elevation, and heat load index) and ecologically-relevant climate variables (e.g. growing season precipitation and annual temperature range). Interestingly, there was a stronger relationship in abundance changes across longitudes, rather than latitudes or elevations as predicted in modeled species migration scenarios.These results indicate that the dominant composition of northeastern forests is changing in ways that run counter to accepted

  20. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae) are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii) Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m) all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  1. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Hu

    Full Text Available Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  2. Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Ligia B.; Zelm, Rosalie van; Hendriks, A. Jan; Bobbink, Roland; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the potential losses of vascular plant species richness due to terrestrial acidification for different world's biomes. We used empirical occurrence data of 2409 species from 140 studies and estimated the relative species richness – pH response curves using logistic regressions. The regressions were then used to quantify the fraction of species that are potentially lost due to soil pH changes. Although we found considerable variability within biomes, out results show that the pH at which species richness was maximized was found to be the lowest in (sub)tropical forests (pH = 4.1) and the highest in deserts (pH = 7.4). We also found that (sub)tropical moist forests are highly sensitive to decreases of in soil pH below 4.1. This study can be coupled with existing atmospheric deposition models to quantify the risk of species richness loss following soil acidification. Highlights: ► We compare the sensitivity of four biomes to soil acidification. ► We develop logistic regressions using observational field data. ► Sub(tropical) moist forests are highly affected by pH decreases. ► Logistic regressions can be linked to global scale atmospheric and soil fate models. -- Relationships of potential species richness loss along a soil pH gradient are proposed

  3. Seed density significantly affects species richness and composition in experimental plant communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Münzbergová

    Full Text Available Studies on the importance of seed arrival for community richness and composition have not considered the number of seeds arriving and its effect on species richness and composition of natural communities is thus unknown. A series of experimental dry grassland communities were established. All communities were composed of the same 44 species in exactly the same proportions on two substrates using three different seed densities.The results showed that seed density had an effect on species richness only at the beginning of the experiment. In contrast, the effects on species composition persisted across the entire study period. The results do not support the prediction that due to higher competition for light in nutrient-rich soil, species richness will be the highest in the treatment with the lowest seed density. However, the prevalence of small plants in the lowest seed density supported the expectation that low seed density guarantees low competition under high soil nutrients. In the nutrient-poor soil, species richness was the highest at the medium seed density, indicating that species richness reflects the balance between competition and limitations caused by the availability of propagules or their ability to establish themselves. This medium seed density treatment also contained the smallest plants.The results demonstrate that future seed addition experiments need to consider the amount of seed added so that it reflects the amount of seed that is naturally found in the field. Differences in seed density, mimicking different intensity of the seed rain may also explain differences in the composition of natural communities that cannot be attributed to habitat conditions. The results also have important implications for studies regarding the consequences of habitat fragmentation suggesting that increasing fragmentation may change species compositions not only due to different dispersal abilities but also due to differential response of plants to

  4. Distribution and Abundance of MAAs in 33 Species of Microalgae across 13 Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Anne Llewellyn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide a direct comparison of the distribution and abundance of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs in a diverse range of microalgal cultures (33 species across 13 classes grown without supplementary ultraviolet radiation (UV. We compare the MAAs in cultures with those present in characterised natural phytoplankton populations from the English Channel. We detected 25 UV absorbing compounds including at least two with multiple absorption maxima. We used LC-MS to provide chemical characterisation of the six most commonly occurring MAAs, namely, palythene, palythine, mycosporine-glycine, palythenic acid, porphyra-334 and shinorine. MAAs were abundant (up to 7 pg MAA cell−1in 10 species, with more minor and often unknown MAAs in a further 11 cultures. Shinorine was the most frequently occurring and abundant MAA (up to 6.5 pg cell−1 and was present in all but two of the MAA-containing species. The study provides further insight into the diversity and abundance of MAAs important from an ecological perspective and as potential source of natural alternatives to synthetic sunscreens.

  5. Distribution and abundance of MAAs in 33 species of microalgae across 13 classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Carole Anne; Airs, Ruth Louise

    2010-04-16

    We provide a direct comparison of the distribution and abundance of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in a diverse range of microalgal cultures (33 species across 13 classes) grown without supplementary ultraviolet radiation (UV). We compare the MAAs in cultures with those present in characterised natural phytoplankton populations from the English Channel. We detected 25 UV absorbing compounds including at least two with multiple absorption maxima. We used LC-MS to provide chemical characterisation of the six most commonly occurring MAAs, namely, palythene, palythine, mycosporine-glycine, palythenic acid, porphyra-334 and shinorine. MAAs were abundant (up to 7 pg MAA cell(-1)) in 10 species, with more minor and often unknown MAAs in a further 11 cultures. Shinorine was the most frequently occurring and abundant MAA (up to 6.5 pg cell(-1)) and was present in all but two of the MAA-containing species. The study provides further insight into the diversity and abundance of MAAs important from an ecological perspective and as potential source of natural alternatives to synthetic sunscreens.

  6. Annona species (Annonaceae): a rich source of potential antitumor agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Xiao, Jianbo; Loizzo, Monica R

    2017-06-01

    Plants have provided the basis of traditional medicine systems throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to yield molecules for new remedies. We analyzed studies published from 2009 to 2016 on the Annona species (Annonaceae), including A. coriacea, A. crassifolia, A. hypoglauca, A. muricata, A. squamosa, A. sylvatica, and A. vepretorum, as sources of potential antitumor agents. Here, we report and discuss the mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships of the most active Annona constituents. Annonaceous acetogenins are one of the most promising classes of natural products, owing to their potential antitumor activity. However, their neurotoxicity should not be underestimated. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  8. Species abundance distributions in neutral models with immigration or mutation and general lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Amaury

    2011-07-01

    We consider a general, neutral, dynamical model of biodiversity. Individuals have i.i.d. lifetime durations, which are not necessarily exponentially distributed, and each individual gives birth independently at constant rate λ. Thus, the population size is a homogeneous, binary Crump-Mode-Jagers process (which is not necessarily a Markov process). We assume that types are clonally inherited. We consider two classes of speciation models in this setting. In the immigration model, new individuals of an entirely new species singly enter the population at constant rate μ (e.g., from the mainland into the island). In the mutation model, each individual independently experiences point mutations in its germ line, at constant rate θ. We are interested in the species abundance distribution, i.e., in the numbers, denoted I(n)(k) in the immigration model and A(n)(k) in the mutation model, of species represented by k individuals, k = 1, 2, . . . , n, when there are n individuals in the total population. In the immigration model, we prove that the numbers (I(t)(k); k ≥ 1) of species represented by k individuals at time t, are independent Poisson variables with parameters as in Fisher's log-series. When conditioning on the total size of the population to equal n, this results in species abundance distributions given by Ewens' sampling formula. In particular, I(n)(k) converges as n → ∞ to a Poisson r.v. with mean γ/k, where γ : = μ/λ. In the mutation model, as n → ∞, we obtain the almost sure convergence of n (-1) A(n)(k) to a nonrandom explicit constant. In the case of a critical, linear birth-death process, this constant is given by Fisher's log-series, namely n(-1) A(n)(k) converges to α(k)/k, where α : = λ/(λ + θ). In both models, the abundances of the most abundant species are briefly discussed.

  9. Global hotspots and correlates of alien species richness across taxonomic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Wayne; Moser, Dietmar; van Kleunen, Mark; Kreft, Holger; Pergl, Jan; Pysek, Petr; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Lenzner, Bernd; Blackburn, Tim M.; Dyer, Ellie; Cassey, Phillip; Scrivens, Sally-Louise; Economo, Evan P.; Guenard, Benoit; Capinha, Cesar; Seebens, Hanno; Garcia-Diaz, Pablo; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Garcia-Berthou, Emili; Casal, Christine; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Fuller, Pam; Meyer, Carsten; Essl, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Human-mediated transport beyond biogeographic barriers has led to the introduction and establishment of alien species in new regions worldwide. However, we lack a global picture of established alien species richness for multiple taxonomic groups. Here, we assess global patterns and potential drivers of established alien species richness across eight taxonomic groups (amphibians, ants, birds, freshwater fishes, mammals, vascular plants, reptiles and spiders) for 186 islands and 423 mainland regions. Hotspots of established alien species richness are predominantly island and coastal mainland regions. Regions with greater gross domestic product per capita, human population density, and area have higher established alien richness, with strongest effects emerging for islands. Ants and reptiles, birds and mammals, and vascular plants and spiders form pairs of taxonomic groups with the highest spatial congruence in established alien richness, but drivers explaining richness differ between the taxa in each pair. Across all taxonomic groups, our results highlight the need to prioritize prevention of further alien species introductions to island and coastal mainland regions globally.

  10. Description of three new species of Labena Cresson from Mexico (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Labeninae), with notes on tropical species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, Alejandra; Bordera, Santiago; Sääksjärvi, Ilari Eerikki

    2015-04-22

    Three new species of Labena Cresson (Ichneumonidae, Labeninae); L. littoralis sp. nov., L. tekalina sp. nov. and L. madoricola sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Material was collected with Malaise traps in 2008 and 2009 in the Biosphere Reserve Ria Lagartos (Mexico). Diagnostic characters to distinguish them from all other New World species of the genus are provided. In addition, the tropical species richness of the genus is shortly discussed.

  11. Effects of land-use intensity on arthropod species abundance distributions in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Nadja K; Gossner, Martin M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Lange, Markus; Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    As a rule, communities consist of few abundant and many rare species, which is reflected in the characteristic shape of species abundance distributions (SADs). The processes that shape these SADs have been a longstanding problem for ecological research. Although many studies found strong negative effects of increasing land-use intensity on diversity, few reports consider land-use effects on SADs. Arthropods (insects and spiders) were sampled on 142 grassland plots in three regions in Germany, which were managed with different modes (mowing, fertilization and/or grazing) and intensities of land use. We analysed the effect of land use on three parameters characterizing the shape of SADs: abundance decay rate (the steepness of the rank abundance curve, represented by the niche-preemption model parameter), dominance (Berger-Parker dominance) and rarity (Fisher's alpha). Furthermore, we tested the core-satellite hypothesis by comparing the species' rank within the SAD to their distribution over the land-use gradient. When data on Araneae, Cicadina, Coleoptera, Heteroptera and Orthoptera were combined, abundance decay rate increased with combined land-use intensity (including all modes). Among the single land-use modes, increasing fertilization and grazing intensity increased the decay rate of all taxa, while increasing mowing frequency significantly affected the decay rate only in interaction with fertilization. Results of single taxa differed in their details, but all significant interaction effects included fertilization intensity. Dominance generally increased with increasing fertilization and rarity decreased with increasing grazing or mowing intensity, despite small differences among taxa and regions. The majority of species found on rare (land-use modes and for the combined land-use intensity. We conclude that effects of land-use intensity on SADs lead to a stronger dominance of the most abundant species. Furthermore, species which have restricted distributions

  12. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae among Three Neotropical Ecoregions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Mario Beccacece

    Full Text Available Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano. Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor.

  13. Disentangling the Role of Climate, Topography and Vegetation in Species Richness Gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R Moura

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients (EG related to climate, topography and vegetation are among the most important drivers of broad scale patterns of species richness. However, these different EG do not necessarily drive species richness in similar ways, potentially presenting synergistic associations when driving species richness. Understanding the synergism among EG allows us to address key questions arising from the effects of global climate and land use changes on biodiversity. Herein, we use variation partitioning (also know as commonality analysis to disentangle unique and shared contributions of different EG in explaining species richness of Neotropical vertebrates. We use three broad sets of predictors to represent the environmental variability in (i climate (annual mean temperature, temperature annual range, annual precipitation and precipitation range, (ii topography (mean elevation, range and coefficient of variation of elevation, and (iii vegetation (land cover diversity, standard deviation and range of forest canopy height. The shared contribution between two types of EG is used to quantify synergistic processes operating among EG, offering new perspectives on the causal relationships driving species richness. To account for spatially structured processes, we use Spatial EigenVector Mapping models. We perform analyses across groups with distinct dispersal abilities (amphibians, non-volant mammals, bats and birds and discuss the influence of vagility on the partitioning results. Our findings indicate that broad scale patterns of vertebrate richness are mainly affected by the synergism between climate and vegetation, followed by the unique contribution of climate. Climatic factors were relatively more important in explaining species richness of good dispersers. Most of the variation in vegetation that explains vertebrate richness is climatically structured, supporting the productivity hypothesis. Further, the weak synergism between topography and

  14. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Arnaud, E-mail: arnocat@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Selma, Maloufi, E-mail: maloufi@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Mouillot, David, E-mail: david.mouillot@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Troussellier, Marc, E-mail: troussel@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bernard, Cécile, E-mail: cbernard@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R{sup 2} = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  15. Scale effects and human impact on the elevational species richness gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogués-Bravo, D; Araújo, M B; Romdal, T; Rahbek, C

    2008-05-08

    Despite two centuries of effort in characterizing environmental gradients of species richness in search of universal patterns, surprisingly few of these patterns have been widely acknowledged. Species richness along altitudinal gradients was previously assumed to increase universally from cool highlands to warm lowlands, mirroring the latitudinal increase in species richness from cool to warm latitudes. However, since the more recent general acceptance of altitudinal gradients as model templates for testing hypotheses behind large-scale patterns of diversity, these gradients have been used in support of all the main diversity hypotheses, although little consensus has been achieved. Here we show that when resampling a data set comprising 400,000 records for 3,046 Pyrenean floristic species at different scales of analysis (achieved by varying grain size and the extent of the gradients sampled), the derived species richness pattern changed progressively from hump-shaped to a monotonic pattern as the scale of extent diminished. Scale effects alone gave rise to as many conflicting patterns of species richness as had previously been reported in the literature, and scale effects lent significantly different statistical support to competing diversity hypotheses. Effects of scale on current studies may be affected by human activities, because montane ecosystems and human activities are intimately connected. This interdependence has led to a global reduction in natural lowland habitats, hampering our ability to detect universal patterns and impeding the search for universal diversity gradients to discover the mechanisms determining the distribution of biological diversity on Earth.

  16. Regional warming chnages fish species richness in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Hiddink, J.G.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Regional warming causes changes in local communities due to species extinctions and latitudinal range shifts. We show that the species richness of fish in 3 regional seas in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean has changed over time (1997 to 2008), and we relate this to higher water temperatures and the

  17. The role of spatial scale and the perception of large-scale species-richness patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Despite two centuries of exploration, our understanding of factors determining the distribution of life on Earth is in many ways still in its infancy. Much of the disagreement about governing processes of variation in species richness may be the result of differences in our perception of species...

  18. Seed Density Significantly Affects Species Richness and Composition in Experimental Plant Communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2012), e46704 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species richness * seed rain * species composition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  19. Terrain and vegetation structural influences on local avian species richness in two mixed-conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody C. Vogeler; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Jeffrey Evans; Patricia Green; Kerri T. Vierling

    2014-01-01

    Using remotely-sensed metrics to identify regions containing high animal diversity and/or specific animal species or guilds can help prioritize forest management and conservation objectives across actively managed landscapes. We predicted avian species richness in two mixed conifer forests, Moscow Mountain and Slate Creek, containing different management contexts and...

  20. External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ni Win

    2005-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

  1. Global and Regional Patterns in Riverine Fish Species Richness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Oberdorff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrate the respective role of global and regional factors driving riverine fish species richness patterns, to develop a synthetic model of potential mechanisms and processes generating these patterns. This framework allows species richness to be broken down into different components specific to each spatial extent and to establish links between these components and the processes involved. This framework should help to answer the questions that are currently being asked by society, including the effects of species invasions, habitat loss, or fragmentation and climate change on freshwater biodiversity.

  2. Patterns and causes of species richness: a general simulation model for macroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Anderson, Marti J; Arita, Hector T

    2009-01-01

    in macroecology do not make quantitative predictions, and they do not incorporate interactions among multiple forces. As an alternative, we propose a mechanistic modelling approach. We describe computer simulation models of the stochastic origin, spread, and extinction of species' geographical ranges......) between observed data and model predictions, as well as the estimation, optimization and interpretation of the model parameters. The simulation approach offers new insights into the origin and maintenance of species richness patterns, and may provide a common framework for investigating the effects......Understanding the causes of spatial variation in species richness is a major research focus of biogeography and macroecology. Gridded environmental data and species richness maps have been used in increasingly sophisticated curve-fitting analyses, but these methods have not brought us much closer...

  3. Species Richness (of Insects Drives the Use of Acoustic Space in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic ecology, or ecoacoustics, is a growing field that uses sound as a tool to evaluate animal communities. In this manuscript, we evaluate recordings from eight tropical forest sites that vary in species richness, from a relatively low diversity Caribbean forest to a megadiverse Amazonian forest, with the goal of understanding the relationship between acoustic space use (ASU and species diversity across different taxonomic groups. For each site, we determined the acoustic morphospecies richness and composition of the biophony, and we used a global biodiversity dataset to estimate the regional richness of birds. Here, we demonstrate how detailed information on activity patterns of the acoustic community (<22 kHz can easily be visualized and ASU determined by aggregating recordings collected over relatively short periods (4–13 days. We show a strong positive relationship between ASU and regional and acoustic morphospecies richness. Premontane forest sites had the highest ASU and the highest species richness, while dry forest and montane sites had lower ASU and lower species richness. Furthermore, we show that insect richness was the best predictor of variation in total ASU, and that insect richness was proportionally greater at high-diversity sites. In addition, insects used a broad range of frequencies, including high frequencies (>8000 Hz, which contributed to greater ASU. This novel approach for analyzing the presence and acoustic activity of multiple taxonomic groups contributes to our understanding of ecological community dynamics and provides a useful tool for monitoring species in the context of restoration ecology, climate change and conservation biology.

  4. Patterns of reptile and amphibian species richness along elevational gradients in Mt. Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick Kinyatta

    2015-11-18

    Faunal species richness is traditionally assumed to decrease with increasing elevation and decreasing primary productivity. Species richness is reported to peak at mid-elevation. This survey examines the herpetofaunal diversity and distribution in Mt. Kenya (central Kenya) by testing the hypothesis that changes in species richness with elevation relate to elevation-dependent changes in climate. Sampling along transects from an elevation of approximately 1 700 m in Chogoria forest block (wind-ward side) and approximately 2 600 m in Sirimon block (rain shadow zone) upwards in March 2009. This starts from the forest to montane alpine zones. Sampling of reptiles and amphibians uses pitfall traps associated with drift fences, time-limited searches and visual encounter surveys. The results show that herpetofaunal richness differs among three vegetation zones along the elevation gradient. Chogoria has higher biodiversity than Sirimon. More species occur at low and middle elevations and few exist at high elevations. The trends are consistent with expected optimum water and energy variables. The lower alpine montane zone has high species richness but low diversity due to dominance of some high elevations species. Unambiguous data do not support a mid-domain effect (mid-elevation peak) because the observed trend better fits a model in which climatic variables (rainfall and temperature) control species richness, which indirectly measures productivity. It is important to continue protection of all indigenous forests, especially at low to mid elevations. These areas are vulnerable to human destruction yet are home to some endemic species. Firebreaks can limit the spread of the perennial wildfires, especially on the moorlands.

  5. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  6. Community analysis of the abundance and diversity of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae in three European countries at different latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim W. R. Möhlmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mosquito species diversity in Europe often focus on a specific habitat, region or country. Moreover, different trap types are used for these sampling studies, making it difficult to compare and validate results across Europe. To facilitate comparisons of trapping sites and community analysis, the present study used two trap types for monitoring mosquito species diversity in three habitat types for three different countries in Europe. Methods Mosquitoes were trapped using Biogents Sentinel (BGS, and Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (MMLP traps at a total of 27 locations in Sweden, the Netherlands and Italy, comprising farm, peri-urban and wetland habitats. From July 2014 to June 2015 all locations were sampled monthly, except for the winter months. Indices of species richness, evenness and diversity were calculated, and community analyses were carried out with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS techniques. Results A total of 11,745 female mosquitoes were trapped during 887 collections. More than 90% of the mosquitoes belonged to the genera Culex and Aedes, with Culex pipiens being the most abundant species. The highest mosquito diversity was found in Sweden. Within Sweden, species diversity was highest in wetland habitats, whereas in the Netherlands and Italy this was highest at farms. The NMDS analyses showed clear differences in mosquito communities among countries, but not among habitat types. The MMLP trapped a higher diversity of mosquito species than the BGS traps. Also, MMLP traps trapped higher numbers of mosquitoes, except for the genera Culex and Culiseta in Italy. Conclusions A core mosquito community could be identified for the three countries, with Culex pipiens as the most abundant species. Differences in mosquito species communities were more defined by the three countries included in the study than by the three habitat types. Differences in mosquito community composition across countries may have

  7. Testing the Effectiveness of Environmental Variables to Explain European Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Richness across Biogeographical Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Mouchet

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of environmental variables, and in particular of land-use indicators, to explain species richness patterns across taxonomic groups and biogeographical scales (i.e. overall pan-Europe and ecoregions within pan-Europe. Using boosted regression trees that handle non-linear relationships, we compared the relative influence (as a measure of effectiveness of environmental variables related to climate, landscape (or habitat heterogeneity, land-use intensity or energy availability to explain European vertebrate species richness (birds, amphibians, and mammals at the continental and ecoregion scales. We found that dominant land cover and actual evapotranspiration that relate to energy availability were the main correlates of vertebrate species richness over Europe. At the ecoregion scale, we identified four distinct groups of ecoregions where species richness was essentially associated to (i seasonality of temperature, (ii actual evapotranspiration and/or mean annual temperature, (iii seasonality of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and land cover and (iv and an even combination of the environmental variables. This typology of ecoregions remained valid for total vertebrate richness and the three vertebrate groups taken separately. Despite the overwhelming influence of land cover and actual evapotranspiration to explain vertebrate species richness patterns at European scale, the ranking of the main correlates of species richness varied between regions. Interestingly, landscape and land-use indicators did not stand out at the continental scale but their influence greatly increased in southern ecoregions, revealing the long-lasting human footprint on land-use-land-cover changes. Our study provides one of the first multi-scale descriptions of the variability in the ranking of correlates across several taxa.

  8. Plant biodiversity effects in reducing fluvial erosion are limited to low species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel C; Cardinale, Bradley J; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that plant biodiversity may increase the erosion resistance of soils, yet direct evidence for any such relationship is lacking. We conducted a mesocosm experiment with eight species of riparian herbaceous plants, and found evidence that plant biodiversity significantly reduced fluvial erosion rates, with the eight-species polyculture decreasing erosion by 23% relative to monocultures. Species richness effects were largest at low levels of species richness, with little increase between four and eight species. Our results suggest that plant biodiversity reduced erosion rates indirectly through positive effects on root length and number of root tips, and that interactions between legumes and non-legumes were particularly important in producing biodiversity effects. Presumably, legumes increased root production of non-legumes by increasing soil nitrogen availability due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Our data suggest that a restoration project using species from different functional groups might provide the best insurance to maintain long-term erosion resistance.

  9. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness.

  10. Spatio-temporal dynamics of species richness in coastal fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekve, K.; Boulinier, T.; Stenseth, N.C.; Gjøsaeter, J.; Fromentin, J-M.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Determining patterns of change in species richness and the processes underlying the dynamics of biodiversity are of key interest within the field of ecology, but few studies have investigated the dynamics of vertebrate communities at a decadal temporal scale. Here, we report findings on the spado-temporal variability in the richness and composition of fish communities along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast having been surveyed for more than half a century. Using statistical models incorporating non-detection and associated sampling variance, we estimate local species richness and changes in species composition allowing us to compute temporal variability in species richness. We tested whether temporal variation could be related to distance to the open sea and to local levels of pollution. Clear differences in mean species richness and temporal variability are observed between fjords that were and were not exposed to the effects of pollution. Altogether this indicates that the fjord is an appropriate scale for studying changes in coastal fish communities in space and time. The year-to-year rates of local extinction and turnover were found to be smaller than spatial differences in community composition. At the regional level, exposure to the open sea plays a homogenizing role, possibly due to coastal currents and advection.

  11. Drivers of Bird Species Richness within Moist High-Altitude Grasslands in Eastern South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphisa, David H; Smit-Robinson, Hanneline; Underhill, Les G; Altwegg, Res

    2016-01-01

    Moist high-altitude grasslands in South Africa are renowned for high avifaunal diversity and are priority areas for conservation. Conservation management of these areas conflicts with management for other uses, such as intensive livestock agriculture, which requires annual burning and leads to heavy grazing. Recently the area has become target for water storage schemes and renewable electricity energy projects. There is therefore an urgent need to investigate environmental factors and habitat factors that affect bird species richness in order to optimise management of those areas set aside for conservation. A particularly good opportunity to study these issues arose at Ingula in the eastern South African high-altitude grasslands. An area that had been subject to intense grazing was bought by the national power utility that constructed a pumped storage scheme on part of the land and set aside the rest for bird conservation. Since the new management took over in 2005 the area has been mostly annually burned with relatively little grazing. The new management seeks scientific advice on how to maintain avian species richness of the study area. We collected bird occurrence and vegetation data along random transects between 2006 and 2010 to monitor the impact of the new management, and to study the effect of the habitat changes on bird species richness. To achieve these, we convert bird transect data to presence only data to investigate how bird species richness were related to key transect vegetation attributes under this new grassland management. First we used generalised linear mixed models, to examine changes in vegetation grass height and cover and between burned and unburned habitats. Secondly, we examined how total bird species richness varied across seasons and years. And finally we investigated which habitat vegetation attributes were correlated with species richness of a group of grassland depended bird species only. Transects that were burned showed a larger

  12. Rarity, Species Richness, and the Threat of Extinction—Are Plants the Same as Animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa). IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely followi...

  13. Richness of Ancient Forest Plant Species Indicates Suitable Habitats for Macrofungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, J.; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Dvořák, D.; Beran, M.; Deckerová, H.; Burel, J.; Kříž, M.; Borovička, Jan; Běťák, J.; Vašutová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2014), s. 2015-2031 ISSN 0960-3115 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/146/08 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : diversity * forest continuity * forest management * Herb-layer plant species * red-listed species * species richness * surrogacy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (GLU-S); EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 2.365, year: 2014

  14. How a river course influences the species richness and ecological requirements on two opposite riverbanks in a forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present research was to find correlations between the topographic attributes of a river valley and local ground-floor vegetation and its habitat requirements expressed by ecological indicator values (EIV, using the geographical information systems (GIS, digital elevation model (DEM, and multivariate statistical analysis. We paid special attention to the river course, which determines the differentiation in slope aspects and the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface. The model object was an almost latitudinal, ca. 4-km-long break section of the Sopot river, crossing the escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze Highlands, southeastern Poland. The main material comprised species lists (with estimated abundance for each ca. 200-m-long section, according to the river valley course, separately for the left and right riverbanks, 40 sections altogether, ca. 15 000 vegetation records, and physical and chemical soil measurements. A 3-meter resolution DEM was derived from a 1:10 000 topographic map. We calculated the correlations between the topographic attributes of the valley, species richness, and the EIVs for all the species recognized in each section of the valley. We found 241 herb plant species in the ground-floor vegetation of the study area. We did not find significant differences between the two riversides (61 ±13 species per one section for the left and 63 ±17 for the right side. Thus, the parallel course of the river valley does not change the species richness on a more “sunny” and more “shiny” riverbank. However, this factor “cooperating” with other topographic attributes of the valley significantly differentiates the shape of species showing various requirements for basic habitat resources: light, moisture, soil trophy, reaction, dispersion, and organic-matter content.

  15. Microbial abundance in rhizosphere of medicinal and aromatic plant species in conventional and organic growing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of four different medicinal and aromatic plant species (basil, mint, dill and marigold grown under both conventional and organic management on the chernozem soil at the experimental field of Bački Petrovac (Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Two sampling terms (June 1 and July 18, 2012 were performed to collect samples for microbiological analyses. The microbial abundance was higher in organic than in conventional system while at the same time significant differences were obtained only with dill rhizosphere. The differences in number of microorganisms belonging to different groups relied upon both plant species and sampling term. Thus, in mint, the recorded number of azotobacters and fungi was significantly higher whereas the number of ammonifiers was significantly lower. The present results indicate that organic growing system affected the abundance of microorganisms in rhizosphere of species investigated, especially in the second term of sampling.

  16. Relationships between water transparency and abundance of Cynodontidae species in the Bananal floodplain, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Enrique de Melo

    Full Text Available The Cerrado in the Central Brazil is currently one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. As a result, the aquatic habitats in this biome also undergo great impacts. Alterations related to land-use change increase sediment loadings in rivers, streams and lakes, resulting in sedimentation and decrease in water transparency. Water transparency determines underwater visibility conditions, and as a consequence fish assemblages respond to spatial and temporal changes in this variable. This work aimed to examine the influence of transparency on the abundance and distribution of Cynodontidae species, a visually oriented predatory fish group. Fish sampling was conducted in 15 sites located between Mortes and Araguaia rivers in the Bananal floodplain, Mato Grosso State. Regression analysis between relative abundance of Cynodontidae (in number of individuals and biomass and water transparency showed a positive and highly significant correlation, indicating that this group shows species-specific habitat affinities for clearer waters. These results suggest that the increase in water turbidity in this region can affect the patterns of abundance and distribution of the Cynodontidae species, as well as other visually oriented fishes.

  17. Molluskan species richness and endemism on New Caledonian seamounts: Are they enhanced compared to adjacent slopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelin, Magalie; Puillandre, Nicolas; Lozouet, Pierre; Sysoev, Alexander; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Samadi, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Seamounts were often considered as 'hotspots of diversity' and 'centers of endemism', but recently this opinion has been challenged. After 25 years of exploration and the work of numerous taxonomists, the Norfolk Ridge (Southwest Pacific) is probably one of the best-studied seamount chains worldwide. However, even in this intensively explored area, the richness and the geographic patterns of diversity are still poorly characterized. Among the benthic organisms, the post-mortem remains of mollusks can supplement live records to comprehensively document geographical distributions. Moreover, the accretionary growth of mollusk shells informs us about the life span of the pelagic larva. To compare diversity and level of endemism between the Norfolk Ridge seamounts and the continental slopes of New Caledonia we used species occurrence data drawn from (i) the taxonomic literature on mollusks and (ii) a raw dataset of mainly undescribed deep-sea species of the hyperdiverse Turridae. Patterns of endemism and species richness were analyzed through quantitative indices of endemism and species richness estimator metrics. To date, 403 gastropods and bivalves species have been recorded on the Norfolk Ridge seamounts. Of these, at least 38 species (˜10%) are potentially endemic to the seamounts and nearly all of 38 species have protoconchs indicating lecithotrophic larval development. Overall, our results suggest that estimates of species richness and endemism, when sampling effort is taken into account, were not significantly different between slopes and seamounts. By including in our analyses 347 undescribed morphospecies from the Norfolk Ridge, our results also demonstrate the influence of taxonomic bias on our estimates of species richness and endemism.

  18. Species richness and variety of life in Arizona’s ponderosa pine forest type

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Patton; Richard W. Hofstetter; John D. Bailey; Mary Ann Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Species richness (SR) is a tool that managers can use to include diversity in planning and decision-making and is a convenient and useful way to characterize the first level of biological diversity. A richness list derived from existing inventories enhances a manager’s understanding of the complexity of the plant and animal communities they manage. Without a list of...

  19. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant; Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J; Butler, Matthew J; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km(2) cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions

  20. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  1. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  2. The bivalves from the Scotia Arc islands: species richness and faunistic affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego G. Zelaya

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Species richness of the shallow-water bivalves from the Scotia Arc islands was studied on the basis of new collections and by reviewing extant information. Seventy-three species are recognised from the entire area. South Georgia, the South Orkney Islands and the South Shetland Islands were similar in species richness to the Antarctic Weddell sector. New records for 51 bivalve species are provided and the presence of 18 undescribed species is reported. The faunistic similarity of the islands of the Scotia Arc to the Magellan region and the Antarctic Weddell sector is re-examined. These islands show a high similarity to the Antarctic Weddell sector (49 to 85% and a low similarity to the Magellan region (12 to 32%. Evidence from bivalves clearly supports the placement of the Scotia Arc islands within the Antarctic region.

  3. Species richness of limestone grasslands increases with trait overlap: evidence from within- and between-species functional diversity partitioning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y.; de Bello, Francesco; Vandewalle, M.; Lepš, J.; Sykes, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2014), s. 466-474 ISSN 0022-0477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : functional diversity * species richness * trait overlap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2014

  4. Richness and abundance of the cardini group of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÁUDIA ROHDE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a high diversity of flies of the genus Drosophila, and part of this richness is represented by the cardini group. We analyzed the fluctuations in the richness and abundance of this group, in environments that had never previously been studied in the northeastern region of Brazil. Among the 28,204 drosophilids sampled, 1,294 belonged to the cardini group and were represented by D. polymorpha, D. cardini, D. neocardini and D. cardinoides. Occurrences of D. neocardini and D. cardinoides were registered for the first time in the Caatinga. In this biome, D. cardini stood out as having the highest abundance, and D. polymorpha was not observed. In the coastal Atlantic Forest, D. cardini was not registered, but D. polymorpha was found in all the localities investigated. Mangrove swamps were the environment with the lowest abundance and richness of the cardini group. The High-altitude Forest presented the highest richness of this group. We suggest that the high abundance of D. polymorpha in the High-altitude Forest and in the coastal Atlantic Forest may be a reflection of the historical relationship between these two environments.

  5. Environmental and spatial controls of palm (Arecaceae) species richness across the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorholm, Stine; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Skov, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    Our analysis suggests that in the Americas, palm species richness at spatial scales from 1° to 10° is most strongly controlled by water availability, although unknown broad-scale factors, perhaps soil, historical processes or geometric constraints, are also important.......Our analysis suggests that in the Americas, palm species richness at spatial scales from 1° to 10° is most strongly controlled by water availability, although unknown broad-scale factors, perhaps soil, historical processes or geometric constraints, are also important....

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of an at-rich satellite DNA and its contribution to karyotype differentiation in wild diploid Arachis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Robledo, Germán; Bertioli, David; Seijo, José Guillermo

    2017-04-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a major component of the heterochromatic regions of eukaryote genomes and usually shows a high evolutionary dynamic, even among closely related species. Section Arachis (genus Arachis) is composed of species belonging to six different genomes (A, B, D, F, G and K). The most distinguishing features among these genomes are the amount and distribution of the heterochromatin in the karyotypes. With the objective of gaining insight into the sequence composition and evolutionary dynamics of the heterochromatin fraction in Arachis, we investigated here the sequence diversity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of a satDNA family (ATR-2) among seven diploid species of section Arachis. All of the isolated sequences were AT-rich and highly conserved at both intraspecific and interspecific levels, without any species-specific polymorphism. Pairwise comparisons of isolated ATR-2 monomers revealed that most of the nucleotide sites were in the first two transitional stages of Strachan's model. However, the abundance of ATR-2 was significantly different among genomes according to the 'library hypothesis'. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that ATR-2 is a main component of the DAPI + centromeric heterochromatin of the A, F, and K genomes. Thus, the evolution of the different heterochromatin patterns observed in Arachis genomes can be explained, at least in part, by the differential representation of ATR-2 among the different species or even among the chromosomes of the same complement. These findings are the first to demonstrate the participation of satDNA sequences in the karyotype diversification of wild diploid Arachis species.

  7. Parametric scaling from species relative abundances to absolute abundances in the computation of biological diversity: a first proposal using Shannon's entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricotta, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional diversity measures such as the Shannon entropy are generally computed from the species' relative abundance vector of a given community to the exclusion of species' absolute abundances. In this paper, I first mention some examples where the total information content associated with a given community may be more adequate than Shannon's average information content for a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next, I propose a parametric measure of statistical information that contains both Shannon's entropy and total information content as special cases of this more general function.

  8. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-03

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity.

  9. Do agonistic interactions underlie the segregation and relative abundances between two Loxosceles species (Araneae: Sicariidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marta L; Diniz, Suzana; Vasconcellos-Neto, João

    2014-05-01

    The medically important spiders Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) are segregated in Curitiba, southern Brazil, where L. intermedia is more abundant and widespread than L. laeta. Because they share similar microhabitat preferences and wander in search of web sites, agonistic encounters are likely to occur. The purposes of this study were to describe agonistic interactions and interpret their consequences for the relative abundances and spatial segregation of L. intermedia and L. laeta. Experimental contests were performed between residents and intruders. Asymmetries between contestants included sex, age, species, weight, and residence status. Nine behavioral categories were defined. Through discriminant analyses, it was possible to differentiate spider sex, species, and residence based on their agonistic behaviors. Intruders, juveniles, and L. intermedia individuals were better characterized by exploratory behaviors, whereas L. laeta females were differentiated by aggressiveness. By performing a multiple logistic regression, with winning or defeat as a dependent variable of sex, age, species, size, weight, and residence, it was possible to say that residents and L. intermedia individuals had the highest winning odds in contests, whereas juveniles had lower winning odds than adults. Advantages of the prior residence may help to explain the predominance of L. laeta in old colonization sites, whereas the higher winning odds of L. intermedia and less aggressive behavior toward conspecifics may lead to a successful establishment of dense populations in new sites. A better understanding of agonistic interactions as a mechanism of spacing, segregation, and species replacement among spiders may be helpful for control purposes.

  10. Species richness and weed abundance in the vegetation of arable field boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.

    1997-01-01


    In the modem arable landscape, the vegetation of perennial field boundaries have important ecological functions such as providing a habitat for farmland wildlife, providing overwintering sites for predatory insects, providing movement corridors, reducing soil erosion and acting as an

  11. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Heim

    Full Text Available Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany. Using spatial analysis (GIS, we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water. In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers. Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the

  12. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  13. Variation in Population Synchrony in a Multi-Species Seabird Community: Response to Changes in Predator Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail S Robertson

    Full Text Available Ecologically similar sympatric species, subject to typical environmental conditions, may be expected to exhibit synchronous temporal fluctuations in demographic parameters, while populations of dissimilar species might be expected to show less synchrony. Previous studies have tested for synchrony in different populations of single species, and those including data from more than one species have compared fluctuations in only one demographic parameter. We tested for synchrony in inter-annual changes in breeding population abundance and productivity among four tern species on Coquet Island, northeast England. We also examined how manipulation of one independent environmental variable (predator abundance influenced temporal changes in ecologically similar and dissimilar tern species. Changes in breeding abundance and productivity of ecologically similar species (Arctic Sterna paradisaea, Common S. hirundo and Roseate Terns S. dougallii were synchronous with one another over time, but not with a species with different foraging and breeding behaviour (Sandwich Terns Thalasseus sandvicensis. With respect to changes in predator abundance, there was no clear pattern. Roseate Tern abundance was negatively correlated with that of large gulls breeding on the island from 1975 to 2013, while Common Tern abundance was positively correlated with number of large gulls, and no significant correlations were found between large gull and Arctic and Sandwich Tern populations. Large gull abundance was negatively correlated with productivity of Arctic and Common Terns two years later, possibly due to predation risk after fledging, while no correlation with Roseate Tern productivity was found. The varying effect of predator abundance is most likely due to specific differences in the behaviour and ecology of even these closely-related species. Examining synchrony in multi-species assemblages improves our understanding of how whole communities react to long-term changes

  14. Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Yoan; Bergès, Laurent; Hjältén, Joakim; Odor, Péter; Avon, Catherine; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan; De Bruyn, Luc; Fuhr, Marc; Grandin, Ulf; Kanka, Robert; Lundin, Lars; Luque, Sandra; Magura, Tibor; Matesanz, Silvia; Mészáros, Ilona; Sebastià, M-Teresa; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Standovár, Tibor; Tóthmérész, Béla; Uotila, Anneli; Valladares, Fernando; Vellak, Kai; Virtanen, Risto

    2010-02-01

    Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use), however, have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 published papers containing 120 individual comparisons of species richness between unmanaged and managed forests throughout Europe. We explored the response of different taxonomic groups and the variability of their response with respect to time since abandonment and intensity of forest management. Species richness was slightly higher in unmanaged than in managed forests. Species dependent on forest cover continuity, deadwood, and large trees (bryophytes, lichens, fungi, saproxylic beetles) and carabids were negatively affected by forest management. In contrast, vascular plant species were favored. The response for birds was heterogeneous and probably depended more on factors such as landscape patterns. The global difference in species richness between unmanaged and managed forests increased with time since abandonment and indicated a gradual recovery of biodiversity. Clearcut forests in which the composition of tree species changed had the strongest effect on species richness, but the effects of different types of management on taxa could not be assessed in a robust way because of low numbers of replications in the management-intensity classes. Our results show that some taxa are more affected by forestry than others, but there is a need for research into poorly studied species groups in Europe and in particular locations. Our meta-analysis supports the need for a coordinated European research network to study and monitor the biodiversity of different taxa in managed and unmanaged

  15. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.

  16. Functional diversity supports the physiological tolerance hypothesis for plant species richness along climatic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Marko J.; Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman

    2013-01-01

    1. The physiological tolerance hypothesis proposes that plant species richness is highest in warm and/or wet climates because a wider range of functional strategies can persist under such conditions. Functional diversity metrics, combined with statistical modeling, offer new ways to test whether diversity-environment relationships are consistent with this hypothesis. 2. In a classic study by R. H. Whittaker (1960), herb species richness declined from mesic (cool, moist, northerly) slopes to xeric (hot, dry, southerly) slopes. Building on this dataset, we measured four plant functional traits (plant height, specific leaf area, leaf water content and foliar C:N) and used them to calculate three functional diversity metrics (functional richness, evenness, and dispersion). We then used a structural equation model to ask if ‘functional diversity’ (modeled as the joint responses of richness, evenness, and dispersion) could explain the observed relationship of topographic climate gradients to species richness. We then repeated our model examining the functional diversity of each of the four traits individually. 3. Consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis, we found that functional diversity was higher in more favorable climatic conditions (mesic slopes), and that multivariate functional diversity mediated the relationship of the topographic climate gradient to plant species richness. We found similar patterns for models focusing on individual trait functional diversity of leaf water content and foliar C:N. 4. Synthesis. Our results provide trait-based support for the physiological tolerance hypothesis, suggesting that benign climates support more species because they allow for a wider range of functional strategies.

  17. Implications from climate and landuse change on the global dictribution of plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change may induce shifts in species distributions and species richness patterns worldwide. The current distribution of global plant species richness can be reasonably well explained by climate and environmental predictors. Future projections from Global Climate Models (GCMs) concurrently indicate considerable possible shifts in water and energy related parameters such as temperature and precipitation within the 21stcentury, which may in turn have effects on the distribution of different vegetation zones worldwide and their potential to provide suitable habitats for species. In addition, the rate at which climatic conditions change within specific regions and the distance of suitable future climate analogues to recent conditions strongly influence the required species responses. Moreover, the ongoing transformation of natural habitats results in increasingly fragmented landscapes, which further limits the adaptive capacity of species to changing climate conditions in particular in terms of their ability to colonize new suitable habitats. We present global predictions of the magnitude of possible shifts of plant species richness potential by the end of the century, based on empirical multi-variate relationships with water-energy dynamics and non-climatic predictor variables. We relate these outcomes to projected spatio-temporal dynamics of future climate conditions in relation to their recent analogues, and incorporate land use projections to derive a more comprehensive picture on interactions and trade-offs between these drivers than by separately looking at them.

  18. Tree species and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, S.; Goebes, P.; Song, Z.; Bruelheide, H.; Härdtle, W.; Kühn, P.; Li, Y.; Scholten, T.

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is seriously threatening ecosystem functioning in many parts of the world. In this context, it is assumed that tree species richness and functional diversity of tree communities can play a critical role in improving ecosystem services such as erosion control. An experiment with 170 micro-scale run-off plots was conducted to investigate the influence of tree species and tree species richness as well as functional traits on interrill erosion in a young forest ecosystem. An interrill erosion rate of 47.5 Mg ha-1 a-1 was calculated. This study provided evidence that different tree species affect interrill erosion differently, while tree species richness did not affect interrill erosion in young forest stands. Thus, different tree morphologies have to be considered, when assessing soil erosion under forest. High crown cover and leaf area index reduced interrill erosion in initial forest ecosystems, whereas rising tree height increased it. Even if a leaf litter cover was not present, the remaining soil surface cover by stones and biological soil crusts was the most important driver for soil erosion control. Furthermore, soil organic matter had a decreasing influence on interrill erosion. Long-term monitoring of soil erosion under closing tree canopies is necessary, and a wide range of functional tree traits should be considered in future research.

  19. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  20. Species Distribution Modelling: Contrasting presence-only models with plot abundance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vitor H F; IJff, Stéphanie D; Raes, Niels; Amaral, Iêda Leão; Salomão, Rafael P; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; Castilho, Carolina V; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Magnusson, William E; Phillips, Oliver L; Wittmann, Florian; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Martins, Maria Pires; Irume, Mariana Victória; Sabatier, Daniel; Molino, Jean-François; Bánki, Olaf S; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Pitman, Nigel C A; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins; de Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia Moraes; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Terborgh, John; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Montero, Juan Carlos; Casula, Katia Regina; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Coronado, Euridice N Honorio; Feldpausch, Ted R; Duque, Alvaro; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Killeen, Timothy J; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Schöngart, Jochen; Assis, Rafael L; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, William F; Camargo, José Luís; Demarchi, Layon O; Laurance, Susan G W; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Quaresma, Adriano; Costa, Flavia R C; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Castellanos, Hernán; Brienen, Roel; Stevenson, Pablo R; Feitosa, Yuri; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Mogollón, Hugo F; Targhetta, Natalia; Comiskey, James A; Vicentini, Alberto; Lopes, Aline; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Emilio, Thaise; Alonso, Alfonso; Neill, David; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Praia, Daniel; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; de Souza, Fernanda Coelho; Feeley, Kenneth; Arroyo, Luzmila; Pansonato, Marcelo Petratti; Gribel, Rogerio; Villa, Boris; Licona, Juan Carlos; Fine, Paul V A; Cerón, Carlos; Baraloto, Chris; Jimenez, Eliana M; Stropp, Juliana; Engel, Julien; Silveira, Marcos; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Maas, Paul; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Henkel, Terry W; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; Baker, Tim R; Fuentes, Alfredo; Peres, Carlos A; Chave, Jerome; Pena, Jose Luis Marcelo; Dexter, Kyle G; Silman, Miles R; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Pennington, Toby; Di Fiore, Anthony; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Phillips, Juan Fernando; Rivas-Torres, Gonzalo; von Hildebrand, Patricio; van Andel, Tinde R; Ruschel, Ademir R; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Hoffman, Bruce; Vela, César I A; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; Zent, Egleé L; Gonzales, George Pepe Gallardo; Doza, Hilda Paulette Dávila; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Pinto, Linder Felipe Mozombite; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; Silva, Natalino; Gómez, Ricardo Zárate; Zent, Stanford; Gonzales, Therany; Vos, Vincent A; Malhi, Yadvinder; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Cano, Angela; Albuquerque, Bianca Weiss; Vriesendorp, Corine; Correa, Diego Felipe; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; van der Heijden, Geertje; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Young, Kenneth R; Rocha, Maira; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; Tirado, Milton; Wang, Ophelia; Sierra, Rodrigo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Mendoza, Casimiro; Ferreira, Cid; Baider, Cláudia; Villarroel, Daniel; Balslev, Henrik; Mesones, Italo; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Casas, Luisa Fernanda; Reategui, Manuel Augusto Ahuite; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Zagt, Roderick; Cárdenas, Sasha; Farfan-Rios, William; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Pauletto, Daniela; Sandoval, Elvis H Valderrama; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Alexiades, Miguel N; Pansini, Susamar; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Milliken, William; Ricardo, Joana; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Pos, Edwin; Ter Steege, Hans

    2018-01-17

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used in ecology and conservation. Presence-only SDMs such as MaxEnt frequently use natural history collections (NHCs) as occurrence data, given their huge numbers and accessibility. NHCs are often spatially biased which may generate inaccuracies in SDMs. Here, we test how the distribution of NHCs and MaxEnt predictions relates to a spatial abundance model, based on a large plot dataset for Amazonian tree species, using inverse distance weighting (IDW). We also propose a new pipeline to deal with inconsistencies in NHCs and to limit the area of occupancy of the species. We found a significant but weak positive relationship between the distribution of NHCs and IDW for 66% of the species. The relationship between SDMs and IDW was also significant but weakly positive for 95% of the species, and sensitivity for both analyses was high. Furthermore, the pipeline removed half of the NHCs records. Presence-only SDM applications should consider this limitation, especially for large biodiversity assessments projects, when they are automatically generated without subsequent checking. Our pipeline provides a conservative estimate of a species' area of occupancy, within an area slightly larger than its extent of occurrence, compatible to e.g. IUCN red list assessments.

  1. Does residence time affect responses of alien species richness to environmental and spatial processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Dainese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most robust emerging generalisations in invasion biology is that the probability of invasion increases with the time since introduction (residence time. We analysed the spatial distribution of alien vascular plant species in a region of north-eastern Italy to understand the influence of residence time on patterns of alien species richness. Neophytes were grouped according to three periods of arrival in the study region (1500–1800, 1800–1900, and > 1900. We applied multiple regression (spatial and non-spatial with hierarchical partitioning to determine the influence of climate and human pressure on species richness within the groups. We also applied variation partitioning to evaluate the relative importance of environmental and spatial processes. Temperature mainly influenced groups with speciesa longer residence time, while human pressure influenced the more recently introduced species, although its influence remained significant in all groups. Partial regression analyses showed that most of the variation explained by the models is attributable to spatially structured environmental variation, while environment and space had small independent effects. However, effects independent of environment decreased, and spatially independent effects increased, from older to the more recent neophytes. Our data illustrate that the distribution of alien species richness for species that arrived recently is related to propagule pressure, availability of novel niches created by human activity, and neutral-based (dispersal limitation processes, while climate filtering plays a key role in the distribution of species that arrived earlier. This study highlights the importance of residence time, spatial structure, and environmental conditions in the patterns of alien species richness and for a better understanding of its geographical variation.

  2. Distribution, species composition and relative abundances of sandflies in North Waziristan Agency, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Ullah, A; Wahid, S; Khisroon, M; Rasheed, S B

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the diversity of sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and the incidence of leishmaniasis in three villages of North Waziristan Agency, Pakistan. Sandflies were sampled monthly during 2012, at dusk and dawn, in selected indoor habitats including both bedrooms and animal sheds using a knock-down spray catch method. A total of 3687 sandflies were collected, including 1444 individuals in Drezanda, 1193 in Damdil and 1050 in Dattakhel. This study revealed 14 species of two genera, Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus caucasicus, Phlebotomus kazeruni, Phlebotomus alexandri and Phlebotomus salehi) and Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia dentate, Sergentomyia baghdadis, Sergentomyia babu, Sergentomyia theodori, Sergentomyia sumbarica, Sergentomyia dreyfussitur kestanica, Sergentomyia hogsoni pawlowskyi and Sergentomyia fallax afghanica) (both: Diptera: Psychodidae). Phlebotomus sergenti was the most abundant species (42.1%), followed by S. dentata (17.7%) and S. baghdadis (17.4%). The number of males collected represented about twice that of female flies, and the maximum number was collected in July, followed by August. The determination of the species composition of sandfly populations, seasonal variations, relative abundances and estimations of infection in the vector population may provide information about the dynamics of leishmaniasis transmission that is useful in planning vector control activities. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A Betcher

    Full Text Available Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes of the gills (ctenidia. These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis. These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose.

  4. Microbial Distribution and Abundance in the Digestive System of Five Shipworm Species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betcher, Meghan A.; Fung, Jennifer M.; Han, Andrew W.; O’Connor, Roberta; Seronay, Romell; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Distel, Daniel L.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2012-01-01

    Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms) are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes) of the gills (ctenidia). These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis). These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose. PMID:23028923

  5. Distribution and abundance of decapod crustacean larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on commercial species. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.A.; Incze, L.S.; Wencker, D.L.; Armstrong, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Contents include: Distribution and abundance of king crab larvae, Paralithodes camtschatica and P. platypus in the southeast Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of the larvae of tanner crabs in the southeastern Bering Sea; Distribution and abundance of other brachyuran larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on Erimacrus isenbeckii; Distribution and abundance of shrimp larvae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphasis on pandalid species; Distribution and abundance of hermit crabs (Paguridae) in the southeasternBering Sea; Possible oil impacts on decapod larbae in the southeastern Bering Sea with emphesis on the St. George Basin.

  6. Organic, integrated and conventional management in apple orchards: effect on plant species composition, richness and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Lososová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the effect of conventional, integrated and organic management on differences in plant species composition, richness and diversity. The plants were studied in triads of orchards situated in three regions of the Czech Republic. Data about species occurrences were collected on 15 permanent plots in the tree rows and 15 plots between tree rows in each of the apple orchards during 2009. A total of 201 vascular plant species (127 native species, 65 archaeophytes, and 9 neophytes were found. Management type and also different regional conditions had a significant effect on plant species composition and on diversity parameters of orchard spontaneous vegetation. Species richness and species pool was significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the differently managed orchards. Management type had significant effect on proportions of archaeophytes, and also neophytes in apple orchards. The results showed that a change from conventional to integrated and organic management in apple orchards lead to higher plant species diversity and to changes in plant species composition.

  7. Metazoan parasite species richness in Neotropical fishes: hotspots and the geography of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, J L; Poulin, R

    2007-06-01

    Although research on parasite biodiversity has intensified recently, there are signs that parasites remain an underestimated component of total biodiversity in many regions of the planet. To identify geographical hotspots of parasite diversity, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parasite-host associations in fishes from Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that includes known hotspots of plant and animal biodiversity. The database included 10,904 metazoan parasite-host associations involving 1660 fish species. The number of host species with at least 1 parasite record was less than 10% of the total known fish species in the majority of countries. Associations involving adult endoparasites in actinopterygian fish hosts dominated the database. Across the whole region, no significant difference in parasite species richness was detected between marine and freshwater fishes. As a rule, host body size and study effort (number of studies per fish species) were good predictors of parasite species richness. Some interesting patterns emerged when we included only the regions with highest fish species biodiversity and study effort (Brazil, Mexico and the Caribbean Islands). Independently of differences in study effort or host body sizes, Mexico stands out as a hotspot of parasite diversity for freshwater fishes, as does Brasil for marine fishes. However, among 57 marine fish species common to all 3 regions, populations from the Caribbean consistently harboured more parasite species. These differences may reflect true biological patterns, or regional discrepancies in study effort and local priorities for fish parasitology research.

  8. Can local landscape attributes explain species richness patterns at macroecological scales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Huang, Z.; Chi, T.; Chen, B.J.W.; Zhang, M.; Liu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Although the influence on species richness of landscape attributes representing landscape composition and spatial configuration has been well documented at landscape scales, its effects remain little understood at macroecological scales. We aim to assess the role of landscape attributes, and

  9. Managed forest landscape structure and avian species richness in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Loehle; T. Bently Wigley; Scott Rutzmoser; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Christopher J. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2005-01-01

    Forest structural features at the stand scale (e.g., snags, stem density, species composition) and habitat attributes at larger spatial scales (e.g., landscape pattern, road density) can influence biological diversity and have been proposed as indicators in sustainable forestry programs. This study investigated relationships between such factors and total richness of...

  10. Butterfly Species Richness Patterns in Canada: Energy, Heterogeneity, and the Potential Consequences of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Kerr

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of most pollinator species are poorly documented despite their importance in providing ecosystem services. While these and other organisms are threatened by many aspects of the human enterprise, anthropogenic climate change is potentially the most severe threat to pollinator biodiversity. Mounting evidence demonstrates that there have already been biotic responses to the relatively small climate changes that have occurred this century. These include wholesale shifts of relatively well-documented butterfly and bird species in Europe and North America. Although studies of such phenomena are supported by circumstantial evidence, their findings are also consistent with predictions derived from current models of spatial patterns of species richness. Using new GIS methods that are highly precise and accurate, I document spatial patterns of Canadian butterfly diversity. These are strongly related to contemporary climate and particularly to potential evapotranspiration. An even more noteworthy finding is the fact that, for the first time, habitat heterogeneity, measured as the number of land cover types in each study unit, is proven to be an equally strong predictor of butterfly richness in a region where energy alone was thought to be the best predictor of diversity. Although previous studies reveal similar relationships between energy and diversity, they fail to detect the powerful link between richness and habitat heterogeneity. The butterflies of Canada provide a superb baseline for studying the effects of climate on contemporary patterns of species richness and comprise the only complete pollinator taxon for which this sort of analysis is currently possible.

  11. Migration and parasitism : Habitat use, not migration distance, influences helminth species richness in Charadriiform birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S.; Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Piersma, Theunis; Thieltges, David W.

    Aim: Habitat use and migration strategies of animals are often associated with spatial variation in parasite pressure, but how they relate to one another is not well understood. Here, we use a large dataset on helminth species richness of Charadriiform birds to test whether higher habitat diversity

  12. Reef flattening effects on total richness and species responses in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Steven P.; Meesters, E.H.; Dryden, Charlie S.; Williams, Stacey M.; Sanchez, Cristina; Mumby, Peter J.; Polunin, Nicholas V.C.

    2015-01-01

    There has been ongoing flattening of Caribbean coral reefs with the loss of habitat having severe implications for these systems. Complexity and its structural components are important to fish species richness and community composition, but little is known about its role for other taxa or

  13. Can local landscape attributes explain species richness patterns at macroecological scales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Huang, Z.; Chi, T.; Chen, B.J.W.; Zhang, M.; Liu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although the influence on species richness of landscape attributes representing landscape composition and spatial configuration has been well documented at landscape scales, its effects remain little understood at macroecological scales. We aim to assess the role of landscape attributes, and their

  14. Species richness and origin of the bryophyte flora of the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Reenen, van G.B.A.; Griffin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Based on data from the ECOANDES project, a phytogeographical analysis has been made of the bryophyte flora along the wet, foggy western slope (1000-4500 m) and the drier eastern slope (500-4500 m) of the Colombian Central Cordillera at the ‘Parque de los Nevados’. Species richness increases with

  15. Using Google Earth Surface Metrics to Predict Plant Species Richness in a Complex Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Block

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth provides a freely available, global mosaic of high-resolution imagery from different sensors that has become popular in environmental and ecological studies. However, such imagery lacks the near-infrared band often used in studying vegetation, thus its potential for estimating vegetation properties remains unclear. In this study, we assess the potential of Google Earth imagery to describe and predict vegetation attributes. Further, we compare it to the potential of SPOT imagery, which has additional spectral information. We measured basal area, vegetation height, crown cover, density of individuals, and species richness in 60 plots in the oak forests of a complex volcanic landscape in central Mexico. We modelled each vegetation attribute as a function of surface metrics derived from Google Earth and SPOT images, and selected the best-supported linear models from each source. Total species richness was the best-described and predicted variable: the best Google Earth-based model explained nearly as much variation in species richness as its SPOT counterpart (R2 = 0.44 and 0.51, respectively. However, Google Earth metrics emerged as poor predictors of all remaining vegetation attributes, whilst SPOT metrics showed potential for predicting vegetation height. We conclude that Google Earth imagery can be used to estimate species richness in complex landscapes. As it is freely available, Google Earth can broaden the use of remote sensing by researchers and managers in low-income tropical countries where most biodiversity hotspots are found.

  16. Synecology of species-rich plant communities on roadside verges in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffers, A.P.; Sykora, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    Using a large number of physical and chemical soil measurements, biomass measurements, and other site conditions (e. g. management, shading, exposition), an accurate synecological description is given of 15 semi-natural, species-rich plant communities. The communities studied belong to 11 alliances,

  17. Changes in biomass allocation in species rich meadow after abandonment: Ecological strategy or allometry?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušková, Alena; Doležal, Jiří; Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, V.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 379-387 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Biomass allocation * species-rich meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.578, year: 2015

  18. A global evaluation of metabolic theory as an explanation for terrestrial species richness gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, Bradford A.; Albuquerque, Fabio S.; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2007-01-01

    We compiled 46 broadscale data sets of species richness for a wide range of terrestrial plant, invertebrate, and ectothermic vertebrate groups in all parts of the world to test the ability of metabolic theory to account for observed diversity gradients. The theory makes two related predictions: (...

  19. Species richness and composition assessment of spiders in a Mediterranean scrubland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel; Henriques, Sérgio S.; Gaspar, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Intensive fieldwork has been undertaken in Portugal in order to develop a standardized and optimized sampling protocol for Mediterranean spiders. The present study had the objectives of testing the use of semi-quantitative sampling for obtaining an exhaustive species richness assessment of spider...

  20. Migration and parasitism: habitat use, not migration distance, influences helminth species richness in Charadriiform birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, J.S.; Rakhimberdiev, E.; Piersma, T.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Habitat use and migration strategies of animals are often associated withspatial variation in parasite pressure, but how they relate to one another is notwell understood. Here, we use a large dataset on helminth species richness ofCharadriiform birds to test whether higher habitat diversity and

  1. Carrying capacity for species richness as context for conservation: a case study of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Hansen; Linda Bowers Phillips; Curtis H. Flather; Jim Robinson-Cox

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the leading hypotheses on biophysical factors affecting species richness for Breeding Bird Survey routes from areas with little influence of human activities.We then derived a best model based on information theory, and used this model to extrapolate SK across North America based on the biophysical predictor variables. The predictor variables included the...

  2. Model uncertainties do not affect observed patterns of species richness in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Patrícia Sales

    Full Text Available Climate change is arguably a major threat to biodiversity conservation and there are several methods to assess its impacts on species potential distribution. Yet the extent to which different approaches on species distribution modeling affect species richness patterns at biogeographical scale is however unaddressed in literature. In this paper, we verified if the expected responses to climate change in biogeographical scale-patterns of species richness and species vulnerability to climate change-are affected by the inputs used to model and project species distribution.We modeled the distribution of 288 vertebrate species (amphibians, birds and mammals, all endemic to the Amazon basin, using different combinations of the following inputs known to affect the outcome of species distribution models (SDMs: 1 biological data type, 2 modeling methods, 3 greenhouse gas emission scenarios and 4 climate forecasts. We calculated uncertainty with a hierarchical ANOVA in which those different inputs were considered factors.The greatest source of variation was the modeling method. Model performance interacted with data type and modeling method. Absolute values of variation on suitable climate area were not equal among predictions, but some biological patterns were still consistent. All models predicted losses on the area that is climatically suitable for species, especially for amphibians and primates. All models also indicated a current East-western gradient on endemic species richness, from the Andes foot downstream the Amazon river. Again, all models predicted future movements of species upwards the Andes mountains and overall species richness losses.From a methodological perspective, our work highlights that SDMs are a useful tool for assessing impacts of climate change on biodiversity. Uncertainty exists but biological patterns are still evident at large spatial scales. As modeling methods are the greatest source of variation, choosing the appropriate

  3. Effects of reforestation and intensified land use on vascular plant species richness in traditionally managed hay meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Myklestad, Åse; Sætersdal, Magne

    2003-01-01

    In this study of 130 sites with different management we investigated whether vascular plant species richness is significantly reduced when traditionally managed hay meadows are abandoned and reforested. We also compared the effects of reforestation with those of intensified land-use to see which have the largest effects on species richness. Finally, we investigated the relative importance of relevant ecological factors for species richness. While the use of artificial fertilizers in tradition...

  4. Evaluating functional diversity: Missing trait data and the importance of species abundance structure and data transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Májeková, M.; Paal, T.; Plowman, Nichola S.; Bryndová, Michala; Kasari, L.; Norberg, A.; Weiss, Matthias; Bishop, T. R.; Luke, S. H.; Sam, Kateřina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y.; Lepš, Jan; Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2016), č. článku e0149270. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-32024P; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 156/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : data incompleteness * functional diversity * species abundance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149270

  5. Tree species identity and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, S.; Goebes, P.; Song, Z.; Bruelheide, H.; Härdtle, W.; Kühn, P.; Li, Y.; Scholten, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil erosion is seriously threatening ecosystem functioning in many parts of the world. In this context, it is assumed that tree species richness and functional diversity of tree communities can play a critical role in improving ecosystem services such as erosion control. An experiment with 170 micro-scale runoff plots was conducted to investigate the influence of tree species richness and identity as well as tree functional traits on interrill erosion in a young forest ecosystem. An interrill erosion rate of 47.5 t ha-1 a-1 was calculated. This study provided evidence that different tree species affect interrill erosion, but higher tree species richness did not mitigate soil losses in young forest stands. Thus, different tree morphologies have to be considered, when assessing erosion under forest. High crown cover and leaf area index reduced soil losses in initial forest ecosystems, whereas rising tree height increased them. Even if a leaf litter cover was not present, remaining soil surface cover by stones and biological soil crusts was the most important driver for soil erosion control. Furthermore, soil organic matter had a decreasing influence on soil loss. Long-term monitoring of soil erosion under closing tree canopies is necessary and a wide range of functional tree traits should be taken into consideration in future research.

  6. Assessing landscape constraints on species abundance: Does the neighborhood limit species response to local habitat conservation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Powell, Larkin A.; Lusk, Jeffrey J.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants.

  7. Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kiebacher

    Full Text Available Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and

  8. Epiphytes in wooded pastures: Isolation matters for lichen but not for bryophyte species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebacher, Thomas; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph; Bergamini, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Sylvo-pastoral systems are species-rich man-made landscapes that are currently often severely threatened by abandonment or management intensification. At low tree densities, single trees in these systems represent habitat islands for epiphytic cryptogams. Here, we focused on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) wooded pastures in the northern European Alps. We assessed per tree species richness of bryophytes and lichens on 90 sycamore maple trees distributed across six study sites. We analysed the effects of a range of explanatory variables (tree characteristics, environmental variables and isolation measures) on the richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens and various functional subgroups (based on diaspore size, habitat preference and red list status). Furthermore, we estimated the effect of these variables on the occurrence of two specific bryophyte species (Tayloria rudolphiana, Orthotrichum rogeri) and one lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria) of major conservation concern. Bryophytes and lichens, as well as their subgroups, were differently and sometimes contrastingly affected by the variables considered: tree diameter at breast height had no significant effect on bryophytes but negatively affected many lichen groups; tree phenological age positively affected red-listed lichens but not red-listed bryophytes; increasing isolation from neighbouring trees negatively affected lichens but not bryophytes. However, the high-priority bryophyte species T. rudolphiana was also negatively affected by increased isolation at small spatial scales. Orthotrichum rogeri was more frequent on young trees and L. pulmonaria was more frequent on trees with thin stems and large crowns. The results indicate that local dispersal is important for lichens, whereas long distance dispersal seems to be more important for colonisation by bryophytes. Furthermore, our study highlights that different conservation measures need to be taken depending on the taxonomic and functional species

  9. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Costion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70% and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  10. Plant DNA barcodes can accurately estimate species richness in poorly known floras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costion, Craig; Ford, Andrew; Cross, Hugh; Crayn, Darren; Harrington, Mark; Lowe, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Widespread uptake of DNA barcoding technology for vascular plants has been slow due to the relatively poor resolution of species discrimination (∼70%) and low sequencing and amplification success of one of the two official barcoding loci, matK. Studies to date have mostly focused on finding a solution to these intrinsic limitations of the markers, rather than posing questions that can maximize the utility of DNA barcodes for plants with the current technology. Here we test the ability of plant DNA barcodes using the two official barcoding loci, rbcLa and matK, plus an alternative barcoding locus, trnH-psbA, to estimate the species diversity of trees in a tropical rainforest plot. Species discrimination accuracy was similar to findings from previous studies but species richness estimation accuracy proved higher, up to 89%. All combinations which included the trnH-psbA locus performed better at both species discrimination and richness estimation than matK, which showed little enhanced species discriminatory power when concatenated with rbcLa. The utility of the trnH-psbA locus is limited however, by the occurrence of intraspecific variation observed in some angiosperm families to occur as an inversion that obscures the monophyly of species. We demonstrate for the first time, using a case study, the potential of plant DNA barcodes for the rapid estimation of species richness in taxonomically poorly known areas or cryptic populations revealing a powerful new tool for rapid biodiversity assessment. The combination of the rbcLa and trnH-psbA loci performed better for this purpose than any two-locus combination that included matK. We show that although DNA barcodes fail to discriminate all species of plants, new perspectives and methods on biodiversity value and quantification may overshadow some of these shortcomings by applying barcode data in new ways.

  11. Food-web models predict species abundances in response to habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Gotelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant and animal population sizes inevitably change following habitat loss, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. We experimentally altered habitat volume and eliminated top trophic levels of the food web of invertebrates that inhabit rain-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Path models that incorporated food-web structure better predicted population sizes of food-web constituents than did simple keystone species models, models that included only autecological responses to habitat volume, or models including both food-web structure and habitat volume. These results provide the first experimental confirmation that trophic structure can determine species abundances in the face of habitat loss.

  12. Impact of Forest Management on Species Richness: Global Meta-Analysis and Economic Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Burivalova, Zuzana; Koh, Lian Pin; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    Forests managed for timber have an important role to play in conserving global biodiversity. We evaluated the most common timber production systems worldwide in terms of their impact on local species richness by conducting a categorical meta-analysis. We reviewed 287 published studies containing 1008 comparisons of species richness in managed and unmanaged forests and derived management, taxon, and continent specific effect sizes. We show that in terms of local species richness loss, forest management types can be ranked, from best to worse, as follows: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. Next, we calculated the economic profitability in terms of the net present value of timber harvesting from 10 hypothetical wood-producing Forest Management Units (FMU) from around the globe. The ranking of management types is altered when the species loss per unit profit generated from the FMU is considered. This is due to differences in yield, timber species prices, rotation cycle length and production costs. We thus conclude that it would be erroneous to dismiss or prioritize timber production regimes, based solely on their ranking of alpha diversity impacts.

  13. Linking functional traits and species preferences to species’ abundance and occupancy trends through time to identify habitat changes in coastal ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakeman, Robin J.; Hewison, Richard; Lewis, Robert John

    2017-01-01

    Coastal habitats are rich in biodiversity and provide highly valued ecosystem services. However, they are subject to many environmental drivers that can have severe impacts on these inherently fragile ecosystems. A resurvey approach was used to assess changes in species’ abundances and occupancy....... In general, there has been a shift towards taller species with more exploitative growth forms and an increase in indicators of unfavourable habitat condition according to criteria for assessing sites designated for nature protection as part of the EU Natura 2000 network, particularly tall grasses...

  14. Geographical, Temporal and Environmental Determinants of Bryophyte Species Richness in the Macaronesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Silvia C.; Gabriel, Rosalina; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Santos, Ana M. C.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Patiño, Jairo; Hortal, Joaquín; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2014-01-01

    Species richness on oceanic islands has been related to a series of ecological factors including island size and isolation (i.e. the Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography, EMIB), habitat diversity, climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and more recently island ontogeny (i.e. the General Dynamic Model of oceanic island biogeography, GDM). Here we evaluate the relationship of these factors with the diversity of bryophytes in the Macaronesian region (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde). The predictive power of EMIB, habitat diversity, climate and the GDM on total bryophyte richness, as well as moss and liverwort richness (the two dominant bryophyte groups), was evaluated through ordinary least squares regressions. After choosing the best subset of variables using inference statistics, we used partial regression analyses to identify the independent and shared effects of each model. The variables included within each model were similar for mosses and liverworts, with orographic mist layer being one of the most important predictors of richness. Models combining climate with either the GDM or habitat diversity explained most of richness variation (up to 91%). There was a high portion of shared variance between all pairwise combinations of factors in mosses, while in liverworts around half of the variability in species richness was accounted for exclusively by climate. Our results suggest that the effects of climate and habitat are strong and prevalent in this region, while geographical factors have limited influence on Macaronesian bryophyte diversity. Although climate is of great importance for liverwort richness, in mosses its effect is similar to or, at least, indiscernible from the effect of habitat diversity and, strikingly, the effect of island ontogeny. These results indicate that for highly vagile taxa on oceanic islands, the dispersal process may be less important for successful colonization than the availability of suitable ecological

  15. Species composition and richness of amphibians in logged forests at Hulu Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izam, Nur Amalina Mohd; Ahmad, Amirrudin; Grismer, L. Lee; Saidin, Ahmad Nazri; Nor, Shukor Md.; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-11-01

    A study was done to compare amphibian species composition and richness between a disturbed forest due to logging/dam construction and a 30-year old logged forest at Hulu Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted from August to October 2014, using drift fenced-pitfall traps. The upstream (UP) and downstream riverine area (DP) of a dam called Puah Dam (PD) represented the disturbed forest habitat, while Sg. Deka Wildlife Reserve (SDWR) represented a 30-year old regenerating logged forest. There were six amphibian species found at SDWR, while four species were recorded at UP and DP.

  16. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  17. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  18. Energy and speleogenesis: Key determinants of terrestrial species richness in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Sendra, Alberto; Garay, Policarp; Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to unravel the relative role played by speleogenesis (i.e., the process in which a cave is formed), landscape-scale variables, and geophysical factors in the determination of species richness in caves. Biological inventories from 21 caves located in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula along with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis were used to assess the relative importance of the different explanatory variables. The caves were grouped according to the similarity in their species composition; the effect that spatial distance could have on similarity was also studied using correlation between matrices. The energy and speleogenesis of caves accounted for 44.3% of the variation in species richness. The trophic level of each cave was the most significant factor in PLS regression analysis, and epigenic caves (i.e., those formed by the action of percolating water) had significantly more species than hypogenic ones (i.e., those formed by the action of upward flows in confined aquifers). Dissimilarity among the caves was very high (multiple-site β sim  = 0.92). Two main groups of caves were revealed through the cluster analysis, one formed by the western caves and the other by the eastern ones. The significant-but low-correlation found between faunistic dissimilarity and geographical distance ( r  =   .16) disappeared once the caves were split into the two groups. The extreme beta-diversity suggests a very low connection among the caves and/or a very low dispersal capacity of the species. In the region under study, two main factors are intimately related to the richness of terrestrial subterranean species in caves: the amount of organic material (trophic level) and the formation process (genesis). This is the first time that the history of a cave genesis has been quantitatively considered to assess its importance in explaining richness patterns in comparison with other factors more widely recognized.

  19. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  20. Examining the relationship between total species richness and single island palaeo- and neo-endemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallimanis, A. S.; Panitsa, M.; Bergmeier, E.; Dimopoulos, P.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, Emerson and Kolm (2005) hypothesized that diversity begets speciation (DBS hypothesis). The relationship between total species richness and single island endemic diversity (as a proportion of the total species richness of the island) has been used as evidence for the DBS hypothesis. This relationship has been documented in oceanic archipelagos, but many criticisms have been raised on whether this relationship truly supports the DBS hypothesis. In this study we tested if this hypothesis holds in the Aegean archipelago (a continental archipelago with continuous human presence over millennia). Endemism in the Aegean includes mainly neo-endemic species but also relictual populations of formerly more widespread species (i.e. palaeo-endemics). Contrary to the DBS hypothesis, we found that total species richness was not significantly correlated to single island endemics (neither neo-endemics nor palaeo-endemics) as a proportion of the island flora. Furthermore, we found that neo-endemic diversity (either as species richness or as a proportion of the islands flora) is mainly correlated to island maximum elevation, while area and isolation were less important. So if this ratio is indeed an index of speciation, then an alternative explanation might be that elevation (interpreted as a proxy for habitat heterogeneity) is the driver of speciation in our case. Palaeo-endemics, on the other hand, were present in only six of the largest islands in the Aegean and their diversity was strongly correlated only with island area, perhaps implying that larger islands support larger population sizes that buffer stochastic extinctions risks.

  1. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    . Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography......, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong...... determinant of island richness, endemism and network roles....

  2. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Kiefer, M C; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A F; Hatano, F H; Galdino, C A B; Bergallo, H G; Van Sluys, M

    2014-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia) and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the "Nestedness Temperature Calculator" to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species) whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island). Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  3. Connectivity and conditional models of access and abundance of species in stream networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D; Dunham, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Barriers to passage of aquatic organisms at stream road crossings are a major cause of habitat fragmentation in stream networks. Accordingly, large investments have been made to restore passage at these crossings, but often without estimation of population-level benefits. Here, we describe a broad-scale approach to quantifying the effectiveness of passage restoration in terms interpretable at population levels, namely numbers of fish and length of stream gained through restoration, by sampling abundance in a study design that accounts for variable biogeographic species pools, variable stream and barrier configurations, and variable probabilities of capture and detectability for multiple species. We modified an existing zero-inflated negative-binomial model to estimate the probability of site access, abundance conditional on access, and capture probability of individual fish. Therein, we modeled probability of access as a function of gradient, stream road-crossing type, and downstream access by fish simultaneously with a predictive model for abundance at sites accessible to fish. Results indicated that replacement of barriers with new crossing designs intended to allow for greater movement was associated with dramatically higher probability of access for all fishes, including migratory Pacific salmon, trout, sculpin, and lamprey. Conversely, existing non-replaced crossings negatively impacted fish distributions. Assuming no downstream constraints on access, we estimated the potential length of stream restored by the program ranged between 7.33 (lamprey) and 15.28 km (small coastal cutthroat and rainbow trout). These contributions represented a fraction of the total length available upstream (187 km) of replaced crossings. When limited ranges of species were considered, the estimated contributions of culvert replacement were reduced (1.65-km range, for longnose dace to 12.31 km for small coastal cutthroat and rainbow trout). Numbers of fish contributed ranged from

  4. Study of Plant Species Richness in Habitats with Different Grazing Intensities at Golestan National Park and Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of plant diversity and to evaluate the effect of grazing pressure on species richness and structure of plant communities, this experiment was conducted at Golestan National Park and its surrounding areas in the north east of Iran. Sampling was conducted in intact and abandoned habitats and habitats under seasonal and heavy grazing, using Modified Whitaker Plot in 1, 10,100 and 1000 m2 spatial scales. Results showed that the composition of plant species from different habitats was different. In addition the increasing intensity of grazing increased the importance of therophytes and decreased the role of hemicryptophytes and phanerophytes and also decreasd the amount of species richness. Mean species richness of studied habitat showed a significant difference in all four sampling spatial scales. The results showed that plant species richness decreased in the areas affected by heavy grazing and conservation against grazing plays an important role in maintaining species richness.

  5. MESSENGER Searches for Less Abundant or Weakly Emitting Species in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2011-01-01

    Mercury's exosphere is composed of material that originates at the planet's surface, whether that material is native or delivered by the solar wind and micrometeoroids. Many exospheric species have been detected by remote sensing, including H and He by Mariner 10, Na, K, and Ca by ground-based observations, and H, Na, Ca, Mg, and Ca+ by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Other exospheric species, including Fe, AI, Si, 0, S, Mn, CI, Ti, OH, and their ions, are expected to be present on the basis of MESSENGER surface measurements and models of Mercury's surface chemistry. Here we report on searches for these species made with the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) channel of the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS). No obvious signatures of the listed species have yet been observed in Mercury's exosphere by the UVVS as of this writing. It is possible that detections are elusive because the optimum regions of the exosphere have not been sampled. The Sun-avoidance constraints on MESSENGER place tight limits on instrument boresight directions, and some regions are probed infrequently. If there are strong spatial gradients in the distribution of weakly emitting species, a high-resolution sampling of specific regions may be required to detect them. Summing spectra over time will also aid in the ability to detect weaker emission. Observations to date nonetheless permit strong upper limits to be placed on the abundances of many undetected species, in some cases as functions of time and space. As those limits are lowered with time, the absence of detections can provide insight into surface composition and the potential source mechanisms of exospheric material.

  6. Contrasting structure and composition of the understory in species-rich tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrankie, James V; Ashton, Peter S; Chuyong, George B; Co, Leonardo; Condit, Richard; Davies, Stuart J; Foster, Robin; Hubbell, Stephen P; Kenfack, David; Lagunzad, Daniel; Losos, Elizabeth C; Nor, Noor Supardi Md; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Duncan W; Valencia, Renato; Villa, Gorky

    2006-09-01

    In large samples of trees > or = 1 cm dbh (more than 1 million trees and 3000 species), in six lowland tropical forests on three continents, we assigned species with >30 individuals to one of six classes of stature at maturity (SAM). We then compared the proportional representation of understory trees (1-2 cm dbh) among these classes. The understory of the three Asian sites was predominantly composed of the saplings of large-canopy trees whereas the African and American sites were more richly stocked with trees of the smaller SAM classes. Differences in class representation were related to taxonomic families that were present exclusively in one continent or another. Families found in the Asian plots but not in the American plot (e.g., Dipterocarpaceae, Fagaceae) were predominantly species of the largest SAM classes, whereas families exclusive to the American plots (e.g., Melastomataceae sensu stricto, Piperaceae, and Malvaceae [Bombacacoidea]) were predominantly species of small classes. The African plot was similar to Asia in the absence of those American families rich in understory species, while similar to America in lacking the Asian families rich in canopy species. The numerous understory species of Africa were chiefly derived from families shared with Asia and/or America. The ratio of saplings (1-2 cm dbh) to conspecific canopy trees (>40 cm dbh) was lower in American plots than in the Asian plots. Possible explanations for these differences include phenology, moisture and soil fertility regimes, phyletic constraints, and the role of early successional plants in forest development. These results demonstrate that tropical forests that appear similar in tree number, basal area, and the family taxonomy of canopy trees nonetheless differ in ecological structure in ways that may impact the ecology of pollinators, dispersers, and herbivores and might reflect fundamental differences in canopy tree regeneration.

  7. Using confluence hydraulics to quantify relative drag and predict species biogeographical richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, C.; Filizola, N.; Santos, R. V.; Marco, I.; Endreny, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Restoring biogeographical richness in river networks requires establishing the analyze biophysical interactions that explain species richness increasing as a nodal pattern about river confluences. This research uses river velocity profiles in the Negro and Solimões Rivers confluence of the Amazon Basin to compute the a set of hydraulic complexity metrics that quantify relative drag forces imposed on aquatic organisms moving between two locations. The metric is computed as the product of the lateral velocity gradient and the ratio of average to minimum velocity, with the set of metrics taken along different vertical domains in the water column. In the Negro and Solimões River confluence the water-column average hydraulic complexity metric was generally largest in the entrance of the confluence, centered at the mixing interface, and decayed laterally toward the banks and longitudinally with downstream distance. The patterns of the hydraulic complexity metric corresponded with the patterns of confluence hydrodynamic zone morphodynamics and the nodal pattern of increased species richness downstream of the confluence, based on a rich dataset for Amazon confluences. The metric's ability to increase about the confluence, in a nodal pattern, is distinct from the river continuum concept type metrics that predict increases in richness with longitudinal distance along the river network. By contrast, this hydraulic complexity metric may capture a physical driver of habitat heterogeneity that ecologists have sought to explain the ecological patterns of diversity increasing at the nodes of the dendritic river networks. The metric is able to quantify drag forces that constrain species movement and is likely important in the management of biophysical interactions about river confluences.

  8. Ferromanganese nodule fauna in the Tropical North Pacific Ocean: Species richness, faunal cover and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, Julie; Sarrazin, Jozée; Gooday, Andrew J.; Galéron, Joëlle; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Vangriesheim, Annick; Étoubleau, Joël; Christian, James R.; Kim Juniper, S.

    2007-11-01

    The poorly known ferromanganese nodule fauna is a widespread hard substratum community in the deep sea that will be considerably impacted by large-scale nodule mining operations. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of the fauna attached to nodules in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone at two scales; a regional scale that includes the east (14°N, 130°W) and the west (9°N, 150°W) zones and a local scale in which different geological facies (A, B, C and west) are recognizable. The fauna associated with 235 nodules was quantitatively described: 104 nodules from the east zone (15 of facies A, 50 of facies B and 39 of facies C) and 131 nodules from the west zone. Percent cover was used to quantify the extent of colonization at the time of sampling, for 42 species out of the 62 live species observed. Fauna covered up to 18% of exposed nodule surface with an average of about 3%. While species richness increased with exposed nodule surface, both at the regional and at the facies scales (except for facies A), total species density decreased (again except for facies A). When all nodules were included in the statistical analysis, there was no relation between faunal cover and exposed nodule surface. Nevertheless, faunal cover did decrease with exposed nodule surface for the east zone in general and for both facies B and C in particular. Species distributions among facies were significantly different but explained only a very small portion of the variance (˜5%). We identified two groups of associated species: a first group of two species and a second group of six species. The other species (34) were independently distributed, suggesting that species interactions play only a minor role in the spatial distribution of nodule fauna. The flux of particulate organic carbon to the bottom is the only major environmental factor considered to vary between the two zones within this study. We conclude that the higher species richness and higher

  9. Scale-dependent effects of grazing and topographic heterogeneity on plant species richness in a Dutch salt marsh ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruifrok, Jasper L.; Postma, Froukje; Olff, Han; Smit, Christian

    2014-01-01

    QuestionFor over three decades, low-intensity grazing has been used to maintain or increase plant species richness in European natural areas, but the effects are highly variable. Thus far, good predictors of whether grazing will have positive effects on plant species richness are limited. How does

  10. Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness of stream macro-invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, C.; Fritz, Susanne; Marini, L.

    2010-01-01

    . This is surprising as EPT are bio-indicators of stream pollution and most local studies report higher species richness of these macro-invertebrates where human influences on water quality are lower. Using a newly collated taxonomic dataset, we studied whether the species richness of EPT is related to human...

  11. Aerial Survey as a Tool to Estimate Abundance and Describe Distribution of a Carcharhinid Species, the Lemon Shark, Negaprion brevirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerial survey provides an important tool to assess the abundance of both terrestrial and marine vertebrates. To date, limited work has tested the effectiveness of this technique to estimate the abundance of smaller shark species. In Bimini, Bahamas, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris shows high site fidelity to a shallow sandy lagoon, providing an ideal test species to determine the effectiveness of localised aerial survey techniques for a Carcharhinid species in shallow subtropical waters. Between September 2007 and September 2008, visual surveys were conducted from light aircraft following defined transects ranging in length between 8.8 and 4.4 km. Count results were corrected for “availability”, “perception”, and “survey intensity” to provide unbiased abundance estimates. The abundance of lemon sharks was greatest in the central area of the lagoon during high tide, with a change in abundance distribution to the east and western regions of the lagoon with low tide. Mean abundance of sharks was estimated at 49 (±8.6 individuals, and monthly abundance was significantly positively correlated with mean water temperature. The successful implementation of the aerial survey technique highlighted the potential of further employment for shark abundance assessments in shallow coastal marine environments.

  12. Allometric Equations for Estimating Biomass of Euterpe precatoria, the Most Abundant Palm Species in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models to estimate biomass components such as stem mass Ms, foliage mass Ml, root mass Mr and aboveground mass Ma, were developed for the palm species Euterpe precatoria Mart., which is the most abundant tree species in the Amazon. We harvested twenty palms including above- and below-ground parts in an old growth Amazonian forest in Brazil. The diameter at breast height D ranged from 3.9–12.7 cm, and the stem height H ranged from 2.3–16.4 m. The D, diameter at ground basis D0, crown diameter CD, H, stem specific gravity ρ, and number of fronds Nf were considered as independent variables and incorporated into a power function model. The best predictors were D2Hρ for Ms and Ma, D2HNf for Ml, and D for Mr. Slender index (H/D ranged from 0.56–1.46 m·cm−1, and the D-H relationship suggested that the stem shape becomes more slender with increasing D. On the other hand, ρ increased with D implying a stiffening of stem tissue. The average root/shoot ratio was estimated as 0.29 which was higher than that reported for the non-palm tree species in the Amazon. Comparisons of several models to estimate Ma of different palm species, suggested that the variations of the D-H relationship and ρ should be considered to develop allometric models for estimating biomass in palm species. In particular the ρ largely varied depending on individual size, which should be important to consider, when developing the allometric models for palms.

  13. Continuous gene flow contributes to low global species abundance and distribution of a marine model diatom

    KAUST Repository

    Rastogi, Achal

    2017-08-15

    Unlike terrestrial ecosystems where geographical isolation often leads to a restricted gene flow between species, genetic admixing in aquatic micro-eukaryotes is likely to be frequent. Diatoms inhabit marine ecosystems since the Mesozoic period and presently constitute one of the major primary producers in the world ocean. They are a highly diversified group of eukaryotic phytoplankton with estimates of up to 200,000 species. Since decades, Phaeodactylum tricornutum is used as a model diatom species to characterize the functional pathways, physiology and evolution of diatoms in general. In the current study, using whole genome sequencing of ten P. tricornutum strains, sampled at broad geospatial and temporal scales, we show a continuous dispersal and genetic admixing between geographically isolated strains. We also describe a very high level of heterozygosity and propose it to be a consequence of frequent ancestral admixture. Our finding that P. tricornutum sequences are plausibly detectable at low but broadly distributed levels in the world ocean further suggests that high admixing between geographically isolated strains may create a significant bottleneck, thus influencing their global abundance and distribution in nature. Finally, in an attempt to understand the functional implications of genetic diversity between different P. tricornutum ecotypes, we show the effects of domestication in inducing changes in the selection pressure on many genes and metabolic pathways. We propose these findings to have significant implications for understanding the genetic structure of diatom populations in nature and provide a framework to assess the genomic underpinnings of their ecological success.

  14. Above ground biomass and tree species richness estimation with airborne lidar in tropical Ghana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglio Laurin, Gaia; Puletti, Nicola; Chen, Qi; Corona, Piermaria; Papale, Dario; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Estimates of forest aboveground biomass are fundamental for carbon monitoring and accounting; delivering information at very high spatial resolution is especially valuable for local management, conservation and selective logging purposes. In tropical areas, hosting large biomass and biodiversity resources which are often threatened by unsustainable anthropogenic pressures, frequent forest resources monitoring is needed. Lidar is a powerful tool to estimate aboveground biomass at fine resolution; however its application in tropical forests has been limited, with high variability in the accuracy of results. Lidar pulses scan the forest vertical profile, and can provide structure information which is also linked to biodiversity. In the last decade the remote sensing of biodiversity has received great attention, but few studies focused on the use of lidar for assessing tree species richness in tropical forests. This research aims at estimating aboveground biomass and tree species richness using discrete return airborne lidar in Ghana forests. We tested an advanced statistical technique, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), which does not require assumptions on data distribution or on the relationships between variables, being suitable for studying ecological variables. We compared the MARS regression results with those obtained by multilinear regression and found that both algorithms were effective, but MARS provided higher accuracy either for biomass (R2 = 0.72) and species richness (R2 = 0.64). We also noted strong correlation between biodiversity and biomass field values. Even if the forest areas under analysis are limited in extent and represent peculiar ecosystems, the preliminary indications produced by our study suggest that instrument such as lidar, specifically useful for pinpointing forest structure, can also be exploited as a support for tree species richness assessment.

  15. Species richness and distribution of chondrichthyan fishes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynghammar, A.; Christiansen, J. S.; Mecklenburg, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The sea ice cover decreases and human activity increases in Arctic waters. Fisheries and bycatch issues, shipping and petroleum exploitation (pollution issues) make it imperative to establish biological baselines for the marine fishes inhabiting the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (AOAS). Species...... richness, zoogeographic affiliations and Red List statuses among chondrichthyan fishes (Chondrichthyes) were examined across 16 AOAS regions as a first step towards credible conservation actions. Published literature and museum vouchers were consulted for presence/absence data. Although many regions...

  16. Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka; Visser, Marcel E

    2010-07-12

    Current predictions on species responses to climate change strongly rely on projecting altered environmental conditions on species distributions. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that climate change also influences species interactions. We review and synthesize literature information on biotic interactions and use it to argue that the abundance of species and the direction of selection during climate change vary depending on how their trophic interactions become disrupted. Plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground multitrophic level interactions with herbivores, pathogens, symbionts and their enemies. We discuss how these interactions may alter during climate change and the resulting species range shifts. We suggest conceptual analogies between species responses to climate warming and exotic species introduced in new ranges. There are also important differences: the herbivores, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of range-expanding species and their enemies may co-migrate, and the continuous gene flow under climate warming can make adaptation in the expansion zone of range expanders different from that of cross-continental exotic species. We conclude that under climate change, results of altered species interactions may vary, ranging from species becoming rare to disproportionately abundant. Taking these possibilities into account will provide a new perspective on predicting species distribution under climate change.

  17. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the 21st century. In the present PhD project, a variety of meta-analytic methods was employed to statistically combine data across the north Atlantic distributions of 3 commercially and ecologically important species; cod (Gadus...... fish produced by spawners in a given year which subsequently grow and survive to become vulnerable to fishing gear) have reacted to temperature fluctuations, and in particular to extremes of temperature, throughout the north Atlantic. Meta-analytical methods based on effect sizes were employed...

  18. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the 21st century. In the present PhD project, a variety of meta-analytic methods was employed to statistically combine data across the north Atlantic distributions of 3 commercially and ecologically important species; cod (Gadus......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... fish produced by spawners in a given year which subsequently grow and survive to become vulnerable to fishing gear) have reacted to temperature fluctuations, and in particular to extremes of temperature, throughout the north Atlantic. Meta-analytical methods based on effect sizes were employed...

  19. Plankton Community Stability and Its Relationship with Phytoplankton Species Richness in Lake Nansihu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. The insurance hypothesis suggests that biodiversity could improve community productivity and reduce the temporal variability of main ecosystem processes. In the present study, we used a plankton community that was investigated from 2011 to 2014 in Lake Nansihu to test this hypothesis and explore the mechanisms involved. As a result, 138 phytoplankton and 76 zooplankton species were identified in the lake, and their biomasses showed apparent seasonal variations. The average temporal stability index of zooplankton taxa was significantly higher than that of phytoplankton. Complex relationships were observed between the species richness and temporal stability of different phytoplankton taxa: a unimodal relationship for both Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta; a strong concave relationship for Euglenophyta; and no apparent relationship for both Chlorophyta and total phytoplankton. These relationships were primarily controlled by the portfolio effect; while the effects of overyielding and species asynchrony were relatively weak. Phytoplankton species richness had a significant positive influence on the temporal stability indices of protozoa, Rotifera and total zooplankton, while its influence on Cladocera and copepods was not significant. The dominant mechanisms were found to be ‘trophic overyielding’ and a weak ‘trophic portfolio effect’; however, ‘trophic species asynchrony’ played a minor role. These results demonstrated that the effects of diversity on community stability can be complex in natural ecosystems. In addition, the diversity of phytoplankton not only influenced its own temporal stability, but also affected the stability of zooplankton through trophic interactions.

  20. Species richness and distribution of bryophytes within different phytophysiognomies in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chapada Diamantina ecoregion is within the caatinga (shrublands biome of Brazil. Environmental factors determine the phytophysiognomies that distinguish the ecoregion from the surrounding areas. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of bryophyte flora in this ecoregion, by phytophysiognomy and elevational zone. Analyzing specimens we collected from five municipalities in the region, together with specimens (previously collected from the region in herbaria, we identified 400 taxa. The phytophysiognomies that presented the highest species richness and the greatest numbers of exclusive taxa were forests and campos rupestres (dry, rocky grasslands, which respectively accounted for 51% and 40% of the taxa, compared with only 5% and 4%, respectively, for the caatinga and cerrado (savanna. Species richness and the numbers of exclusive taxa were highest in the lower and upper montane zones. There was a predominance of neotropical taxa and a significant number of disjunct species found in Brazil and in the Andes region. We conclude that the Chapada Diamantina region is an important center of bryophyte diversity, harboring not only a great number of species overall but also a considerable number of species exclusive to the region, primarily in forests and campos rupestres at elevations above 800 m.

  1. Rarity, species richness, and the threat of extinction--are plants the same as animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of conservation status is done both for areas or habitats and for species (or taxa. IUCN Red List categories have been the principal method of categorising species in terms of extinction risk, and have been shown to be robust and helpful in the groups for which they have been developed. A recent study highlights properties associated with extinction risk in flowering plants, focusing on the species-rich hot spot of the Cape region of South Africa, and concludes that merely following methods derived from studies of vertebrates may not provide the best estimates of extinction risk for plants. Biology, geography, and history all are important factors in risk, and the study poses many questions about how we categorise and assess species for conservation priorities.

  2. Wild felid species richness affected by a corridor in the Lacandona forest, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil–Fernández, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild felids are one of the most vulnerable species due to habitat loss caused by fragmentation of ecosystems. We analyzed the effect of a structural corridor, defined as a strip of vegetation connecting two habitat patches, on the richness and habitat occupancy of felids on three sites in Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, one with two isolated forest patches, the second with a structural corridor, and the third inside the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. We found only two species (L. pardalis and H. yagouaroundi in the isolated forest patches, five species in the structural corridor, and four species inside the Reserve. The corridor did not significantly affect occupancy, but due to the low detection rates, further investigation is needed to rule out differences. Our results highlight the need to manage habitat connectivity in the remaining forests in order to preserve the felid community of Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, México.

  3. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie

    2015-01-01

    and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and determined...... species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this could...... be that these stands were still young, and canopy closure had not always taken place, i.e. a situation where above- or below-ground competition did not yet exist. Another reason could be that the rooting traits of the tree species did not differ sufficiently to support niche differentiation. Our results suggested...

  4. Species richness of vascular plants along the climatic range of the Spanish dehesas at two spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Garcia del Barrio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: The goals of this paper are to summarize and to compare plant species richness and floristic similarity at two spatial scales; mesohabitat (normal, eutrophic, and oligotrophic dehesas and dehesa habitat; and to establish guidelines for conserving species diversity in dehesas.Area of study: We considered four dehesa sites in the western Peninsular Spain, located along a climatic and biogeographic gradient from north to south. Main results: Average alpha richness for mesohabitats was 75.6 species, and average alpha richness for dehesa sites was 146.3. Gamma richness assessed for the overall dehesa habitat was 340.0 species. The species richness figures of normal dehesa mesohabitat were significantly lesser than of the eutrophic mesohabitat and lesser than the oligotrophic mesohabitat too. No significant differences were found for species richness among dehesa sites. We have found more dissimilarity at local scale (mesohabitat than at regional scale (habitat. Finally, the results of the similarity assessment between dehesa sites reflected both climatic and biogeographic gradients.Research highlights: An effective conservation of dehesas must take into account local and regional conditions all along their distribution range for ensuring the conservation of the main vascular plant species assemblages as well as the associated fauna.Keywords: Agroforestry systems; mesohabitat; non-parametric estimators; alpha richness; gamma richness; floristic similarity; climatic and biogeographic range.

  5. Abundancia y distribución de las especies ícticas (Osteichthyes del río San Francisco-Cosquín, Córdoba, Argentina Abundance and distribution of fish species (Osteichthyes from San Francisco - Cosquín river in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cecilia Hued

    Full Text Available It was made the characterization of the San Francisco-Cosquín Mountain River fish community, Córdoba, Argentina. Samples of fish were taken from selected sites from November 1998 to November 1999. Eleven species were recorded, eight of which are first reports for this river. Relative abundance for each species, species richness, diversity and dominance were estimated. Bryconamericus iheringi (Boulenger, 1887 y Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842 were the most abundant.

  6. Inferring species richness and turnover by statistical multiresolution texture analysis of satellite imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Convertino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quantification of species-richness and species-turnover is essential to effective monitoring of ecosystems. Wetland ecosystems are particularly in need of such monitoring due to their sensitivity to rainfall, water management and other external factors that affect hydrology, soil, and species patterns. A key challenge for environmental scientists is determining the linkage between natural and human stressors, and the effect of that linkage at the species level in space and time. We propose pixel intensity based Shannon entropy for estimating species-richness, and introduce a method based on statistical wavelet multiresolution texture analysis to quantitatively assess interseasonal and interannual species turnover. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We model satellite images of regions of interest as textures. We define a texture in an image as a spatial domain where the variations in pixel intensity across the image are both stochastic and multiscale. To compare two textures quantitatively, we first obtain a multiresolution wavelet decomposition of each. Either an appropriate probability density function (pdf model for the coefficients at each subband is selected, and its parameters estimated, or, a non-parametric approach using histograms is adopted. We choose the former, where the wavelet coefficients of the multiresolution decomposition at each subband are modeled as samples from the generalized Gaussian pdf. We then obtain the joint pdf for the coefficients for all subbands, assuming independence across subbands; an approximation that simplifies the computational burden significantly without sacrificing the ability to statistically distinguish textures. We measure the difference between two textures' representative pdf's via the Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL. Species turnover, or [Formula: see text] diversity, is estimated using both this KL divergence and the difference in Shannon entropy. Additionally, we predict species

  7. Abelhas Euglossini (Apidae de áreas de Mata Atlântica: abundância, riqueza e aspectos biológicos Euglossine bees (Apidae from Atlantic Forest sites: abundance, richness, and biological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carlos Peruquetti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection data of Euglossinae males from Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (PERD and Viçosa, both areas with remnants of Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica in Minas Gerais state, Brazil are presented. Comparisons made among three fragments with different sizes and states of disturbance from Viçosa showed differences in abundance of most common species and apparently, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletir, 1841 can be an useful indicator of disturbed sites. Some populations of euglossine bees seems to be restrict to a forest fragment, there being few or no flow of individuals or species of one fragment to another, even when they are only 1 km apart. 15 species of euglossines were sampled in PERD, and the most abundant was Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804. At Viçosa, 10 species were sampled, E. nigrita was the predominant one. Methyl salicylate attracted no males at both sites, in spite of large numbers of species and individuals sampled using this bait in other regions. The majority of species and individuals were collected in the rainy season. Only 0,58% of sampled males carried orchid pollinia (Catasetum Richard, Cycnoches Lindley and Coryanthes Hook on their bodies. Emergence data of four species of Euglossa Latreille, 1802 reared from trap nests suggest that sex ratio in Euglossini is not a constant within the tribe. A list of 57 euglossine species now known to occur in Mata Atlântica are offered.

  8. Topographic heterogeneity and temperature amplitude explain species richness patterns of birds in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlan; Quan, Qing; Wu, Yongjie; Chen, Youhua; He, Peng; Qu, Yanhua; Lei, Fumin

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale patterns of species richness have gained much attention in recent years; however, the factors that drive high species richness are still controversial in local regions, especially in highly diversified montane regions. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and the surrounding mountains are biodiversity hot spots due to a high number of endemic montane species. Here, we explored the factors underlying this high level of diversity by studying the relationship between species richness and environmental variables. The richness patterns of 758 resident bird species were summarized at the scale of 1°×1° grid cell at different taxonomic levels (order, family, genus, and species) and in different taxonomic groups (Passeriformes, Galliformes, Falconiformes, and Columbiformes). These richness patterns were subsequently analyzed against habitat heterogeneity (topographical heterogeneity and land cover), temperature amplitude (annual temperature, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, and temperature seasonality) and a vegetation index (net primary productivity). Our results showed that the highest richness was found in the southeastern part of the QTP, the eastern Himalayas. The lowest richness was observed in the central plateau of the QTP. Topographical heterogeneity and temperature amplitude are the primary factors that explain overall patterns of species richness in the QTP, although the specific effect of each environmental variable varies between the different taxonomic groups depending on their own evolutionary histories and ecological requirements. High species richness in the southeastern QTP is mostly due to highly diversified habitat types and temperature zones along elevation gradients, whereas the low species richness in the central plateau of the QTP may be due to environmental and energetic constraints, as the central plateau is harsh environment.

  9. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, López-López; Luigi, Maiorano; Alessandra, Falcucci; Emilio, Barba; Luigi, Boitani

    2011-09-01

    The Mediterranean basin, and the Iberian Peninsula in particular, represent an outstanding "hotspot" of biological diversity with a long history of integration between natural ecosystems and human activities. Using deductive distribution models, and considering both Spain and Portugal, we downscaled traditional range maps for terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, breeding birds, mammals and reptiles) to the finest possible resolution with the data at hand, and we identified hotspots based on three criteria: i) species richness; ii) vulnerability, and iii) endemism. We also provided a first evaluation of the conservation status of biodiversity hotspots based on these three criteria considering both existing and proposed protected areas (i.e., Natura 2000). For the identification of hotspots, we used a method based on the cumulative distribution functions of species richness values. We found no clear surrogacy among the different types of hotspots in the Iberian Peninsula. The most important hotspots (considering all criteria) are located in the western and southwestern portions of the study area, in the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Existing protected areas are not specifically concentrated in areas of high species richness, with only 5.2% of the hotspots of total richness being currently protected. The Natura 2000 network can potentially constitute an important baseline for protecting vertebrate diversity in the Iberian Peninsula although further improvements are needed. We suggest taking a step forward in conservation planning in the Mediterranean basin, explicitly considering the history of the region as well as its present environmental context. This would allow moving from traditional reserve networks (conservation focused on "patterns") to considerations about the "processes" that generated present biodiversity.

  10. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    frequent extreme winter warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5......years, during which we experienced two extreme winter warming events. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. Cassiope tetragona responded strongly with fewer flowers in deep snow regimes during years without extreme...... events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas...

  11. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the “Nestedness Temperature Calculator” to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island. Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P <0.00001; 5000 randomisations; randomisation temperature = 51.45° ± 7.18° SD, indicating that lizard assemblages in the coastal restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  12. Species composition and seasonal abundance of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jeanneth; Virgen, Armando; Rojas, Julio Cesar; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo Alfonso; Alfredo, Castillo; Infante, Francisco; Mikery, Oscar; Marina, Carlos Felix; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    The composition and seasonal occurrence of sandflies were investigated in coffee agroecosystems in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Insect sampling was performed on three plantations located at different altitudes: Finca Guadalupe Zajú [1,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.)], Finca Argovia (613 m a.s.l.) and Teotihuacán del Valle (429 m a.s.l.). Sandflies were sampled monthly from August 2007-July 2008 using three sampling methods: Shannon traps, CDC miniature light traps and Disney traps. Sampling was conducted for 3 h during three consecutive nights, beginning at sunset. A total of 4,387 sandflies were collected during the course of the study: 2,718 individuals in Finca Guadalupe Zajú, 605 in Finca Argovia and 1,064 in Teotihuacán del Valle. The Shannon traps captured 94.3% of the total sandflies, while the CDC light traps and Disney traps captured 4.9% and 0.8%, respectively. More females than males were collected at all sites. While the number of sandflies captured was positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, a negative correlation was observed between sandfly numbers and rainfall. Five species of sandflies were captured: Lutzomyia cruciata , Lutzomyia texana , Lutzomyia ovallesi , Lutzomyia cratifer / undulata and Brumptomyia sp. Lu. cruciata , constituting 98.8% of the total, was the most abundant species. None of the captured sandflies was infected with Leishmania spp.

  13. Historical abundance and morphology of Didymosphenia species in Naknek Lake, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pite, D.P.; Lane, K.A.; Hermann, A.K.; Spaulding, S.A.; Finney, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, nuisance blooms of Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt have been documented in sites that are warmer and more mesotrophic than historical records indicate. While the invasion of D. geminata in New Zealand is well documented, it is less clear whether nuisance blooms in North America are a new phenomenon. In order to test the hypothesis that D. geminata blooms have increased in recent years, we examined the historical record of this species in sediments of Naknek Lake, in Katmai National Park, Alaska. Chronological control was established by relating the presence of two ash layers to known volcanic eruptions. We identified two species of Didymosphenia within the sediment record: D. geminata and D. clavaherculis (Ehrenberg) Metzeltin et Lange-Bertalot. This is the first published record of D. clavaherculis in North America. We found no statistically significant change in the numerical presence of D. geminata or D. clavaherculis, as a group, in Naknek Lake between the years 1218 and 2003. While there has been no sudden, or recent, increase in abundance of Didymosphenia in Naknek Lake, morphological features of D. geminata populations in Naknek Lake are distinct compared to morphological features of D. geminata in streams containing nuisance blooms from sites in North America and New Zealand. Variance in the morphology of Didymosphenia cells may help determine relationships between distinct sub-populations and establish the history of habitat invasion.

  14. Species composition and seasonal abundance of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in coffee agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanneth Perez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and seasonal occurrence of sandflies were investigated in coffee agroecosystems in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Insect sampling was performed on three plantations located at different altitudes: Finca Guadalupe Zajú [1,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.], Finca Argovia (613 m a.s.l. and Teotihuacán del Valle (429 m a.s.l.. Sandflies were sampled monthly from August 2007-July 2008 using three sampling methods: Shannon traps, CDC miniature light traps and Disney traps. Sampling was conducted for 3 h during three consecutive nights, beginning at sunset. A total of 4,387 sandflies were collected during the course of the study: 2,718 individuals in Finca Guadalupe Zajú, 605 in Finca Argovia and 1,064 in Teotihuacán del Valle. The Shannon traps captured 94.3% of the total sandflies, while the CDC light traps and Disney traps captured 4.9% and 0.8%, respectively. More females than males were collected at all sites. While the number of sandflies captured was positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, a negative correlation was observed between sandfly numbers and rainfall. Five species of sandflies were captured: Lutzomyia cruciata , Lutzomyia texana , Lutzomyia ovallesi , Lutzomyia cratifer / undulata and Brumptomyia sp. Lu. cruciata , constituting 98.8% of the total, was the most abundant species. None of the captured sandflies was infected with Leishmania spp.

  15. [Study on spatial distribution characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine resource species richness based on national census of Chinese medicine resources (pilot)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Li, Meng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    Based on the data collected by the census team in the national census information management system, the spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to analyze the similarity of the richness of Chinese herbal medicine resources in the investigated counties. The results showed that the species richness in the investigated counties appeared a tendency to focus on the distribution of the characteristics. Among them, the areas with sparse resources are concentrated in most areas of the north of the Yangtze River, northwest and most areas of Tibet. The areas with abundant resources are concentrated in the areas south of the Yangtze River. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. Due to the large differences in the land area between the county and the richness of the types of traditional Chinese medicine resources, it is proposed to increase the land area of the traditional Chinese medicine resource census when allocating the fourth national census of Chinese medicine resources by the "factor method", and the richness of traditional Chinese medicine and other indicators, in order to give full play to the efficiency of transfer payment system. Based on the county area and the rich variety of traditional Chinese medicine resources, combined with the national drug resources census pilot work carried out, it is recommended to focus on attention and support in the national medicine resources census work, personnel team, funding, summary of results on the western and southern provinces. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Changes of Species Richness in Heathland Communities over 15 Years following Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Calvo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the species richness patterns over a period of 15 years during the vegetation recovery process after disturbances (burning, cutting and ploughing in heathlands. Three communities were selected: two dominated by Erica australis and one dominated by Calluna vulgaris. The alpha and gamma diversity patterns were site specific and influenced by the ecological traits of dominant shrub species. The shrubland dominated by Erica australis, typical resprouters with a fast regeneration, showed the highest values of alpha and gamma diversity during the first 7 years of regeneration. The heathland dominated by Calluna vulgaris, an obligate seeder, had a contrasting pattern of alpha and gamma diversity, as the highest values appeared from year 7 until year 14. Thus, the speed of regeneration of the dominant shrub species could be the main factor affecting structural parameters in these communities. Species richness patterns did not vary in relation to the different types of perturbation. Cutting and burning would be the most suitable forestry management strategies to conserve Erica australis heathlands, but burning is more appropriate in Calluna vulgaris ones because cutting modified this community.

  17. Dispersal capacity predicts both population genetic structure and species richness in reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Cynthia; Buckley, Yvonne M; Blomberg, Simon P; Treml, Eric A

    2014-07-01

    Dispersal is a fundamental species characteristic that should directly affect both rates of gene flow among spatially distributed populations and opportunities for speciation. Yet no single trait associated with dispersal has been demonstrated to affect both micro- and macroevolutionary patterns of diversity across a diverse biological assemblage. Here, we examine patterns of genetic differentiation and species richness in reef fishes, an assemblage of over 7,000 species comprising approximately one-third of the extant bony fishes and over one-tenth of living vertebrates. In reef fishes, dispersal occurs primarily during a planktonic larval stage. There are two major reproductive and parental investment syndromes among reef fishes, and the differences between them have implications for dispersal: (1) benthic guarding fishes lay negatively buoyant eggs, typically guarded by the male parent, and from these eggs hatch large, strongly swimming larvae; in contrast, (2) pelagic spawning fishes release small floating eggs directly into the water column, which drift unprotected before small weakly swimming larvae hatch. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that benthic guarders have significantly greater population structure than pelagic spawners and additionally that taxonomic families of benthic guarders are more species rich than families of pelagic spawners. Our findings provide a compelling case for the continuity between micro- and macroevolutionary processes of biological diversification and underscore the importance of dispersal-related traits in influencing the mode and tempo of evolution.

  18. The relationship between species richness and ecosystem variability is shaped by the mechanism of coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredennick, Andrew T; Adler, Peter B; Adler, Frederick R

    2017-08-01

    Theory relating species richness to ecosystem variability typically ignores the potential for environmental variability to promote species coexistence. Failure to account for fluctuation-dependent coexistence may explain deviations from the expected negative diversity-ecosystem variability relationship, and limits our ability to predict the consequences of increases in environmental variability. We use a consumer-resource model to explore how coexistence via the temporal storage effect and relative nonlinearity affects ecosystem variability. We show that a positive, rather than negative, diversity-ecosystem variability relationship is possible when ecosystem function is sampled across a natural gradient in environmental variability and diversity. We also show how fluctuation-dependent coexistence can buffer ecosystem functioning against increasing environmental variability by promoting species richness and portfolio effects. Our work provides a general explanation for variation in observed diversity-ecosystem variability relationships and highlights the importance of conserving regional species pools to help buffer ecosystems against predicted increases in environmental variability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Evolutionary history determines how plant productivity responds to phylogenetic diversity and species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Genung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has received a great deal of attention in ecological research and recent results, from re-analyses, suggest that ecosystem function improves with increases in phylogenetic diversity. However, many of these results have been generalized across a range of different species and clades, and plants with different evolutionary histories could display different relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we manipulated species richness and phylogenetic diversity using 26 species from two subgenera of the genus Eucalyptus (subgenus Eucalyptus and subgenus Symphyomyrtus. We found that plant biomass (a measurement of ecosystem function sometimes, but not always, responded to increases in species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Specifically, Symphyomyrtus plants showed a positive response while no comparable effect was observed for Eucalyptus plants, showing that responses to biodiversity can vary across different phylogenetic groups. Our results show that the impacts of evolutionary history may complicate the relationship between the diversity of plant communities and plant biomass.

  20. Plant species richness and functional traits affect community stability after a flood event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Felícia M; Wright, Alexandra J; Eisenhauer, Nico; Ebeling, Anne; Roscher, Christiane; Wagg, Cameron; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Pillar, Valério D

    2016-05-19

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. It is therefore of major importance to identify the community attributes that confer stability in ecological communities during such events. In June 2013, a flood event affected a plant diversity experiment in Central Europe (Jena, Germany). We assessed the effects of plant species richness, functional diversity, flooding intensity and community means of functional traits on different measures of stability (resistance, resilience and raw biomass changes from pre-flood conditions). Surprisingly, plant species richness reduced community resistance in response to the flood. This was mostly because more diverse communities grew more immediately following the flood. Raw biomass increased over the previous year; this resulted in decreased absolute value measures of resistance. There was no clear response pattern for resilience. We found that functional traits drove these changes in raw biomass: communities with a high proportion of late-season, short-statured plants with dense, shallow roots and small leaves grew more following the flood. Late-growing species probably avoided the flood, whereas greater root length density might have allowed species to better access soil resources brought from the flood, thus growing more in the aftermath. We conclude that resource inputs following mild floods may favour the importance of traits related to resource acquisition and be less associated with flooding tolerance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Species-rich networks and eco-evolutionary synthesis at the metacommunity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamichi, Masato; Guimarães, Paulo R; Olesen, Jens M; Mougi, Akihiko; Yoshida, Takehito; Thompson, John N

    2017-01-24

    Understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes interdependently structure biosphere dynamics is a major challenge in the era of worldwide ecosystem degradation. However, our knowledge of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' depends largely on findings from simple systems representing limited spatial scales and involving few species. Here we review recent conceptual developments for the understanding of multispecies coevolutionary processes and then discuss how new lines of concepts and methods will accelerate the integration of ecology and evolutionary biology. To build a research workflow for integrating insights into spatiotemporal dynamics of species-rich systems, we focus on the roles of 'metacommunity hub' species, whose population size and/or genetic dynamics potentially control landscape- or regional-scale phenomena. As large amounts of network data are becoming available with high-throughput sequencing of various host-symbiont, prey-predator, and symbiont-symbiont interactions, we suggest it is now possible to develop bases for the integrated understanding and management of species-rich ecosystems.

  2. Shrubs as ecosystem engineers across an environmental gradient: effects on species richness and exotic plant invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Magnoli, Susan M; Cushman, J Hall

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-engineering plants modify the physical environment and can increase species diversity and exotic species invasion. At the individual level, the effects of ecosystem engineers on other plants often become more positive in stressful environments. In this study, we investigated whether the community-level effects of ecosystem engineers also become stronger in more stressful environments. Using comparative and experimental approaches, we assessed the ability of a native shrub (Ericameria ericoides) to act as an ecosystem engineer across a stress gradient in a coastal dune in northern California, USA. We found increased coarse organic matter and lower wind speeds within shrub patches. Growth of a dominant invasive grass (Bromus diandrus) was facilitated both by aboveground shrub biomass and by growing in soil taken from shrub patches. Experimental removal of shrubs negatively affected species most associated with shrubs and positively affected species most often found outside of shrubs. Counter to the stress-gradient hypothesis, the effects of shrubs on the physical environment and individual plant growth did not increase across the established stress gradient at this site. At the community level, shrub patches increased beta diversity, and contained greater rarified richness and exotic plant cover than shrub-free patches. Shrub effects on rarified richness increased with environmental stress, but effects on exotic cover and beta diversity did not. Our study provides evidence for the community-level effects of shrubs as ecosystem engineers in this system, but shows that these effects do not necessarily become stronger in more stressful environments.

  3. Species richness of soil and leaf litter tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina/Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane R. Nelson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A large database now exists for tardigrades in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP consisting of 780 samples, 15,618 specimens, and 80 species including 14 new to science. We found 43 species of tardigrades in 150 soil/leaf litter samples. We calculated the Chao 1 species richness estimate with the species accumulation curve for the GSMNP and confirmed that our species list is virtually complete. Compared with soil data from mt. Fuji, Japan, estimated species richness in GSMNP was significantly higher. In our comparison of previous studies of soil/leaf litter tardigrades in other geographic areas, only the Kanagawa prefecture of Japan reported a higher number of species (47 than the GSMNP. Species richness estimators are valuable tools for comparing diversity in different habitats, even when sampling effort varies between studies.

  4. Different elevational patterns of rodent species richness between the southern and northern slopes of a mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Ling-Ying; Ren, Chun-Lei; Yan, Wen-Bo; Song, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Gao

    2017-08-18

    Studies on elevational gradients in biodiversity have accumulated in recent decades. However, few studies have compared the elevational patterns of diversity between the different slopes of a single mountain. We investigated the elevational distribution of rodent diversity (alpha and beta diversity) and its underlying mechanisms along the southern and northern slopes of Mt. Taibai, the highest mountain in the Qinling Mountains, China. The species richness of rodents on the two slopes showed distinct distribution patterns, with a monotonically decreasing pattern found along the southern slope and a hump-shaped elevational pattern evident along the northern slope. Multi-model inference suggested that temperature was an important explanatory factor for the richness pattern along the southern slope, and the mid-domain effect (MDE) was important in explaining the richness pattern along the northern slope. The two slopes also greatly differed in the elevational patterns of species turnover, with the southern slope demonstrating a U-shaped curve and the northern slope possessing a roughly hump-shaped pattern. Our results suggest that even within the same mountain, organisms inhabiting different slopes may possess distinct diversity patterns, and the underlying mechanisms may also differ. The potential role of the factors associated with slope aspect in shaping diversity, therefore, cannot be ignored.

  5. Diversity and biogeography of a species-rich ant fauna of the Australian seasonal tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Alan N; Hoffmann, Benjamin D; Oberprieler, Stefanie

    2016-09-15

    Although ants are an ecologically dominant and extensively studied faunal group throughout the tropics, there is a poor understanding of tropical ant diversity and distribution at large spatial scales. Here we use a collection developed from 3 decades of ant surveys to present the first analysis of ant diversity and biogeography of a large tropical region. Our objective was to document the species richness, composition, and biogeographic distributions of the ant fauna of the 400 000 km 2 "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory. The known Top End ant fauna comprises 901 native species from 59 genera. The richest genera are Pheidole (90 species), Melophorus (83), Monomorium (83), Camponotus (71), Meranoplus (63), Polyrhachis (57), Rhytidoponera (50), Tetramorium (43), Cerapachys (32), and Iridomyrmex (31). The fauna is the center of diverse radiations within species-groups of genera such as Meranoplus, Rhytidoponera, and Leptogenys. It also includes IndoMalayan species that have likely bypassed the normal dispersal route into Australia through Cape York Peninsula in North Queensland. Faunistic similarity with other regions of far northern Australia is associated more with rainfall than with geographic proximity. Most (60%) of Top End ant species have not been recorded elsewhere, and, despite uncertainties relating to species delimitation and sampling intensity, this appears to be a credible estimate of the level of endemism. Such exceptionally high endemism can be attributed to the Top End's geographic isolation from other regions of northern Australia with comparably high rainfall. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Environmental effects on vertebrate species richness: testing the energy, environmental stability and habitat heterogeneity hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explaining species richness patterns is a central issue in biogeography and macroecology. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms driving biodiversity patterns, but the causes of species richness gradients remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explain the impacts of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity factors on variation of vertebrate species richness (VSR, based on the VSR pattern in China, so as to test the energy hypothesis, the environmental stability hypothesis, and the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A dataset was compiled containing the distributions of 2,665 vertebrate species and eleven ecogeographic predictive variables in China. We grouped these variables into categories of energy, environmental stability, and habitat heterogeneity and transformed the data into 100 × 100 km quadrat systems. To test the three hypotheses, AIC-based model selection was carried out between VSR and the variables in each group and correlation analyses were conducted. There was a decreasing VSR gradient from the southeast to the northwest of China. Our results showed that energy explained 67.6% of the VSR variation, with the annual mean temperature as the main factor, which was followed by annual precipitation and NDVI. Environmental stability factors explained 69.1% of the VSR variation and both temperature annual range and precipitation seasonality had important contributions. By contrast, habitat heterogeneity variables explained only 26.3% of the VSR variation. Significantly positive correlations were detected among VSR, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and NDVI, whereas the relationship of VSR and temperature annual range was strongly negative. In addition, other variables showed moderate or ambiguous relations to VSR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The energy hypothesis and the environmental stability hypothesis were supported, whereas little

  7. Termite and earthworm abundance and taxonomic richness under long-term conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zida, Z.; Ouedraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable crop and soil management practices are major causes of soil degradation and declining soil biodiversity in West Africa. Identifying soil management practices that favor macrofauna abundance is highly desirable for long-term soil health. This study investigates the effects of long-term

  8. Low species richness of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Neotropical artificial urban water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter

    2011-01-01

    Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... of the water bodies of Quito and Bogota differed significantly. There was no correlation between sample similarities and distances among the sites either. The low number of taxa recorded can be attributed to the combination of naturally limited species pool and the heavy pollution in natural water bodies...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures...

  9. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Haffele

    Full Text Available Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5 mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC. The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32 plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years.

  10. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffele, Ryan D; Eichholz, Michael W; Dixon, Cami S

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5) mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC). The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding) of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32) plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha) locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC) in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years.

  11. Eco-evolutionary Model of Rapid Phenotypic Diversification in Species-Rich Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa Martín, Paula; Hidalgo, Jorge; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary and ecosystem dynamics are often treated as different processes -operating at separate timescales- even if evidence reveals that rapid evolutionary changes can feed back into ecological interactions. A recent long-term field experiment has explicitly shown that communities of competing plant species can experience very fast phenotypic diversification, and that this gives rise to enhanced complementarity in resource exploitation and to enlarged ecosystem-level productivity. Here, we build on progress made in recent years in the integration of eco-evolutionary dynamics, and present a computational approach aimed at describing these empirical findings in detail. In particular we model a community of organisms of different but similar species evolving in time through mechanisms of birth, competition, sexual reproduction, descent with modification, and death. Based on simple rules, this model provides a rationalization for the emergence of rapid phenotypic diversification in species-rich communities. Furthermore, it also leads to non-trivial predictions about long-term phenotypic change and ecological interactions. Our results illustrate that the presence of highly specialized, non-competing species leads to very stable communities and reveals that phenotypically equivalent species occupying the same niche may emerge and coexist for very long times. Thus, the framework presented here provides a simple approach -complementing existing theories, but specifically devised to account for the specificities of the recent empirical findings for plant communities- to explain the collective emergence of diversification at a community level, and paves the way to further scrutinize the intimate entanglement of ecological and evolutionary processes, especially in species-rich communities.

  12. Tree Species Abundance Predictions in a Tropical Agricultural Landscape with a Supervised Classification Model and Imbalanced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Graves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping species through classification of imaging spectroscopy data is facilitating research to understand tree species distributions at increasingly greater spatial scales. Classification requires a dataset of field observations matched to the image, which will often reflect natural species distributions, resulting in an imbalanced dataset with many samples for common species and few samples for less common species. Despite the high prevalence of imbalanced datasets in multiclass species predictions, the effect on species prediction accuracy and landscape species abundance has not yet been quantified. First, we trained and assessed the accuracy of a support vector machine (SVM model with a highly imbalanced dataset of 20 tropical species and one mixed-species class of 24 species identified in a hyperspectral image mosaic (350–2500 nm of Panamanian farmland and secondary forest fragments. The model, with an overall accuracy of 62% ± 2.3% and F-score of 59% ± 2.7%, was applied to the full image mosaic (23,000 ha at a 2-m resolution to produce a species prediction map, which suggested that this tropical agricultural landscape is more diverse than what has been presented in field-based studies. Second, we quantified the effect of class imbalance on model accuracy. Model assessment showed a trend where species with more samples were consistently over predicted while species with fewer samples were under predicted. Standardizing sample size reduced model accuracy, but also reduced the level of species over- and under-prediction. This study advances operational species mapping of diverse tropical landscapes by detailing the effect of imbalanced data on classification accuracy and providing estimates of tree species abundance in an agricultural landscape. Species maps using data and methods presented here can be used in landscape analyses of species distributions to understand human or environmental effects, in addition to focusing conservation

  13. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí, Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso. We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species, followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each. The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas, followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas. Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13°; p = 0.007. Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  14. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-02-01

    We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation) along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí), Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba) and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso). We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species), followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each). The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas), followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas). Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances) seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13 degrees; p = 0.007). Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  15. Simulating Species Richness Using Agents with Evolving Niches, with an Example of Galápagos Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall B. Boone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I sought to evolve plant species richness patterns on 22 Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, as an exploration of the utility of evolutionary computation and an agent-based approach in biogeography research. The simulation was spatially explicit, where agents were plant monocultures defined by three niche dimensions, lava (yes or no, elevation, and slope. Niches were represented as standard normal curves subjected to selection pressure, where neighboring plants bred if their niches overlapped sufficiently, and were considered the same species, otherwise they were different species. Plants that bred produced seeds with mutated niches. Seeds dispersed locally and longer distances, and established if the habitat was appropriate given the seed's niche. From a single species colonizing a random location, hundreds of species evolved to fill the islands. Evolved plant species richness agreed very well with observed plant species richness. I review potential uses of an agent-based representation of evolving niches in biogeography research.

  16. First record of bat-pollination in the species-rich genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, Pedro Adrián; MacSwiney G, M Cristina; Krömer, Thorsten; García-Franco, José G; Knauer, Anina; Kessler, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Bromeliaceae is a species-rich neotropical plant family that uses a variety of pollinators, principally vertebrates. Tillandsia is the most diverse genus, and includes more than one-third of all bromeliad species. Within this genus, the majority of species rely on diurnal pollination by hummingbirds; however, the flowers of some Tillandsia species show some characteristics typical for pollination by nocturnal animals, particularly bats and moths. In this study an examination is made of the floral and reproductive biology of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia macropetala in a fragment of humid montane forest in central Veracruz, Mexico. The reproductive system of the species, duration of anthesis, production of nectar and floral scent, as well as diurnal and nocturnal floral visitors and their effectiveness in pollination were determined. Tillandsia macropetala is a self-compatible species that achieves a higher fruit production through outcrossing. Nectar production is restricted to the night, and only nocturnal visits result in the development of fruits. The most frequent visitor (75 % of visits) and the only pollinator of this bromeliad (in 96 % of visits) was the nectarivorous bat Anoura geoffroyi (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae). This is the first report of chiropterophily within the genus Tillandsia. The results on the pollination biology of this bromeliad suggest an ongoing evolutionary switch from pollination by birds or moths to bats.

  17. Species richness effects on grassland recovery from drought depend on community productivity in a multisite experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Dengler, Jürgen; Walter, Julia; Velev, Nikolay; Ugurlu, Emin; Sopotlieva, Desislava; Ransijn, Johannes; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Nijs, Ivan; Hernandez, Pauline; Güler, Behlül; von Gillhaussen, Philipp; De Boeck, Hans J; Bloor, Juliette M G; Berwaers, Sigi; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A S; Apostolova, Iva; Altan, Yasin; Zeiter, Michaela; Wellstein, Camilla; Sternberg, Marcelo; Stampfli, Andreas; Campetella, Giandiego; Bartha, Sándor; Bahn, Michael; Jentsch, Anke

    2017-11-01

    Biodiversity can buffer ecosystem functioning against extreme climatic events, but few experiments have explicitly tested this. Here, we present the first multisite biodiversity × drought manipulation experiment to examine drought resistance and recovery at five temperate and Mediterranean grassland sites. Aboveground biomass production declined by 30% due to experimental drought (standardised local extremity by rainfall exclusion for 72-98 consecutive days). Species richness did not affect resistance but promoted recovery. Recovery was only positively affected by species richness in low-productive communities, with most diverse communities even showing overcompensation. This positive diversity effect could be linked to asynchrony of species responses. Our results suggest that a more context-dependent view considering the nature of the climatic disturbance as well as the productivity of the studied system will help identify under which circumstances biodiversity promotes drought resistance or recovery. Stability of biomass production can generally be expected to decrease with biodiversity loss and climate change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Elucidation of the chemical environment for zinc species in an electron-rich zinc-incorporated zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Li, Lu; Jiang, Yan-Mei; Guo, Xing-Xing; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    An electron-rich zinc-modified zeolite has been prepared by the incorporation of zinc vapor into the channels of a dehydrated HY (protonated zeolite Y). The chemical environment of the zinc species in the electron-rich zeolite has been elucidated on the basis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The formation of univalent zinc (Zn + ) within the electron-rich zeolite was observed upon the irradiation of X-ray from either a synchrotron radiation source or a conventional X-ray diffractometer. The X-ray irradiation initiated the electron transfer from the electron-rich framework of zeolite Y to the nearby Zn 2+ cations, generating Zn + species. The variation of the coordination environment of the zinc species upon interaction with water molecules has also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: The chemical environment of the zinc species in an electorn-rich zeolite has been elucidated on the basis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. - Highlights: • An electron-rich zinc-incorporated zeolite has been prepared by chemical vapor reaction. • Univalent zinc is detected after the electron-rich zeolite is irradiated with X-ray. • The chemical environment of the zinc species is elucidated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. • The coordination environment of the zinc species changes upon interaction with water molecules

  19. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E.; Estay, Sergio A.; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the ci...

  20. Hydrogen Abundances in Metal Grains from the Hammadah Al Hamra (HaH) 237 Metal-rich Chondrite: A Test of the Nebular-Formation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    The Bencubbin-like (CB) chondrites are metal-rich, primitive meteorites [1,2]. Some of these chondrites (HaH 237, QUE 94411) contain compositionally zoned metal grains with near-chondritic bulk compositions. Thermodynamic modeling of the zoning patterns in these grains suggests that they were formed by condensation in a region of the solar nebula with enhanced dust/gas ratios and a total pressure of 10(exp -4) bars at temperatures between 1400 - 1500 K [3]. If these predictions are correct than the metal grains would have been exposed to abundant H2 gas, which comprises the bulk of nebular systems. Since Fe-based alloys can absorb significant quantities of H, metal grains formed in the solar nebula should contain measurable abundances of H.

  1. Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Environmental correlates for tree occurrences, species distribution and richness on a high-elevation tropical island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Philippe; Ibanez, Thomas; Pouteau, Robin; Vandrot, Hervé; Hequet, Vanessa; Blanchard, Elodie; Jaffré, Tanguy

    2015-07-10

    High-elevation tropical islands are ideally suited for examining the factors that determine species distribution, given the complex topographies and climatic gradients that create a wide variety of habitats within relatively small areas. New Caledonia, a megadiverse Pacific archipelago, has long focussed the attention of botanists working on the spatial and environmental ranges of specific groups, but few studies have embraced the entire tree flora of the archipelago. In this study we analyse the distribution of 702 native species of rainforest trees of New Caledonia, belonging to 195 genera and 80 families, along elevation and rainfall gradients on ultramafic (UM) and non-ultramafic (non-UM) substrates. We compiled four complementary data sources: (i) herbarium specimens, (ii) plots, (iii) photographs and (iv) observations, totalling 38 936 unique occurrences distributed across the main island. Compiled into a regular 1-min grid (1.852 × 1.852 km), this dataset covered ∼22 % of the island. The studied rainforest species exhibited high environmental tolerance; 56 % of them were not affiliated to a substrate type and they exhibited wide elevation (average 891 ± 332 m) and rainfall (average 2.2 ± 0.8 m year(-1)) ranges. Conversely their spatial distribution was highly aggregated, which suggests dispersal limitation. The observed species richness was driven mainly by the density of occurrences. However, at the highest elevations or rainfalls, and particularly on UM, the observed richness tends to be lower, independently of the sampling effort. The study highlights the imbalance of the dataset in favour of higher values of rainfall and of elevation. Projected onto a map, under-represented areas are a guide as to where future sampling efforts are most required to complete our understanding of rainforest tree species distribution. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  3. Consumption of a diet rich in Brassica vegetables is associated with a reduced abundance of sulphate‐reducing bacteria: A randomised crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellingray, Lee; Tapp, Henri S.; Saha, Shikha; Doleman, Joanne F.; Narbad, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    Scope We examined whether a Brassica‐rich diet was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of intestinal lactobacilli and sulphate‐reducing bacteria (SRB), or alteration to the composition of the gut microbiota, in healthy adults. Methods and results A randomised crossover study was performed with ten healthy adults who were fed a high‐ and a low‐Brassica diet for 2‐wk periods, with a 2‐wk washout phase separating the diets. The high‐Brassica diet consisted of six 84 g portions of broccoli, six 84 g portions of cauliflower and six 300 g portions of a broccoli and sweet potato soup. The low‐Brassica diet consisted of one 84 g portion of broccoli and one 84 g portion of cauliflower. Faecal microbiota composition was measured in samples collected following 2‐wk Brassica‐free periods (consumption of all Brassica prohibited), and after each diet, whereby the only Brassica consumed was that supplied by the study team. No significant changes to the relative abundance of lactobacilli were observed (p = 0.8019). The increased consumption of Brassica was associated with a reduction in the relative abundance of SRB (p = 0.0215), and members of the Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Clostridium and unclassified Clostridiales (p Brassica vegetables was linked to a reduced relative abundance of SRB, and therefore may be potentially beneficial to gastrointestinal health. PMID:28296348