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Sample records for abundance discrepancy problem

  1. Binarity and the abundance discrepancy problem in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, Romano; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. We show here that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. This is illustrated by deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou5 have O++/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, but still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to "standard" hot (Te~10000 K) gas, a colder (Te~1000 K) ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements also exists. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 0.001 and 0.1 solar masses depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red-giant envelo...

  2. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Cipriano, L Toribio San; Domínguez-Guzmán, G; García-Rojas, J

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of HII regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint CII and OII recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^2+ abundances from recombination lines and O^2+ abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^2+ and C^2+, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other HII regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  3. Ionized gas diagnostics from protoplanetary discs in the Orion Nebula and the abundance discrepancy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa-Delgado, A; Esteban, C; García-Rojas, J; Flores-Fajardo, N; López-Martín, L; Tsamis, Y G; Henney, W J

    2012-01-01

    We present results from integral field spectroscopy with PMAS. The observed field contains: five protoplanetary discs (also known as proplyds), the high-velocity jet HH 514 and a bowshock. Spatial distribution maps are obtained for different emission line fluxes, the c(H{\\beta}) coefficient, electron densities and temperatures, ionic abundances of different ions from collisionally excited lines (CELs), C2+ and O2+ abundances from recombination lines (RLs) and the abundance discrepancy factor of O2+, ADF(O2+). We find that collisional de-excitation has a major influence on the line fluxes in the proplyds. If this is not properly accounted for then physical conditions deduced from commonly used line ratios will be in error, leading to unreliable chemical abundances for these objects. We obtain the intrinsic emission of the proplyds 177-341, 170-337 and 170-334 by a direct subtraction of the background emission, though the last two present some background contamination due to their small sizes. A detailed analys...

  4. Ionized gas diagnostics from protoplanetary discs in the Orion nebula and the abundance discrepancy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Delgado, A.; Núñez-Díaz, M.; Esteban, C.; García-Rojas, J.; Flores-Fajardo, N.; López-Martín, L.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Henney, W. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present results from integral field spectroscopy of a field located near the Trapezium Cluster using the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS). The observed field contains a variety of morphological structures: five externally ionized protoplanetary discs (also known as proplyds), the high-velocity jet HH 514 and a bowshock. Spatial distribution maps are obtained for different emission line fluxes, the c(Hβ) extinction coefficient, electron densities and temperatures, ionic abundances of different ions from collisionally excited lines (CELs), C2 + and O2 + abundances from recombination lines (RLs) and the abundance discrepancy factor of O2 +, ADF(O2 +). We distinguish the three most prominent proplyds (177-341, 170-337 and 170-334) and analyse their impact on the spatial distributions of the above mentioned quantities. We find that collisional de-excitation has a major influence on the line fluxes in the proplyds. If this is not properly accounted for then physical conditions deduced from commonly used line ratios will be in error, leading to unreliable chemical abundances for these objects. We obtain the intrinsic emission of the proplyds 177-341, 170-337 and 170-334 by a direct subtraction of the background emission, though the last two present some background contamination due to their small sizes. A detailed analysis of 177-341 spectra making use of suitable density diagnostics reveals the presence of high-density gas (3.8 × 105 cm-3) in contrast to the typical values observed in the background gas of the nebula (3800 cm-3). We also explore how the background subtraction could be affected by the possible opacity of the proplyd and its effect on the derivation of physical conditions and chemical abundances of the proplyd 177-341. We construct a physical model for the proplyd 177-341 finding a good agreement between the predicted and observed line ratios. Finally, we find that the use of reliable physical conditions returns an ADF(O2 +) about zero

  5. The [Fe IV] Discrepancy: Constraining the Iron Abundances in Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, M; Einert, Thomas; Lipowsky, Peter; Schilling, Jorg; Bowick, Mark; Bausch, Andreas; Rodriguez, Monica; Rubin, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    We study the current discrepancy between the model-predicted and measured concentrations of Fe++ and Fe3+ in ionized nebulae. We calculate a set of photoionization models, updated with the atomic data relevant to the problem, and compare their results with those derived for the available nebulae where both [Fe III] and [Fe IV] lines have been measured. Our new model results are closer to the measured values than the results of previous calculations, but a discrepancy remains. This discrepancy translates into an uncertainty in the derived Fe abundances of a factor up to ~4. We explore the possible causes of this discrepancy and find that errors in the Fe atomic data may be the most likely explanation. The discrepancy can be fully accounted for by any of the following changes: (1) an increase by a factor of ~10 in the recombination rate (radiative plus dielectronic, or charge transfer) for Fe3+, (2) an increase by a factor of 2-3 in the effective collision strengths for Fe++, or (3) a decrease by a factor of 2-...

  6. Can solid body destruction explain abundance discrepancies in planetary nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, William J

    2010-01-01

    In planetary nebulae, abundances of oxygen and other heavy elements derived from optical recombination lines are systematically higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines. We investigate the hypothesis that the destruction of solid bodies may produce pockets of cool, high-metallicity gas that could explain these abundance discrepancies. Under the assumption of maximally efficient radiative ablation, we derive two fundamental constraints that the solid bodies must satisfy in order that their evaporation during the planetary nebula phase should generate a high enough gas phase metallicity. A local constraint implies that the bodies must be larger than tens of meters, while a global constraint implies that the total mass of the solid body reservoir must exceed a few hundredths of a solar mass. This mass greatly exceeds the mass of any population of comets or large debris particles expected to be found orbiting evolved low- to intermediate-mass stars. We therefore conclude that contemporaneous sol...

  7. Discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundance: Insight from information retrieval process in computers

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Degeng

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancy between the abundance of cognate protein and RNA molecules is frequently observed. A theoretical understanding of this discrepancy remains elusive, and it is frequently described as surprises and/or technical difficulties in the literature. Protein and RNA represent different steps of the multi-stepped cellular genetic information flow process, in which they are dynamically produced and degraded. This paper explores a comparison with a similar process in computers - multi-step inf...

  8. NGC 6778: Strengthening the link between extreme abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David; García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L M; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical spectra of the nearby, bright, planetary nebula NGC 6778. The nebula has been known to emit strong recombination lines for more than 40 years but this is the first detailed study of its abundances. Heavy element abundances derived from recombination lines are found to exceed those from collisionally excited lines by a factor of ~20 in an integrated spectrum of the nebula, which is among the largest known abundance discrepancy factors. Spatial analysis of the spectra shows that the abundance discrepancy factor is strongly, centrally peaked, reaching ~40 close to the central star. The central star of NGC 6778 is known to be a short period binary, further strengthening the link between high nebular abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity.

  9. Small scale behavior of the physical conditions and the abundance discrepancy in the Orion nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa-Delgado, Adal; Gracía-Rojas, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    We present results of long-slit spectroscopy in several positions of the Orion nebula. Our goal is to study the spatial distribution of a large number of nebular quantities, including line fluxes, physical conditions and ionic abundances at a spatial resolution of about 1". We find that protoplanetary disks (proplyds) show prominent spikes of T([N II]) probably produced by collisional deexcitation due to the high electron densities found in these objects. Herbig-Haro objects show also relatively high T([N II]) but probably produced by local heating due to shocks. We also find that the spatial distribution of pure recombination O II and [O III] lines is fairly similar, in contrast to that observed in planetary nebulae. The abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) of O^{++} remains rather constant along the slit positions, except in some particular small areas of the nebula where this quantity reaches somewhat higher values, in particular at the location of the most conspicuous Herbig-Haro objects: HH 202, HH 203, an...

  10. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies, victimization and the development of late childhood internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, J.M.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Lier, P.A.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  11. The primordial deuterium abundance problems and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Kegel, W H; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Takahara, Fumio; Kegel, Wilhelm H.

    1997-01-01

    The current status of extragalactic deuterium abundance is discussed using two examples of `low' and `high' D/H measurements. We show that the discordance of these two types of D abundances may be a consequence of the spatial correlations in the stochastic velocity field. Within the framework of the generalized procedure (accounting for such effects) one finds good agreement between different observations and the theoretical predictions for standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN). In particular, we show that the deuterium absorption seen at z = 2.504 toward Q1009+2956 and the H+D Ly-alpha profile observed at z = 0.701 toward Q1718+4807 are compatible with D/H $\\sim 4.1 - 4.6\\times10^{-5}$. This result supports SBBN and, thus, no inhomogeneity is needed. The problem of precise D/H measurements is discussed.

  12. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.

  13. The abundance discrepancy factor and t^2 in nebulae: are non-thermal electrons the culprits?

    CERN Document Server

    Ferland, G J; ODell, C R; Peimbert, M

    2016-01-01

    Photoionization produces supra-thermal electrons, electrons with much more energy than is found in a thermalized gas at electron temperatures characteristic of nebulae. The presence of these high energy electrons may solve the long-standing t^2/ADF puzzle, the observations that abundances obtained from recombination and collisionally excited lines do not agree, and that different temperature indicators give different results, if they survive long enough to affect diagnostic emission lines. The presence of these non-Maxwellian distribution electrons is usually designated by the term kappa. Here we use well-established methods to show that the distance over which heating rates change are much longer than the distance supra thermal electrons can travel, and that the timescale to thermalize these electrons are much shorter than the heating or cooling timescales. These estimates establish that supra thermal electrons will have disappeared into the Maxwellian velocity distribution long before they affect the collis...

  14. SOLUTION OF BACKWARD HEAT PROBLEM BY MOROZOV DISCREPANCY PRINCIPLE AND CONDITIONAL STABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Consider a 1-D backward heat conduction problem with Robin boundary condition. We recover u(x, 0) and u(x, to) for to ∈ (0, T) from the measured data u(x, T)respectively. The first problem is solved by the Morozov discrepancy principle for which a 3-order iteration procedure is applied to determine the regularizing parameter. For the second one, we combine the conditional stability with the Tikhonov regularization together to construct the regularizing solution for which the convergence rate is also established. Numerical results are given to show the validity of our inversion method

  15. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems under -condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Thamban Nair

    2015-05-01

    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz constant to depend on a source condition is one such restriction (Ramlau P, Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 23(1&22) (2003) 147–172). Another nonlinearity condition considered by Scherzer (Computing, 51 (1993) 45–60) was by requiring the forward operator to be close to a linear operator in a restricted sense. A seemingly natural nonlinear assumption which appears in many applications which attracted attention in various contexts of the study of nonlinear problems is the so-called -condition. However, a Morozov-type discrepancy principle together with -condition does not seem to have been studied, except in a recent paper by the author (Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 79 (2009) 337–342), where error estimates under a general source condition is derived, by assuming the existence of the parameter. In this paper, the existence of the parameter satisfying a Morozov-type discrepancy principle is proved under the -condition on the forward operator, by assuming the source condition as in the papers of Scherzer (Computing, 51 (1993) 45–60) and Ramlau (Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 23(1&22) (2003) 147–172). This source condition is, in fact, a special case of the source condition in the author’s paper (Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 79 (2009) 337–342).

  16. The Helium abundance problem and non-minimally coupled quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuelei

    2000-01-01

    There is a tension between observed Helium abundance and the prediction of the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We show that non-minimally quintessence model may help to reduce this tension between theory and observation.

  17. Species abundance patterns : the problem of testing stochastic models

    OpenAIRE

    Bersier, Louis-Félix; Sugihara, George

    2009-01-01

    1. Tokeshi (1990) proposed a goodness-of-fit test to distinguish among a general class of stochastic species abundance models using field data. This test is a good first step, but it is impaired by some shortcomings: there is no adjustment for the number of species (the rejection rate increases with the number of species in a data set); the variance of the generated abundance distributions are not taken into account (data sets with higher variance than a model are not rejected). 2. We pro...

  18. The "Solar Model Problem" Solved by the Abundance of Neon in Stars of the Local Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, J J D P

    2005-01-01

    The interior structure of the Sun can be studied with great accuracy using observations of its oscillations, similar to seismology of the Earth. Precise agreement between helioseismological measurements and predictions of theoretical solar models has been a triumph of modern astrophysics (Bahcall et al. 2005). However, a recent downward revision by 25-35% of the solar abundances of light elements such as C, N, O and Ne (Asplund et al. 2004) has broken this accordance: models adopting the new abundances incorrectly predict the depth of the convection zone, the depth profiles of sound speed and density, and the helium abundance (Basu Antia 2004, Bahcall et al. 2005). The discrepancies are far beyond the uncertainties in either the data or the model predictions (Bahcall et al. 2005b). Here we report on neon abundances relative to oxygen measured in a sample of nearby solar-like stars from their X-ray spectra. They are all very similar and substantially larger than the recently revised solar value. The neon abund...

  19. An optimal order yielding discrepancy principle for simplified regularization of ill-posed problems in Hilbert scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Tautenhahn and Hämarik (1999 have considered a monotone rule as a parameter choice strategy for choosing the regularization parameter while considering approximate solution of an ill-posed operator equation Tx=y, where T is a bounded linear operator between Hilbert spaces. Motivated by this, we propose a new discrepancy principle for the simplified regularization, in the setting of Hilbert scales, when T is a positive and selfadjoint operator. When the data y is known only approximately, our method provides optimal order under certain natural assumptions on the ill-posedness of the equation and smoothness of the solution. The result, in fact, improves an earlier work of the authors (1997.

  20. The solar abundance problem: the effect of the turbulent kinetic flux on the solar envelope model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q S

    2014-01-01

    Recent 3D-simulations have shown that the turbulent kinetic flux (TKF) is significant. We discuss the effects of TKF on the size of convection zone and find that the TKF may help to solve the solar abundance problem. The solar abundance problem is that, with new abundances, the solar convection zone depth, sound speed in the radiative interior, the helium abundance and density in the convective envelope are not in agreement with helioseismic inversions. We have done Monte Carlo simulations on solar convective envelope models with different profile of TKF to test the effects. The solar abundance problem is revealed in the standard solar convective envelope model with AGSS09 composition, which shows significant differences ($\\rm{\\sim 10 %}$) on density from the helioseicmic inversions, but the differences in the model with old composition GN93 is small ($\\rm{\\sim 0.5 %}$). In the testing models with different imposed TKF, it is found that the density profile is sensitive to the value of TKF at the base of conve...

  1. A panorama of discrepancy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastav, Anand; Travaglini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy theory concerns the problem of replacing a continuous object with a discrete sampling. Discrepancy theory is currently at a crossroads between number theory, combinatorics, Fourier analysis, algorithms and complexity, probability theory and numerical analysis. There are several excellent books on discrepancy theory but perhaps no one of them actually shows the present variety of points of view and applications covering the areas "Classical and Geometric Discrepancy Theory", "Combinatorial Discrepancy Theory" and "Applications and Constructions". Our book consists of several chapters, written by experts in the specific areas, and focused on the different aspects of the theory. The book should also be an invitation to researchers and students to find a quick way into the different methods and to motivate interdisciplinary research.

  2. Solar models with accretion. I. Application to the solar abundance problem

    CERN Document Server

    Serenelli, Aldo M; Pena-Garay, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We generate new standard solar models using newly analyzed nuclear fusion cross sections and present results for helioseismic quantities and solar neutrino fluxes. We discuss the status of the solar abundance problem and investigate whether nonstandard solar models with accretion from the protoplanetary disk might alleviate the problem. We examine a broad range of possibilities, analyzing both metal-enriched and metal-depleted accretion models and exploring three scenarios for the timing of the accretion. Only partial solutions are found: one can bring either the depth of the convective zone or the surface helium abundance into agreement with helioseismic results, but not both simultaneously. In addition, detailed results for solar neutrino fluxes show that neutrinos are a competitive source of information about the solar core and can help constrain possible accretion histories of the Sun. Finally, we briefly discuss how measurements of solar neutrinos from the CN-cycle could shed light on the interaction bet...

  3. Circle discrepancy for checkerboard measures

    CERN Document Server

    Kolountzakis, Mihail N

    2012-01-01

    Consider the plane as a union of congruent unit squares in a checkerboard pattern, each square colored black or white in an arbitrary manner. The discrepancy of a curve with respect to a given coloring is the difference of its white length minus its black length, in absolute value. We show that for every radius t>1 there exists a full circle of radius either t or 2t with discrepancy greater than ct^(1/2) for some numerical constant c>0. We also show that for every t>1 there exists a circular arc of radius exactly t with discrepancy greater than ct^(1/2). Finally we investigate the corresponding problem for more general curves and their interiors. These results answer questions posed by Kolountzakis and Iosevich.

  4. The primordial and evolutionary abundance variations in globular-cluster stars: a problem with two unknowns

    CERN Document Server

    Denissenkov, Pavel; Hartwick, David; Herwig, Falk; Weiss, Achim; Paxton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Abundances of the proton-capture elements and their isotopes in globular-cluster stars correlate with each other in such a manner as if their variations were produced in high-temperature hydrogen burning at the same time in the past. In addition to these primordial abundance variations, the RGB stars in globular clusters, like their field counterparts, show the evolutionary variations of the C and N abundances and 12C/13C isotopic ratio. The latter are caused by extra mixing operating in the RGB star's radiative zone that separates the H-burning shell from the bottom of its convective envelope. We demonstrate that among the potential sources of the primordial abundance variations in globular-cluster stars proposed so far, such as the hot-bottom burning in massive AGB stars and H burning in the convective cores of supermassive and fast-rotating massive MS stars, only the supermassive MS stars with M > 10,000 Msun can explain all the abundance correlations without any fine-tuning of free parameters. We use our ...

  5. Discrepancy and backjumping heuristics for flexible job shop scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Hmida, Abir; Haouari, Mohamed; Huguet, Marie-José; Lopez, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an improved discrepancy-based method, called CDDS, after being adapted to solve the flexible job shop problem in a precedent work. We propose applying discrepancy on some pertinent variables chosen by using two types of heuristics. The method is tested on different problem instances from literature.

  6. Isotope abundance measurements. A key to an exotic problem solving: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the paleotemperature measurements carried out by Urey and Epstein, early in the nineteen fifties, isotope abundance measurements have developed outside the boundary of research. They have become in the European Union an official method for food analysis. In France, customs employ them to find the origin of seized drugs. Frauds, such as 'chaptalization' (i.e. adding sugar to wine), are detected by isotope analysis. Disulfur monoxide, S2O, was discovered during the investigation of the mass spectrometer background when analysing sulphur dioxide isotope composition from masses 64 to 72. At the request of our meteorological bureau we investigated the formation and isotopic compositions of hailstones. It was possible to correlate deuterium contents to the formation temperature and to draw trajectories of hailstones within clouds where they grew. A growth model, NMR (Nief, Merlivat, Roth), was established. 18O and deuterium analysis were carried out on the same hailstone samples to validate this model, that implied equilibrium between vapour and condensed phases within hail forming clouds. Additional confirmation of some results could be found in tritium measurements. Also, the formation of deuterium by spallation had a further consequence: the study of this formation by reaction of the 'solar wind' on meteorites that can be used to measure the time spent by a meteorite within the solar system. We shall briefly discuss, among less frequent applications of isotope measurements, the losses of water, from closed or semi closed water pools, by evaporation and other causes. Such investigations have mainly been performed in arid countries. (author)

  7. Monsoon definition discrepancies in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, M. A.; Chu, P.-S.

    2012-04-01

    This study applies different definitions of what previous authors have called the monsoon over Bangladesh. The aim is to identify the definitions that most resemble the perceptions of the local rural communities and how they define the monsoon. Considering how the local communities define the monsoon is extremely important since these populations are most vulnerable to future changes in climate and more specifically monsoon rainfall. It has been pointed out previously that the monsoon research community had not reached a consensus on a unified definition of the monsoon rainy season. This problem seems to be profound in Bangladesh where results from the application of different definitions show very large discrepancies. Since these discrepancies exist, confusing terms such as monsoon, summer rainy season, and monsoon rainy season can have large implications for impact studies and interpretations of future climate projections. The results in this paper show that these terms need to be explicitly and carefully defined with regards to Bangladesh. Wind-, rain- and OLR-based definitions are applied to several different datasets to show how large these discrepancies can be over Bangladesh. Differences in onset dates are found to be around 8-9 pentads (40-45 days) in some regions of the country. The largest differences are seen in the north-east region, where rain-based definitions give much earlier onsets than wind- or OLR-based definitions. The results show that mesoscale phenomena could be influencing the climate in the north-east part of Bangladesh and causing much earlier summer rainfall. According to the results from a previous social study, the local communities in fact consider this early rainfall as the monsoon onset. By identifying the definition that best resembles the local community perceptions through out Bangladesh, then future information can be constructed, so that it is more easily understood by and applicable to the millions of people climate change will

  8. 235Cf anti ν discrepancy and the sulfur discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cantankerous discrepancy among measured values of anti ν for 235Cf appears at last to be nearing a final resolution. A recent review has summarized the progress that has been achieved through revaluation upward by 0.5% of two manganese bath values anti ν and the performance of a new liquid scintillator measurement. A new manganese bath measurement at INEL is in reasonably good agreement with previous manganese bath values of 235Cf anti ν. It now appears that the manganese bath values could still be systematically low by as much as 0.4% because the BNL-325 thermal absorption cross section for sulfur may be as much as 10% low. There is a bona fide discrepancy between measurements of the sulfur cross section by pile oscillators and the values derived from transmission measurements. The resolution of this discrepancy is a prerequisite to the final resolution of the 235Cf anti ν discrepancy. 22 references

  9. Discrepancies Between Quarterly GDP Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan M. Bloem

    1997-01-01

    Countries compiling quarterly estimates for gross domestic product (GDP) often use alternative approaches simultaneously. This may result in the publication of different measures of quarterly GDP and discrepancies between these measures. Such discrepancies are unavoidable, unless reconciliation takes place or the measures are mutually interdependent. This paper examines international practices in this respect, focusing on OECD member countries that publish quarterly GDP data. Of these, five p...

  10. On the discrepancy of coloring finite sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hajela

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a subset S of {1,…,n} and a map X:{1,…,n}→{−1,1}, (i.e. a coloring of {1,…,n} with two colors, say red and blue define the discrepancy of S with respect to X to be dX(S=|∑i∈SX(i| (the difference between the reds and blues on S. Given n subsets of {1,…,n}, a question of Erdos was to find a coloring of {1,…,n} which simultaneously minimized the discrepancy of the n subsets. We give new and simple proofs of some of the results obtained previously on this problem via an inequality for vectors.

  11. Learning about physical parameters: the importance of model discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science-based simulation models are widely used to predict the behavior of complex physical systems. It is also common to use observations of the physical system to solve the inverse problem, that is, to learn about the values of parameters within the model, a process which is often called calibration. The main goal of calibration is usually to improve the predictive performance of the simulator but the values of the parameters in the model may also be of intrinsic scientific interest in their own right. In order to make appropriate use of observations of the physical system it is important to recognize model discrepancy, the difference between reality and the simulator output. We illustrate through a simple example that an analysis that does not account for model discrepancy may lead to biased and over-confident parameter estimates and predictions. The challenge with incorporating model discrepancy in statistical inverse problems is being confounded with calibration parameters, which will only be resolved with meaningful priors. For our simple example, we model the model-discrepancy via a Gaussian process and demonstrate that through accounting for model discrepancy our prediction within the range of data is correct. However, only with realistic priors on the model discrepancy do we uncover the true parameter values. Through theoretical arguments we show that these findings are typical of the general problem of learning about physical parameters and the underlying physical system using science-based mechanistic models. (paper)

  12. Imaging with Kantorovich--Rubinstein Discrepancy

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We propose the use of the Kantorovich-Rubinstein norm from optimal transport in imaging problems. In particular, we discuss a variational regularization model endowed with a Kantorovich- Rubinstein discrepancy term and total variation regularization in the context of image denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition. We point out connections of this approach to several other recently proposed methods such as total generalized variation and norms capturing oscillating patterns. We also show that the respective optimization problem can be turned into a convex-concave saddle point problem with simple constraints and hence can be solved by standard tools. Numerical examples exhibit interesting features and favorable performance for denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition.

  13. Bin Packing via Discrepancy of Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Rothvoß, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A well studied special case of bin packing is the 3-partition problem, where n items of size >1/4 have to be packed in a minimum number of bins of capacity one. The famous Karmarkar-Karp algorithm transforms a fractional solution of a suitable LP relaxation for this problem into an integral solution that requires at most O(log n) additional bins. The three-permutations-conjecture of Beck is the following. Given any 3 permutations on n symbols, one can color the symbols red and blue, such that in any interval of any of those permutations, the number of red and blue symbols differs only by a constant. Beck's conjecture is well known in the field of discrepancy theory. We establish a surprising connection between bin packing and Beck's conjecture: If the latter holds true, then the additive integrality gap of the 3-partition linear programming relaxation is bounded by a constant. This result indicates that improving approximability results for bin packing requires a better understanding of discrepancy theory.

  14. A General Abundance Problem for All Self-Enrichment Scenarios for the Origin of Multiple Populations in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, Nate; Salaris, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    A number of stellar sources have been advocated as the origin of the enriched material required to explain the abundance anomalies seen in ancient globular clusters (GCs). Most studies to date have compared the yields from potential sources (asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs), fast rotating massive stars (FRMS), high mass interacting binaries (IBs), and very massive stars (VMS)) with observations of specific elements that are observed to vary from star-to-star in GCs, focussing on extreme GCs such as NGC 2808, which display large He variations. However, a consistency check between the results of fitting extreme cases with the requirements of more typical clusters, has rarely been done. Such a check is particularly timely given the constraints on He abundances in GCs now available. Here we show that all of the popular enrichment sources fail to reproduce the observed trends in GCs, focussing primarily on Na, O and He. In particular, we show that any model that can fit clusters like NGC 2808, will necessarily...

  15. Discrepant LSAT Subscores. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    This study investigated the overall prevalence of discrepant Law School Admission Test (LSAT) subscores, their differential incidence for subgroups of examinees, and the psychometric properties of alternative measures of discrepant performance. The sample consisted of 39,350 examinees who took the LSAT in December 1991. Subscore differences, often…

  16. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  17. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  18. Hardness of discrepancy computation and epsilon-net verification in high dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Giannopoulos, Panos; Wahlström, Magnus; Werner, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Discrepancy measures how uniformly distributed a point set is with respect to a given set of ranges. There are two notions of discrepancy, namely continuous discrepancy and combinatorial discrepancy. Depending on the ranges, several possible variants arise, for example star discrepancy, box discrepancy, and discrepancy of half-spaces. In this paper, we investigate the hardness of these problems with respect to the dimension d of the underlying space. All these problems are solvable in time {n^O(d)}, but such a time dependency quickly becomes intractable for high-dimensional data. Thus it is interesting to ask whether the dependency on d can be moderated. We answer this question negatively by proving that the canonical decision problems are W[1]-hard with respect to the dimension. This is done via a parameterized reduction from the Clique problem. As the parameter stays linear in the input parameter, the results moreover imply that these problems require {n^\\Omega(d)} time, unless 3-Sat can be solved in {2^o(n...

  19. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  20. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  1. Real vs. Ideal Self Discrepancy in Bulimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosak, Karen

    Bulimia is an eating disorder prevalent among young women, characterized by binge eating episodes followed by purging with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. To determine whether bulimic women exhibit a greater discrepancy between their perceived and ideal selves than do nonbulimics, three samples of women were assessed.…

  2. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  3. Resolving the Discrepancy of Low-Mass Stars with IGRINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Andrew; Kraus, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Observed properties of low-mass stars (M solar msses) have been found to be in disagreement with stellar models, the observed radii being inflated and the observed temperatures being too low. To study this discrepancy, we are observing a sample of low-mass eclipsing binaries using the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory as well as the LCOGT network to increase the number of well-characterized systems. We are also using IGRINS, a new high resolution (R=40,000) IR (H+K) spectrograph on the 2.7-m HJST, to measure the fundamental stellar parameters (Teff, R, M, abundances, activity) of a sample of eclipsing binaries consisting of two low-mass components. Finally, to calibrate these eclipsing binaries, we are observing a temperature calibration sample of single M dwarfs with precise temperature measurements from interferometry and a metallicity calibration sample of M dwarfs in wide binaries with solar-type stars. Relationships between these parameters will help us better understand the discrepancy between models and observed properties of low-mass stars.

  4. Self-discrepancy in body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Kinderman, Peter; Riley, Susan; Lambrou, Christina

    2003-01-01

    According to self-discrepancy theory (SDT), depression, social anxiety, eating disorders and paranoia result from different types of conflicting self-beliefs. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) consists of a preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in one's appearance, which is often associated with a depressed mood and social anxiety. SDT was therefore applied to BDD patients to further understand their beliefs about their appearance.

  5. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  6. Culture-Led Discrepancies and Negotiating Conflicts in Strategic Outsourcing Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing and alliance collaboration have become prominent features of the global economy. Empirical studies demonstrate that outsourcing alliances are often not as successful as their initiators expect them to be. National cultural differences are frequently viewed as a crucial factor when...... such alliances fail. While empirical studies are abundant, theoretical frameworks that explicate the role of national cultural differences in shaping the dynamics of outsourcing alliances are rare. This article builds on Kumar and Nti's (1998) discrepancy model to specify how culture affects the dynamics...... of outsourcing alliances. We suggest that national cultural differences give rise to process and outcome discrepancies in outsourcing alliances. Notably, outsourcing alliances evolve through three stages–formation, operation and outcome–with discrepancies arising in each of these stages (Das & Teng, 2002). We...

  7. Linking Cognition to Cognitive Dissonance through Scientific Discrepant Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. Rauch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this workshop and paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will develop skills in the areas of observation, cognition/meta-cognition with emphasis on critical thinking, decision making and problem solving. Simultaneously, this endeavour is designed to stimulate one‟s curiosity and thereby provide motivation to learn. These are accomplished through the learning style methodology with emphasis on interactive instructional resources addressing a multi-modality approach to teaching and learning. It will be shown that discrepant events impact thinking with respect to problem solving. The aforementioned is demonstrated with the use of gravity, molecular structure and optical illusions. The workshop presenters will show how cognitive dissonance, precipitated within each of these constituents, fosters curiosity and therefore provides an ideal motivational component for exploration.

  8. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  9. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family. PMID:27295041

  10. Meat-consumption statistics: reliability and discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Börjesson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in meat consumption and its impact on the environment and health has grown markedly over the last few decades and this upsurge has led to greater demand for reliable data. This article aims to describe methods for producing meat-consumption statistics and discuss their limitations and strengths; to identify uncertainties in statistics and to estimate their individual impact; to outline how relevant data are produced and presented at the national (Swedish, regional (Eurostat, and international (FAOSTAT levels; to analyze the consequences of identified discrepancies and uncertainties for estimating the environmental and health effects of meat consumption; and to suggest recommendations for improved production, presentation, and use of meat-consumption statistics. We demonstrate many inconsistencies in how meat-consumption data are produced and presented. Of special importance are assumptions on bone weight, food losses and waste, weight losses during cooking, and nonmeat ingredients. Depending on the methods employed to handle these ambiguous factors, per capita meat-consumption levels may differ by a factor of two or more. This finding illustrates that knowledge concerning limitations, uncertainties, and discrepancies in data is essential for a correct understanding, interpretation, and use of meat-consumption statistics in, for instance, dietary recommendations related to health and environmental issues.

  11. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between Hα and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurlan, B.; Hamann, W.-R.; Aret, A.; Kubát, J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Recent studies of O-type stars have demonstrated that discrepant mass-loss rates are obtained when different diagnostic methods are employed. Fitting the unsaturated UV resonance lines (e.g., P v) gives drastically lower values than obtained from the Hα emission. Wind inhomogeneity (so-called "clumping") may be the main cause of this discrepancy. Aims: In a previous paper, we presented 3D Monte-Carlo calculations for the formation of scattering lines in a clumped stellar wind. In the present paper we select five O-type supergiants (from O4 to O7) and test whether the reported discrepancies can be resolved this way. Methods: In the first step, the analyses started with simulating the observed spectra with Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE model atmospheres. The mass-loss rates are adjusted to fit to the observed Hα emission lines best. For the unsaturated UV resonance lines (i.e., P v) we then applied our 3D Monte-Carlo code, which can account for wind clumps of any optical depths ("macroclumping"), a non-void interclump medium, and a velocity dispersion inside the clumps. The ionization stratifications and underlying photospheric spectra were adopted from the PoWR models. The properties of the wind clumps were constrained by fitting the observed resonance line profiles. Results: Our results show that with the mass-loss rates that fit Hα (and other Balmer and He ii lines), the UV resonance lines (especially the unsaturated doublet of P v) can also be reproduced with no problem when macroclumping is taken into account. There is no need to artificially reduce the mass-loss rates or to assume a subsolar phosphorus abundance or an extremely high clumping factor, unlike what was claimed by other authors. These consistent mass-loss rates are lower by a factor of 1.3 to 2.6, compared to the mass-loss rate recipe from Vink et al. Conclusions: Macroclumping resolves the previously reported discrepancy between Hα and P v mass-loss diagnostics. Based on

  12. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  13. Discrepant hardening observed in cosmic-ray elemental spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinin, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, J; Nam, S; Nutter, S L; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y; 10.1088/2041-8205/714/1/L89

    2010-01-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment launched five times from Antarctica has achieved a cumulative flight duration of about 156 days above 99.5% of the atmosphere. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors designed to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical with balloon flights. All elements from protons to iron nuclei are separated with excellent charge resolution. Here we report results from the first two flights of ~70 days, which indicate hardening of the elemental spectra above ~200 GeV/nucleon and a spectral difference between the two most abundant species, protons and helium nuclei. These results challenge the view that cosmic-ray spectra are simple power laws below the so-called knee at ~1015 eV. This discrepant hardening may result from a relatively nearby source, or it could represent spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. Other possible ...

  14. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Desmond, Harry

    2016-01-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of dark-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 14 statistics which quantify its four most important features: its shape, its scatter, the presence of a "characteristic acceleration scale," and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in $\\Lambda$CDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data (Lelli, McGaugh & Schombert 2016), we find: 1) The approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; 2) Even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the...

  15. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  16. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniel, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-23

    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  17. Close to the Dredge: Precise X-ray C and N Abundances in lambda Andromeda and its Precocious RGB Mixing Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, J J; Eldridge, John J; Ness, J -U; Stancliffe, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Chandra LETG+HRC-S and XMM-Newton RGS spectra of H-like C and N formed in the corona of the lambda And primary star, a mildly metal-poor G8 III-IV first ascent giant that completed dredge-up ~50 Myr ago, have been used to make a precise measurement of its surface C/N ratio. We obtain the formal result [C/N]=0.03+/-0.07, which is typical of old disk giants and in agreement with standard dredge-up theory for stars of about 1 M_sun or lower. In contrast, these stars as a group, including lambda And, have 12C/13C ~< 20, which is much lower than standard model predictions. We show that the abundances of the old disk giants are consistent with models including thermohaline mixing that begins at the red giant branch luminosity function "bump". Instead, lambda And indicates that the 12C/13C anomaly can be present immediately following dredge-up, contrary to current models of extra mixing on the red giant branch.

  18. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  19. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  20. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pena-Garay, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (new) solar metallicity determinations. The uncertainties in iron and carbon abundances are the largest contribution to the uncertainties of the solar neutrino fluxes. The uncertainty on the ^14N+p -> ^15O+g rate is the largest of the non-composition uncertainties to the CNO neutrino fluxes. We propose an independent method to help identify which SSM is the correct one. Present neutrino data can not distinguish the solar neutrino predictions of both models but ongoing measurements can help to solve the puzzle.

  1. Optimal Private Halfspace Counting via Discrepancy

    CERN Document Server

    Muthukrishnan, S

    2012-01-01

    A range counting problem is specified by a set $P$ of size $|P| = n$ of points in $\\mathbb{R}^d$, an integer weight $x_p$ associated to each point $p \\in P$, and a range space ${\\cal R} \\subseteq 2^{P}$. Given a query range $R \\in {\\cal R}$, the target output is $R(\\vec{x}) = \\sum_{p \\in R}{x_p}$. Range counting for different range spaces is a central problem in Computational Geometry. We study $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithms for range counting. Our main results are for the range space given by hyperplanes, that is, the halfspace counting problem. We present an $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithm for halfspace counting in $d$ dimensions which achieves $O(n^{1-1/d})$ average squared error. This contrasts with the $\\Omega(n)$ lower bound established by the classical result of Dinur and Nissim [PODS 2003] for arbitrary subset counting queries. We also show a matching lower bound on average squared error for any $(\\epsilon, \\delta)$-differentially private algorithm for hal...

  2. Stochastic model for the species abundance problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pigolotti, Simone; Flammini, Alessandro; Maritan, Amos

    2004-01-01

    We propose a model based on coupled multiplicative stochastic processes to understand the dynamics of competing species in an ecosystem. This process can be conveniently described by a Fokker-Planck equation. We provide an analytical expression for the marginalized stationary distribution. Our solution is found in excellent agreement with numerical simulations and compares rather well with observational data from tropical forests. Award-winning

  3. Anxiety, self-discrepancy, and regulatory focus theory: acculturation matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has found that Asians (vs. Caucasians) exhibit higher levels of ought and undesired self-discrepancies and prevention focus, all of which have been linked with anxiety. We examined these ethnic differences in the context of acculturation. Participants (N=155) completed two sessions scheduled a week apart. In Session 1, participants completed a computer task to measure self-discrepancy and prevention focus. In Session 2, participants' ought self-discrepancies and closeness to an undesired self were primed. Moderation analyses indicated that Asian participants who were highly assimilated to an Asian culture exhibited higher levels of a prevention focus. Acculturation also had significant moderation effects for affect when self-discrepancies were primed. Our results suggest that interventions based on these systems (i.e., self-system therapy) should consider acculturation when treating diverse individuals.

  4. Are Discrepancies in RANS Modeled Reynolds Stresses Random?

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Heng; Wang, Jian-xun; Paterson, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    In the turbulence modeling community, significant efforts have been made to quantify the uncertainties in the Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) models and to improve their predictive capabilities. Of crucial importance in these efforts is the understanding of the discrepancies in the RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. However, to what extent these discrepancies can be predicted or whether they are completely random remains a fundamental open question. In this work we used a machine learning algorithm based on random forest regression to predict the discrepancies. The success of the regression--prediction procedure indicates that, to a large extent, the discrepancies in the modeled Reynolds stresses can be explained by the mean flow feature, and thus they are universal quantities that can be extrapolated from one flow to another, at least among different flows sharing the same characteristics such as separation. This finding has profound implications to the future development of RANS models, opening up new ...

  5. Entropy discrepancy and total derivatives in trace anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Faraji Astaneh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we address the discrepancy found by Hung, Myers and Smolkin between the holographic calculation of entanglement entropy (using the Jacobson–Myers functional for the holographic minimal surface and the CFT trace anomaly calculation if one uses the Wald prescription to compute the entropy in six dimensions. As anticipated in our previous work [1] the discrepancy originates entirely from a total derivative term present in the trace anomaly in six dimensions.

  6. Patients' perception of leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Alice; Hill, Janet; Orr, John; Humphreys, Patricia; Rooney, Aidan; Morrow, Esther; Beverland, David

    2015-01-01

    Perception of a leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common sources of patient dissatisfaction and can have a direct influence on the considered success of the operation.This research examined postoperative perception of imposed limb discrepancies in a group of THA patients compared to a group of participants with no previous hip surgery. Two subgroups of THA patients were involved: those who did not perceive a difference in limb length following THA and those that did.Discrepancies were imposed in 2.5 mm increments. For discrepancies ≥5 mm, a significant number of participants were aware of a difference (74%). There was no significant difference in perception of imposed discrepancies between THA patients and participants with no previous hip surgery. THA patients who perceived a difference in their limb lengths postoperatively had significantly worse pain and oxford scores when compared to THA patients who perceived their limb lengths to be equal. Knowing the boundaries between LLDs that go undetected and those that patients are aware of could guide surgeons when evaluating the balance between correct soft tissue tension and the resulting unequal leg length. From these findings, discrepancies >5 mm are likely to be perceived. Whether this perception would lead directly to a negative outcome score and patient dissatisfaction is more complex to project and likely to be patient specific. Intraoperative methods to aid the controlled positioning of implanted components could help maintain and restore leg length to within an acceptable amount that patients cannot perceive.

  7. THE DISCREPANT KINEMATICS OF ORLs AND CELs IN NGC 7009 AS A FUNCTION OF IONIZATION STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Michael G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 106, 22800 Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Georgiev, Leonid; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, CP 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Arrieta, Anabel, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: silvia@astroscu.unam.mx, E-mail: anabel.arrieta@ibero.mx [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, CP 01210 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2013-08-20

    We present spatially and velocity-resolved echelle spectroscopy for NGC 7009 obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. Our objective is to analyze the kinematics of emission lines excited by recombination and collisions with electrons to determine whether similarities or differences could be useful in elucidating the well-known abundance discrepancy derived from them. We construct position-velocity maps for recombination, fluorescence, charge transfer, and collisionally excited lines. We find a plasma component emitting in the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II recombination lines whose kinematics are discrepant: they are incompatible with the ionization structure derived from all other evidence and the kinematics derived from all of these lines are unexpectedly very similar. We find direct evidence for a recombination contribution to [N II] {lambda}5755. Once taken into account, the electron temperatures from [N II], [O III], and [Ne III] agree at a given position and velocity. The electron densities derived from [O II] and [Ar IV] are consistent with direct imaging and the distribution of hydrogen emission. The kinematics of the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II lines does not coincide with the kinematics of the [O III] and [Ne III] forbidden emission, indicating that there is an additional plasma component to the recombination emission that arises from a different volume from that giving rise to the forbidden emission from the parent ions within NGC 7009. Thus, the chemical abundances derived from either type of line are correct only for the plasma component from which they arise. Apart from [N II] {lambda}5755, we find no anomaly with the forbidden lines usually used to determine chemical abundances in ionized nebulae, so the abundances derived from them should be reliable for the medium from which they arise.

  8. College students' self-discrepancy on the Internet, from the perspectives of desktop practices, self-control, and academic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-10-01

    The self-discrepancy theory argues that perceived discrepancy between one's actual self and ideal self may induce anxiety, and that this in turn may motivate people to reduce or eliminate this perceived discrepancy by changing their behaviors. Based on this theory, this study investigated how college students perceived discrepancies between their actual and their reported ideal uses of the Internet. Their Internet use was examined on three levels: the grand level (i.e., hours spent online per week), the activity level (i.e., hours spent engaging in certain online activities per week), and the tool level (i.e., hours spent using certain Internet tools per week). Three particular factors were also selected for investigation: the participants' different desktop practices, levels of academic training, and exertions of self-control. The results indicate that the participants' perceptions of actual versus ideal discrepancies were shaped by the different levels (i.e., grand, activity, tool) of their Internet use. Additionally, this study shows that perceived self-discrepancy relating to the time that college students spend on the Internet may not be a problem in itself, but it may symbolize more profound psychological or behavioral factors that need to be addressed.

  9. The Cocoon Nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Esteban, C

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Main sequence massive stars embedded in an HII region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula, a close-by Galactic HII region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to perform a detailed comparison of nebular and stellar abundances in the same Galactic HII region. We investigate the chemical content of O, N and S in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of its ionizing B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. We collect spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high resolution optical spectrum of its ionizing star. Stand...

  10. Catheterization-Doppler discrepancies in nonsimultaneous evaluations of aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghassi, Payam; Aurigemma, Gerard P; Folland, Edward D; Tighe, Dennis A

    2005-05-01

    Prior validation studies have established that simultaneously measured catheter (cath) and Doppler mean pressure gradients (MPG) correlate closely in evaluation of aortic stenosis (AS). In clinical practice, however, cath and Doppler are rarely performed simultaneously; which may lead to discrepant results. Accordingly, our aim was to ascertain agreement between these methods and investigate factors associated with discrepant results. We reviewed findings in 100 consecutive evaluations for AS performed in 97 patients (mean age 72 +/- 10 yr) in which cath and Doppler were performed within 6 weeks. We recorded MPG, aortic valve area (AVA), cardiac output, and ejection fraction (EF) by both methods. Aortic root diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVIDd) and posterior wall thickness (PWT) were measured by echocardiography and gender, heart rate, and heart rhythm were also recorded. An MPG discrepancy was defined as an intrapatient difference > 10 mmHg. Mean pressure gradients by cath and Doppler were 36 +/- 22 mmHg and 37 +/- 20 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.73). Linear regression showed good correlation (r = 0.82) between the techniques. An MPG discrepancy was found in 36 (36%) of 100 evaluations; in 19 (53%) of 36 evaluations MPG by Doppler was higher than cath, and in 17 (47%) of 36, it was lower. In 33 evaluations, EF differed by >10% between techniques. Linear regression analyses revealed that EF difference between studies was a significant predictor of MPG discrepancy (P = 0.004). Women had significantly higher MPG than men by both cath and Doppler (43 +/- 25 mmHg versus 29 +/- 15 mmHg [P = 0.001]; 42 +/- 23 mmHg versus 32 +/- 15 mmHg [P = 0.014], respectively). Women exhibited discrepant results in 23 (47%) of 49 evaluations versus 13 (25%) of 51 evaluations in men (P = 0.037). After adjustment for women's higher MPG, there was no statistically significant difference in MPG discrepancy between genders (P = 0.22). No significant interactions between

  11. Revised element abundances for WC-type central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Todt, H; Hamann, W -R

    2007-01-01

    According to previous spectral analyses of Wolf-Rayet type central stars, late [WC] subtypes show systematically higher carbon-to-helium abundance ratios than early [WC] subtypes. If this were true, it would rule out that these stars form an evolutionary sequence. However, due to the different parameter domains and diagnostic lines, one might suspect systematic errors being the source of this discrepancy. In an ongoing project we are therefore checking the [WC] analyses by means of the last generation of non-LTE models for expanding stellar atmospheres which account for line-blanketing and wind clumping. So far, the abundance discrepancy is not resolved. Further element abundances (H, N, Fe) are determined and compared with evolutionary predictions.

  12. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. PMID:26835591

  13. Organ donation in Belgium: discrepancy between offer and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, R

    1987-01-01

    Belgium shows one of the highest numbers of patients with terminal renal failure, treated by means of dialysis, compared to other European countries. Transplantation accounts for only one third of the therapeutic modalities in these patients. As the number of new patients, presenting with terminal renal failure, is equally rising, an always growing discrepancy exists between offered kidneys and patients, desperately waiting for these organs. The same holds true for other organs, as heart, pancreas and liver. This study examines the multiple causes that induce this growing discrepancy and points to some solutions and suggestions that can deal with it. PMID:3303774

  14. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, Karoly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or dis

  15. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  16. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  17. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  18. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  19. On the stability of cationic complexes of neon with helium--solving an experimental discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Peter; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2013-10-21

    Helium nanodroplets are doped with neon and ionized by electrons. The size-dependence of the ion abundance of HenNex(+), identified in high-resolution mass spectra, is deduced for complexes containing up to seven neon atoms and dozens of helium atoms. Particularly stable ions are inferred from anomalies in the abundance distributions. Two pronounced anomalies at n = 11 and 13 in the HenNe(+) series confirm drift-tube data reported by Kojima et al. [T. M. Kojima et al., Z. Phys. D, 1992, 22, 645]. The discrepancy with previously published spectra of neon-doped helium droplets, which did not reveal any abundance anomalies [T. Ruchti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 10679-10687; C. A. Brindle et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 064312], is most likely due to limited mass resolution, which precluded unambiguous analysis of contributions from different ions with identical nominal mass. However, calculated dissociation energies of HenNe(+) reported so far do not correlate with the present data, possibly because of challenges in correctly treating the linear, asymmetric [He-Ne-He](+) ionic core in HenNe(+). Anomalies identified in the distributions of HenNex(+) for x > 1, including prominent ones at He12Ne2(+) and He14Ne2(+), may help to better understand solvation of Ne(+) and Nex(+) in helium.

  20. Are gravitational constant measurement discrepancies linked to galaxy rotation curves ?

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancies between recently reported experimental values of the gravitational constant were analysed within an inertia interpretation of MOND theory. According to this scenario the relative gravitational acceleration between a test mass and an array of source masses determines the magnitude of post Newtonian corrections at small magnitudes of acceleration. The analysis was applied to one of the most advanced recent Cavendish-type experiment which revealed an experimental value for the gravitational constant of 180 ppm above the current CODATA value with more than five standard deviations significance. A remarkable agreement between this discrepancy and the acceleration anomalies inherent of galaxy rotation curves was found by a consistent extrapolation within the framework of MOND. This surprising result suggests that the two anomalies on totally different length scales may originate from the same underlying physics.

  1. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  2. A biometric approach to predictable treatment of clinical crown discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Stephen J

    2007-08-01

    Dental professionals have long been guided by mathematical principles when interpreting aesthetic and tooth proportions for their patients. While many acknowledge that such principles are merely launch points for a smile design or reconstructive procedure, their existence appears to indicate practitioners' desire for predictable, objective, and reproducible means of achieving success in aesthetic dentistry. This article introduces innovative aesthetic measurement gauges as a means of objectively quantifying tooth size discrepancies and enabling the clinician to perform aesthetic restorative dentistry with success and predictability.

  3. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond, Harry

    2016-01-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of dark-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 14 statistics which quantify its four most important features: its shape, its scatter, the presence of a "characteristic acceleration scale," and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in $\\...

  4. Credit spread discrepancies between European rated and unrated corporate bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Tuominen, Minna

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: As the increasing regulation in the banking industry is pushing Europe towards more vivid capital markets, also an increasing portion of mid-cap companies without official credit ratings are extending their funding sources towards the bond markets. In this thesis, I study whether credit risk is equally well depicted in the prices of European unrated and rated bonds, or whether credit spread discrepancies between the two occur. DATA AND METHODOLOGY: In the ...

  5. Implications of the discrepancy between proton form factor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Arrington, J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent polarization transfer measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factors yield very different results from previous Rosenbluth extractions. This inconsistency implies uncertainties in our knowledge of the form factors and raises questions about how to best combine data from these two techniques. If the discrepancy is due to missing correction to the cross section data, as has been suggested, then different applications will require the use of different form factors. We present two...

  6. Prevalence of tooth size discrepancy among North Indian orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy (TSD in a representative orthodontics population, to explore how many millimeters of TSD is clinically significant and to determine the ability of simple visual inspection to detect such a discrepancy. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 150 pretreatment study casts with fully erupted and complete permanent dentitions from first molar to first molar, which were selected randomly from records of the orthodontic patients. The mesiodistal diameters of the teeth were measured at contact points using digital calipers and the Bolton′s analysis was carried out on them. Simple visual estimation of Bolton discrepancy was also performed. Results: In the sample group, 24% of the patients had anterior tooth width ratios and 8% had total arch ratios greater than ±2 standard deviation (SD from Bolton′s means. For the anterior analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 24% of patients in the upper arch or 14% in the lower arch. For the total arch analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 36% of patients in the upper arch or 32% in the lower arch. Conclusion: Bolton′s analysis should be routinely performed in all orthodontic patients and the findings should be included in orthodontic treatment planning. 2 mm of the required tooth size correction is an appropriate threshold for clinical significance. Visual estimation of TSD has low sensitivity and specificity. Careful measurement is more frequently required in clinical practice than visual estimation would suggest.

  7. Metal Abundances of KISS Galaxies. V. Nebular Abundances of Fifteen Intermediate Luminosity Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschauer, Alec S; Bresolin, Fabio; Saviane, Ivo; Yegorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    We present high S/N spectroscopy of 15 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) cataloged in the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS), selected for their possession of high equivalent width [O III] lines. The primary goal of this study was to attempt to derive direct-method ($T_e$) abundances for use in constraining the upper-metallicity branch of the $R_{23}$ relation. The spectra cover the full optical region from [O II]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}3726,3729 to [S III]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}9069,9531 and include the measurement of [O III]{\\lambda}4363 in 13 objects. From these spectra, we determine abundance ratios of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon. We find these galaxies to predominantly possess oxygen abundances in the range of 8.0 $\\lesssim$ 12+log(O/H) $\\lesssim$ 8.3. We present a comparison of direct-method abundances with empirical SEL techniques, revealing several discrepancies. We also present a comparison of direct-method oxygen abundance calculations using electron temperatures determined from e...

  8. Fe-peak element abundances in disk and halo stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria

    2009-01-01

    At present none of Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models provides a self-consistent description of observed trends for all iron-peak elements with metallicity simultaneously. The question is whether the discrepancy is due to deficiencies of GCE models, such as stellar yields, or due to erroneous spectroscopically-determined abundances of these elements in metal-poor stars. The present work aims at a critical reevaluation of the abundance trends for several odd and even-Z Fe-peak elements, which are important for understanding explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

  9. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Magurran, A.E; Henderson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in l...

  10. A reflection on radiographic cephalometry: the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duterloo, Herman S

    2014-09-01

    A critical review is presented of the basic properties and applications of cephalometry as a clinical tool with a focus on the evaluation of sagittal discrepancy. Diagnostic cephalometric assessments are subjective and not based on evidence. To assess individual skeletal and/or facial soft tissue form subjectively, selected norms are used. Norms have been developed for various ethnical groups to improve clinical applicability, but subjectivity remains. That subjectivity precludes application of a modern review system, making the present review a personal account. The cephalometric evaluation of sagittal discrepancy finds its historic origin in the Angle classification. Recent publications try to improve accuracy in classifying sagittal discrepancy. It remains unclear in what sense such efforts influence treatment decisions and/or treatment effect. Almost all selected landmarks are located on or dependent upon periosteal/endosteal bone image contours. Their homology is based on circumstantial reasoning and stability over time, which is implicitly assumed. However, implant growth studies and histological investigations show most landmarks to be unstable, as they are involved in displacement and bone remodelling. These landmarks are therefore heterologous when used for individual evaluation of change over time. Notwithstanding the above-indicated limitations, diagnostic cephalometric assessments are clinically useful and help to develop perceptions of balance and harmony and communication between colleagues and patients. There is no evidence-based method to prefer one particular diagnostic method. Landmark location accuracy and geometric issues do not play a decisive role. The subjective characteristic of diagnostic evaluations limits their power to size/shape comparisons. Structural superimposition is the valid biologically evidence-based method to provide advanced insight in individual growth and/or treatment changes and their variations. PMID:24521748

  11. Comparison of Tooth Size Discrepancy in Cl II Malocclusion Patients with Normal Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There must be a proper mesiodistal tooth size ratio (Bolton analysis between maxillary and mandibular teeth for good occlusal interdigitation. Therefore the Bolton analysis should be considered during diagnosis, treatment planning and predication of ultimate results.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to appraise tooth size ratios in Cl II malocclusion group and compare them with normal individuals. Materials and Method: This study was carried out on 60 pre-treatment orthodontic casts of class II malocclusion patients and 60 diagnostic casts of normal occlusion individuals which were selected through cluster sampling in accordance with the selective criteria. Each group consisted of 30 men and 30 women. The greatest mesiodistal diameters of all the teeth on each cast were measured by a digital calliper with 0.01mm accuracy except the second and third molars. Then tooth size ratios were analyzed as Bolton described. The statistical analysis were performed by chi-square and t-tests using SPSS. Results: The prevalence of anterior and overall tooth size discrepancy was rela-tively high (28.3%, 20%, showing no significant difference between men and women (p> 0.05. The mean of anterior and overall tooth- size ratios in Cl II malocclusion group were 79.18 and 92.39 respectively, which were statistically different from the Bolton study (ideal occlusion ratios (p 0.05.Conclusion: Considering the high frequency of tooth size discrepancy among CLII patients and the significant difference in Bolton ratios between this malocclusion and ideal occlusions; it seems that tooth size discrepancy can be considered as a possible etiologic factor and Bolton analysis should be performed as a pre-treatment diagnostic tool for this type of malocclusion.

  12. Discrepancies in perceptions of close relationships of young adolescents: a risk for psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L; Van Lier, Pol A C; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M

    2015-04-01

    Discrepancies between children and partners (e.g., parents, friends, peers) in reports of social functioning and self-other relationships are common in clinical practice and in research. However, it is not clear whether children's biased perceptions of self-other relationships, relative to the reports of partners, are predominantly a reflection of underlying psychological dysfunctions or whether these biased perceptions present a risk factor for subsequent problematic development. This longitudinal study therefore examined the effects of adolescent-mother disagreement and adolescent-best friend disagreement in perceptions of close (dyadic) relationships on the development of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample included 497 thirteen year-old adolescents of Dutch-Caucasian backgrounds (57 % boys; 41 % at high risk for externalizing problems), their mothers, and self-nominated best friends. The participants completed reports of positive dyadic relationship quality (warmth) in Grade 7. Discrepancy scores were based on difference scores between the adolescents' versus the partners' reports. Both absolute disagreement and direction of disagreement (i.e., over- or underestimation relative to the relationship partner) were examined. Self-reported symptoms of depression and mother-reported aggression were assessed in Grade 7, 8, and 9. Absolute disagreement in perceptions of warmth between adolescents and best friends was significantly related to higher baseline levels of aggression. No significant effects of discrepancy scores on growth curves of symptoms of depression and aggression were found. The results may suggest that it is more important for adolescents to develop positive perceptions of close relationships than to agree with partners on the quality of the relationship. PMID:25451864

  13. SVD, discrepancy, and regular structure of contingency tables

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    We will use the factors obtained by correspondence analysis to find biclustering of a contingency table such that the row-column cluster pairs are regular, i.e., they have small discrepancy. In our main theorem, the constant of the so-called volume-regularity is related to the SVD of the normalized contingency table. Our result is applicable to two-way cuts when both the rows and columns are divided into the same number of clusters, thus extending partly the result of Butler estimating the di...

  14. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  15. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  16. Reporter Discrepancies among Parents, Adolescents, and Peers: Adolescent Attachment and Informant Depressive Symptoms as Explanatory Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude; Dykas, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive…

  17. Discrepancies in Reporting of Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…

  18. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  19. The Regression-Based Discrepancy Definition of Learning Disability: A Critical Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though…

  20. Discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li; QIU Zhi-hong; WEI Wei-li; LIU Bo; XU Xiang-huai; L(U) Han-jing; QIU Zhong-min

    2011-01-01

    Background The current diagnostic algorithms for chronic cough require the establishment of the primary presumptive causes followed by the confirmation of diagnosis with the specific therapies.The aim of the study was to investigate the discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes and its clinical implication.Methods A total of 109 patients with chronic cough underwent laboratory investigations to identify the cause of cough; including sinus computerized tomography (if needed),histamine bronchial provocation,induced sputum cytology and 24-hour esophageal pH or multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring.The presumptive causes were confirmed by treating them sequentially.The difference between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough was compared.Results Single cause was more frequent in the definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (78.9% vs.54.1%,x2=15.01,P=0.0001).In contrast,multiple causes were significantly fewer in definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (15.6% vs.37.6%,x2=13.53,P=0.0002).There was a discrepancy between definite and presumptive causes in 30 patients (27.5%).Compared with the presumptive causes,definite upper airway cough syndrome (24.8% vs.11.9%,x2=6.0,P=0.01) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (6.4% vs.0,x2=7.23,P=0.007) was more frequent as a single cause of chronic cough while cough variant asthma plus gastroesophageal reflux disease (3.7% vs.11.9%,x2=5.17,P=0.02) and upper airway cough syndrome plus nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (0 vs.9.2%,x2=10.48,P=0.001) were fewer as multiple causes of chronic cough.Conclusions A discrepancy was common between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough.To treat presumptive causes sequentially may be a suitable solution for avoidance of erroneous multiple causes and possible over-treatment.

  1. The mass discrepancy problem in O stars of solar metallicity. Does it still exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Markova, N

    2014-01-01

    Using own and literature data for a large sample of O stars in the Milky Way, we investigate the correspondence between their spectroscopic and evolutionary masses, and try to put constraints on various parameters that might influence the estimates of these two quantities.

  2. Adaptive Elements of Aging: Self-Image Discrepancy, Perfectionism, and Eating Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Carrie E.; Bybee, Jane A.

    2007-01-01

    Age-related changes in personality variables that may contribute to the reduction of symptoms of eating disorders with adult development were examined. Undergraduate sorority women (n = 52; mean age = 19.85 years) were compared with alumnae of the same sorority (n = 34; mean age = 33.74 years). Eating pathology was correlated with greater…

  3. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting. PMID:27052661

  4. Some Properties of a Measure of Information Discrepancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shun-lan; FANG Wei-wu

    2002-01-01

    Based on a group of axioms, a measure of information discrepancyamong multiple information sources has been introduced in [7,8, 10] and it possesses some peculiar properties compared with other measures of information discrepancy, so it can be used in some areas, where the traditional measures are not valid or not efficient, for example, in the study of DNA sequence comparison, prediction of protein structure class, evidence analysis, questionnaire analysis, and so on. In this paper, using the optimization techniques,we prove that it is a distance function and show that it is also an approximation of x2 function. These two properties will stimulate further applications of the measure to information processing and system analysis.

  5. Genomic Position Mapping Discrepancies of Commercial SNP Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The field of genetics has come to rely heavily on commercial genotyping arrays and accompanying annotations for insights into genotype-phenotype associations. However, in order to avoid errors and false leads, it is imperative that the annotation of SNP chromosomal positions is accurate and unamb......The field of genetics has come to rely heavily on commercial genotyping arrays and accompanying annotations for insights into genotype-phenotype associations. However, in order to avoid errors and false leads, it is imperative that the annotation of SNP chromosomal positions is accurate...... and unambiguous. We report on genomic positional discrepancies of various SNP chips for human, cattle and mouse species, and discuss their causes and consequences....

  6. A note on the resolution of the entropy discrepancy

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    It is found by Hung, Myers and Smolkin that there is entropy discrepancy between the field theoretical and the holographic results for the CFTs in 6d spacetime. Recently, there appears two different proposals for the resolution of this puzzle. One proposes to use the anomaly of entropy and the generalized Wald entropy to resolve the HMS puzzle. While the other one suggests to use the entropy of total derivatives to explain the HMS mismatch. We investigate these two proposals carefully in this note. By studying the example of Einstein gravity, we find that it is the proposal of [2] rather than the one of [3,4] that can solve the HMS puzzle. Besides, we find that there is arbitrariness in the derivations of Wald entropy. And only the total entropy is well-defined.

  7. Discrepancies in expert decision-making in forensic fingerprint examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse professional fingerprint examiners' investigative practices in the context of discrepancy decisions concerning challenging latents during fingerprint analysis and identification. The participants were fingerprint experts from the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The data were from five audio-recorded "discrepancy meetings" where two examiners were discussing the rationale and justification for their differing interpretations of challenging and distorted fingerprint evidence. The meetings were chaired by the quality manager of the fingerprint group, who also in the first author of this article. The research questions addressed were as follows: What does the examiner see in the latent fingerprints? What does the examiner actively do with the latents? How were decisions made during the investigative process? In accordance with Goodwin's professional vision framework, the results revealed how the participants used partial and limited information in making judgments about the difficult and distorted latents. The examiners appeared to be involved in active, constructive efforts, mentally, to repair poor latents by supplementing with missing information. They also highlighted various aspects of latents by colour coding as well as manipulated fingerprint images in several ways so as to make the significant patterns easier to recognize. Because the methods and practices of characterizing latents were only vaguely specified, the examiners used locally developed ad hoc practices to facilitate their investigations, ending up with different interpretations. It is concluded in the article that the fingerprint community in Finland should make strong efforts to develop the methods of fingerprint investigation and determine clearer criteria for decision making and documentation practices. Furthermore, the interpretations made by fingerprint experts should be made more transparent to the customers

  8. O, Na, Ba and Eu abundance patterns in open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, B T; Lattanzio, J

    2014-01-01

    Open clusters are historically regarded as single-aged stellar populations representative of star formation within the Galactic disk. Recent literature has questioned this view, based on discrepant Na abundances relative to the field, and concerns about the longevity of bound clusters contributing to a selection bias: perhaps long-lived open clusters are chemically different to the star formation events that contributed to the Galactic disk. We explore a large sample of high resolution Na, O, Ba & Eu abundances from the literature, homogenized as much as reasonable including accounting for NLTE effects, variations in analysis and choice of spectral lines. Compared to a template globular cluster and representative field stars, we find no significant abundance trends, confirming that the process producing the Na-O anti-correlation in globular clusters is not present in open clusters. Furthermore, previously reported Na-enhancement of open clusters is found to be an artefact of NLTE effects, with the open cl...

  9. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. PMID:25219802

  10. Abundances in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard (or mildly inhomogeneous) Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory is well confirmed by abundance measurements of light elements up to 7Li and the resulting upper limit to the number of neutrino families confirmed in accelerator experiments. Extreme inhomogeneous models with a closure density in form of baryons seem to be ruled out and there is no evidence for a cosmic 'floor' to 9Be or heavier elements predicted in some versions of those models. Galaxies show a correlation between luminous mass and abundance of carbon and heavier elements, usually attributed to escape of hot gas from shallow potential wells. Uncertainties include the role of dark matter and biparametric behaviour of ellipticals. Spirals have radial gradients which may arise from a variety of causes. In our own Galaxy one can distinguish three stellar populations - disk, halo and bulge - characterised by differing metallicity distribution functions. Differential abundance effects are found among different elements in stars as a function of metallicity and presumably age, notably in the ratio of oxygen and α-particle elements to iron. These may eventually be exploitable to set a time scale for the formation of the halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  11. Interstellar Atomic Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, E B

    2003-01-01

    A broad array of interstellar absorption features that appear in the ultraviolet spectra of bright sources allows us to measure the abundances and ionization states of many important heavy elements that exist as free atoms in the interstellar medium. By comparing these abundances with reference values in the Sun, we find that some elements have abundances relative to hydrogen that are approximately consistent with their respective solar values, while others are depleted by factors that range from a few up to around 1000. These depletions are caused by the atoms condensing into solid form onto dust grains. Their strengths are governed by the volatility of compounds that are produced, together with the densities and velocities of the gas clouds. We may characterize the depletion trends in terms of a limited set of parameters; ones derived here are based on measurements of 15 elements toward 144 stars with known values of N(H I) and N(H2). In turn, these parameters may be applied to studies of the production, de...

  12. Discrepâncias na imagem corporal e na dieta de obesos Self-discrepancy in body image and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Kanno; Misael Rabelo; Gislane Ferreira Melo; Adriana Giavoni

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a discrepância entre a imagem real e a imagem ideal de indivíduos obesos e procurou relacionar possíveis alterações no comportamento alimentar na busca desse corpo ideal. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 25 sujeitos, sendo 76% do sexo feminino e idade média de 39,24 (desviopadrão=5,01) anos. Dois instrumentos foram utilizados: a Escala de Aparência Física, cuja análise fatorial extraiu um único fator "Aparência Física" com precisão de α=0,74 para mulheres...

  13. Discrepancy of whiteness and UV protection in wet state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population. The back sides in men and women, as well as the lower limbs in women, are the most common site for melanomas. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. There are indications that other parts of solar spectrum (e.g., blue light) might also have effects on skin and eyes. Most people think all clothing will protect them, but that's not the case. UV clothing can show UVprotection, but in the most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such are type of fiber, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For that reason, jeans and tightly woven fabrics offer a very good level of protection. However, on a hot summer day, those aren't the kinds of clothing people usually reach for. More often, when they are on the beach, they wear T-shirt, as well during the swimming in the sea, thinking that it will protect them. Therefore, in this paper the discrepancy of UVprotection in wet state was researched. For the purpose, FWA and UVabsorber were applied in wide concentration range to white cotton knit fabrics commonly used for T-shirts. Afterwards, the discrepancy in whiteness and UVprotection was research in distilled water

  14. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, microwave anisotropy, and the light element abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coc, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS/IN2P3/UPS, Bat. 104, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Angulo, C. [Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Universite catholique de Louvain, Chemin du cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vangioni-Flam, E. [lnstitut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 98bis Bd. Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Descouvemont, P. [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Adahchour, A. [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-18

    From the observations of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the WMAP satellite has provided a determination of the baryonic density of the Universe, with an unprecedented precision: 4%. This imposes a careful reanalysis of the standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) calculations. In a recent paper, we used the R-matrix theory to fit S-factor data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We derived the reaction rates with associated uncertainties, which were evaluated on statistical grounds (available at http://pntpm3.ulb.ac.be/bigbang). Combining these BBN results with the {omega}bh2 value from WMAP, we deduced the light element ({sup 4}He, D, {sup 3}He and {sup 7}Li) primordial abundances and compare them with spectroscopic observations. There is a very good agreement with deuterium observed in cosmological clouds, which strengthens the confidence on the estimated baryonic density of the Universe. However, there is a discrepancy between the deduced {sup 7}Li abundance and the one observed in halo stars of our Galaxy, supposed, until now, to represent the primordial abundance of this isotope. The origin of this discrepancy, observational, nuclear or more fundamental remains to be clarified. The possible role of the up to now neglected {sup 7}Be(d,p)2{alpha} and {sup 7}Be(d,{alpha}){sup 5}Li reactions is considered and we present here a dedicated experiment performed at Louvain-la-Neuve to measure these cross sections.

  15. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, microwave anisotropy, and the light element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coc, A.; Angulo, C.; Vangioni-Flam, E.; Descouvemont, P.; Adahchour, A.

    2005-04-01

    From the observations of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the WMAP satellite has provided a determination of the baryonic density of the Universe, with an unprecedented precision: 4%. This imposes a careful reanalysis of the standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) calculations. In a recent paper, we used the R-matrix theory to fit S-factor data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We derived the reaction rates with associated uncertainties, which were evaluated on statistical grounds (available at http://pntpm3.ulb.ac.be/bigbang). Combining these BBN results with the Ωbh2 value from WMAP, we deduced the light element (4He, D,3He and 7Li) primordial abundances and compare them with spectroscopic observations. There is a very good agreement with deuterium observed in cosmological clouds, which strengthens the confidence on the estimated baryonic density of the Universe. However, there is a discrepancy between the deduced 7Li abundance and the one observed in halo stars of our Galaxy, supposed, until now, to represent the primordial abundance of this isotope. The origin of this discrepancy, observational, nuclear or more fundamental remains to be clarified. The possible role of the up to now neglected 7Be(d,p)2α and 7Be(d,α)5Li reactions is considered and we present here a dedicated experiment performed at Louvain-la-Neuve to measure these cross sections.

  16. Apresentação de um programa de computador para calcular a discrepância de tamanho dentário de Bolton Presentation of a computer program to calculate the Bolton’s tooth size discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Francisco de Lucca Facholli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico da discrepância de tamanho dentário de Bolton é de fundamental importância para a boa finalização do tratamento ortodôntico. Por meio da medição dos dentes, com o auxílio de um paquímetro digital e a inserção dos valores no programa de computador desenvolvido e apresentado pelos autores, o trabalho do ortodontista fica mais simples, pois não é necessário realizar nenhum cálculo matemático ou auxiliar-se de nenhuma tabela de valores, eliminando-se a probabilidade de erros. Além disso, o programa apresenta a localização da discrepância por segmento - total, anterior e posterior - e individual - por elemento dentário, permitindo assim maior precisão na planificação das estratégias para a resolução dos problemas, caminhando para um tratamento ortodôntico de sucesso.The diagnosis of the Bolton’s Tooth Size Discrepancy is of fundamental importance for the good orthodontics finalization. Through the measurement of the teeth with the aid of a digital caliper and the insert of the values in the computer program developed by the authors and which that it will be presented in this article, the orthodontist’s work is simpler, because it is not necessary to accomplish any mathematical calculation or to aid of any table of values, eliminating the probability of mistakes. Besides, the program presents the location of the discrepancy for segment - overall, anterior and posterior - and individual - for dental element, allowing larger precision in the planning of the strategies for the resolution of the problems and walking for a success orthodontic treatment.

  17. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  18. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Deokjae; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2016-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public ...

  19. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokjae Lee

    Full Text Available Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  20. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy.

  1. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. PMID:26952016

  2. Discrepancies in Perceptions of Maternal Aggression: Implications for Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli, Jessica L.; LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; SUCHMAN, NANCY E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long history of documenting discrepancies in parent and child reports of parental care and child psychopathology, it has only been in recent years that researchers have begun to consider these discrepancies as meaningful indicators of parent–child relationship quality and as predictors of long-term child adjustment. Discrepancies in perceptions of parenting may be particularly important for the children of mothers with a history of substance abuse who may be less aware of the impact...

  3. Nuclear Physics Solutions to the Primordial Lithium Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primordial lithium problem is one of the major outstanding issues in the standard model of the Big Bang. Measurements of the baryon to photon ratio in the cosmic microwave background constrain model predictions, giving abundances of 7Li two to four times larger than observed via spectroscopic measurements of metal-poor stars. In an attempt to reconcile this discrepancy, significant effort has been directed at measuring reaction cross sections of light nuclei at astrophysically relevant energies. However, there remain reaction cross sections with large uncertainties, and some that have not yet been measured. Particularly relevant are those involving the destruction of 7Be, a progenitor of 7Li. Key issues that can be improved by nuclear physics input will be highlighted, and the applicability of detectors and event reconstruction techniques recently developed at the ANU will be discussed.

  4. The Solar Heavy Element Abundances: I. Constraints from Stellar Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, F; Delahaye, Franck; Pinsonneault, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The latest solar atmosphere models include non-LTE corrections and 3D hydrodynamic convection simulations. These models predict a significant reduction in the solar metal abundance, which leads to a serious conflict between helioseismic data and the predictions of solar interiors models. We demonstrate that the helioseismic constraints on the surface convection zone depth and helium abundance combined with stellar interiors models can be used to define the goodness of fit for a given chemical composition. After a detailed examination of the errors in the theoretical models we conclude that models constructed with the older solar abundances are consistent (<2 \\sigma) with the seismic data. Models constructed with the proposed new low abundance scale are strongly disfavored, disagreeing at the 15 \\sigma level. We then use the sensitivity of the seismic properties to abundance changes to invert the problem and infer a seismic solar heavy element abundance mix with two components: meteoritic abundances, and th...

  5. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  6. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity...... and discrepancy, we seek to understand if it might be there for a reason. Through a laboratory experiment, we propose ambiguity and discrepancy actually have a function in concept development. Accordingly the paper contributes with a better understanding of, the role ambiguity and discrepancy as triggers of sense...... making in conceptualisation in the early phases of innovation....

  7. Abundance ratios in the hot ISM of elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pipino, A

    2011-01-01

    To constrain the recipes put forth to solve the theoretical Fe discrepancy in the hot interstellar medium of elliptical galaxies and at the same time explain the [alpha/Fe] ratios. In order to do so we use the latest theoretical nucleosynthetic yields, we incorporate the dust, we explore differing SNIa progenitor scenarios by means of a self-consistent chemical evolution model which reproduces the properties of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. Models with Fe-only dust and/or a lower effective SNIa rate achieve a better agreement with the observed Fe abundance. However, a suitable modification to the SNIa yield with respect to the standard W7 model is needed to fully match the abundance ratio pattern. The 2D explosion model C-DDT by Maeda et al. (2010) is a promising candidate for reproducing the [Fe/H] and the [alpha/Fe] ratios. (A&A format)

  8. Primordial Deuterium Abundance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.; Takahara, Fumio

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium abundances measured recently from QSO absorption-line systems lie in the range from 3 10^{-5} to 3 10^{-4}, which shed some questions on standard big bang theory. We show that this discordance may simply be an artifact caused by inadequate analysis ignoring spatial correlations in the velocity field in turbulent media. The generalized procedure (accounting for such correlations) is suggested to reconcile the D/H measurements. An example is presented based on two high-resolution observations of Q1009+2956 (low D/H) [1,2] and Q1718+4807 (high D/H) [8,9]. We show that both observations are compatible with D/H = 4.1 - 4.6 10^{-5}, and thus support SBBN. The estimated mean value = 4.4 10^{-5} corresponds to the baryon-to-photon ratio during SBBN eta = 4.4 10^{-10} which yields the present-day baryon density Omega_b h^2 = 0.015.

  9. DISCREPANCIES AND CONTRADICTIONS OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MEASUREMENT MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Survilaitė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the main idea of measuring intellectual capital is that organisations, institutions and enterprises can successfully manage and control intellectual capital with the consequences that it increases company‘s value added and assures normal and stable activity. Nevertheless, many authors indicate that intellectual capital is a complex and sophisticated concept, which is difficult to capture, measure and manage. Intellectual capital measurement models are controversial due to inconsistent and different perspectives, point of views demonstrated by management, distinction between academic theory and practical execution. The main purpose of this scientific paper is to present contradictions appearing while trying to capture, measure and manage intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach – scientific literature review. Findings – the knowledge era has brought a new perspective into every organisation, institution and management strategies are becoming more related with intangibility. The concept of intangible assets can be analyzed and investigated through intellectual capital point of view. Nowadays academic literature is full of intellectual capital scientific papers and can be categorized into three main groups: intellectual capital as a concept, intellectual capital structure and structural parts, intellectual capital measurement models. This scientific paper is prepared to analyze the third group, which concerns mostly of how to capture, measure and manage intellectual capital. Research limitations/implications – the most challenging aspect is the discrepancies and contradictions in the measurement of intellectual capital. The differences of various enterprises broaden the perspective of intellectual capital and multiple points of view and attitudes are formalized into different methods of intellectual capital capture, measurement and managing. Practical implications – the universal model of intellectual capital

  10. Histopathological Diagnostic Discrepancies in Soft Tissue Tumours Referred to a Specialist Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Thway

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. A study was performed to determine areas of diagnostic discrepancy in the reporting of cases of soft tissue tumours referred to a specialist sarcoma unit. This was to pinpoint common discrepancies and to determine their causes. Methods and Results. We compared the sarcoma unit's histopathology reports with referring reports on 349 specimens from 277 patients with suspected or proven soft tissue tumours in a one-year period. Conclusions. Diagnostic agreement was found in 256 of 349 cases (73.4%, with minor diagnostic discrepancy in 55 cases (15.7% and major discrepancy in 38 cases (10.9%. Benign/malignant discordances accounted for only 5% of all discrepancies (5 cases. The most common discrepancies occurred in tumour classification, including diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumour and leiomyosarcoma and the subtyping of spindle cell sarcomas, as well as in tumour grading that could conceivably lead to changes in clinical management. Major diagnostic discrepancies leading to management change occurred in a relatively select range of tumour groups, and almost all discrepancies occurred due to differences in tumour interpretation between general or nonsoft tissue pathologists, and pathologists at the specialist unit. The findings support guidelines by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence that diagnostic review of soft tissue tumours should be performed by specialist soft tissue pathologists.

  11. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  12. Discrepancies between sources providing the medication histories of acutely hospitalised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkov, Louise Lindved; Schytte-Hansen, Simon; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2010-01-01

    general practitioner (GP) and the in-home care provider. A discrepancy was defined as any disagreement or omission of information between the four sources concerning name, form, strength and dose for each drug with which the patient was being treated. Main outcome measure The number of discrepancies...

  13. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  14. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  15. Predictive Value of Informant Discrepancies in Reports of Parenting: Relations to Early Adolescents' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Kim; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a lack of agreement between parent and child reports across a range of parent and child variables. These discrepancies hinder the interpretation of research findings as well as diagnostic and treatment decisions in clinical practice. The current study examined the hypothesis that discrepancies between parent and child…

  16. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  17. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  18. 19 CFR 123.9 - Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest. 123.9 Section 123.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.9 Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest....

  19. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  20. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  1. Discrepancies, Responses, and Patterns: Selecting a Method of Assessment for Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihori, Derek; Olvera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act allows three methods of determining whether a student qualifies for special education as a student with a specific learning disability (SLD). The first and most controversial is the Discrepancy model, which requires a significant discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability and…

  2. Mental Health and Sexual Self-Concept Discrepancies in a Sample of Young Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Marcelle Christian

    2002-01-01

    Addressed the mental health consequences of sexual self-concept discrepancies among young black women. Participant surveys examined differences between their actual, ideal, and "ought" sexual selves. Overall, sexual self-concept discrepancies did not predict mental health outcomes. Women who were bothered by the differences between whom they…

  3. The sulfur depletion problem: upper limits on the H2S2, HS2, and S2 gas-phase abundances toward the low-mass warm core IRAS16293-2422

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Doménech, R; Caro, G M Muñoz; Müller, H S P; Occhiogrosso, A; Testi, L; Woods, P M; Viti, S

    2016-01-01

    A fraction of the missing sulfur in dense clouds and circumstellar regions could be in the form of three species not yet de- tected in the interstellar medium: H2S2, HS2, and S2 according to experimental simulations performed under astrophysically relevant conditions. These S-S bonded molecules can be formed by the energetic processing of H2S-bearing ice mantles on dust grains, and subsequently desorb to the gas phase. The detection of these species could partially solve the sulfur depletion problem, and would help to improve our knowledge of the poorly known chemistry of sulfur in the interstellar medium. To this purpose we performed dedicated ground-based observations toward the low-mass warm core IRAS16293-2422. Observations in the submillimeter regime were obtained with the APEX 12 m telescope during 15 hours of observation, targeting a wide selection of the predicted rotational transitions of the three molecules. The 1{\\sigma} noise rms values were extracted in the spectral regions where the targeted spe...

  4. Low-discrepancy point sets in transport codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    A drawback to Monte Carlo methods of computation is its rate of convergence. There are methods of sampling that have a better error estimate than those using random numbers. This paper gives the result of some preliminary experiments with these sampling methods on two neutron transport problems.

  5. Near-infrared photometry of Y dwarfs: low ammonia abundance and the onset of water clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, S K; Marley, M S; Saumon, D

    2014-01-01

    We present new near-infrared photometry for seven late-type T dwarfs and nine Y-type dwarfs, and lower limit magnitudes for a tenth Y dwarf, obtained at Gemini Observatory. We also present a reanalysis of H-band imaging data from the Keck Observatory Archive, for an eleventh Y dwarf. These data are combined with earlier MKO-system photometry, Spitzer and WISE mid-infrared photometry, and available trigonometric parallaxes, to create a sample of late-type brown dwarfs which includes ten T9-T9.5 dwarfs or dwarf systems, and sixteen Y dwarfs. We compare the data to our models which include updated H_2 and NH_3 opacity, as well as low-temperature condensate clouds. The models qualitatively reproduce the trends seen in the observed colors, however there are discrepancies of around a factor of two in flux for the Y0-Y1 dwarfs, with T_eff~350-400K. At T_eff~400K, the problems could be addressed by significantly reducing the NH_3 absorption, for example by halving the abundance of NH_3 possibly by vertical mixing. At...

  6. Striking discrepancy of anomalous body experiences with normal interoceptive accuracy in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD. Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. METHODS: We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA of DPD patients (n=24 as compared to healthy controls (n=26 with two different heartbeat detection tasks ("Schandry heartbeat counting task" and "Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task". Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of "anomalous body experiences" and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and discrepancy between actual and self-identified good weight: Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michael D; Blake, Christine E; Hébert, James R; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether the discrepancy between measured and self-identified good weight (weight discrepancy) predicts metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). This study included 6,413 participants enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (mean follow-up: 4.8±3.8 years). Weight discrepancy was defined as measured weight minus self-identified good weight. MetSyn was defined using standard definitions. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident MetSyn, by weight discrepancy category, were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. The multivariable-adjusted HR for MetSyn was 3.48 (95% CI=2.48-4.86) for those who maintained higher weight discrepancy over time compared to individuals with lower weight discrepancy. Additional adjustment for body mass index did not change this interpretation (HR=3.44; 95% CI=2.46-4.82). Weight discrepancy may be a useful screening characteristic and target for future interventions to further reduce the risk of chronic weight-related disorders, included MetSyn. PMID:25544742

  8. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases.

  9. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  10. A graphic method for timing the correction of leg-length discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, D M; Cole, W G

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a clinical method for the graphic recording, analysis and planning of treatment of leg-length discrepancy during growth. Initially, the clinically determined discrepancy is plotted against the chronological age yearly, and then in late childhood at six-monthly intervals. CT and measurements of skeletal age are made in middle and late childhood to confirm the clinical findings. In a prospective study in 20 children, we observed that only eight had a linear increase in discrepancy. The observed pattern of increase was therefore used to estimate the mature discrepancy. Epiphyseodesis reference slopes were used to determine the most appropriate time and type of epiphyseodesis. In all children, the leg-length discrepancy at maturity was within 1 cm of the predicted amount. Changes in discrepancy due to leg lengthening or correction of deformity were also plotted graphically. We conclude that the clinical graphic method is simple to use, takes into account the varying patterns of discrepancy, and minimises radiation dosage.

  11. The abundance of (not just) dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Sawala, Till; Crain, Robert A; Jenkins, Adrian; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Zavala, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of baryons on the abundance of structures and substructures in a Lambda-CDM cosmology, using a pair of high resolution cosmological simulations from the GIMIC project. Both simulations use identical initial conditions, but while one contains only dark matter, the other also includes baryons. We find that gas pressure, reionisation, supernova feedback, stripping, and truncated accretion systematically reduce the total mass and the abundance of structures below ~10^12 solar masses compared to the pure dark matter simulation. Taking this into account and adopting an appropriate detection threshold lowers the abundance of observed galaxies with maximum circular velocities below 100 km/s, significantly reducing the reported discrepancy between Lambda-CDM and the measured HI velocity function of the ALFALFA survey. We also show that the stellar-to-total mass ratios of galaxies with stellar masses of ~10^5 - 10^7 solar masses inferred from abundance matching of the (sub)halo mass function to the ...

  12. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  13. Kinematic Discrepancy of Hydrostatic Drive of Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopka Stanisław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available W opracowaniu przedstawiony został problem niezgodności kinematycznej hydrostatycznych układów napędowych pojazdów wysokiej mobilności oraz jej wpływ na występowanie niekorzystnego zjawiska mocy krążącej. Ponadto zaprezentowane zostały rozważania teoretyczne dotyczące zdolności kompensacji niezgodności kinematycznej przez hydrostatyczny układ napędowy na podstawie badań z wykorzystaniem charakterystyk statycznych.

  14. Information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR) for polychromatic x-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok [Advanced Media Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nongseo Dong, Giheung Gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: X-ray photons generated from a typical x-ray source for clinical applications exhibit a broad range of wavelengths, and the interactions between individual particles and biological substances depend on particles' energy levels. Most existing reconstruction methods for transmission tomography, however, neglect this polychromatic nature of measurements and rely on the monochromatic approximation. In this study, we developed a new family of iterative methods that incorporates the exact polychromatic model into tomographic image recovery, which improves the accuracy and quality of reconstruction.Methods: The generalized information-theoretic discrepancy (GID) was employed as a new metric for quantifying the distance between the measured and synthetic data. By using special features of the GID, the objective function for polychromatic reconstruction which contains a double integral over the wavelength and the trajectory of incident x-rays was simplified to a paraboloidal form without using the monochromatic approximation. More specifically, the original GID was replaced with a surrogate function with two auxiliary, energy-dependent variables. Subsequently, the alternating minimization technique was applied to solve the double minimization problem. Based on the optimization transfer principle, the objective function was further simplified to the paraboloidal equation, which leads to a closed-form update formula. Numerical experiments on the beam-hardening correction and material-selective reconstruction were conducted to compare and assess the performance of conventional methods and the proposed algorithms.Results: The authors found that the GID determines the distance between its two arguments in a flexible manner. In this study, three groups of GIDs with distinct data representations were considered. The authors demonstrated that one type of GIDs that comprises “raw” data can be viewed as an extension of existing statistical reconstructions; under a

  15. A Solution to Lithium Problem by Long-Lived Stau

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    We review a non-standard Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) scenario within the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and propose an idea to solve both ${}^{7}$Li and ${}^{6}$Li problems. Each problem is a discrepancy between the predicted abundance in the standard BBN and observed one. We focus on the stau, a supersymmetric partner of tau lepton, which is a long-lived charged particle when it is the next lightest supersymmetric particle and is degenerate in mass with the lightest supersymmetric particle. The long-lived stau forms a bound state with a nucleus, and provide non-standard nuclear reactions. One of those, the internal conversion process, accelerates the destruction of ${}^{7}$Be and ${}^{7}$Li, and leads to a solution to the ${}^{7}$Li problem. On the other hand, the bound state of the stau and ${}^{4}$He enhances productions of n, d, t, and ${}^{6}$Li. The over-production of ${}^{6}$Li could solve the ${}^{6}$Li problem. While, the over-productions of d and t could conflict with observations, and th...

  16. To thine own self be true? Clarifying the effects of identity discrepancies on psychological distress and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Will; Marcussen, Kristen; Serpe, Richard T

    2016-07-01

    After many years of research across disciplines, it remains unclear whether people are more motivated to seek appraisals that accurately match self-views (self-verification) or are as favorable as possible (self-enhancement). Within sociology, mixed findings in identity theory have fueled the debate. A problem here is that a commonly employed statistical approach does not take into account the direction of a discrepancy between how we see ourselves and how we think others see us in terms of a given identity, yet doing so is critical for determining which self-motive is at play. We offer a test of three competing models of identity processes, including a new "mixed motivations" model where self-verification and self-enhancement operate simultaneously. We compare the models using the conventional statistical approach versus response surface analysis. The latter method allows us to determine whether identity discrepancies involving over-evaluation are as distressing as those involving under-evaluation. We use nationally representative data and compare results across four different identities and multiple outcomes. The two statistical approaches lead to the same conclusions more often than not and mostly support identity theory and its assumption that people seek self-verification. However, response surface tests reveal patterns that are mistaken as evidence of self-verification by conventional procedures, especially for the spouse identity. We also find that identity discrepancies have different effects on distress and self-conscious emotions (guilt and shame). Our findings have implications not only for research on self and identity across disciplines, but also for many other areas of research that incorporate these concepts and/or use difference scores as explanatory variables. PMID:27194649

  17. Solar System Abundances of the Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Representative abundances of the chemical elements for use as a solar abundance standard in astronomical and planetary studies are summarized. Updated abundance tables for solar system abundances based on meteorites and photospheric measurements are presented.

  18. A counterexample to Beck's conjecture on the discrepancy of three permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Alantha

    2011-01-01

    Given three permutations on the integers 1 through n, consider the set system consisting of each interval in each of the three permutations. Jozsef Beck conjectured (c. 1987) that the discrepancy of this set system is O(1). We give a counterexample to this conjecture: for any positive integer n = 3^k, we exhibit three permutations whose corresponding set system has discrepancy Omega(log(n)). Our counterexample is based on a simple recursive construction, and our proof of the discrepancy lower bound is by induction. This example also disproves a generalization of Beck's conjecture due to Spencer, Srinivasan and Tetali, who conjectured that a set system corresponding to l permutations has discrepancy O(sqrt(l)).

  19. The Interactive Relationship of Dogmatism and Attitude Discrepancy-Congruency to Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J. H.; Hamilton, Marshall L.

    1978-01-01

    Hypothesized that dogmatism and attitude discrepancy-congruency would be interactively related to attitude change. Results suggest that supportive information may be more effective in polarizing opinions or attitudes of nondogmatic persons than dogmatic persons. (Author)

  20. Reported methodologic quality and discrepancies between large and small randomized trials in meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Villumsen, J; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    To explore whether reported methodologic quality affects estimated intervention effects in randomized trials and contributes to discrepancies between the results of large randomized trials and small randomized trials in meta-analyses....

  1. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  2. A Case for Not Going SAT-Optional: Students with Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2010. This presentation describes an alternative way of presenting the unique information provided by the SAT over HSGPA, namely examining students with discrepant SAT-HSGPA performance.

  3. Perceptions of Counselor Expertness: The Effects of Interpretation Content, Discrepancy, and Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of the counselor's use of interpretation on participants' perceptions of counselor expertness. A main effect for interpretation type (propositional versus semantic interpretation) and an interaction between degree of discrepancy and interpretation type were found. (Author/BL)

  4. Interparental violence: Similarities and discrepancies between narratives of mothers and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.B. van Rooij; W.A. van der Schuur; M. Steketee; J. Mak; T. Pels

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies and intervention programs on interparental violence have relied largely on reports either solely from parents or solely from children. Nevertheless, the literature and the theoretical background provide indications of the existence of discrepancies between the narratives of parents

  5. Modelling occurrence and abundance of species when detection is imperfect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Nichols, J.D.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between species abundance and occupancy are of considerable interest in metapopulation biology and in macroecology. Such relationships may be described concisely using probability models that characterize variation in abundance of a species. However, estimation of the parameters of these models in most ecological problems is impaired by imperfect detection. When organisms are detected imperfectly, observed counts are biased estimates of true abundance, and this induces bias in stated occupancy or occurrence probability. In this paper we consider a class of models that enable estimation of abundance/occupancy relationships from counts of organisms that result from surveys in which detection is imperfect. Under such models, parameter estimation and inference are based on conventional likelihood methods. We provide an application of these models to geographically extensive breeding bird survey data in which alternative models of abundance are considered that include factors that influence variation in abundance and detectability. Using these models, we produce estimates of abundance and occupancy maps that honor important sources of spatial variation in avian abundance and provide clearly interpretable characterizations of abundance and occupancy adjusted for imperfect detection.

  6. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Eliot; Groleau, Georgina; Reiner, Bruce; Stair, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP’s). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from...

  7. On the Two-step Communication Concerning Cultural Discrepancy in Translating Foreign-Oriented Publicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓婷

    2014-01-01

    Cultural discrepancy constitutes a major obstacle in translating Chinese publicity materials to the outside world. This paper, viewed through the lens of communication and media studies, divides the transmission of cultural discrepancy into two stages, namely, the dialogues between the translator and the source text author and between the translator and the intended read-ership in the target language. Only with a two-step communication can a most appropriate strategy be adopted to deal with the cultural points.

  8. Global optimization heuristic based on novel heuristics, low-discrepancy sequences and genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva, A.; Jordanov, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new heuristic hybrid technique for bound-constrained global optimization is proposed. We developed iterative algorithm called GLPτS that uses genetic algorithms, LPτ low-discrepancy sequences of points and heuristic rules to find regions of attraction when searching a global minimum of an objective function. Subsequently Nelder-Mead Simplex local search technique is used to refine the solution. The combination of the three techniques (Genetic algorithms, LPτO Low-discrepancy s...

  9. The o II recombination line abundance problem in planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Garnett

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos observaciones de l neas de recombinaci on de O II en diez nebu- losas planetarias brillantes, y mediciones de O II y [O III] con resoluci on espacial en NGC 6720. Esto es con el n de estudiar la discrepancia entre las abundancias calculadas con l neas de recombinaci on de O II y aquellas derivadas de l neas de excitaci on colisional de [O III]. Observamos una gran variaci on en la discrepan- cia, desde tener resultados consistentes hasta una diferencia de un factor de seis. La magnitud de esta discrepancia esta anti-correlacionada con el brillo super cial de la nebulosa (aquellas que son compactas y m as brillantes tienen las menores variaciones. Los niveles de O II poblados a trav es de recombinaci on di-electr onica dan abundancias mayores que otros niveles. Nuestra observaci on en rendija larga muestra que la emisi on en O II tiene su m aximo al interior de la c ascara brillante donde [O III] y H son m as brillantes. Con base en las correlaciones observadas, proponemos que la intensa emisi on en l neas de recombinaci on en nebulosas plan- etarias proviene de recombinaci on di-electr onica aumentada en el interior de la nebulosa, la cual posiblemente est e impulsada por un viento estelar caliente.

  10. A Restarted Conjugate Gradient Method for Ill-posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-fei Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a restarted conjugate gradient iterative algorithm for solving ill-posed problems.The damped Morozov's discrepancy principle is used as a stopping rule. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  11. Gaseous abundances in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Origlia, L; Maiolino, R; Makishima, K; Ranalli, Piero; Comastri, Andrea; Origlia, Livia; Maiolino, Roberto; Makishima, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of a deep (100ks) XMM-Newton observation of M82. The spatial distribution of the abundances of chemical elements (Fe, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S) is investigated through narrow-band imaging analisys and spatially-resolved spectroscopy. We find that the abundances of alpha-elements follow a bipolar distribution, these elements being more abundant in the gaseous outflow than in the galaxy centre. This behaviour is found to be more marked for lighter elements (O, Ne) than for heavier elements.

  12. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management. PMID:25535252

  13. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  14. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management.

  15. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:24482569

  16. Agreement and discrepancy between mother and child in the evaluation of children's anxiety symptoms and anxiety life interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Rita; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa

    2015-03-01

    This study explored the agreement and discrepancy between mother and child reports of children's anxiety symptoms and anxiety life interference. A large community sample of 1,065 Portuguese children aged between 7 and 14 years and their mothers completed a DSM-based anxiety symptoms scale. For a subsample of 135 children with an anxiety disorder, additional data on children's anxiety life interference and maternal anxiety and depression symptoms were collected. The results showed that children generally reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms than their mothers. Overall, most correlations between mother and child reports of anxiety symptoms were significant but in the low to moderate range, with the strongest associations for symptoms of specific phobias and school phobia. In the subsample of children with an anxiety disorder, mothers reported higher levels of anxiety life interference than children, and the correlation between mother and child reports of anxiety life interference was significant but again modest in magnitude. Lastly, maternal anxiety was positively associated with the discrepancy between mother and child reports of anxiety symptoms. Together, the results of this study further underline the importance of a multi-informant approach in the evaluation of children's anxiety problems.

  17. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  18. Solar models with new low-metal abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wuming

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the photospheric abundances of the Sun had been revised several times by many observers. The standard solar models (SSM) constructed with the new low-metal abundances disagree with helioseismic results and detected neutrino fluxes. The solar model problem has been puzzled some stellar physicists for more than ten years. Rotation, enhanced diffusion, convection overshoot, and magnetic fields are used to reconcile the new abundances with helioseismology. The \\textbf{too} low-helium \\textbf{subsurface abundance} in enhanced diffusion models can be improved by the mixing caused by rotation and magnetic fields. The problem of the depth of the convective zone in rotating models can be resolved by convection overshoot. Consequently the Asplund-Grevesse-Sauval rotation model including overshooting (AGSR) reproduces the seismically inferred sound-speed and density profiles, and the convection zone depth as well as the Grevesse and Sauval (GS98) model computed before. But this model fails to reprodu...

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  20. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  1. Abundance distributions over the surfaces of magnetic ApBp stars: theoretical predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Alecian, G

    2015-01-01

    Recently published empirical abundance maps, obtained through (Zeeman) Doppler mapping (ZDM), do not currently agree with the abundance structures predicted by means of numerical models of atomic diffusion in magnetic atmospheres of ApBp stars. In a first step towards the resolution of these discrepancies, we present a state of the art grid of equilibrium abundance stratifications in the atmosphere of a magnetic Ap star with T_eff = 10000 K and log g = 4.0. A description of the behaviour of 16 chemical elements including predictions concerning the over- and/or under-abundances over the stellar surface is followed by a discussion of the possible influence of presently neglected physical processes.

  2. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Z G; Hinkle, K

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and one M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H$^{35}$Cl at 3.69851 $\\mu$m. The high resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m telescope. The average [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with --0.72$<$[Fe/H]$<$0.20 is [$^{35}$Cl/Fe]=(--0.10$\\pm$0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16$\\pm$0.15) dex. The [$^{35}$Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of $\\sim$0.35 dex above model predictions suggesting chemical evolution models are under producing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and \\ion{H}{2} regions. In one star where both H$^{35}$Cl a...

  3. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

  4. Neon and Oxygen Abundances and Abundance Ratio in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, E.; Testa, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we determine the Ne/O abundance ratio from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) off-disk observations of quiescent streamers over the 1996-2008 period. We find that the Ne/O ratio is approximately constant over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2005, at a value of 0.099 ± 0.017 this value is lower than the transition region determinations from the quiet Sun used to infer the neon photospheric abundance from the oxygen photospheric abundance. Also, the Ne/O ratio we determined from SUMER is in excellent agreement with in situ determinations from ACE/SWICS. In 2005-2008, the Ne/O abundance ratio increased with time and reached 0.25 ± 0.05, following the same trend found in the slowest wind analyzed by ACE/SWICS. Further, we measure the absolute abundance in the corona for both oxygen and neon from the data set of 1996 November 22, obtaining A o = 8.99 ± 0.04 and A Ne = 7.92 ± 0.03, and we find that both elements are affected by the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, with oxygen being enhanced by a factor of 1.4-2.1 over its photospheric abundance, and neon being changed by a factor of 0.75-1.20. We conclude that the Ne/O ratio is not constant in the solar atmosphere, both in time and at different heights, and that it cannot be reliably used to infer the neon abundance in the photosphere. Also, we argue that the FIP effect was less effective during the minimum of solar cycle 24, and that the Ne/O = 0.25 ± 0.05 value measured at that time is closer to the true photospheric value, leading to a neon photospheric abundance larger than assumed by ≈40%. We discuss the implications of these results for the solar abundance problem, for the FIP effect, and for the identification of the source regions of the solar wind.

  5. The Abundances of Light Neutron-Capture Elements in Planetary Nebulae III. The Impact of New Atomic Data on Nebular Selenium and Krypton Abundance Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Dinerstein, H L

    2015-01-01

    The detection of neutron(n)-capture elements in several planetary nebulae (PNe) has provided a new means of investigating s-process nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars. However, a lack of atomic data has inhibited accurate trans-iron element abundance determinations in astrophysical nebulae. Recently, photoionization and recombination data were determined for Se and Kr, the two most widely detected n-capture elements in nebular spectra. We have incorporated these new data into the photoionization code Cloudy. To test the atomic data, numerical models were computed for 15 PNe that exhibit emission lines from multiple Kr ions. We found systematic discrepancies between the predicted and observed emission lines that are most likely caused by inaccurate photoionization and recombination data. These discrepancies were removed by adjusting the Kr$^+$--Kr$^{3+}$ photoionization cross sections within their cited uncertainties and the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients by slightly larger amounts. From grids of ...

  6. Side-to-side growth discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: association with function, activity and social participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate side-to-side discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP, and investigate associations of these discrepancies with patients’ age at initiation of physical therapy, motor and cognitive function, and degree of activities and social participation. Method: We obtained eight side-to-side measurements from 24 HCP children with mean age 49.3±5.2 months. Results: Early initiation of physical therapy was associated with lower discrepancy in hand length (p=0.037. Lower foot length discrepancy was associated with lower requirement for caregiver assistance in activities related to mobility. Increased side-to-side discrepancy was associated with reduced wrist extension and increased spasticity. Discrepancy played a larger role in children with hemineglect and in those with right involvement. Conclusion: Increased discrepancy in HCP children was associated with reduced degree of activity/social participation. These results suggest an association between functional use of the extremities and limb growth.

  7. The photospheric solar oxygen project. II. Non-concordance of the oxygen abundance derived from two forbidden lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Bonifacio, P.; Steffen, M.; Monaco, L.

    2013-06-01

    Context. In the Sun, the two forbidden [O i] lines at 630 and 636 nm were previously found to provide discrepant oxygen abundances. Aims: We investigate whether this discrepancy is peculiar to the Sun or whether it is also observed in other stars. Methods: We make use of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four dwarf to turn-off stars, five giant stars, and one sub-giant star observed with THEMIS, HARPS, and UVES to investigate the coherence of the two lines. Results: The two lines provide oxygen abundances that are consistent, within observational errors, in all the giant stars examined by us. On the other hand, for the two dwarf stars for which a measurement was possible, for Procyon, and for the sub-giant star Capella, the 636 nm line provides systematically higher oxygen abundances, as already seen for the Sun. Conclusions: The only two possible reasons for the discrepancy are a serious error in the oscillator strength of the Ni i line blending the 630 nm line or the presence of an unknown blend in the 636 nm line, which makes the feature stronger. The CN lines blending the 636 nm line cannot be responsible for the discrepancy. The Ca i autoionisation line, on the red wing of which the 636 nm line is formed, is not well modelled by our synthetic spectra. However, a better reproduction of this line would result in even higher abundances from the 636 nm, thus increasing the discrepancy. Based on observations collected at ESO Paranal Observatory, Programme 182.D-5053(A).

  8. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  9. Surface abundances of OC supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R; Howarth, I

    2016-01-01

    Some O and B stars show unusually strong or weak lines of carbon and/or nitrogen. These objects are classified as OBN or OBC stars. It has recently been shown that nitrogen enrichment and carbon depletion are the most likely explanations for the existence of the ON class. We investigate OC stars (all being supergiants) to check that surface abundances are responsible for the observed anomalous line strengths. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of three OC supergiants using atmosphere models. A fourth star was previously studied by us. Our sample thus comprises all OC stars known to date in the Galaxy. We determine the stellar parameters and He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We show that all stars have effective temperatures and surface gravities fully consistent with morphologically normal O supergiants. However, OC stars show little, if any, nitrogen enrichment and carbon surface abundances consistent with the initial composition. OC supergiants are thus barely chemically evolved, unlike morphologically n...

  10. Solar and Stellar Photospheric Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2016-01-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  11. NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF Y DWARFS: LOW AMMONIA ABUNDANCE AND THE ONSET OF WATER CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, S. K. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, M. S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Saumon, D., E-mail: sleggett@gemini.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present new near-infrared photometry for seven late-type T dwarfs and nine Y-type dwarfs, and lower limit magnitudes for a tenth Y dwarf, obtained at Gemini Observatory. We also present a reanalysis of H-band imaging data from the Keck Observatory Archive, for an 11th Y dwarf. These data are combined with earlier MKO-system photometry, Spitzer and WISE mid-infrared photometry, and available trigonometric parallaxes, to create a sample of late-type brown dwarfs that includes 10 T9-T9.5 dwarfs or dwarf systems, and 16 Y dwarfs. We compare the data to our models, which include updated H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} opacity, as well as low-temperature condensate clouds. The models qualitatively reproduce the trends seen in the observed colors; however, there are discrepancies of around a factor of two in flux for the Y0-Y1 dwarfs, with T {sub eff} ≈ 350-400 K. At T {sub eff} ∼ 400 K, the problems could be addressed by significantly reducing the NH{sub 3} absorption, for example by halving the abundance of NH{sub 3} possibly by vertical mixing. At T {sub eff} ∼ 350 K, the discrepancy may be resolved by incorporating thick water clouds. The onset of these clouds might occur over a narrow range in T {sub eff}, as indicated by the observed small change in 5 μm flux over a large change in J – W2 color. Of the known Y dwarfs, the reddest in J –W2 are WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 and WISE J085510.83–071442.5. We interpret the former as a pair of identical 300-350 K dwarfs, and the latter as a 250 K dwarf. If these objects are ∼3 Gyr old, their masses are ∼10 and ∼5 Jupiter-masses, respectively.

  12. National cultural values and the evolution of process and outcome discrepancies in international strategic alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nti, Kofi O

    2004-01-01

    discrepancies that may emerge during the course of an alliance. They argue that national culture affects alliance evolution by influencing partners sensitivity to discrepancy detection , shaping the nature of attributions they make, and by affecting the partners reactions to discrepancies. They focus...... on differences in three value orientations among cultures. activity orientation, mastery over nature, and assumptions about human nature are the value orientations that affect alliance functioning. The author/s argue that alliances are prone to interpretational, attributional, and behavioral conflicts......The article assesses the role played by national cultural values in shaping the evolution of international strategic alliances. The authors build on a systems dynamic model of alliance evolution in which the developmental path of an alliance depends on how the partners manage process and outcome...

  13. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  14. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  15. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  16. The $\\Lambda$CDM simulations of Keller and Wadsley do not account for the MOND mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2016-01-01

    Keller and Wadsley (2016) have smugly suggested, recently, that the end of MOND may be in view. This is based on their claim that their highly-restricted sample of $\\Lambda$CDM-simulated galaxies are "consistent" with the observed MOND mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR), in particular, with its recent update by McGaugh et al. (2016), based on the SPARC sample. From this they extrapolate to "$\\Lambda$CDM is fully consistent" with the MDAR. I explain why these simulated galaxies do not show that $\\Lambda$CDM accounts for the MDAR. a. Their sample of simulated galaxies contains only 18 high-mass galaxies, within a narrow range of one order of magnitude in baryonic mass, at the very high end of the observed, SPARC sample, which spans 4.5 orders of magnitude in mass. More importantly, the simulated sample has none of the low-mass, low-acceleration galaxies -- abundant in SPARC -- which encapsulate the crux and the nontrivial aspects of the predicted and observed MDAR. The low-acceleration part of the si...

  17. The effects of discrepant events on the low-level paradigms of high school physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jerome I.

    1999-10-01

    Constructivist learning theory indicates that high school physics students do not enter their physics classrooms empty-headed. Students come with preconceptions that they constructed over time, which are based on their observations of the environment. One function of physics teachers is to facilitate students in altering their preconceptions if they are not in agreement with the currently accepted scientific view. Kuhn described a paradigm shift as a process that scientists undergo when they discard a currently accepted paradigm in favor of a more complete paradigm, because of the new paradigm's greater explanatory power. Physics students may undergo low level paradigm shifts when constructing, or reconstructing, their low level paradigms as they observe small parts of their world. This research was a multiple case study based on eight discrepant event exercises. Twenty-two self selected, untutored first year high school physics students individually performed these exercises. The students' written documents, student interviews, and the researcher's field notes were triangulated to describe the process that emerged as the students described their low level paradigms before and after performing the discrepant events exercises. The following research questions were addressed. Do students employ similar low level paradigms to explain the same physical phenomenon? Do the discrepant events observed by the students have a consequential effect upon their current low level paradigms? Are there specific discrepant events that affect students' low level paradigms to a greater degree compared to other discrepant events that are grounded in the same physical phenomenon? Do students apply scientific terminology, within its proper context, after their exposure to a discrepant event, compared to their utilization of scientific terminology prior to their exposure to the discrepant event? Can the students' low level paradigms be generalized to situations that are beyond the scope

  18. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  19. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  20. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  1. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  2. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  3. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  4. Is it About Me, You, or Us? Stress Reactivity Correlates of Discrepancies in We-Talk Among Parents and Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Gómez, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    An emerging literature suggests that not only do parent and child perceptions of parent-child relationship quality independently predict children's adjustment, but also that the discrepancy between parent and child perceptions of the relationship also carries predictive power. In the current study, we examine discrepancies in mother and children's we-talk, which is thought to reveal the degree to which members of a dyad conceive of problems affecting just one of the members as shared. We anticipate that discrepancies in which the mother expresses a greater sense of we-ness than the child would be particularly toxic during this developmental phase, when youth's strivings for independence ought to near their apex. Using an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of school-aged children and their mothers (N = 106, 49.1 % female; 43 % Non-Hispanic White, 21 % African American, 21 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian, and 5 % of another ethnic category or mixed race; 48 % reported an annual income of <$60,000), we expose children to a standardized failure task that their mothers observe and then interview both members of the dyad regarding the task-we-talk is derived from these interviews. We examine the discrepancy between child and mother we-talk as a predictor of children's cortisol reactivity and mothers' behavioral overcontrol during the failure task. We also examine whether the discrepancy in mother-child we-talk predicts children's trait rumination. The interaction between child and mother we-talk was significantly associated with all three outcomes. Children's cortisol reactivity and rumination were highest when mothers used high and children used low levels of we-talk. A three-way interaction of children's we-talk, mothers' we-talk and child age emerged, suggesting that the association of discrepancies in we-talk with maternal overcontrol depended on child age, with significant effects emerging among older children. We discuss our results in terms of their

  5. Analyzing Discrepancies in a Software Development Project Change Request (CR) Assessment Process and Recommendations for Process Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenneth James

    2003-01-01

    The Change Request (CR) assessment process is essential in the display development cycle. The assessment process is performed to ensure that the changes stated in the description of the CR match the changes in the actual display requirements. If a discrepancy is found between the CR and the requirements, the CR must be returned to the originator for corrections. Data was gathered from each of the developers to determine the type of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing each CR. This study sought to determine the most common types of discrepancies, and the amount of time required to assessing those issues. The study found that even though removing discrepancy before an assessment would save half the time needed to assess an CR with a discrepancy, the number of CR's found to have a discrepancy was very small compared to the total number of CR's assessed during the data gathering period.

  6. Self-discrepancy: structural differences between clinical and non-clinical populations evaluated with MCMI-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the personality as a complex and dynamic structure and it relates the self-discrepancy theory with Millon's theory of personality. Self-discrepancy theory predicts that Ideal and Ought discrepancies originate different negative emotions. Millon's bipsychosocial theoty emphasizes the interaction between organism, environment and social learning, making salient the circularity of the interaction. The present study refers to the Real-Self (RS, Ideal-Self (IS and Ought-Self (OS discrepancies, evaluated using the MCMI-II in two different samples (clinical and non-clinical. The RSs results are different in the two samples and they were analized scale by scale. The RS-IS and RS-OS discrepancies results for each trait scale analyzes were mixed. It was given greater emphasis to RS-RI discrepancies and implications for personality theories and case conceptualization are taken into consideration.

  7. Breaking the Discrepancy Code: A Meta-Analysis of the Specific Learning Disability Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmeier, Randy J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous "selective" meta-analyses of the literature relating to the IQ-achievement discrepancy model of specific learning disability identification have concluded that "underachieving" and "low-achieving" poor readers do not differ in any educationally meaningful way. Underachievers are those poor readers who qualify as learning disabled using an…

  8. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  9. Assessment and Intervention in School-Based Practice: Answering Questions and Minimizing Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Anita C.

    1995-01-01

    An assessment and intervention process for use by occupational and physical therapists working in schools is described. The process addresses discrepancies between performance and expectations, establishment of goals and objectives, determination of needed services, determination of service delivery setting, and provision of efficient and…

  10. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... missing, sunk, capsized, damaged, off station, or showing characteristics other than those advertised in... discrepancies: (1) Radio messages should be prefixed “Coast Guard” and transmitted directly to a Government shore radio station listed in Chapter three of Radio Navigation Aids Publication, 117, for relay to...

  11. The association between physical self-discrepancies and women's physical activity: the mediating role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Castonguay, Andree; Ferguson, Leah; Bessette, Natalia

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the associations between physical self-discrepancies (actual:ideal and actual:ought) and physical activity behavior, and to examine whether motivational regulations mediate these associations using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and organismic integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories as guiding frameworks. Young women (N = 205; M(age) = 18.87 years, SD = 1.83) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved path analysis using a polynomial regression approach, estimation of direct and indirect effects, and evaluation of response surface values. Agreement between actual and ideal (or ought) physical self-perceptions was related to physical activity both directly and indirectly as mediated by the motivational regulations (R(2) = .24-.30). Specifically, when actual and ideal self-perceptions scores were similar, physical activity levels increased as actual and ideal scores increased. Furthermore, physical activity levels were lower when the discrepancy was such that ideal or ought self were higher than actual self. These findings provide support for integrating self-discrepancy and organismic integration theories to advance research in this area.

  12. Discourse Analysis of Interpersonal Meaning to Understand the Discrepancy between Teacher Knowing and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Emine Gül Çelebi; Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, bridging teacher knowledge or learning with practice is not a straightforward task. This paper aims to explore this discrepancy between a mathematics teacher's knowing and practices and to offer ways of alignment between the two based on the social/interpersonal meanings and their realization through teacher's discourse. In this…

  13. Power and Violence: The Relation between Communication Patterns, Power Discrepancies, and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Julia C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined discrepancies in economic status, decision-making power, communication patterns, and communication skill in three groups of spouses (n=95): domestically violent, maritally distressed/nonviolent, and maritally happy/nonviolent. Domestically violent couples were more likely than nonviolent groups to engage in husband-demand/wife-withdraw…

  14. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  15. On a discrepancy among Picard-Vessiot theories in positive characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Katsutoshi

    2006-01-01

    There is a serious discrepancy among literature on the Picard-Vessiot theory in positive characteristics (for iterative differential fields). It is about descriptions of Galois correspondence. We should use affine group schemes instead of algebraic matrix groups to obtain a suitable Galois correspondence. If one adheres to algebraic matrix groups, then his correspondence may not be bijective.

  16. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  17. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  18. Does work-related training reduce the discrepancy between function requirements and competencies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Kappe; G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe issue of lifelong learning is high on the political agenda. However, despite this political interest and the large economic literature on human capital, the impact of work-related training on the discrepancy between function requirements and the skills of the employee has been ignore

  19. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  20. Discrepancy in Reports of Support Exchanges between Parents and Adult Offspring: Within- and Between-Family Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Birditt, Kira S.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from 929 parent-child dyads nested in 458 three-generation families (aged 76 for the oldest generation, 50 for the middle generation, and 24 for the youngest generation), this study investigated how discrepancies in reports of support that parents and their adult offspring exchanged with one another vary both within and between families, and what factors explain variations in dyadic discrepancies. We found substantial within- and between-family differences in dyadic discrepancies i...

  1. Abundances in stars with exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Israelian, Garik

    2003-01-01

    Extensive spectroscopic studies of stars with and without planets have concluded that stars hosting planets are significantly more metal-rich than those without planets. More subtle trends of different chemical elements begin to appear as the number of detected extrasolar planetary systems continues to grow. I review our current knowledge concerning the observed abundance trends of various chemical elements in stars with exoplanets and their possible implications.

  2. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  3. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  4. Oxygen Gas Phase Abundance Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    André, M K; Howk, J C; Ferlet, R; Désert, J M; Hébrard, G; Lacour, S; Lecavelier-des-Etangs, A; Vidal-Madjar, A; Moos, H W

    2003-01-01

    We present new measurements of the interstellar gas-phase oxygen abundance along the sight lines towards 19 early-type galactic stars at an average distance of 2.6 kpc. We derive O {\\small I} column densities from {\\it HST}/STIS observations of the weak 1355 \\AA intersystem transition. We derive total hydrogen column densities [N(H {\\small I})+2N(H$_2$)] using {\\it HST}/STIS observations of \\lya and {\\it FUSE} observations of molecular hydrogen. The molecular hydrogen content of these sight lines ranges from f(H$_2$) = 2N(H$_2$)/[N(H {\\small I})+2N(H$_2$)] = 0.03 to 0.47. The average $$ of 6.3$\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ mag$^{-1}$ with a standard deviation of 15% is consistent with previous surveys. The mean oxygen abundance along these sight lines, which probe a wide range of galactic environments in the distant ISM, is 10$^6$ \\oh = $408 \\pm 13$ (1 $\\sigma$ in the mean). %$({\\rm O/H})_{gas} = 408 \\pm 14$(1 $\\sigma$). We see no evidence for decreasing gas-phase oxygen abundance with increasing molecular hydroge...

  5. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this...

  6. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeras Debrah I

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46% or "Unresolved" (8%. A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48

  7. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate) or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples) had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46%) or "Unresolved" (8%). A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48% of individuals who

  8. A study of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a discrepant-event-based physical science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, James Edward

    This research evaluated the POWERFUL IDEAS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PIiPS) curriculum model used to develop a physical science course taken by preservice elementary teachers. The focus was on the evaluation of discrepant events used to induce conceptual change in relation to students' ideas concerning heat, temperature, and specific heat. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used for the analysis. Data was collected during the 1998 Fall semester using two classes of physical science for elementary school teachers. The traditionally taught class served as the control group and the class using the PIiPS curriculum model was the experimental group. The PIiPS curriculum model was evaluated quantitatively for its influence on students' attitude toward science, anxiety towards teaching science, self efficacy toward teaching science, and content knowledge. An analysis of covariance was performed on the quantitative data to test for significant differences between the means of the posttests for the control and experimental groups while controlling for pretest. It was found that there were no significant differences between the means of the control and experimental groups with respect to changes in their attitude toward science, anxiety toward teaching science and self efficacy toward teaching science. A significant difference between the means of the content examination was found (F(1,28) = 14.202 and p = 0.001), however, the result is questionable. The heat and energy module was the target for qualitative scrutiny. Coding for discrepant events was adapted from Appleton's 1996 work on student's responses to discrepant event science lessons. The following qualitative questions were posed for the investigation: (1) what were the ideas of the preservice elementary students prior to entering the classroom regarding heat and energy, (2) how effective were the discrepant events as presented in the PIiPS heat and energy module, and (3) how much does the "risk taking

  9. Ruthenium and hafnium abundances in giant and dwarf barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, D M

    2007-01-01

    We present abundances for Ru and Hf, compare them to abundances of other heavy elements, and discuss the problems found in determining Ru and Hf abundances with laboratory gf-values in the spectra of barium stars. We determined Ru and Hf abundances in a sample of giant and dwarf barium stars, by the spectral synthesis of two RuI (4080.574A and 4757.856A) and two HfII (4080.437A and 4093.155A) transitions. The stellar spectra were observed with FEROS/ESO, and the stellar atmospheric parameters lie in the range 4300 < Teff/K < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] <= 0 and 1.4 <= log g < 4.6. The HfII 4080A and the RuI 4758A observed transitions result in a unreasonably high solar abundance, given certain known uncertainties, when fitted with laboratory gf-values. For these two transitions we determined empirical gf-values by fitting the observed line profiles of the spectra of the Sun and Arcturus. For the sample stars, this procedure resulted in a good agreement of Ru and Hf abundances given by the two availa...

  10. Lead abundance in the uranium star CS 31082-001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plez, B.; Hill, V.; Cayrel, R.;

    2004-01-01

    stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data......stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data...

  11. Performance Discrepancies on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in the Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Jacobus

    2006-01-01

    The standardization data for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II; D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 2000) were used to evaluate the base rate of 6 specific discrepancies between various key variables. The results indicated that CVLT-II performance discrepancies should equal or exceed 1 or 1.5 z score…

  12. Medication discrepancies despite pharmacist led medication reconciliation: the challenges of maintaining an accurate medication list in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart AL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the types of medication discrepancies that persist despite pharmacist-led medication reconciliation using the primary care electronic medical record (EMR. Methods: Observational case series study of established patients from an urban, indigent care clinic. Medication reconciliation was conducted immediately prior to the physician visit at baseline and return visit. Main outcome measures included: frequency, types, and reasons for discrepancies, patient knowledge, and adherence. Results: There was a 14.5% reduction in the number of patients with a discrepancy and the frequency of discrepancies was reduced by 7.3%. The rate of medication discrepancies in the chart was reduced by 31.3%. The most common type of discrepancy that persisted at follow up were medications listed on the chart that the patient stopped taking. Discrepancies were more likely to persist in Caucasian subjects when compared to African Americans. Conclusion: While pharmacist led medication reconciliation appears effective at reducing the likelihood of a medication discrepancy in the EMR, challenges persist in maintaining this accuracy specifically as it relates to patient driven changes to the medication regimen.

  13. Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent-child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child's daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were…

  14. Intergenerational Discrepancies of Parental Control among Chinese American Families: Links to Family Conflict and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their…

  15. The photospheric solar oxygen project: II. Non-concordance of the oxygen abundance derived from two forbidden lines

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Malherbe, Jean-M; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Steffen, Matthias; Monaco, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    In the Sun, the two forbidden [OI] lines at 630 and 636 nm were previously found to provide discrepant oxygen abundances. aims: We investigate whether this discrepancy is peculiar to the Sun or whether it is also observed in other stars. method: We make use of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four dwarf to turn-off stars, five giant stars, and one sub-giant star observed with THEMIS, HARPS, and UVES to investigate the coherence of the two lines. results: The two lines provide oxygen abundances that are consistent, within observational errors, in all the giant stars examined by us. On the other hand, for the two dwarf stars for which a measurement was possible, for Procyon, and for the sub-giant star Capella, the 636 nm line provides systematically higher oxygen abundances, as already seen for the Sun. conclusions: The only two possible reasons for the discrepancy are a serious error in the oscillator strength of the NiI line blending the 630 nm line or the presence of an unknown blend in...

  16. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tokyo Univ., Miyagi (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10{sup 12} GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  17. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 1012GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei–Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  18. Smoking identities and behavior: evidence of discrepancies, issues for measurement and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S Lee; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Myers, John A

    2010-06-01

    Although researchers and health care practitioners tend to use standard categories to classify smokers and nonsmokers, recent research suggests that individual smokers may use a variety of self-definitions regarding their smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking identity and smoking behavior among college students, specifically, the relationship between self-identifying as a smoker, nonsmoker, occasional smoker, or social smoker and number of days smoked in the past month. Data were obtained during a campuswide health assessment of randomly selected full-time students (N = 741). Results indicate discrepancy between smoking identity and cigarette use. Twenty percent of students who smoked in the past 30 days self-identified as nonsmokers. Such discrepancies have implications for data collection in research as well as on questionnaires and in health care interviews. Failure to understand actual smoking behavior may increase the risk that individuals will not receive effective smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  19. Tooth size discrepancy in a Libyan population, a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaighis, Iman; Karanth, Divakar

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a group of Libyan schoolchildren, and to compare TSD between sexes. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 333 Libyan schoolchildren (162 males with a mean (SD) age of 14.4 (1.1) years, and 171 females with a mean age of 14.1 (1.1) years). Anterior and overall TSD ratios were computed using descriptive statistics. Sex differences were statistically assessed using an independent t-test (P 0.05). The percentages of participants showing more than 2 SD variation for the anterior and overall ratios comprised 3% and 4.2% of the total sample, respectively. Conclusions: The anterior and overall TSD ratios for the examined subjects were established and showed no significant sexual dimorphism. Key words:Tooth size discrepancy, Libyan, schoolchildren. PMID:25810819

  20. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and Their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression. PMID:27230117

  1. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  2. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and Their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression.

  3. Doctor's expertise and managing discrepant information from other sources in genetic counseling: a conversation analytic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Esa; Kääriäinen, Helena

    2005-12-01

    The study examines a recurrent interactional pattern in genetic counseling. It describes clinical geneticists' responses in situations in which clients have presented information from other sources that is potentially discrepant with information given by the doctor. The data consists of 12 video-recorded sessions of genetic counseling in Finland, and the method is conversation analysis. There are two primary ways the doctors respond: either they accept the client's information as such, but show that it is not discrepant with the doctor's information, or they reject the client's information. In the latter case they mitigate the 'wrongness' of the client's information. The clinical geneticists seem to be working with a dilemma: they need to find a balance between ensuring correct understanding of the information and showing respect for the expertise of others. A particularly complex case is also analyzed and reflected on. PMID:16388324

  4. Discrepancies between CFHTLenS cosmic shear & Planck: new physics or systematic effects?

    CERN Document Server

    Kitching, Thomas D; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a discrepancy in the measured value of the amplitude of matter clustering, parameterised using sigma_8, inferred from galaxy weak lensing and CMB data. In this paper we investigate what could mitigate this discrepancy. We consider systematic effects in the weak lensing data and include intrinsic galaxy alignments, and biases in photometric redshift estimates. We also apply a non-parametric approach to model the baryonic feedback on the dark matter clustering, which is flexible enough to reproduce the OWLS and Illustris simulation results. Finally we extend the cosmological analysis of the weak lensing data to include the effect of massive neutrinos. The statistic we use, 3D cosmic shear, is a method that extracts cosmological information from weak lensing data using a spherical-Bessel function power spectrum approach. There are several advantages that this affords, in particular that the method does not rely on binning in redshift, or covariance estimation from simulations. It also allows f...

  5. Enhancing DSN Operations Efficiency with the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon, Mark; Lin, James; Cooper, Tonja M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRMS is the Discrepancy Reporting Management System used by the Deep Space Network (DSN). It uses a web interface and is a management tool designed to track and manage: data outage incidents during spacecraft tracks against equipment and software known as DRs (discrepancy Reports), to record "out of pass" incident logs against equipment and software in a Station Log, to record instances where equipment has be restarted or reset as Reset records, and to electronically record equipment readiness status across the DSN. Tracking and managing these items increases DSN operational efficiency by providing: the ability to establish the operational history of equipment items, data on the quality of service provided to the DSN customers, the ability to measure service performance, early insight into processes, procedures and interfaces that may need updating or changing, and the capability to trace a data outage to a software or hardware change. The items listed above help the DSN to focus resources on areas of most need.

  6. THGEM gain calculations using Garfield: Solving discrepancies between the simulation and experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, C D R; Silva, L F N D Carramate A L M; Veloso, J F C A

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies between the measured and simulated gain in Thick Micropatterned gaseous detectors (MPGD), namely THGEM, have been observed by several groups. In order to simulate the gas gain avalanche the community relies in the calculations performed in Garfield++ that was known to produce differences of 2 orders of magnitude relatively to the experimental data for thick MPGDs. In this work, simulations performed for Ne/5%CH4, Ar/5%CH4 and Ar/30%CO2 mixtures shown that Garfield++ is able to perfectly describe the experimental data if Penning effect is included in the simulation. The comparison between the number of excitations, which may lead to a Penning transfer, in THGEM and GEM is also shown, explaining the less pronounced gain discrepancies observed in GEM.

  7. On the convergence of iterative shrinkage algorithms with adaptive discrepancy terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthoine, S [I3S lab., Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis - CNRS (France); 2000 route des lucioles, 06903 Sophia-Antipolis cedex (France)], E-mail: anthoine@i3s.unice.fr

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the inversion of a linear operator is tackled by a procedure called iterative shrinkage. Iterative shrinkage is a procedure that minimizes a functional balancing quadratic discrepancy terms with l{sub p} regularization terms. In this work, we propose to replace the classical quadratic discrepancy terms with adaptive ones. These adaptive terms rely on adapted projections on a suitable basis. Two versions of these adaptive terms are proposed (one with a straightforward use of the projections and the other with relaxed projections) together with iterative algorithms minimizing the obtained functional. We prove the convergence and stability of corresponding algorithms. Moreover we prove that for a straightforward use of these adaptive projections, although the process is consistent, valuable information may be lost, which is not the case with the 'relaxed' projections. We illustrate both algorithms on multispectral astronomical data.

  8. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  9. Discrepant ratios of arterial versus venous thrombosis in hemophilia A as compared with hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Bertozzi, Irene; de Marinis, Giulia Berti; Tasinato, Valentina; Sambado, Luisa

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of thrombosis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders represents an exceptional event. Hemophilia A and hemophilia B patients have been showed to present both arterial and venous thrombosis (85 cases of arterial thrombosis and 34 cases of venous thrombosis). The great majority of arterial thrombosis are myocardial infarction or other acute coronary syndromes, whereas the majority of venous thrombosis are deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolisms. However there are discrepancies in the proportion of arterial and venous thrombosis seen in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B. The ratio of arterial versus venous thrombosis in hemophilia A is 3.72 whereas that for hemophilia B is 1.12. This indicates that arterial thrombosis is more frequent in hemophilia A as compared to hemophilia B and the opposite is true for venous thrombosis. The potential significance of this discrepancy is discussed.

  10. Surface abundances of ON stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Palacios, A; Howarth, I; Georgy, C; Walborn, N R; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient, or when mass transfer in binary systems happens, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle or not is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determine the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measure the projected rotational velocities. We compare the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. We show that ON stars are usually helium-rich. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cann...

  11. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F M J; Logothetis, Nikos K; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  12. In vitro evaluation of the marginal and internal discrepancies of different esthetic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Abdelsamad SAKRANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined the fit of two types of all-ceramic single crowns and indirect composite resin full coverage crowns. Material and Methods: Thirty intact human mandibular first premolars were selected for this study and prepared using a machine to standardize the dimensions and randomly divided into 3 groups. Slip cast (IC (In-Ceram Zirconia, Vita Zahnfabrik, copy-milled zirconia (CM (ICE, Zirkonzahn and indirect composite resin crowns (NECO, HeraeusKulzer, Hanau, Germany, (N=30, 10 per group were fabricated according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Before cementation, discrepancies were measured at the marginal zone in each crown. Crowns were then cemented with G-Cem capsule self-adhesive luting cement (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Four positions were marked for each zone (mid-facial, mid-mesial, mid-distal, and mid-lingual and three measurements were made at each of the four positions yielding to a total of 12 measurements per crown before and after cementation. The measurements were performed at a different magnification using a stereo microscope (SZ11, Olympus, Japan. Marginal, axial and occlusal zone discrepancies (µm were evaluated after cementation. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Before cementation, significantly less marginal discrepancies were noted compared with after cementation in all groups (p0.05. Occlusal zone discrepancies were significantly higher than those of the marginal and axial zones in all groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Slip cast and copy-milled zirconia crowns showed comparable fit to composite resin crowns in all marginal, axial and occlusal areas.

  13. COMMUNICATION OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND INCOMES: THE REASONS AND DISCREPANCY CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yriy Chistyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of human capital improvement of education attainment results in increase of income of human capital’s owner. This issue is interest to majority of wage earners, all the more at the economic crisis. Authors of this paper analyze presence and closeness of connection between worker’s education attainment and amount of salary on data of Kaluga region. In the paper probable reasons and discrepancy of revealed issue.

  14. Smile design for the adolescent patient--interdisciplinary management of anterior tooth size discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Alexander B

    2008-05-01

    Adolescent patients often seek orthodontic treatment to correct spacing of the maxillary anterior teeth. If the spacing is caused by a tooth size discrepancy that affects one or more anterior teeth, an interdisciplinary treatment plan involving orthodontic, restorative, and periodontal treatment is recommended to achieve a harmonious esthetic result. This article describes a clinical approach for treatment of these complex cases, focusing on the importance of tooth form, gingival esthetics, and treatment sequencing.

  15. Parent–Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Daniel T. L. Shek

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent–adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11–16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers compl...

  16. An end-to-end hybrid algorithm for automated medication discrepancy detection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Spooner, Stephen Andrew; Kaiser, Megan; Lingren, Nataline; Robbins, Jessica; Lingren, Todd; Tang, Huaxiu; Solti, Imre; Ni, Yizhao

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study we implemented and developed state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and natural language processing (NLP) technologies and built a computerized algorithm for medication reconciliation. Our specific aims are: (1) to develop a computerized algorithm for medication discrepancy detection between patients’ discharge prescriptions (structured data) and medications documented in free-text clinical notes (unstructured data); and (2) to assess the performance of the algorithm ...

  17. Tooth-size discrepancy and Bolton's ratios: the reproducibility and speed of two methods of measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, S. A.; Harradine, N. W.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the reproducibility and speed of two methods of performing Bolton's tooth-size analysis. DESIGN: Analysis of randomly selected clinical sample. SETTING: Bristol Dental Hospital, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-treatment study casts of 150 patients were selected randomly from 1100 consecutively treated Caucasian orthodontic patients. Bolton tooth-size discrepancies and ratios were measured using two methods; one method emplo...

  18. Investigation of the Relationship between Ownership–Control Discrepancy and Dividend Policy in Tehran Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Sakineh Darvishzadeh; Zeinolabedin Sadeghi; Ahmad Khodamipour

    2013-01-01

    Present research examines the relation between the ownership-control discrepancy the major shareholder and dividend policy in Tehran Stock Exchange. This research focuses on the effect of the conflicts of interests between majority shareholders and minority shareholders on firms’ dividend policy, because dividend policy can serve as a replacement for this the conflicts of interests. In this research, Investigation all firms in Tehran Stock Exchange that serves the annual reports for the years...

  19. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionall...

  20. Inferring differentially expressed pathways using kernel maximum mean discrepancy-based test

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas, Esteban; Oller, Josep M.; Reverter, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathway expression is multivariate in nature. Thus, from a statistical perspective, to detect differentially expressed pathways between two conditions, methods for inferring differences between mean vectors need to be applied. Maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) is a statistical test to determine whether two samples are from the same distribution, its implementation being greatly simplified using the kernel method. Results An MMD-based test successfully detected the differential express...

  1. A Note on Lower Bound of Centered L2-discrepancy on Combined Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ju LEI; Zu Jun OU; Hong QIN; Na ZOU

    2012-01-01

    This note provides a theoretical justification of optimal foldover plans in terms of uniformity.A new lower bound of the centered L2-discrepancy values of combined designs is obtained,which can be used as a benchmark for searching optimal foldover plans.Our numerical results show that this lower bound is sharper than existing results when more factors reverse the signs in the initial design.

  2. The effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies in patients with heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Eggink, R.N.; Lenderink, Albert; Widdershoven, Jos; Bemt, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Heart failure patients are regularly admitted to hospital and frequently use multiple medication. Besides intentional changes in pharmacotherapy, unintentional changes may occur during hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies and prescription errors in patients with heart failure. Setting: A general teaching hospital in Tilburg, the Netherlands. Method: An open randomized ...

  3. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Boeras Debrah I; Luisi Nicole; Karita Etienne; McKinney Shila; Sharkey Tyronza; Keeling Michelle; Chomba Elwyn; Kraft Colleen; Wall Kristin; Bizimana Jean; Kilembe William; Tichacek Amanda; Caliendo Angela M; Hunter Eric; Allen Susan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group tes...

  4. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. The author investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability

  5. Specific and global coagulation assays in the diagnosis of discrepant mild hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Annette E; Van Veen, Joost J; Goodeve, Anne C; Kitchen, Steve; Makris, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The activity of the factor VIII coagulation protein can be measured by three methods: a one or two-stage clotting assay and a chromogenic assay. The factor VIII activity of most individuals with mild hemophilia A is the same regardless of which method is employed. However, approximately 30% of patients show marked discrepancies in factor VIII activity measured with the different methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of assay discrepancy in our center, assess the impact of alternative reagents on factor VIII activity assays and determine the usefulness of global assays of hemostasis in mild hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was measured in 84 individuals with mild hemophilia A using different reagents. Assay discrepancy was defined as a two-fold or greater difference between the results of the one-stage and two-stage clotting assays. Rotational thromboelastometry and calibrated automated thrombography were performed. Assay discrepancy was observed in 31% of individuals; 12% with lower activity in the two-stage assay and 19% with lower activity in the one-stage assay. The phenotype could not always be predicted from the individual's genotype. Chromogenic assays were shown to be a suitable alternative to the two-stage clotting assay. Thromboelastometry was found to have poor sensitivity in hemophilia. Calibrated automated thrombography supported the results obtained by the two-stage and chromogenic assays. The current international guidelines do not define the type of assay to be used in the diagnosis of mild hemophilia A and some patients could be misclassified as normal. In our study, 4% of patients would not have been diagnosed on the basis of the one-stage factor VIII assay. Laboratories should use both one stage and chromogenic (or two-stage) assays in the diagnosis of patients with possible hemophilia A.

  6. Thermal epiphysiodesis Made with RFA. An Alternative Treatment for Leg Length Discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel

    or discomfort were presented during the follow-up period. Discussion and Conclusion Epiphysiodesis using radio frequency ablation is an innovative technique that may represent an alternative way of treatment that potentially involves less scarring, less exposure to X-rays, and reduces the risk of injuring...... radio frequency ablation inhibited growth without damaging the surrounding structures. This may represent an alternative treatment for leg length discrepancy....

  7. Significant discrepancies between van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpies. II.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; Sturtevant, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Isothermal calorimetric titration of 18-crown-6 ether with BaCl2 in pure aqueous solution over the temperature range 7-40 degrees C gives precise binding constants and enthalpy changes. Nonlinear least-squares fitting of the binding constants to the integrated van't Hoff equation, including a temperature-independent change in heat capacity, leads to van't Hoff enthalpies that differ significantly from the observed calorimetric enthalpies. This perplexing discrepancy appears at present to be v...

  8. The discrepancies in the results of bioinformatics tools for genomic structural annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Nowak, Robert; Osipowski, Paweł; Rymuszka, Jacek; Świerkula, Katarzyna; Wojcieszek, Michał; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    A major focus of sequencing project is to identify genes in genomes. However it is necessary to define the variety of genes and the criteria for identifying them. In this work we present discrepancies and dependencies from the application of different bioinformatic programs for structural annotation performed on the cucumber data set from Polish Consortium of Cucumber Genome Sequencing. We use Fgenesh, GenScan and GeneMark to automated structural annotation, the results have been compared to reference annotation.

  9. Using IQ Discrepancy Scores To Examine the Neural Correlates of Specific Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N = 83 and N = 58; age range, 5–57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. PMID:23986248

  10. Intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy in a Pakistani population: A stereomicroscope versus digital caliper

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive diagnosis and treatment planning are essential in a successful orthodontic practice. The purpose of this study is to determine and compare intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy (IMTSD) using traditional digital caliper (DC) measurement on plaster dental models and stereomicroscopic digital dental models (SM). Materials and Methods: The samples were randomly selected from different states of Pakistan. Total 7168 variables were measured on plaster dental casts (128) and...

  11. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  12. Tooth-size discrepancy: A comparison between manual and digital methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dória Cabral Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Technological advances in Dentistry have emerged primarily in the area of diagnostic tools. One example is the 3D scanner, which can transform plaster models into three-dimensional digital models. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the reliability of tooth size-arch length discrepancy analysis measurements performed on three-dimensional digital models, and compare these measurements with those obtained from plaster models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To this end, plaster models of lower dental arches and their corresponding three-dimensional digital models acquired with a 3Shape R700T scanner were used. All of them had lower permanent dentition. Four different tooth size-arch length discrepancy calculations were performed on each model, two of which by manual methods using calipers and brass wire, and two by digital methods using linear measurements and parabolas. RESULTS: Data were statistically assessed using Friedman test and no statistically significant differences were found between the two methods (P > 0.05, except for values found by the linear digital method which revealed a slight, non-significant statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, it is reasonable to assert that any of these resources used by orthodontists to clinically assess tooth size-arch length discrepancy can be considered reliable.

  13. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  14. Effects of CO-CR discrepancy in daily orthodontic treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSTEA, CARMEN MARIA; BADEA, MÎNDRA EUGENIA; VASILACHE, SORIN; MESAROŞ, MICHAELA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Nowadays centric relation is defined as a musculoskeletal stable position, with the condyles forward, as far upward as possible, centered transversely and with the articular disc properly interposed. On the other hand, centric occlusion or maximum intercuspidation is a dental determined position. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the direction, frequency and magnitude of the discrepancy between centric occlusion and centric relation in all three axial directions, in a muscular non-deprogrammed population, before the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Methods The study group was represented by 40 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients seeking orthodontic treatment in a private dental office in Cluj-Napoca, Romania between 2014 and 2015. All patients had full records and articulator mounted models. All measurements were analyzed three-dimensionally. Results 85% of the patients had vertical and 87.5% had horizontal CO-CR discrepancy for both condyles. 87.5% of the cases have had a significant condylar displacement in at least one of the three planes. Conclusions We should be aware of the dental occlusion determined by the dental contacts and the occlusion dictated by the musculoskeletal stable position of the condyles. The bigger the discrepancy between these two positions at the level of the condyles, the greater the chances to have either a patient who will develop a form of TMD before/during or after the orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, or a patient suffering already, but poorly diagnosed. PMID:27152081

  15. Limb lengthening in Africa: tibial lengthening indicated for limb length discrepancy and postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Farikou Ibrahima,1,2 Pius Fokam,2 Félicien Faustin Mouafo Tambo11Department of Surgery and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, 2Department of Surgery, Douala General Hospital, Douala, CameroonBackground: We present a case of lengthening of a tibia to treat postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis and limb length discrepancy by the Ilizarov device.Objective: The objective was to treat the pseudarthrosis and correct the consequent limb length discrepancy of 50 mm.Materials and methods: The patient was a 5-year-old boy. Osteotomy of the tibia, excision of fibrosis, and decortications were carried out. After a latency period of 5 days, the lengthening started at a rate of 1 mm per day.Results: The pseudarthrosis healed and the gained correction was 21.73%. The index consolidation was 49 days/cm. Minor complications were reported.Discussion: Osteomyelitis of long bones is a common poverty-related disease in Africa. The disease usually is diagnosed at an advanced stage with complications. In these conditions, treatment is much more difficult. Most surgical procedures treating this condition use the Ilizarov device. The most common reported surgical complications are refractures and recurrence of infection.Conclusion: This technique should be popularized in countries with limited resources because it would be an attractive alternative to the amputations that are sometimes performed.Keywords: Limb length discrepancy (LLD, bone gap, Ilizarov device

  16. Search for a resonant enhancement of the 7Be + d reaction and primordial 7Li abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results, produce 7Li abundances almost a factor of four larger than those extrapolated from observations. Since primordial 7Li is believed to be mostly produced by the beta decay of 7Be, one proposed solution to this discrepancy is a resonant enhancement of the 7Be(d,p)2α reaction rate through the 5/2+ 16.7-MeV state in 9B. The 2H(7Be,d)7Be reaction was used to search for such a resonance; none was observed. An upper limit on the width of the proposed resonance was deduced.

  17. Fast Multilevel Methods for Solving Ill-posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仲英; 宋丽红; 马富明

    2005-01-01

    Many industrial and engineering applications require numerically solving ill-posed problems. Regularization methods are employed to find approximate solutions of these problems. The choice of regularization parameters by numerical algorithms is one of the most important issues for the success of regularization methods. When we use some discrepancy principles to determine the regularization parameter,

  18. Butterfly abundance is determined by food availability and is mediated by species traits

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Robin J.; Brereton, Tom M.; Roger L H Dennis; Carbone, Chris; Isaac, Nick J. B.

    2015-01-01

    1. Understanding the drivers of population abundance across species and sites is crucial for effective conservation management. At present, we lack a framework for predicting which sites are likely to support abundant butterfly communities. 2. We address this problem by exploring the determinants of abundance among 1111 populations of butterflies in the UK, spanning 27 species on 54 sites. Our general hypothesis is that the availability of food resources is a strong predictor of population...

  19. Discrepancies in Outcome Reporting Exist Between Protocols and Published Oral Health Cochrane Systematic Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Pandis

    Full Text Available To assess discrepancies in the analyzed outcomes between protocols and published reviews within Cochrane oral health systematic reviews (COHG on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR.All COHG systematic reviews on the CDSR and the corresponding protocols were retrieved in November 2014 and information on the reported outcomes was recorded. Data was collected at the systematic review level by two reviewers independently.One hundred and fifty two reviews were included. In relation to primary outcomes, 11.2% were downgraded to secondary outcomes, 9.9% were omitted altogether in the final publication and new primary outcomes were identified in 18.4% of publications. For secondary outcomes, 2% were upgraded to primary, 12.5% were omitted and 30.9% were newly introduced in the publication. Overall, 45.4% of reviews had at least one discrepancy when compared to the protocol; these were reported in 14.5% reviews. The number of review updates appears to be associated with discrepancies between final review and protocol (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.77, 5.74, p<0.001. The risk of reporting significant results was lower for both downgraded outcomes [RR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.58, p = 0.24] and upgraded or newly introduced outcomes [RR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.64, p = 0.50] compared to outcomes with no discrepancies. The risk of reporting significant results was higher for upgraded or newly introduced outcomes compared to downgraded outcomes (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.65, 2.16, p = 0.57. None of the comparisons reached statistical significance.While no evidence of selective outcome reporting was found in this study, based on the present analysis of SRs published within COHG systematic reviews, discrepancies between outcomes in pre-published protocols and final reviews continue to be common. Solutions such as the use of standardized outcomes to reduce the prevalence of this issue may need to be explored.

  20. 自我差异和身体意象%Self-discrepancy and body image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颜; 缪绍疆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the correlation between self-discrepancy and body image based on the papers published before 2014 at home and abroad,with an attempt to provide an new idea for body image disorder.Methods Major online database including Sciencedirect,Springer,CNKI,and Wan Fang datebase were searched in January 2014.The key words we used are "body image"," body dissatisfaction"," body self-discrepancy" and so on.Results Totally 40 studies enrolled,the analysis show self-discrepancy is an important mechanism to affect body image,and body self-discrepancies has been found to be associated with body-related behaviors,emotional experience and eating disorder.Conclusion self-discrepancies are cognitive structures,which can influence ongoing information processing without individual' s awareness,resulting in Cognitive biases and body image disorder.Further research is needed exploring the discriminate validity of the body self,the method of measurement an so on.%目的 以国内外2014年以前发表的针对自我差异与身体意象关系的文献,综述自我差异与身体意象关系等方面的重要研究成果,为今后身体意象失调患者的治疗提供新的视角.方法 2014年1月在Sciencedirect、Springer、中国知网、万方数据库等数据库,以“自我差异”、“身体意象”等为检索词,从自我差异理论的视角来分析身体意象失调问题.结果 检索文献826篇,纳入文献40篇.结果显示自我差异是影响身体意象失调的重要机制,而且身体自我差异与个体的行为、情绪、进食障碍等有着密切关系.结论 自我差异是一种重要的认知结构,自发地影响个体的信息处理过程,从而可能导致认知偏差和身体意象失调.未来的研究可就身体自我的区分效度、测量方法等作进一步探讨.

  1. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  2. Solar System chemical abundances corrected for systematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The relative chemical abundances between CI meteorites and the solar photosphere exhibit a significant trend with condensation temperature. A trend with condensation temperature is also seen when the solar photospheric abundances are compared to those of nearby solar twins. We use both these trends to determine the alteration of the elemental abundances of the meteorties and the photosphere by fractionation and calculate a new set of primordial Solar System abundances.

  3. Relative species abundance of replicator dynamics with sparse interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Tokita, Kei

    2016-01-01

    A theory of relative species abundance on sparsely-connected networks is presented by investigating the replicator dynamics with symmetric interactions. Sparseness of a network involves difficulty in analyzing the fixed points of the equation, and we avoid this problem by treating large self interaction $u$, which allows us to construct a perturbative expansion. Based on this perturbation, we find that the nature of the interactions is directly connected to the abundance distribution, and some characteristic behaviors, such as multiple peaks in the abundance distribution and all species coexistence at moderate values of $u$, are discovered in a wide class of the distribution of the interactions. The all species coexistence collapses at a critical value of $u$, $u_c$, and this collapsing is regarded as a phase transition. To get more quantitative information, we also construct a non-perturbative theory on random graphs based on techniques of statistical mechanics. The result shows those characteristic behavior...

  4. When do self-discrepancies have specific relations to emotions? The second-generation question of Tangney, Niedenthal, Covert, and Barlow (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, E T

    1999-12-01

    Self-discrepancy theory (E. T. Higgins, 1987) hypothesizes that actual-ideal discrepancies are uniquely related to dejection emotions, whereas actual-ought discrepancies are uniquely related to agitation emotions. A review of the literature testing this hypothesis supports an affirmative-answer to the question "Is there an effect?" However, as the results of J. P. Tangney, P. M. Niedenthal, M. V. Covert, and D. H. Barlow's (1998) study indicate, the predicted unique relations are not always found. Their article contributes to the development of self-discrepancy theory by shifting attention to the second-generation question "When is there an effect?" Four variables that moderate the likelihood of finding unique discrepancy-emotion relations are discussed in the present article: the magnitude of a self-discrepancy, the accessibility of a self-discrepancy, the applicability and relevance of a self-discrepancy in a current context, and the importance of a self-discrepancy to the person.

  5. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. In recent years mid-and far infrared spectra of planetary nebulae have been analysed and lead to more accurate abundances. It may be expected that these better abundances lead to a better understanding of the evolution of these objects. Aims. The observed abundances in planetary nebulae are

  6. Halo abundances within the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, D.; Eardley, E.; Peacock, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the dependence of the mass function of dark-matter haloes on their environment within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. A dependence of the halo mass function on large-scale mean density is a standard element of cosmological theory, allowing mass-dependent biasing to be understood via the peak-background split. On the assumption of a Gaussian density field, this analysis can be extended to ask how the mass function depends on the geometrical environment: clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, as classified via the tidal tensor (the Hessian matrix of the gravitational potential). In linear theory, the problem can be solved exactly, and the result is attractively simple: the conditional mass function has no explicit dependence on the local tidal field, and is a function only of the local density on the filtering scale used to define the tidal tensor. There is nevertheless a strong implicit predicted dependence on geometrical environment, because the local density couples statistically to the derivatives of the potential. We compute the predictions of this model and study the limits of their validity by comparing them to results deduced empirically from N-body simulations. We have verified that, to a good approximation, the abundance of haloes in different environments depends only on their densities, and not on their tidal structure. In this sense we find relative differences between halo abundances in different environments with the same density which are smaller than ˜13 per cent. Furthermore, for sufficiently large filtering scales, the agreement with the theoretical prediction is good, although there are important deviations from the Gaussian prediction at small, non-linear scales. We discuss how to obtain improved predictions in this regime, using the `effective-universe' approach.

  7. Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has long been known that thorium-232 is a fertile radioactive material that can produce energy in nuclear reactors for conversion to electricity. Thorium-232 is well suited to a variety of reactor types including molten fluoride salt designs, heavy water CANDU configurations, and helium-cooled TRISO-fueled systems. Among contentious commercial nuclear power issues are the questions of what to do with long-lived radioactive waste and how to minimize weapon proliferation dangers. The substitution of thorium for uranium as fuel in nuclear reactors has significant potential for minimizing both problems. Thorium is three times more abundant in nature than uranium. Whereas uranium has to be imported, there is enough thorium in the United States alone to provide adequate grid power for many centuries. A well-designed thorium reactor could produce electricity less expensively than a next-generation coal-fired plant or a current-generation uranium-fueled nuclear reactor. Importantly, thorium reactors produce substantially less long-lived radioactive waste than uranium reactors. Thorium-fueled reactors with molten salt configurations and very high temperature thorium-based TRISO-fueled reactors are both recommended for priority Generation IV funding in the 2030 time frame. - Highlights: • Thorium is an abundant nuclear fuel that is well suited to three advanced reactor configurations. • Important thorium reactor configurations include molten salt, CANDU, and TRISO systems. • Thorium has important nuclear waste disposal advantages relative to pressurized water reactors. • Thorium as a nuclear fuel has important advantages relative to weapon non-proliferation

  8. What have we learnt from a relativistic description of a few-nucleon problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We briefly review to what extent the relativistic approaches have brought some light in clarifying some discrepancies in the few-nucleon problem. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)

  9. Four Momentum Transfer Discrepancy in the Charged Current pi+ Production in the MiniBooNE: Data versus Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.

    2009-09-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has collected what is currently the world's largest sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current single charged pion (CCl{pi}{sup +}) interactions, roughly 46,000 events. The purity of the CCl{pi}{sup +} sample is 87% making this the purest event sample observed in the MiniBooNE detector. The average energy of neutrinos producing CC{pi}{sup +} interactions in MiniBooNE is about 1 GeV, therefore the study of these events can provide insight into both resonant and coherent pion production processes. In this talk, we will discuss the long-standing discrepancy in four-momentum transfer observed between CC{pi}{sup +} data and existing predictions. Several attempts to address this problem will be presented. Specifically, the Rein-Sehgal model has been extended to include muon mass terms for both resonant and coherent production. Using calculations from, an updated form for the vector form factor has also been adopted. The results of this improved description of CC{pi}{sup +} production will be compared to the high statistics MiniBooNE CC{pi}{sup +} data and several existing parametrizations of the axial vector form factor.

  10. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P; Masseron, T; Casamiquela, L; Tabernero, H M; Bhat, S S; Casey, A R; Meléndez, J; Ramírez, I

    2016-01-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  11. Discrepancy in reports of support exchanges between parents and adult offspring: within- and between-family differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L

    2014-04-01

    Using data from 929 parent-child dyads nested in 458 three-generation families (aged 76 for the oldest generation, 50 for the middle generation, and 24 for the youngest generation), this study investigated how discrepancies in reports of support that parents and their adult offspring exchanged with one another vary both within and between families, and what factors explain variations in dyadic discrepancies. We found substantial within- and between-family differences in dyadic discrepancies in reports of support exchanges. For downward exchanges (from parents to offspring), both dyad-specific characteristics within a family (e.g., gender composition, relative levels of relationship quality, and family obligation) and shared family characteristics (e.g., average levels of relationship quality) showed significant effects on dyadic discrepancies. For upward exchanges (from offspring to parents), however, only dyad-specific characteristics (e.g., gender composition, coresidence, relative levels of positive relationship quality, and family obligation) were significantly associated with discrepancies. Discrepancies in support exchanges were mainly associated with dyad-specific characteristics, but they also appeared to be influenced by family emotional environments. The use of multiple informants revealed that families differ in discrepancies in reports of exchanges, which has implications for quality of family life as well as future exchanges. PMID:24548009

  12. Metal Abundances in the Hot Interstellar Medium in Early-Type Galaxies Observed with ASCA

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, K; Makishima, K; Matsushita, Kyoko; Ohashi, Takaya; Makishima, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed ASCA data of 27 early-type galaxies, and studied the properties of their X-ray emitting ISM (Inter Stellar Medium) in detail. We found that overlapping lines and free-bound continuum cause strong coupling in the derived abundances of various elements. The abundance determination is also difficult due to the uncertainties in the Fe-L atomic physics, because Fe-L lines couple with O and Ne K-lines. However, when abundances of $\\alpha$-elements are fixed, all the plasma codes give similar Fe abundances with a scattering of only 20-30%. To relax the strong coupling among the elements, we included 20% systematic errors in the Fe-L region of the spectra. Then, in X-ray luminous galaxies, the derived abundance of Fe and $\\alpha$-elements both became $\\sim 1$ solar within a factor of 2. This result relaxes the previous severe discrepancy between the ISM and stellar metallicities. The ISM metallicity in X-ray fainter galaxies is still uncertain, but we can at least constrain that contribution from typ...

  13. Surface abundances of ON stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  14. Optimal use of multi-informant data on co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing problems : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhof, Arjen; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Strong between-informant discrepancies are found in ratings of (pre)adolescent problems and in co-occurrence rates between different domains of psychopathology. These discrepancies can be caused by differences in the context of measurement and the perspective of informants. The aim of this study was

  15. Why Patient Matching Is a Challenge: Research on Master Patient Index (MPI) Data Discrepancies in Key Identifying Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Beth Haenke; Marc, David; Munns, Megan; Sandefer, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Patient identification matching problems are a major contributor to data integrity issues within electronic health records. These issues impede the improvement of healthcare quality through health information exchange and care coordination, and contribute to deaths resulting from medical errors. Despite best practices in the area of patient access and medical record management to avoid duplicating patient records, duplicate records continue to be a significant problem in healthcare. This study examined the underlying causes of duplicate records using a multisite data set of 398,939 patient records with confirmed duplicates and analyzed multiple reasons for data discrepancies between those record matches. The field that had the greatest proportion of mismatches (nondefault values) was the middle name, accounting for 58.30 percent of mismatches. The Social Security number was the second most frequent mismatch, occurring in 53.54 percent of the duplicate pairs. The majority of the mismatches in the name fields were the result of misspellings (53.14 percent in first name and 33.62 percent in last name) or swapped last name/first name, first name/middle name, or last name/middle name pairs. The use of more sophisticated technologies is critical to improving patient matching. However, no amount of advanced technology or increased data capture will completely eliminate human errors. Thus, the establishment of policies and procedures (such as standard naming conventions or search routines) for front-end and back-end staff to follow is foundational for the overall data integrity process. Training staff on standard policies and procedures will result in fewer duplicates created on the front end and more accurate duplicate record matching and merging on the back end. Furthermore, monitoring, analyzing trends, and identifying errors that occur are proactive ways to identify data integrity issues. PMID:27134610

  16. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  17. Origin of Cosmic Chemical Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological N-body hydrodynamic computations following atomic and molecular chemistry (e$^-$, H, H$^+$, H$^-$, He, He$^+$, He$^{++}$, D, D$^+$, H$_2$, H$_2^+$, HD, HeH$^+$), gas cooling, star formation and production of heavy elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, etc.) from stars covering a range of mass and metallicity are used to explore the origin of several chemical abundance patterns and to study both the metal and molecular content during simulated galaxy assembly. The resulting trends show a remarkable similarity to up-to-date observations of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers at redshift $z\\gtrsim 2$. These exhibit a transient nature and represent collapsing gaseous structures captured while cooling is becoming effective in lowering the temperature below $\\sim 10^4\\,\\rm K$, before they are disrupted by episodes of star formation or tidal effects. Our theoretical results agree with the available data for typical elemental ratios, such as [C/O], [Si/Fe], [O/Fe], [Si/O], [Fe/H], [O/...

  18. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules

  19. Are the numbers adding up? Exploiting discrepancies among complementary population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenglein, Jennifer L; Zhu, Jun; Clayton, Murray K; Van Deelen, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Large carnivores are difficult to monitor because they tend to be sparsely distributed, sensitive to human activity, and associated with complex life histories. Consequently, understanding population trend and viability requires conservationists to cope with uncertainty and bias in population data. Joint analysis of combined data sets using multiple models (i.e., integrated population model) can improve inference about mechanisms (e.g., habitat heterogeneity and food distribution) affecting population dynamics. However, unobserved or unobservable processes can also introduce bias and can be difficult to quantify. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach for inference on an integrated population model that reconciles annual population counts with recruitment and survival data (i.e., demographic processes). Our modeling framework is flexible and enables a realistic form of population dynamics by fitting separate density-dependent responses for each demographic process. Discrepancies estimated from shared parameters among different model components represent unobserved additions (i.e., recruitment or immigration) or removals (i.e., death or emigration) when annual population counts are reliable. In a case study of gray wolves in Wisconsin (1980-2011), concordant with policy changes, we estimated that a discrepancy of 0% (1980-1995), -2% (1996-2002), and 4% (2003-2011) in the annual mortality rate was needed to explain annual growth rate. Additional mortality in 2003-2011 may reflect density-dependent mechanisms, changes in illegal killing with shifts in wolf management, and nonindependent censoring in survival data. Integrated population models provide insights into unobserved or unobservable processes by quantifying discrepancies among data sets. Our modeling approach is generalizable to many population analysis needs and allows for identifying dynamic differences due to external drivers, such as management or policy changes. PMID:25691964

  20. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachar, Gideon, E-mail: gidybahar@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Buda, Inon, E-mail: inonbuda@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cohen, Maya, E-mail: mayac@clalit.org.il [Department of Imaging, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hadar, Tuvia, E-mail: hadartuv@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hilly, Ohad, E-mail: ohadhilly@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schwartz, Nofrat, E-mail: nofrat@gmail.com [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Otolaryngology, Meir Hospital, Kefar Sabah, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Shpitzer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas-s@013net.net [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Segal, Karl, E-mail: segalk@clalit.org.il [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-11-01

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules.

  1. PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. INTRODUCTION AND ORBITS FOR TWO DETACHED SYSTEMS: EVIDENCE FOR A MASS DISCREPANCY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia I. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Penny, Laura R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); DeGioia-Eastwood, Kathleen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-6010 (United States); Gies, Douglas R., E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: pennyl@cofc.edu, E-mail: kathy.eastwood@nau.edu, E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The stellar mass-luminosity relation is poorly constrained by observations for high-mass stars. We describe our program to find eclipsing massive binaries in the Magellanic Clouds using photometry of regions rich in massive stars, and our spectroscopic follow-up to obtain radial velocities and orbits. Our photometric campaign identified 48 early-type periodic variables, of which only 15 (31%) were found as part of the microlensing surveys. Spectroscopy is now complete for 17 of these systems, and in this paper we present analysis of the first two, LMC 172231 and ST2-28, simple detached systems of late-type O dwarfs of relatively modest masses. Our orbit analysis yields very precise masses ({approx}2%), and we use tomography to separate the components and determine effective temperatures by model fitting, necessary for determining accurate (0.05-0.07 dex) bolometric luminosities in combination with the light-curve analysis. Our approach allows more precise comparisons with evolutionary theory than previously possible. To our considerable surprise, we find a small, but significant, systematic discrepancy: all of the stars are slightly undermassive, by typically 11% (or overluminous by 0.2 dex) compared with that predicted by the evolutionary models. We examine our approach for systematic problems, but find no satisfactory explanation. The discrepancy is in the same sense as the long-discussed and elusive discrepancy between the masses measured from stellar atmosphere analysis with the stellar evolutionary models, and might suggest that either increased rotation or convective overshooting is needed in the models. Additional systems will be discussed in future papers of this series, and will hopefully confirm or refute this trend.

  2. Discrepancy measurements of copings prepared by three casting methods and two different alloys, on ITI implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siadat H.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: An important criterion for success assessment of implant-supported prostheses is marginal fit. Vertical and horizontal discrepancy can result in loosening of the prosthetic screw, crestal bone resorption, peri-implantitis and loss of osseointegration. Despite careful attention to waxing, investing, and casting, marginal discrepancies are inevitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal gap and overhang in three casting methods with two different alloys in ITI implants.Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study 48 analog abutments were randomly divided into six groups as follows: 1 burn out cap + BegoStar, 2 impression cap + BegoStar, 3 conventional wax up + BegoStar, 4 burn out cap + Verabond2, 5 impression cap + Verabond2, 6 conventional wax up + Verabond2. Waxing was done in 0.7 mm thickness verified by a digital gauge and a putty index was made for all groups. Reamer was used for correction of the finish line after casting in all groups. Castings were seated on analog abutments and embedded in acrylic resin. Specimens were sectioned by isomet instrument and polished and cleaned by ultrasonic cleaner for 10 min. The marginal gap and overextended margins of castings were examined under a  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM (X200. The mean gap and margin overextension were calculated for each group. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis and Bonferroni post-hoc test with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: No significant difference in gap size was observed among the three casting methods with two alloys (P=0.056. The marginal gap was not different in the studied casting methods (P=0.092. Gold alloy crowns showed lower marginal gaps compared to base metal alloy crowns (P<0.001. No significant difference in overhang size was observed among casting methods with two alloys (P=0.093. Base metal alloy crowns showed less overhang compared to gold alloy crowns (P<0.001. There was a

  3. Resolving a discrepancy between experimental and theoretical lifetimes in atomic negative ions

    OpenAIRE

    Brage, Tomas; Grumer, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Recently the lifetime of the excited $^{2}P_{1/2}$-state of S$^-$ was measured to be $503\\pm 54$ s (B\\"ackstr\\"om \\textit{et al.} Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 143003 (2015)). The earlier theoretical lifetime of $436$ s was clearly outside the experimental error bars. To investigate this discrepancy we have performed systematic and large-scale Multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for this system. After including a careful treatment of correlation and relativistic effects, we predict a ...

  4. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes

    OpenAIRE

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with $R_{vir}$ ($\\Delt...

  5. Predictors of women's concern with body weight: the roles of perceived self-media ideal discrepancies and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavac, Steven S; Posavac, Heidi D

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have expended significant effort trying to delineate determinants of body image disturbance in young women, in part because of the potential of body image disturbance to precipitate eating disordered behavior. In this research we demonstrate that the extent of the discrepancy women perceive between their own attractiveness and body shape and images representative of ideal feminine attractiveness presented in advertising and the broader media (i.e., self-media ideal discrepancy) predicts how concerned they are with their weight (a measure of body image disturbance). Perhaps more importantly, we also show that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is a construct independent of global self-esteem. Specifically, our results demonstrate that perceived self-media ideal discrepancy is related to women's weight concern even when self-esteem is statistically controlled. Implications for theory and clinical intervention are discussed. PMID:16864255

  6. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  7. Discrepancies in HLA typing by PCR-SSOP and SBT techniques: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Hélder; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Brehm, António

    2007-10-01

    Six hundred twenty-one samples from Portugal, the Cabo Verde archipelago, and Guinea-Bissau were typed for HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) method and the sequence-based typing (SBT) method to characterize and compare discrepancies between the two methods. Fifty-three alleles (4.27% of 1242 chromosomes typed) identified by the PCR-SSOP method were not concordant with the results obtained using the SBT method. Thirty-four (2.74% of total chromosomes typed) PCR-SSOP mistyping results were discrepancies inside the same allele group and 19 others (1.53% of total chromosomes typed) were relative to nonconcordant results between different groups. PCR-SSOP allele mistyping is the result of interpretation difficulties resulting from less intense, absent, or dubious hybridization patterns. Noncommercial PCR-SSOP procedures are highly exigent on the technicians' experience and the availability of properly calibrated high-precision equipment. PMID:18478969

  8. Resolving SSM/I-Ship Radar Rainfall Discrepancies from AIP-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The third algorithm intercomparison project (AIP-3) involved rain estimates from more than 50satellite rainfall algorithms and ground radar measurements within the Intensive Flux Array (IFA) over the equatorial western Pacific warm pool region during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Early results indicated that there was a systematic bias between rainrates from satellite passive microwave and ground radar measurements. The mean rainrate from radar measurements is about 50% underestimated compared to that from passive microwave-based retrieval algorithms. This paper is designed to analyze rain patterns from the Florida State University rain retrieval algorithm and radar measurements to understand physically the rain discrepancies. Results show that there is a clear range-dependent bias associated with the radar measurements.However, this range-dependent systematical bias is almost eliminated with the corrected radar rainrates.Results suggest that the effects from radar attenuation correction, calibration and beam filling are the major sources of rain discrepancies. This study demonstrates that rain retrievals based on satellite measurements from passive microwave radiometers such as the Special Sensor of Microwave Imager (SSM/I)are reliable, while rain estimates from ground radar measurements are correctable.

  9. Analysis of discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in 60 patients with herniated nucleus pulposus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kab Tae; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    The herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is a major cause of low back pain and sciatica. High resolution computed tomography is the most accurate diagnostic tool to define a HNP, because it provides a complete in vivo analysis of bony framework of lumbar spine as well as the supporting soft tissue structures and neural elements. But the discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings is often confusing. From May 1983 to August 1986, sixty patients with HNP who had both CT and surgical intervention at Pusan National University Hospital were analyzed. The feasibility of the neurologic examination on HNP and the effect of HNP on nerve root were evaluated on the basis of CT findings. The results were as follows : 1. Thirty-four cases (56.7%) of clinical impression were matched to CT findings in determining level of HNP and affected nerve root. 2. In evaluation of affected level, there was high trend to cause discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in multiple disc involvement than in single involvement. 3. There was no correlation between degree of nerve root compression determined by CT and pattern of neurologic signs (motor weakness, sensory deficit, and reflex change)

  10. Examining body image discrepancies and perceived weight status in adult Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    This study examined potential differences and similarities between attitudes about body shape and eating behaviors in Japan versus America. Discrepancies between various body ideals (e.g., own versus ideal; Japanese versus American) and perceived weight status were examined in a sample of adult Japanese women. Forty-five adult Japanese women rated various body ideals using the Stunkard Body Shape Questionnaire. They also answered questions about their perceived body weight and completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Participants rated the ideal body shape for Japanese women to be significantly thinner than for American women. Body image discrepancy predicted drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms as measured by the EDI-2. Furthermore, there was an interaction between perfectionism and perceived overweight status, such that among participants high on perceived weight status, perfectionism predicted greater bulimic symptomology. The relative importance of the internalization of the Western beauty ideal to the rise of eating disorders in Japan is discussed. Similarities between the findings of this study and studies conducted on American samples are highlighted, and areas for future research are proposed. PMID:18928918

  11. The relationship between tooth size discrepancy and archform classification in orthodontic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Mahony, Gerard; Millett, Declan T.; Cronin, Michael S.; Barry, Mark K.

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the relationship between clinically significant tooth size discrepancies (TSD) and archform classification in orthodontic patients. Material and Methods Eighty teeth with artificial white spot lesions were randomly divided into four groups: (A) distilled and deionized water, (B) Nd:YAG laser, (C) CPP-ACP crème, & (D) CPP-ACP plus laser. SMH was measured using Vickers diamond indenter in Vickers Hardness Number (VHN). Two samples of each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analyzed with the SPSS 17/win. Results Reproducibility of the classification of archform was very good (unweighted Kappa statistic of 0.83 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.73, 0.93). There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of archform type between group 1 and group 2 for the upper (p=0.3305) or lower (p=0.6310) arches. Conclusions The presence of a clinically significant TSD and archform classification do not appear to be related. Key words:Tooth Size, Archform, Bolton discrepancy, digital models, polynomial curve, archform classification. PMID:26155344

  12. Price Discrepancy Between Sellers and Buyers When Making Decisions for the Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory.

  13. What triggers $\\theta_{13}$ discrepancy between Daya Bay and T2K?

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Shimada, Kyousuke; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    There seems to be a non-negligible discrepancy between Daya Bay and T2K experimental results of a neutrino mixing angle, $\\theta_{13}$ . We show the discrepancy can be simply passed away even in the standard three neutrinos framework by taking the same value of $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ with a normal neutrino mass hierarchy and Dirac CP phase $\\delta = -\\pi/ 2$, which is favorable in T2K experiment. For numerical analyses of neutrino oscillation probabilities, there are five independent parameters, $\\Delta m_{21}^2$, $\\Delta m_{32}^2$, $\\theta_{12}$, $\\theta_{23}$, and $\\delta$. We reevaluate $\\theta_{13}$ by scatter plots within $1 \\sigma$ range of five-dimensional parameters space suggested by PDG, T2K, and Daya Bay. We project onto $\\delta$-$\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{13}$ plane and find an overlap area of $\\theta_{13}$ suggested by T2K and Daya Bay. In the normal hierarchy case, the largest overlap area is given by parameters set suggested by T2K, and the overlap area becomes small in order of parameters sets suggested by ...

  14. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  15. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide va...

  16. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...

  17. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  18. Methods for dealing with discrepant records in linked population health datasets: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algert Charles S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linked population health data are increasingly used in epidemiological studies. If data items are reported on more than one dataset, data linkage can reduce the under-ascertainment associated with many population health datasets. However, this raises the possibility of discrepant case reports from different datasets. Methods We examined the effect of four methods of classifying discrepant reports from different population health datasets on the estimated prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and on the adjusted odds ratios (aOR for known risk factors. Data were obtained from linked, validated, birth and hospital data for women who gave birth in a New South Wales hospital (Australia 2000–2002. Results Among 250173 women with linked data, 238412 (95.3% women had perfect agreement on the occurrence of hypertension, 1577 (0.6% had imperfect agreement; 9369 (3.7% had hypertension reported in only one dataset (under-reporting and 815 (0.3% had conflicting types of hypertension. Using only perfect agreement between birth and discharge data resulted in the lowest prevalence rates (0.3% chronic, 5.1% pregnancy hypertension, while including all reports resulted in the highest prevalence rates (1.1 % chronic, 8.7% pregnancy hypertension. The higher prevalence rates were generally consistent with international reports. In contrast, perfect agreement gave the highest aOR (95% confidence interval for known risk factors: risk of chronic hypertension for maternal age ≥40 years was 4.0 (2.9, 5.3 and the risk of pregnancy hypertension for multiple birth was 2.8 (2.5, 3.2. Conclusion The method chosen for classifying discrepant case reports should vary depending on the study question; all reports should be used as part of calculating the range of prevalence estimates, but perfect matches may be best suited to risk factor analyses. These findings are likely to be applicable to the linkage of any specialised health services

  19. Strong discrepancies between local temperature mapping and interpolated climatic grids in tropical mountainous agricultural landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Faye

    Full Text Available Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms' performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5 ± 10% and under-estimate by 82.1 ± 12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from -2.7 °K during daytime to 1.3 °K during night-time and soils (from -4.9 °K during daytime to 6.7 °K during night-time with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3-4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly

  20. On the OVI Abundance in the Circumgalactic Medium of Low-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, Joshua; Kannan, Rahul; Werk, Jessica K; Hernquist, Lars; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mass, temperature, metal enrichment, and OVI abundance of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around $z\\sim 0.2$ galaxies of mass $10^9 M_\\odot abundance profiles are consistent with those observed for star-forming galaxies of mass $M_\\bigstar = 10^{10.5-11.5} M_\\odot$, but underpredict the observed OVI abundances by $\\gtrsim 0.8$ dex for lower-mass galaxies. We suggest that this discrepancy may be alleviated with additional heating of the abundant cool gas in low-mass halos, or with increased numerical resolution capturing turbulent/conductive mixing layers between CGM phases. Quenched galaxies of mass $M_\\b...

  1. Abundances of 30 elements in 23 metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, J A

    2002-01-01

    We report the abundances of 30 elements in 23 metal-poor ([Fe/H] 0.10 dex, the relative abundances, especially between closely allied atoms such as the rare earth group, often show only small (<0.03 dex) changes. We found that some strong lines of FeI, MnI and CrI consistently gave lower abundances by ~0.2 dex, a number larger than the quoted errors in the gf values. After considering a model with depth-dependent microturbulent velocity and a model with hotter temperatures in the upper layers, we conclude that the latter did a better job of resolving the problem and agreeing with observational evidence for the structure of stars. The error analysis includes the effects of correlation of Teff, log g, and microturbulent velocity errors, which is crucial for certain element ratios, such as [Mg/Fe]. The abundances presented here are being analyzed and discussed in a separate series of papers.

  2. Light element abundances, galactic evolution, and the universal baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present mean universal mean baryon density, rho/sub b/, is of particular interest because, in Friedmann cosmologies with no cosmological constant, it is this quantity together with the Hubble constant, H/sub o/, which determines the spatial curvature of the universe, i.e., whether it is open or closed. The most stringent upper limit to rho/sub b/ so far established comes from the present deuterium abundance. This paper proposes an alternative method to evaluate the range of permissible values of rho/sub b/. The method considers the abundance of both D and 7Li. By utilizing the abundance ratio of 7Li to D, the difficulty associated with the astration process can be essentially canceled from the problem. Further, this method is slightly more sensitive to rho/sub b/ than the method which uses the D abundance alone. The ratio of 7Li to D mass fractions is plotted as a function of the present baryon density for a background temperature of 2.80K. Results are tabulated; they indicate that rho/sub b/ is too small to close the universe by a factor of the order of 5. 1 figure, 1 table

  3. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Manick, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The goal at large is to provide improved observational constraints to the models of the complex interplay between the AGB s-process nucleosynthesis and the associated mixing processes. Aims: Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show a discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances. The determined upper limits based on spectral studies are much lower than what is predicted. In this paper, we focus specifically on the Pb abundance of 14 Galactic s-process enhanced post-AGB stars to check whether the same discrepancy is present in the Galaxy as well. Among these 14 objects, two were not yet subject to a detailed abundance study in the literature. We apply the same method to obtain accurate abundances for the 12 others. Our homogeneous abundance results provide the input of detailed spectral synthesis computations in the spectral regions where Pb lines are located. Methods: We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of Galactic post-AGB stars. None of the sample stars display clear Pb lines, and we only deduced upper limits of the Pb abundance by using spectrum synthesis in the spectral ranges of the strongest Pb lines. Results: We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. The derived upper limits are strongly correlated with the effective temperature of the stars with increasing upper limits for increasing effective temperatures. We obtain stronger Pb constraints on the cooler objects. Moreover, we confirm the s-process enrichment and carbon enhancement of two

  4. Balance lower limb loads and 3D spine modifications after total hip joint replacement: effects of leg length discrepancy correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Ciarrocca, Francesca; Liscio, Grazia; Serafini, Paolo; Tommasini, Maura; Vallasciani, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Following total hip joint replacement (THJR), the durability of a prosthesis is limited by: wearing of frictional surfaces and loosening and migration of the prosthesis-cement-bone system. Literature review witnesses biomechanical studies focused mainly/only on hip functional state while none of them approached leg length discrepancy (LLD), posture unbalancing or spine related problems after THJR. Conversely, these latter could be critical elements for surgery and rehabilitation success, given the possible induction of asymmetric loading patterns. This study presents the results obtained by using a recently proposed methodology, to measure 3D subject posture balance and spine morphology and to evaluate its usefulness in individual therapy tuning/follow up. 3D subject's posture has been measured by means of 3D opto-electronic device, force platform and baropodography. 90 subjects after THJR have been included in this study. The subjects have been evaluated in two different epochs: 3 weeks after surgical intervention and after 3 months. 77/90 patients presented a LLD, pelvic obliquity and posture unbalancing. More than 90% of this group showed an overall postural re-balancing induced by the use of simple underfoot wedge. 70/77 patients needed wedge under the healthy side showing the surgical intervention produced a leg lengthening. 60/90 (52 LLD) patients underwent up to now to control and patients who wore the suggested wedge (63.4%) presented an improvement over all the considered quantitative parameters. Patients who wore a shorter than suggested wedge (23.1%), or that did not wear the suggested wedge (13.5%) presented a moderate or significant worsening of their postural balancing respectively.

  5. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  6. Taking species abundance distributions beyond individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morlon, Helene; White, Ethan P.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Green, Jessica L.; Ostling, Annette; Alonso, David; Enquist, Brian J.; He, Fangliang; Hurlbert, Allen; Magurran, Anne E.; Maurer, Brian A.; McGill, Brian J.; Olff, Han; Storch, David; Zillio, Tommaso; Chave, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The species abundance distribution (SAD) is one of the few universal patterns in ecology. Research on this fundamental distribution has primarily focused on the study of numerical counts, irrespective of the traits of individuals. Here we show that considering a set of Generalized Species Abundance

  7. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  8. LYRIDS AND PERSEIDS METEOROIDS: RECONCILIATION AND DISCREPANCY BETWEEN COMETARY OUTGASSING THEORY AND ELECTROPHONIC SOUND DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Avda. Severo Ochoa s/n, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Moreno, F. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We obtain the diameter of the most massive grains that might be ejected from the nuclear surface of the comets C/1861 G1 (Thatcher) and 109P/Swift-Tuttle using an outgassing model. The prevenient meteoroids of these two comets produce the known Lyrids and Perseids showers and it is thought that they produce electrophonic sounds. We compare our results with the minimum sized of such meteoroids capable of generating such sounds and we reconcile the discrepancy found by Beech in the case of the Lyrids. However, we conclude that the only outgassing mechanism is not compatible with the existence of electrophonic sounds due to Perseid meteoroids, and other mechanisms must be invoked to justify the presence of meter-sized boulders in the Perseid stream.

  9. The relationship of internality-externality, self-acceptance, and self-ideal discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, J P; Fantasia, S C; Solheim, G

    1975-06-01

    Internals (n=35) and externals (n=38) responded to Rotter's (12) I-E scale under two sets of instructions: standard (as the kind of persons they really were) and ideal-self instructions (as if they were the types of persons they would like to be) and the self-acceptance questionnaire (4). Results indicated (a) on both instruments the discrepancy between real and ideal-self was significantly larger in externals: (b) the external ideal-self includes an internal locus of control; (c) a significant discriminatory factor between internals and externals is their perceived control over their own destiny and not social institutions. The results were discussed in terms of the relationship of externality to maladjustment, neuroticism, and possible causes for this relationship.

  10. Can natural variability explain the discrepancy between observed and modeled sea ice trends?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenblum, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate that the Arctic sea ice cover is rapidly retreating while the Antarctic sea ice cover is steadily expanding. State-of-the-art climate models, by contrast, tend to predict a moderate decrease in both the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers. A number of recent studies have attributed this discrepancy in each hemisphere to natural variability, suggesting that the models are consistent with the observations when simulated natural variability is taken into account. Here we examine sea ice changes during 1979-2013 in simulations from the most recent Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) as well as the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE). We find that accurately simulated Arctic sea ice retreat occurs only in simulations with too much global warming, whereas accurately simulated Antarctic sea ice expansion tends to occur in simulations with too little global warming. We show that because of this, simulations from both ensembles do not capture the observed asymmetry bet...

  11. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, Icek; Brown, Thomas C; Carvajal, Franklin

    2004-09-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately favorable latent dispositions. Instead, this hypothetical bias was explained by activation of more favorable beliefs and attitudes in the context of a hypothetical rather than a real referendum. A corrective entreaty was found to eliminate this bias by bringing beliefs, attitudes, and intentions in line with those in the real payment situation. As a result, the theory of planned behavior produced more accurate prediction of real payment when participants were exposed to the corrective entreaty. PMID:15359015

  12. Self-discrepancy and regulatory fit in avatar-based exergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Higgins's self-discrepancy theory and regulatory focus theory, this study examined the use of activated selves and regulatory foci in health games. Utilizing the Wii's avatar-creating and exergaming features, a 2 (activated self: actual self versus ideal self) x 2 (regulatory focus: promotion versus prevention) x 2 (efficacy appeals: self-efficacy versus response-efficacy) between-subjects experiment tested the interactions of activated selves, regulatory foci, and efficacy appeals on low-calorie dieting intentions after health game playing. Results from an experiment with 156 participants demonstrated that a fit between regulatory focus and efficacy appeals induced greater dieting intentions when the actual self was activated while the opposite effect occurred when the ideal self was activated. Theoretical contributions to basic and applied social psychology as well as managerial implications for consumer behavior research are considered.

  13. Reconciling the Galactic Bulge Turnoff Age Discrepancy with Enhanced Helium Enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Nataf, David M

    2011-01-01

    We show that the factor $\\sim$2 discrepancy between spectroscopic and photometric age determinations of the Galactic bulge main-sequence turnoff can be naturally explained by positing an elevated helium enrichment for the bulge relative to that assumed by standard isochrones. We obtain an upper bound on the helium enrichment parameter of the bulge $({\\Delta}Y/{\\Delta}Z)_{\\rm{Bulge}} \\lesssim 5.0$ given the requirement that the spectroscopic and photometric ages be consistent and the limiting condition of instantaneous star formation. The corresponding mean age for the bulge is $t_{\\rm{Bulge}} \\approx 10$ Gyr. We discuss phenomenological evidence that the bulge may have had a chemical evolution that is distinct from the solar neighborhood in this manner, and we make several testable predictions. Should this emerging picture of the bulge as helium-enhanced hold, it will require the development of new isochrones, new model atmospheres, and modified analysis and cosmological interpretation of the integrated light...

  14. Solar Energetic Particles: Sampling Coronal Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1998-05-01

    In the large solar energetic particle (SEP) events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shock waves out through the corona that accelerate elements of the ambient material to MeV energies in a fairly democratic, temperature-independent manner. These events provide the most complete source of information on element abundances in the corona. Relative abundances of 22 elements from H through Zn display the well-known dependence on the first ionization potential (FIP) that distinguishes coronal and photospheric material. For most elements, the main abundance variations depend upon the gyrofrequency, and hence on the charge-to-mass ratio, Q/A, of the ion. Abundance variations in the dominant species, H and He, are not Q/A dependent, presumably because of non-linear wave-particle interactions of H and He during acceleration. Impulsive flares provide a different sample of material that confirms the Ne:Mg:Si and He/C abundances in the corona.

  15. LBP and lower limb discrepancy: 3D evaluation of postural rebalancing via underfoot wedge correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) is very often associated to Low Back Pain (LBP), but still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge correction (heel rise) to re-balance pelvis and trunk posture. In a review of our last 5 years clinical activity we observed that more than 70% out of 300 LBP patients presented a LLD. In more than 80 % we ascertained, via Baropodography, the presence of underfoot asymmetric load, during standing. More durable therapy recovery effect has been observed when LLD correction had been adopted. These reasons led us to start a study to assess if a Full 3D multifactorial Posture evaluation approach, by means of Opto-electronic device associated to foot pressure maps recording, was able to quantitatively discriminate the clinically observed phenomena. On a 94 LBP (av. age 46.3±16 Y range 15-82 Y) patients sample, 83 (88%) have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 94 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=8±3.2mm associated to a mean scoliotic lumbar curve μ=10.5°±5.1° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=6.6±4.9mm and mean Global offset 10.7±8.8mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered parameters, both in rebalancing and in spine deformities reduction after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The joint 3D opto-electronic and foot pressure map approach proved to be effective to control several clinical parameters with statistical significance.

  16. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Silicon abundances in population I giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    Silicon to carbon abundance ratios for population I giants were determined from emission lines originating in the transition layers between stellar chromospheres and coronae. For effective temperatures larger than 6200 K we find a group of stars with increased silicon to carbon but normal nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios. These stars are presumably descendents from Ap stars with increased surface silicon to carbon abundance ratios. For G stars this anomaly disappears as is to be expected due to the increased depth of the convection zone and therefore deeper mixing which dilutes the surface overabundances. The disappearance of the abundance anomalies proves that the anomalous abundances observed for the F giants are indeed only a surface phenomenon. It also proves that the same holds for their progenitors, the Ap and Am stars, as has been generally believed. Unexplained is the increased silicon to carbon abundance ratio observed for several stars cooler than 5100 L. RS CVn and related stars do not show this increased abundance ratio. There are also some giants which appear to be enriched in carbon, perhaps due to a helium flash with some mixing if the star is a clump star.

  18. Estimating abundance in the presence of species uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry A; Hossack, Blake R.; Fishback, LeeAnn; Davenport, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    1.N-mixture models have become a popular method for estimating abundance of free-ranging animals that are not marked or identified individually. These models have been used on count data for single species that can be identified with certainty. However, co-occurring species often look similar during one or more life stages, making it difficult to assign species for all recorded captures. This uncertainty creates problems for estimating species-specific abundance and it can often limit life stages to which we can make inference. 2.We present a new extension of N-mixture models that accounts for species uncertainty. In addition to estimating site-specific abundances and detection probabilities, this model allows estimating probability of correct assignment of species identity. We implement this hierarchical model in a Bayesian framework and provide all code for running the model in BUGS-language programs. 3.We present an application of the model on count data from two sympatric freshwater fishes, the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) and the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), ad illustrate implementation of covariate effects (habitat characteristics). In addition, we used a simulation study to validate the model and illustrate potential sample size issues. We also compared, for both real and simulated data, estimates provided by our model to those obtained by a simple N-mixture model when captures of unknown species identification were discarded. In the latter case, abundance estimates appeared highly biased and very imprecise, while our new model provided unbiased estimates with higher precision. 4.This extension of the N-mixture model should be useful for a wide variety of studies and taxa, as species uncertainty is a common issue. It should notably help improve investigation of abundance and vital rate characteristics of organisms’ early life stages, which are sometimes more difficult to identify than adults.

  19. Study of the primordial lithium abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lithium isotopes have attracted an intense interest because the abundance of both 6Li and 6Li from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the puzzles in nuclear astrophysics. Many investigations of both astrophysical observation and nucleosynthesis calculation have been carried out to solve the puzzle, but it is not solved yet. Several nuclear reactions involving lithium have been indirectly measured at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The Standard BBN (SBBN) network calculations are then performed to investigate the primordial Lithium abundance. The result shows that these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the SBBN abundances of 6Li and 7Li.

  20. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  1. Descriptive Study Analyzing Discrepancies in a Software Development Project Change Request (CR) Assessment Process and Recommendations for Process Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    The Change Request (CR) assessment process is essential in the display development cycle. The assessment process is performed to ensure that the changes stated in the description of the CR match the changes in the actual display requirements. If a discrepancy is found between the CR and the requirements, the CR must be returned to the originator for corrections. Data will be gathered from each of the developers to determine the type of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing each CR. This study will determine the most common types of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing those issues. The results of the study will provide a foundation for future improvements as well as a baseline for future studies.

  2. Intergenerational discrepancies of parental control among Chinese American families: Links to family conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their parents. The results indicated that, as predicted, greater discrepancies between adolescents and their parents on parental control related to greater adolescent depressive symptoms. Furthermore, adolescent's perceived degree of family conflict partially mediated this relation. Both parents and adolescents are changing and adapting to their cultural contexts; some in synchrony and some not. Identifying areas where parents and adolescents diverge concerning values, behaviors, and beliefs, is an important avenue to understanding Chinese American adolescents' mental health. PMID:17360033

  3. [Histologic discrepancy between gastric biopsy and resection specimen in the era of endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Mee; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2014-11-01

    Endoscopic resection (ER) is accepted as a treatment option for early gastric cancer in patients with negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. Determination of histologic differentiation of adenocarcinoma based on pretreatment endoscopic biopsy is critical in deciding the treatment strategy of ER versus surgical resection. However, discrepancies are frequent between pretreatment biopsies and ER specimens, which may result in an additional gastrectomy after ER. In this context, a review on possible factors contributing to the diagnostic discrepancy in the histologic difference between the pretreatment biopsy and ER is necessary. Two major factors are significantly associated with this discrepancy: pathologic characteristics of the tumor itself, i.e. histologic heterogeneity (tumor factor), and diagnostic procedure performed by endoscopists or pathologists (human factor). In this review, we focus on pathologic report of pretreatment biopsy specimens and its clinical significance.

  4. Satisfaction with open sexual agreements in Australian gay men's relationships: the role of perceived discrepancies in benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether satisfaction with open sexual agreements in gay men's relationships was associated with perceptions of discrepancies in the benefit experienced from those agreements. Three types of perceived discrepancy between the self and the relationship partner were examined: frequency of casual sex, attractiveness of casual partners, and "overall" benefit. Results from a survey conducted in 2010 of 685 Australian gay men in relationships with open agreements showed that men perceiving discrepancies in benefit, particularly those representing "under-benefit", were less satisfied with their agreement than were men perceiving equal benefit. These results supported hypotheses derived from equity theory and provide insight into factors associated with gay men's satisfaction with open agreements. These findings also have important practical implications. Professionals counselling gay men or couples experiencing low satisfaction with open agreements may consider raising issues of unequal benefit and work with their clients towards achieving equality. PMID:23001498

  5. The Solar Photospheric Oxygen Abundance and the Role of 3D Model Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2008-09-01

    The solar oxygen abundance has undergone a major downward revision in the last decade, reputedly as a result of employing 3D hydrodynamical simulations to model the inhomogeneous structure of the solar photosphere. The very low oxygen abundance advocated by Asplund et al. 2004, A(O)=8.66, together with the downward revision of the abundances of other key elements, has created serious problems for solar models to explain the helioseismic measurements. In an effort to contribute to the dispute of whether the Sun has "solar" or "sub-solar" abundances, we have re-derived its photospheric abundance of oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements, independently of previous analyses. We applied a state-of-the art 3D (CO5BOLD) hydrodynamical simulation of the solar granulation as well as different 1D model atmospheres for the line by line spectroscopic abundance determinations. The analysis is based on both standard disk-center and full-disk spectral atlases; for oxygen we acquired in addition spectra at different heliocentric angles. The derived abundances are the result of equivalent width and/or line profile fitting of the available atomic lines. Our recommended oxygen abundance is A(O)=8.76+- 0.07, 0.1 dex higher than the value of Asplund et al. (2004). Our current estimate of the overall solar metallicity is 0.014< Z<0.016. Questions we discuss include: (i) Is the general downward revision of the solar abundances a 3D effect? (ii) How large are the abundance corrections due to horizontal inhomogeneities? (iii) What is the main reason for the differences between the abundances obtained in our study and those derived by Apslund and coworkers? (iv) How large are the uncertainties in the observed solar spectra? (v) What is the reason why the two forbidden oxygen lines, [OI] lambda 630 nm and [OI] lambda 636.3 nm, give significantly different answers for the solar oxygen abundance?

  6. Iron abundance in the atmosphere of Arcturus

    CERN Document Server

    Sheminova, V A

    2015-01-01

    Abundance of iron in the atmosphere of Arcturus has been determined from the profiles or regions of the profiles of the weak lines sensitive to iron abundance. The selected lines of Fe I and Fe II were synthesized with the MARCS theoretical models of the atmosphere. From the observed profiles of lines available with a high spectral resolution in the atlas by Hinkle and Wallace (2005), the values of the iron abundance $A = 6.95 \\pm 0.03$ and the radial-tangential macroturbulent velocity $5.6 \\pm 0.2$ km/s were obtained for Arcturus. The same physical quantities were found for the Sun as a star; they are $7.42 \\pm 0.02$ and $3.4 \\pm 0.3$ km/s, respectively. For Arcturus, the iron abundance relative to the solar one was determined with the differential method as [Fe/H] $=-0.48 \\pm 0.02$.

  7. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  8. SWFSC/MMTD: Vaquita Abundance Survey 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1997, the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) conducted a survey designed to estimate the abundance of vaquita, the Gulf of California harbor porpoise...

  9. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  10. Testing Relationships between Energy and Vertebrate Abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding what drives variation in the abundance of organisms is fundamental to evolutionary ecology and wildlife management. Yet despite its importance, there is still great uncertainty about the main factors influencing variation in vertebrate abundance across taxa. We believe valuable knowledge and increased predictive power could be gained by taking into account both the intrinsic factors of species and the extrinsic factors related to environmental surroundings in the commonly cited RQ model, which provides a simple conceptual framework valid at both the interspecific and the intraspecific scales. Approaches comparing studies undertaken at different spatial and taxonomic scales could be key to our ability to better predict abundance, and thanks to the increased availability of population size data, global geographic datasets, and improved comparative methods, there might be unprecedented opportunities to (1) gain a greater understanding of vertebrate abundance patterns and (2) test existing theories on free-ranging animals.

  11. Review of the discrepancy between the in-air and in-water calibration of cobalt-60 machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causes for the discrepancy noted by Grant et al. between the in-water and in-air calibration of 60Co are discussed. Data are presented from measurements with a set of ionization chambers with thimbles of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm outside radii. These data include measurements of percentage depth dose, backscatter factors, and displacement factors. The results show that the discrepancy noted by Grant et al. is caused by a combination of small errors both in depth dose data and in the displacement factor incorporated into C/sub lambda/

  12. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. PMID:24958666

  13. An accurate and self-consistent chemical abundance catalogue for the APOGEE/Kepler sample

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Keith; Jofre, Paula; Gilmore, Gerry; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Context. The APOGEE survey has obtained high-resolution infrared spectra of more than 100,000 stars. Deriving chemical abundances patterns of these stars is paramount to piecing together the structure of the Milky Way. While the derived chemical abundances have been shown to be precise for most stars, some calibration problems have been reported, in particular for more metal- poor stars. Aims. In this paper, we aim to (1) re-determine the chemical abundances of the APOGEE+Kepler stellar sample (APOKASC) with an independent procedure, line list and line selection, and high quality surface gravity information from astroseismology, and (2) extend the abundance catalogue by including abundances that are not currently reported in the most recent APOGEE release (DR12). Methods. We fixed the Teff and log g to those determined using spectrophotometric and asteroseismic techniques, respectively. We made use of the Brussels Automatic Stellar Parameter (BACCHUS) code to derive the metallicity and broadening parameters f...

  14. Second opinion and discrepancy in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions at surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency and magnitude of discrepancies in the surgical pathological diagnosis of soft tissue lesions on review and second opinion in a histopathology center. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from April 2006 to May 2007. Materials and Methods: All the cases of soft tissue as well as bone lesions, irrespective of age and gender, which were referred for second opinion or review after being reported elsewhere, were included in the study. A panel of antibodies of soft tissue, epithelial and lymphoid markers was applied according to the requirements of each case. The cases were categorized as category A where there was concurrence between initial diagnosis and diagnosis at review. Category B included cases where there was disagreement in the specific diagnostic entity as per WHO classifications without therapeutic implications. Category C was cases where the category of benign or malignant diagnosis remained the same but there was disagreement in the specific diagnosis with definite therapeutic implications. Category D had diagnosis of benign changed to malignant while category E had cases where diagnosis of malignancy was changed to a benign lesion. Results: During the study period, 34 cases of soft tissue lesions were received for review and second opinion. The mean age of the patients was 39 ΁ 22 years and immunohistochemistry was performed in 21 (62% of 34 cases. Concurrence between the review and initial diagnosis was seen in 18 (53% cases (category A. Discrepancy in the diagnosis at review and initial consultation was seen in 16 (47% cases. There were four (11.8% cases that were placed in category B as the diagnosis of benign and malignant remained the same but the specific diagnostic entity was changed. Category C included eight (23.5% cases where the review diagnosis changed the therapeutic

  15. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  16. Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stack Steven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician training deficits and a low and declining autopsy rate adversely impact the quality of death certificates in the United States. Self-report and records data for the general population indicate that proximate mental and physical health of minority suicides was at least as poor as that of white suicides. Methods This cross-sectional mortality study uses data from Multiple Cause-of-Death (MCOD public use files for 1999–2003 to describe and evaluate comorbidity among black, Hispanic, and white suicides. Unintentional injury decedents are the referent for multivariate analyses. Results One or more mentions of comorbid psychopathology are documented on the death certificates of 8% of white male suicides compared to 4% and 3% of black and Hispanic counterparts, respectively. Corresponding female figures are 10%, 8%, and 6%. Racial-ethnic discrepancies in the prevalence of comorbid physical disease are more attenuated. Cross-validation with National Violent Death Reporting System data reveals high relative underenumeration of comorbid depression/mood disorders and high relative overenumeration of schizophrenia on the death certificates of both minorities. In all three racial-ethnic groups, suicide is positively associated with depression/mood disorders [whites: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 31.9, 95% CI = 29.80–34.13; blacks: AOR = 60.9, 95% CI = 42.80–86.63; Hispanics: AOR = 34.7, 95% CI = 23.36–51.62] and schizophrenia [whites: AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.07–2.86; blacks: AOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.73–6.37; Hispanics: AOR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.01–8.22]. Suicide is positively associated with cancer in whites [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.69–1.93] and blacks [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.36–2.48], but not with HIV or alcohol and other substance use disorders in any group under review. Conclusion The multivariate analyses indicate high consistency in predicting suicide-associated comorbidities across racial-ethnic groups using MCOD data

  17. Primordial Deuterium Abundance and Cosmic Baryon Density

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of cosmic abundances of the light elements with the density of baryonic stars and gas in the universe today provides a critical test of big bang theory and a powerful probe of the nature of dark matter. A new technique allows determination of cosmic deuterium abundances in quasar absorption clouds at large redshift, allowing a new test of big bang homogeneity in diverse, very distant systems. The first results of these studies are summarized, along with their implications. The ...

  18. Estimating whale abundance using sparse hydrophone arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Danielle Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring has been used to investigate many aspects of marine mammal ecology, although methods to estimate absolute abundance and density using acoustic data have only been developed in recent years. The instrument configuration in an acoustic survey determines which abundance estimation methods can be used. Sparsely distributed arrays of instruments are useful because wide geographic areas can be covered. However, instrument spacing in sparse arrays is such that the same...

  19. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  20. Spatial scaling of species abundance distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Borda-de-Água, Luís; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Pereira, Henrique M

    2012-01-01

    Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Ecography © 2012 Nordic Society Oikos. Species abundance distributions are an essential tool in describing the biodiversity of ecological communities. We now know that their shape changes as a function of the size of area sampled. Here we analyze the scaling properties of species abundance distributions by using the moments of the logarithmically transformed number of individuals. We find that the moments as a function of area size are well fitted by power law...

  1. Modelling Void Abundance in Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F

    2016-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f(R) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surv...

  2. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  3. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  4. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  5. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this is discussed. The higher solar neon abundance is confirmed; this is discussed in terms of the results of helioseismology. Evidence is presented for oxygen destruction via ON cycling having occurred in the progenitors of four planetary nebulae with bilobal structure. These progenitor stars had a high mass, probably greater than 5 solar masses. This is deduced from the high values of He/H and N/H found in these nebulae. Formation of nitrogen, helium and carbon are discussed. The high mass progenitors which showed oxygen de...

  6. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns. PMID:23873260

  7. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  8. MOND impact of the recently updated mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2016-01-01

    McGaugh et al. (2016) have used their extensive SPARC sample to update the well-known mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR), which is one of the major predicted "MOND laws". This is not a newly discovered relation. Rather, it improves on the many previous studies of it, with more and better data. Like its precedents, it bears crucial ramifications for the observed dynamical anomalies in disc galaxies, and, in particular, on their resolution by the MOND paradigm. Their result, indeed, constitute a triumph for MOND. However, unlike previous analyses of the MDAR, McGaugh et al. have chosen to obfuscate the MOND roots of their analysis, and its connection with, and implications for, this paradigm. For example, the fitting formula they use, seemingly as a result of some unexplained inspiration, follows in its salient properties from the basic tenets of MOND, and has already been used in the past in several MOND analyses. No other possible origin for such a function is known. Given that this formula had alr...

  9. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even DMSA scan.

  10. Resolving a discrepancy between experimental and theoretical lifetimes in atomic negative ions

    CERN Document Server

    Brage, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Recently the lifetime of the excited $^{2}P_{1/2}$-state of S$^-$ was measured to be $503\\pm 54$ s (B\\"ackstr\\"om \\textit{et al.} Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 143003 (2015)). The earlier theoretical lifetime of $436$ s was clearly outside the experimental error bars. To investigate this discrepancy we have performed systematic and large-scale Multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for this system. After including a careful treatment of correlation and relativistic effects, we predict a well-converged value of $492$ s for this lifetime, with an uncertainty considerably less than 1 \\%, thereby removing the apparent conflict between theory and experiment. We also show that this result corresponds to the non-relativistic limit in the $LS$-approximation for the M1-transition within this $^2P$-term. This approach for the M1-transition yields lifetimes for several $^2P$ fine-structure transitions in negative ions, which only depends on the transition energy and shows excellent agreement with recent lifetime me...

  11. Random coil negative control reproduces the discrepancy between scattering and FRET measurements of denatured protein dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Herschel M.; Simon, Anna J.; Sosnick, Tobin R.; Lipman, Everett A.; Hjelm, Rex P.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    Small-angle scattering studies generally indicate that the dimensions of unfolded single-domain proteins are independent (to within experimental uncertainty of a few percent) of denaturant concentration. In contrast, single-molecule FRET (smFRET) studies invariably suggest that protein unfolded states contract significantly as the denaturant concentration falls from high (∼6 M) to low (∼1 M). Here, we explore this discrepancy by using PEG to perform a hitherto absent negative control. This uncharged, highly hydrophilic polymer has been shown by multiple independent techniques to behave as a random coil in water, suggesting that it is unlikely to expand further on the addition of denaturant. Consistent with this observation, small-angle neutron scattering indicates that the dimensions of PEG are not significantly altered by the presence of either guanidine hydrochloride or urea. smFRET measurements on a PEG construct modified with the most commonly used FRET dye pair, however, produce denaturant-dependent changes in transfer efficiency similar to those seen for a number of unfolded proteins. Given the vastly different chemistries of PEG and unfolded proteins and the significant evidence that dye-free PEG is well-described as a denaturant-independent random coil, this similarity raises questions regarding the interpretation of smFRET data in terms of the hydrogen bond- or hydrophobically driven contraction of the unfolded state at low denaturant. PMID:25964362

  12. Depressive symptoms moderate the effects of a self-discrepancy induction on overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity.

  13. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand R

    2016-08-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a significantly elevated rate of cancer (42% increase) but a limited decrease of longevity (∼1 year), while their offspring show no increased frequency of abnormalities and, so far, no detectable elevation of the mutation rate. Current acceptable exposure levels for the general population and for workers in the nuclear industry have largely been derived from these studies, which have been reported in more than 100 publications. Yet the general public, and indeed most scientists, are unaware of these data: it is widely believed that irradiated survivors suffered a very high cancer burden and dramatically shortened life span, and that their progeny were affected by elevated mutation rates and frequent abnormalities. In this article, I summarize the results and discuss possible reasons for this very striking discrepancy between the facts and general beliefs about this situation. PMID:27516613

  14. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  15. Source entitativity and the elaboration of persuasive messages: the roles of perceived efficacy and message discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Wegener, Duane T

    2009-07-01

    Compared with nonentitative groups, entitative targets are considered to elicit more elaborative processing because of the singularity or unity they represent. However, when groups serve as sources of persuasive messages, other dynamics may operate. The current research suggests that entitativity is intrinsically linked to perceptions of a group's efficacy related to the advocacy, and this efficacy combines with the position of the appeal to determine message elaboration. When messages are counterattitudinal, entitative (efficacious) sources should elicit greater processing than nonentitative groups because of concern that the entitative sources may be more likely to bring about the negative outcomes proposed. However, when appeals are proattitudinal, sources low in entitativity (nonefficacious) should initiate more elaboration due to concern that they may be unlikely to facilitate the positive outcomes proposed. These hypotheses were supported in a series of studies. Preliminary studies established the entitativity-efficacy relation (Studies 1A and 1B). Primary persuasion studies showed that manipulations of source entitativity (Studies 2 and 3) and source efficacy (Studies 4A and 4B) have opposite effects on processing as a function of message discrepancy.

  16. Leg length discrepancy and osteoarthritis in the knee, hip and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kelvin J; Azari, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an extremely common condition that creates substantial personal and health care costs. An important recognised risk factor for OA is excessive or abnormal mechanical joint loading. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a common condition that results in uneven and excessive loading of not only knee joints but also hip joints and lumbar motion segments. Accurate imaging methods of LLD have made it possible to study the biomechanical effects of mild LLD (LLD of 20mm or less). This review examines the accuracy of these methods compared to clinical LLD measurements. It then examines the association between LLD and OA of the joints of the lower extremity. More importantly, it addresses the largely neglected association between LLD and degeneration of lumbar motion segments and the patterns of biomechanical changes that accompany LLD. We propose that mild LLD may be an important instigator or contributor to OA of the hip and lumbar spine, and that it deserves to be rigorously studied in order to decrease OA's burden of disease.

  17. Discrepancies in Different Precipitation Data Products in the Bay of Bengal during Summer Monsoon Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the east Bay of Bengal (BoB, the precipitation maximum always lies near the eastern coast on the windward side of Mountain Araka Yoma in the summer monsoon season. In this study, different precipitation products are compared in terms of their representation of the offshore rainfall maximum feature in this region. Climatologically, all products examined present similar rainfall distribution except for the CMAP. Significant discrepancies among different products are found in the interannual variation, as illustrated by the contrast features between 2002 and 2005. Based on the TRMM products (except for 3B42RT and GPCP V1.2, the precipitation maximum occurred near the coast in 2002, while it was about 100–200 km offshore in 2005. However, this difference is not obvious in the GPCP V2.2 and TRMM 3B42RT products. Larger easterly vertical wind shear and warmer SST were present in 2005. Both favor stronger orographically-forced convective systems to propagate offshore, leading to the offshore rainfall maximum in 2005. Therefore, it is suggested that the TRMM 3B40RT, which is mainly based on passive microwave estimates, may be more reliable among different precipitation products in reflecting the precipitation feature in the coastal region of the east BoB.

  18. A Further Note on the Force Discrepancy for Wing Theory in Euler Flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edmund Chadwick; Ali Hatam

    2009-11-01

    Uniform steady potential flow past a wing aligned at a small angle to the flow direction is considered. The standard approach is to model this by a vortex sheet, approximated by a finite distribution of horseshoe vortices. In the limit as the span of the horseshoe vortices tends to zero, an integral distribution of infinitesimal horseshoe vortices over the vortex sheet is obtained. The contribution to the force on the wing due to the presence of one of the infinitesimal horseshoe vortices in the distribution is focused upon. Most of the algebra in the force calculation is evaluated using Maple software and is given in the appendices. As in the two previous papers by the authors on wing theory in Euler flow [E Chadwick, A slender-wing theory in potential flow, Proc. R. Soc. A461 (2005) 415–432, and E Chadwick and A Hatam, The physical interpretation of the lift discrepancy in Lanchester–Prandtl lifting wing theory for Euler flow, leading to the proposal of an alternative model in Oseen flow, Proc. R. Soc. A463 (2007) 2257–2275], it is shown that the normal force is half that expected. In this further note, in addition it is demonstrated that the axial force is infinite. The implications and reasons for these results are discussed.

  19. The Alpha Centauri binary system. Atmospheric parameters and element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto de Mello, G. F.; Lyra, W.; Keller, G. R.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The α Centauri binary system, owing to its duplicity, proximity and brightness, and its components' likeness to the Sun, is a fundamental calibrating object for the theory of stellar structure and evolution and the determination of stellar atmospheric parameters. This role, however, is hindered by a considerable disagreement in the published analyses of its atmospheric parameters and abundances. Aims: We report a new spectroscopic analysis of both components of the α Centauri system, compare published analyses of the system, and attempt to quantify the discrepancies still extant in the determinations of the atmospheric parameters and abundances of these stars. Methods: The analysis is differential with respect to the Sun, based on spectra with R = 35 000 and signal-to-noise ratio ≥1000, and employed spectroscopic and photometric methods to obtain as many independent T_eff determinations as possible. We also check the atmospheric parameters for consistency against the results of the dynamical analysis and the positions of the components in a theoretical HR diagram. Results: The spectroscopic atmospheric parameters of the system are found to be T_eff = (5847 ± 27) K, [Fe/H] = +0.24 ± 0.03, log g = 4.34 ± 0.12, and ξt = 1.46 ± 0.03 km s-1, for α Cen A, and T_eff = (5316 ± 28) K, [Fe/H] = +0.25 ± 0.04, log g = 4.44 ± 0.15, and ξt = 1.28 ± 0.15 km s^-1 for α Cen B. The parameters were derived from the simultaneous excitation & ionization equilibria of Fe I and Fe II lines. T_effs were also obtained by fitting theoretical profiles to the Hα line and from photometric calibrations. Conclusions: We reached good agreement between the three criteria for α Cen A. For α Cen B the spectroscopic T_eff is ~140 K higher than the other two determinations. We discuss possible origins of this inconsistency, concluding that the presence of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects is a probable candidate, but we note that there is as yet no consensus on

  20. Constraining the abundances of complex organics in the inner regions of solar-type protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Taquet, Vianney; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Neri, Roberto; Kahane, Claudine; Charnley, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    The high abundances of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) with respect to methanol, the most abundant COM, detected towards low-mass protostars, tend to be underpredicted by astrochemical models. This discrepancy might come from the large beam of the single-dish telescopes, encompassing several components of the studied protostar, commonly used to detect COMs. To address this issue, we have carried out multi-line observations of methanol and several COMs towards the two low-mass protostars NGC1333-IRAS2A and -IRAS4A with the Plateau de Bure interferometer at an angular resolution of 2 arcsec, resulting in the first multi-line detection of the O-bearing species glycolaldehyde and ethanol and of the N-bearing species ethyl cyanide towards low-mass protostars other than IRAS 16293. The high number of detected transitions from COMs (more than 40 methanol transitions for instance) allowed us to accurately derive the source size of their emission and the COMs column densities. The COMs abundances with respect to meth...

  1. Chemical abundances of Damped Ly alpha systems A new method for estimating dust depletion effects

    CERN Document Server

    Vladilo, G

    2002-01-01

    A new method is presented for recovering the abundances of Damped Ly alpha systems (DLAs) taking into account the effects of dust depletion. For the first time, possible variations of the chemical composition of the dust are taken into account in estimating the depletions. No prior assumptions on the extinction properties of the dust are required. The method requires a set of abundances measured in the gas and a set of parameters describing the chemical properties of the dust. A large subset of these parameters is determined from interstellar observations; the others are free parameters for which an educated guess can be made. The method is able to recover the abundances of the SMC starting from SMC interstellar measurements apparently discrepant from the stellar ones. Application of the method to 22 DLAs with available [Fe/H] and [Si/Fe] measurements gives the following results: (1) the mean metallicity of the corrected data is ~ -1.0 dex, about 0.5 dex higher than that of the original data; (2) the slope o...

  2. Chemical abundances of damped Lyman alpha systems in the XQ-100 survey

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, T A M; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Prochaska, J X; Lopez, S; D'Odorico, V; Becker, G; Christensen, L; Cupani, G; Denney, K; Worsek, G

    2016-01-01

    The XQ-100 survey has provided high signal-noise spectra of 100 redshift 3-4.5 quasars with the X-Shooter spectrograph. The metal abundances for 13 elements in the 41 damped Lyman alpha systems (DLAs) identified in the XQ-100 sample are presented, and an investigation into abundances of a variety of DLA classes is conducted. The XQ-100 DLA sample contains five DLAs within 5000 km/s of their host quasar (proximate DLAs; PDLAs) as well as three sightlines which contain two DLAs within 10,000 km/s of each other along the same line-of-sight (multiple DLAs; MDLAs). Combined with previous observations in the literature, we demonstrate that PDLAs with logN(HI)21.0. These abundance discrepancies are independent of their line-of-sight velocity separation from the host quasar, and the velocity width of the metal lines (v90). Contrary to previous studies, MDLAs show no difference in [alpha/Fe] relative to single DLAs matched in metallicity and redshift. In addition, we present follow-up UVES data of J0034+1639, a sightl...

  3. Habitat traits and species interactions differentially affect abundance and body size in pond-breeding amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousterhout, Brittany H; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Peterman, William E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-07-01

    In recent studies, habitat traits have emerged as stronger predictors of species occupancy, abundance, richness and diversity than competition. However, in many cases, it remains unclear whether habitat also mediates processes more subtle than competitive exclusion, such as growth, or whether intra- and interspecific interactions among individuals of different species may be better predictors of size. To test whether habitat traits are a stronger predictor of abundance and body size than intra- and interspecific interactions, we measured the density and body size of three species of larval salamanders in 192 ponds across a landscape. We found that the density of larvae was best predicted by models that included habitat features, while models incorporating interactions among individuals of different species best explained the body size of larvae. Additionally, we found a positive relationship between focal species density and congener density, while focal species body size was negatively related to congener density. We posit that salamander larvae may not experience competitive exclusion and thus reduced densities, but instead compensate for increased competition behaviourally (e.g. reduced foraging), resulting in decreased growth. The discrepancy between larval density and body size, a strong predictor of fitness in this system, also highlights a potential shortcoming in using density or abundance as a metric of habitat quality or population health. PMID:25643605

  4. Measurement scale in maximum entropy models of species abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The consistency of the species abundance distribution across diverse communities has attracted widespread attention. In this paper, I argue that the consistency of pattern arises because diverse ecological mechanisms share a common symmetry with regard to measurement scale. By symmetry, I mean that different ecological processes preserve the same measure of information and lose all other information in the aggregation of various perturbations. I frame these explanations of symmetry, measurement, and aggregation in terms of a recently developed extension to the theory of maximum entropy. I show that the natural measurement scale for the species abundance distribution is log-linear: the information in observations at small population sizes scales logarithmically and, as population size increases, the scaling of information grades from logarithmic to linear. Such log-linear scaling leads naturally to a gamma distribution for species abundance, which matches well with the observed patterns. Much of the variation between samples can be explained by the magnitude at which the measurement scale grades from logarithmic to linear. This measurement approach can be applied to the similar problem of allelic diversity in population genetics and to a wide variety of other patterns in biology. PMID:21265915

  5. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  6. Knee Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Chinese 繁體中文 ) What Are Knee Problems? (in Korean 한국어 ) What Are Knee Problems? (in Vietnamese bằng ... the knee. Ultrasound. A technique that uses sound waves to produce images of the soft tissue structures ...

  7. Resisting Peer Pressure: Characteristics Associated with Other-Self Discrepancies in College Students' Levels of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2007-01-01

    Since college undergraduates tend to increase their use of alcohol to match what they perceive to be normative, the assumption has been that students who believe that others on campus drink more than they do (a common misperception) are in a vulnerable position. Taking a different perspective, we consider large other-self discrepancies in levels…

  8. Exploration of the Raven APMNational Adult Reading Test Discrepancy as a Measure of Intellectual Decline in Older Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Esther; Nys, Gudrun M. S.; Brands, Augustina M. A.; Ruis, Carla; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on fluid and crystallized intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to predict

  9. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca eJovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children’s judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by 40%. Neither the adults’ nor the children’s discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children’s visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children’s and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant.

  10. Students with Specific Spelling Disability: A Collective Case Study Identifying the Experiential and Behavioral Causes for the Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine potential causes for the reading and spelling discrepancies of 26 middle school students. All were proficient in reading, but non-proficient in spelling, a pattern typical in students with Specific Spelling Disability (SSD). The focus of the study was on linguistic knowledge while encoding and decoding, plus…

  11. Effect of medication reconciliation on unintentional medication discrepancies in acute hospital admissions of elderly adults: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den; Schrieck-De Loos, E.M. van der; Linden, C. van der; Theeuwes, A.M.L.J.; Pol, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of pharmacy-based medication reconciliation on the frequency of unintentional medication discrepancies in acutely admitted individuals aged 65 and older. Design Multicenter intervention study with pre-post design. Setting Twelve Dutch hospitals. Participants One

  12. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Goetz

    Full Text Available Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual versus state (momentary, "real" emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers. In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.

  13. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911

  14. Discrepancies in sample size calculations and data analyses reported in randomised trials: comparison of publications with protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, A.W.; Hrobjartsson, A.; Jorgensen, K.J.;

    2008-01-01

    in publications, sample size calculations and statistical methods were often explicitly discrepant with the protocol or not pre-specified. Such amendments were rarely acknowledged in the trial publication. The reliability of trial reports cannot be assessed without having access to the full protocols...

  15. Discrepancies in Military Middle-School Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of Family Functioning, Social Support, Anger Frequency, and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Janet R.; Seybold, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning are typically quite disparate and that perceptual discrepancies increase when a family is under stress. During the years of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan adolescents in military families have faced uniquely stressful circumstances which may…

  16. A DETAILED LOOK AT CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN MAGELLANIC CLOUD PLANETARY NEBULAE. I. THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of elemental abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae (PNe) and focus initially on 14 PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We derive the abundances from a combination of deep, high-dispersion optical spectra, as well as mid-infrared (IR) spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. A detailed comparison with prior SMC PN studies shows that significant variations in relative emission-line flux determinations among the authors, lead to systematic discrepancies in derived elemental abundances between studies that are ∼>0.15 dex, in spite of similar analysis methods. We use ionic abundances derived from IR emission lines, including those from ionization stages not observable in the optical, to examine the accuracy of some commonly used recipes for ionization correction factors (ICFs). These ICFs, which were developed for ions observed in the optical and ultraviolet, relate ionic abundances to total elemental abundances. We find that most of these ICFs work very well even in the limit of substantially sub-solar metallicities, except for PNe with very high ionization. Our abundance analysis shows enhancements of He and N that are predicted from prior dredge-up processes of the progenitors on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), as well as the well-known correlations among O, Ne, S, and Ar that are little affected by nucleosynthesis in this mass range. We identify MG 8 as an interesting limiting case of a PN central star with a ∼3.5 Msun progenitor in which hot-bottom burning did not occur in its prior AGB evolution. We find no evidence for O depletion in the progenitor AGB stars via the O-N cycle, which is consistent with predictions for lower-mass stars. We also find low S/O ratios relative to SMC H II regions, with a deficit comparable to what has been found for Galactic PNe. Finally, the elemental abundances of one object, SMP-SMC 11, are more typical of SMC H II regions, which raises some doubt about its

  17. Longitudinal Linkages among Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Parenting, Parent-Child Sense of Alienation, and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Immigrant Families

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account t...

  18. The association between automatic thoughts about eating, the actual–ideal weight discrepancies, and eating disorders symptoms: a longitudinal study in late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zarychta, Karolina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Scholz, Urte

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested the reciprocal relationships between automatic thoughts about eating and the actual–ideal weight discrepancies, and their role in the formation and maintenance of eating disorders (ED) symptoms in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. In particular, we investigated whether thoughts about eating mediated the effects of weight discrepancies on ED formation and whether weight discrepancies mediated the effects of thoughts about eating on ED formation were investigated...

  19. Linking species abundance distributions in numerical abundance and biomass through simple assumptions about community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Peter A.; Magurran, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) are widely used as a tool for summarizing ecological communities but may have different shapes, depending on the currency used to measure species importance. We develop a simple plotting method that links SADs in the alternative currencies of numerical abundance and biomass and is underpinned by testable predictions about how organisms occupy physical space. When log numerical abundance is plotted against log biomass, the species lie within an approximat...

  20. Why Mothers and Young Children Agree or Disagree in Their Reports of the Child's Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Jansen, Pauline W; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Basten, Maartje; So, Pety; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-12-01

    This study examined multiple determinants of discrepancies between mother and child reports of problem behavior. In 5,414 6-year-olds, child problem behavior was assessed by self-report using the Berkeley Puppet Interview and by maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Patterns in mother-child reports were modeled using latent profile analysis. Four profiles, differing in problem level, and the direction and magnitude of mother-child discrepancies, were identified: one profile representing agreement (46%), another representing slight discrepancies (30%), and two representing higher problem levels and more discrepancies. In the latter two profiles either children (11%) or mothers (13%) reported more problems. Compared to the first profile, the second was predominantly characterized by a positive family environment, the third by child cognitive difficulties, and the fourth by harsh discipline and poor family functioning. Knowledge about specific child/family characteristics that contribute to mother-child discrepancies can help to interpret informants' reports and to make diagnostic decisions. PMID:25577034

  1. The iron abundance of the Magellanic Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Dufton, P L; Thompson, H M A; Street, R A

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution HST ultra-violet spectra for five B-type stars in the Magellanic Bridge and in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have been analysed to estimate their iron abundances. Those for the Clouds are lower than estimates obtained from late-type stars or the optical lines in B-type stars by approximately 0.5 dex. This may be due to systematic errors possibly arising from non-LTE effects or from errors in the atomic data as similar low Fe abundances having previously been reported from the analysis of the ultra-violet spectra of Galactic early-type stars. The iron abundance estimates for all three Bridge targets appear to be significantly lower than those found for the SMC and LMC by approximately -0.5 dex and -0.8 dex respectively and these differential results should not be affected by any systematic errors present in the absolute abundance estimates. These differential iron abundance estimates are consistent with the underabundances for C, N, O, Mg and Si of approximately -1.1 dex relative to our...

  2. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zinchenko, I A; Grebel, E K; Sanchez, S F; Vilchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the disks of 88 galaxies using CALIFA data release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the center of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) were also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the SDSS $g$ and $r$ bands of the photometric maps of SDSS data release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the disks of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e., the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, $\\lesssim 0.05$ dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxie...

  3. Good abundances from bad spectra; 1, techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bryn, J; Wyse, R F G; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    1995-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract true iron abundances and surface gravities from spectra of the type provided by the multiple-object fibre-fed spectroscopic radial-velocity surveys underway with 2dF, HYDRA, NESSIE, and the forthcoming Sloan survey. Our method is optimised for low S/N, intermediate resolution blue spectra of G stars. Spectroscopic indices sensitive to iron abundance and gravity are defined from a set of narrow (few Angstrom) wavelength intervals, and calibrated using synthetic spectra. We have also defined a single abundance indicator which is able to provide useful iron abundance information from spectra having S/N ratios as low as 10 per Angstrom. The theoretical basis and calibration using synthetic spectra are described in this paper. The empirical calibration of these techniques by application to observational data is described in Jones, Wyse and Gilmore (PASP July 1995). The technique provides precise iron abundances, with zero-point correct to \\sim 0.1 dex, and is reliable, with ...

  4. Why is Trichodesmium abundant in the Kuroshio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, T.; Takeda, S.; Itoh, S.; Kodama, T.; Liu, X.; Hashihama, F.; Furuya, K.

    2015-12-01

    The genus Trichodesmium is recognized as an abundant and major diazotroph in the Kuroshio, but the reason for this remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and nitrogen fixation together with concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate in the Kuroshio and its marginal seas. We performed the observations near the Miyako Islands, which form part of the Ryukyu Islands, situated along the Kuroshio, since our satellite analysis suggested that material transport could occur from the islands to the Kuroshio. Trichodesmium spp. bloomed (> 20 000 filaments L-1) near the Miyako Islands, abundance was high in the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio bifurcation region of the East China Sea, but was low in the Philippine Sea. The abundance of Trichodesmium spp. was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen fixation activity. The surface concentrations of dissolved iron (0.19-0.89 nM) and phosphate (differences in Trichodesmium spp. abundance and nitrogen fixation. Numerical particle-tracking experiments simulated the transportation of water around the Ryukyu Islands to the Kuroshio. Our results indicate that Trichodesmium growing around the Ryukyu Islands could be advected into the Kuroshio.

  5. Abundances of Molecular Species in Barnard 68

    CERN Document Server

    Francesco, J D; Welch, W J; Bergin, E A; Francesco, James Di; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Welch, William J.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2002-01-01

    Abundances for 5 molecules (C18O, CS, NH3, H2CO, and C3H2) and 1 molecular ion (N2H+) and upper limits for the abundances of 1 molecule (13CO) and 1 molecular ion (HCO+) are derived for gas within the Bok globule Barnard 68 (B68). The abundances were determined using our own BIMA millimeter interferometer data and single-dish data gathered from the literature, in conjunction with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Since B68 is the only starless core to have its density structure strongly constrained via extinction mapping, a major uncertainty has been removed from these determinations. All abundances for B68 are lower than those derived for translucent and cold dense clouds, but perhaps only significantly for N2H+, NH3, and C3H2. Depletion of CS toward the extinction peak of B68 is hinted at by the large offset between the extinction peak and the position of maximum CS line brightness. Abundances derived here for C18O and N2H+ are consistent with other, recently determined values at positions observed in...

  6. Ecological correlates of abundance in the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczkowski, Julie

    2004-07-01

    I investigated the ecological correlates of abundance in the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus), one of the world's most endangered primates, with the goal of recommending management strategies. I systematically selected 31 forest fragments throughout the mangabey's 60-km distribution along the lower Tana River in southeastern Kenya. Within the 31 fragments, I measured vegetation structure, food abundance, and human forest product use in 107 belt transects, and conducted 370 mangabey surveys. I used a weighted multiple regression analysis to determine whether there was a dependence between the selected forest attributes and the mean number of mangabey groups per fragment. Fragment area and density of trees > or =10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were the only variables that significantly correlated with the variation in mangabey abundance. No additional variables were significant when the analysis was limited to forest fragments inside the Tana River Primate National Reserve (TRPNR) or to fragments outside the TRPNR. When I estimated the resources available before recent human forest product use by adding nonharvested and harvested variables, the total basal area of the top 15 food species became significant. This was only within the TRPNR, however. Management, therefore, should focus on increasing forest area, density of trees > or =10 cm DBH, and coverage of food trees throughout the mangabey's distribution. Solutions must be found for the problem of forest clearing, and forest product use must be better managed to protect the habitat of this critically endangered primate. The significance of food abundance only within the TRPNR suggests a need to collect dietary data from mangabey groups in fragments toward the southern limit of the mangabey's distribution, where plant species composition differs from that in fragments in which dietary data have been previously collected. PMID:15258957

  7. Chemical Fractionation and Abundances in Coronal Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, J J

    2003-01-01

    Much of modern astrophysics is grounded on the observed chemical compositions of stars and the diffuse plasma that pervades the space between stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. X-ray and EUV spectra of the hot plasma in the outer atmospheres of stars have demonstrated that these environments are subject to chemical fractionation in which the abundances of elements can be enhanced and depleted by an order of magnitude or more. These coronal abundance anomalies are discussed and some of the physical mechanisms that might be responsible for producing them are examined. It is argued that coronal abundances can provide important new diagnostics on physical processes at work in solar and stellar coronae. It seems likely that other hot astrophysical plasmas will be subject to similar effects.

  8. Pulmonary embolism in congenital bleeding disorders: intriguing discrepancies among different clotting factors deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Cosi, Elisabetta; Tasinato, Valentina; Peroni, Edoardo; Girolami, Bruno; Lombardi, Anna Maria

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in the population with a normal clotting mechanism, but it may also occur in patients with congenital bleeding conditions. Here, we report on all cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital hemorrhagic disorders. All reported cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital coagulation disorders have been gathered by a time-unlimited PubMed search. Cross-checking of the references listed at the end of the single papers was carried out to avoid omissions. Seventy-two patients had an objectively demonstrated pulmonary embolism. The event occurred in patients with fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII (FVII), FVIII, FIX, and FXI deficiency, and in those with von Willebrand's disease. No embolism was reported in FII, factor X, and FXIII deficiency. Thirty were women and 28 were men, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, sex was not reported. Age varied from 6 to 81 years (mean age 34.3 years). The management varied from only supportive to the administration of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and anti-vitamin K medications, accompanied by adequate replacement therapy. Evolution was fair or good in the majority of cases, but there were 10 fatalities. Risk factors were present in 61 patients. The most frequent of these were replacement therapy (35 cases), surgery (34), and old age (13). Some patients had more than one risk factor. Eleven patients had no risk factors. There are discrepancies in the prevalence of pulmonary embolism among different clotting disorders. The conditions most frequently affected are FVII deficiency and fibrinogen defects. The significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:26829362

  9. Discrepancies between the ultrasonographic and gross pathological size of papillary thyroid carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yeon Hahn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between tumor sizes measured on ultrasonography (US and in pathological specimens of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs and to identify the US characteristics contributing to discrepancies in these measurements. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the US findings and pathological reports of 490 tumors in 431 patients who underwent surgery for PTC. Agreement was defined as a difference of <20% between the US and pathological tumor size measurements. Tumors were divided by size into groups of 0.5-1 cm, 1-2 cm, 2-3 cm, and ≥3 cm. We compared tumors in which the US and pathological tumor size measurements agreed and those in which they disagreed with regard to the following parameters: taller-than-wide shape, infiltrative margin, echogenicity, microcalcifications, cystic changes in tumors, and the US diagnosis. Results: The rate of agreement between US and the pathological tumor size measurements was 64.1% (314/490. Statistical analysis indicated that the US and pathological measurements significantly differed in tumors <1.0 cm in size (P=0.033, with US significantly overestimating the tumor size by 0.2 cm in such tumors (P<0.001. Cystic changes were significantly more frequent in the tumors where US and pathological tumor size measurements disagreed (P<0.001. Conclusion: Thyroid US may overestimate the size of PTCs, particularly for tumors <1.0 cm in size. This information may be helpful in guiding decision making regarding surgical extent.

  10. Discrepancies between CFHTLenS cosmic shear and Planck: new physics or systematic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, Thomas D.; Verde, Licia; Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-06-01

    There is currently a discrepancy in the measured value of the amplitude of matter clustering, parametrized using σ8, inferred from galaxy weak lensing, and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, which could be an indication of new physics, such as massive neutrinos or a modification to the gravity law, or baryon feedback. In this paper we make the assumption that the cosmological parameters are well determined by Planck, and use weak lensing data to investigate the implications for baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, as well as possible contributions from intrinsic alignments and biases in photometric redshifts. We apply a non-parametric approach to model the baryonic feedback on the dark matter clustering, which is flexible enough to reproduce the OWLS (OverWhelmingly Large Simulations) and Illustris simulation results. The statistic we use, 3D cosmic shear, is a method that extracts cosmological information from weak lensing data using a spherical-Bessel function power spectrum approach. We analyse the CFHTLenS weak lensing data and, assuming best-fitting cosmological parameters from the Planck CMB experiment, find that there is no evidence for baryonic feedback on the dark matter power spectrum, but there is evidence for a bias in the photometric redshifts in the CFHTLenS data, consistent with a completely independent analysis by Choi et al., based on spectroscopic redshifts, and that these conclusions are robust to assumptions about the intrinsic alignment systematic. We also find an upper limit, of <0.28 eV (1σ), to the sum of neutrino masses conditional on other Λ-cold-dark-matter parameters being fixed.

  11. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Gajendra J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Dougherty, Chase C.; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W.; Moore, Gregory J.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  12. A discrepancy of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence and prevalence trends in Finland 1983–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehtinen Matti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported rates of Chlamydia trachomatis are on the rise contradicting the declining rates of C. trachomatis associated reproductive sequelae in Western countries. Population based evaluation of the real trend of C. trachomatis infection is important to contemplate prevention efforts. We studied C. trachomatis occurrence during the past 20 years in Finland comparing incidence rate data based on serology and reported C. trachomatis laboratory notifications. Methods A random sample of 7999 women with two consecutive pregnancies within five years was selected from the population of the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC serum bank stratified by calendar year and age. C. trachomatis IgG antibodies were determined by a standard peptide-ELISA. The reported incidence rates of C. trachomatis infections based on case notifications were obtained from the National Registry of Infectious Diseases (NIDR. Results C. trachomatis seroprevalence rates decreased significantly from 1983 to 2003 both in women under 23 years of age (23.3% to 9.2% and in women between 23–28-years of age (22.2% to 12.6%. However, seroconversion rates increased from 31 per 10000 person years in 1983–85 to 97 per 10000 person years in 2001–2003 (incidence rate ratio 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1–8.7 among the older age group. Seroconversion rate was highest (264 in 1983–1985 in the younger age-group, then declined and subsequently increased again (188 in 2001–2003. The incidence based on seroconversions was in agreement with the reported incidence rates in both age groups. Conclusion C. trachomatis seroprevalence rate decreased during 1983–2003 among fertile-aged women in Finland. During the same time period incidence rates based both on seroconversions and reported laboratory notifications of diagnosed C. trachomatis infections increased. The discrepancy between the C. trachomatis incidence and seroprevalence trends warrants further studies.

  13. Fetoplacental Discrepancy with Normal Karyotype in Amniotic Fluid and Two Different Cell Lines in Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of fetoplacental discrepancy in a second-trimester fetus with normal karyotype in amniotic fluid and two different Robertsonian translocations in placenta. A 41-year-old woman of Middle-Eastern origin, gravida 2, para 1, underwent amniocentesis at 16-week gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniotic fluid karyotype showed a normal 46,XX karyotype with a homozygous inv(9. Parental chromosome analysis showed both parents to be carriers of inv(9 and the parents are not consanguineous. Fetal ultrasound was normal. The mother presented to the clinic 4 weeks later with intrauterine fetal demise. Chromosome analysis from the placenta showed two different cell lines: a balanced (15;21 Roberstonian translocation in 11 cells and an unbalanced (21;21 Robertsonian translocation in 9 cells. The karyotype was interpreted as mos 45,XX,inv(9(p11q13x2,der(15;21(q10;q10[11]/46,XX,inv(9(p11q13x2,+21,der(21;21(q10;q10. Mother was a carrier for the Cystic Fibrosis (delta F508, Factor V Leiden mutations, HbD-Los Angeles and HbQ-India variants. She also had a sibling with term stillbirth. Her husband’s history was unremarkable. Our case appears to be another example of confined placental mosaicism (CPM with normal fetal karyotype. However, we could not confirm the possibility that CPM contributed to the IUFD in our case given the complex medical history of the mother.

  14. Metagenomic abundance estimation and diagnostic testing on species level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Martin S.; Renard, Bernhard Y.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of sequencing-based metagenomic community analysis is the quantitative taxonomic assessment of microbial community compositions. In particular, relative quantification of taxons is of high relevance for metagenomic diagnostics or microbial community comparison. However, the majority of existing approaches quantify at low resolution (e.g. at phylum level), rely on the existence of special genes (e.g. 16S), or have severe problems discerning species with highly similar genome sequences. Yet, problems as metagenomic diagnostics require accurate quantification on species level. We developed Genome Abundance Similarity Correction (GASiC), a method to estimate true genome abundances via read alignment by considering reference genome similarities in a non-negative LASSO approach. We demonstrate GASiC’s superior performance over existing methods on simulated benchmark data as well as on real data. In addition, we present applications to datasets of both bacterial DNA and viral RNA source. We further discuss our approach as an alternative to PCR-based DNA quantification. PMID:22941661

  15. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  16. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can have intercourse but experience vaginismus during pelvic exams. Although vaginismus is considered a pain disorder, most ... and are used together to treat a problem. Education is important in understanding the anatomy and physiology ...

  17. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to a specialist trained in the diagnosis and treatment of sexual problems. This specialist may be a ... in many different ways. Often, multiple types of treatment may be required and are used together to ...

  18. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  19. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pain disorders. If you are experiencing problems viewing this embedded video, please click here . Transcript Disorders of ... no sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity. This lack of desire is beyond what normally happens ...

  20. Erection problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems can lead to ED, such as: Poor communication with your partner Feelings of doubt and failure Stress, fear, anxiety, or anger Expecting too much from sex. This can make sex a task instead of ...

  1. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a problem. Education is important in understanding the anatomy and physiology of sex and in having realistic ... lubricants in that they are absorbed into the skin. Moisturizers are a “maintenance therapy” that is applied ...

  2. Nipple problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inverted nipple; Nipple problems Images Female breast Intraductal papilloma Mammary gland Abnormal discharge from the nipple Normal ... 8. Read More Breast cancer Endocrine glands Intraductal papilloma Update Date 11/16/2014 Updated by: Cynthia ...

  3. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Sexual Problems Sexual concern causing distress can be ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...

  4. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sexual arousal disorder have little or no genital responsiveness to stimulation and they don’t produce adequate ... problems. This specialist may be a physician, psychologist, social worker, or physical therapist. You may also find ...

  5. Swallowing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the home Dry mouth during cancer treatment Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus Jejunostomy feeding tube Mouth and neck radiation - discharge Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Update Date 5/15/2014 ...

  6. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much higher rates of foot problems. For women, pain in the toes and ball of the foot is much more common than in men, and it gets worse with age. However, pain in the heel tends to decrease as we ...

  7. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Some women with vaginismus can tolerate a pelvic examination, while some women can have intercourse but experience ... and are used together to treat a problem. Education is important in understanding the anatomy and physiology ...

  8. Contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Galin, Lev Aleksandrovich

    2008-01-01

    L.A. Galin's book on contact problems is a remarkable work. Actually there are two books: the first, published in 1953 deals with contact problems in the classical theory of elasticity; this is the one that was translated into English in 1961. The second book, published in 1980, included the first, and then had new sections on contact problems for viscoelastic materials, and rough contact problems; this section has not previously been translated into English. In this new translation, the original text and the mathematical analysis have been completely revised, new material has been added, and the material appearing in the 1980 Russian translation has been completely rewritten. In addition there are three essays by students of Galin, bringing the analysis up to date.

  9. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems. This specialist may be a physician, psychologist, social worker, or physical therapist. You may also find ... aids include lubricants, moisturizers, and sexual toys. Lubricants work by reducing friction between tissues. Many different types ...

  10. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter;

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...

  11. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  12. MetaCluster 5.0: a two-round binning approach for metagenomic data for low-abundance species in a noisy sample

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi(Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA U.K.); Leung, Henry C. M.; Yiu, S. M.; Chin, Francis Y. L.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Metagenomic binning remains an important topic in metagenomic analysis. Existing unsupervised binning methods for next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads do not perform well on (i) samples with low-abundance species or (ii) samples (even with high abundance) when there are many extremely low-abundance species. These two problems are common for real metagenomic datasets. Binning methods that can solve these problems are desirable. Results: We proposed a two-round binning method (Met...

  13. The Cosmological Lithium Problem Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Shubhchintak,

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  14. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-07-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  15. Review of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Primordial Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, David; O'Meara, John M.; Suzuki, Nao; Lubin, Dan

    2001-03-01

    the light nuclei, but unfortunately in most cases we are not yet seeing much improvement in the accuracy of the primordial abundances. Since we are now interested in the highest accuracy and reliability for all nuclei, the few objects with the most extensive observations give by far the most convincing results. Earlier measurements of 4He may have obtained too low a value because the He emission line strengths were reduced by undetected stellar absorption lines. The systematic errors associated with the 4He abundance have frequently been underestimated in the past, and this problem persists. When two groups use the same data and different ways to estimate the electron density and 4He abundance, the results differ by more than the quoted systematic errors. While the methods used by Izotov and Thuan [1] seem to be an advance on those used before, the other method is reasonable, and hence the systematic error should encompass the range in results. The abundance of 7Li is measured to high accuracy, but we do not know how much was produced prior to the formation of the stars, and how much was destroyed (depleted) in the stars. 6Li helps limit the amount of depletion of 7Li, but by an uncertain amount since it too has been depleted. BBN is successful because it uses known physics and measured cross-sections for the nuclear reactions. It gives accurate predictions for the abundances of five light nuclei as a function of the one free parameter η. The other initial conditions seem natural: the universe began homogeneous and hotter than T > 1011 K (30 Mev). The predicted abundances agree with most observations, and the required η is consistent with other, less accurate, measurements of the baryon density. Abundance measurements of the baryon density, from the CMB, clusters of galaxies and the Lyα forest, will give η. Although the accuracy might not exceed that obtained from D/H, this is an important advance because BBN then gives abundance predictions with no adjustable

  16. Simulation of arthropod abundance from plant composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between arthropod abundance and plant composition is extremely complex. It is very hard to develop a mechanistic model to describe the relationship. This study aimed to simulate arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland using an artificial neural network developed by the author, and to compare simulation performances between the neural network and conventional models. The results revealed that there were complex interactions between plants and arthropods, and the arthropod abundance on grassland was significantly determined of plant families and their cover-degrees rather than plant species and their cover-degrees. Neural network exhibited a better simulation performance than multivariate regression and response surface model. Cross validation indicated that prediction performance of neural network was also superior to these models. It was concluded that neural network is an effective tool to model arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland. A moderate dimensionality for input space may be determined to produce a reasonably trained neural network. Such procedures for dimensionality reduction as PCE, etc., were suggested being used in the data treatment in neural network modeling. A high dimensionality for input space and a few samples in the input set would result in the deficient learning of neural network. Randomization procedure for sample submission would help to eliminate the sequence correlation but may result in a worse performance in simulation and prediction. It was suggested that randomization procedure could be used to the sample submission for these situations with a lot of samples and a lower dimensionality.

  17. North Sea Elasmobranchs: distribution, abundance and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N.; Heessen, H.J.L.; Hofstede, ter R.

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from various international and national surveys, an overview is given of the fine-scale distribution (resolution of 20¿longitude * 10¿ latitude; ¿ 10*10 nm) and trends in abundance of elasmobranch species reported from the North Sea. Presence-absence maps are produced based on 4 survey

  18. The Galactic Thick Disk Stellar Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J X; Carney, B W; McWilliam, A; Wolfe, A M; Prochaska, Jason X.; Naumov, Sergei O.; Carney, Bruce W.; William, Andrew Mc; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2000-01-01

    We present first results from a program to measure the chemical abundances of a large (N>30) sample of thick disk stars with the principal goal of investigating the formation history of the Galactic thick disk. Our analysis confirms previous studies of O and Mg in the thick disk stars which reported enhancements in excess of the thin disk population. Furthermore, the observations of Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, V, Zn, Al, and Eu all argue that the thick disk population has a distinct chemical history from the thin disk. With the exception of V and Co, the thick disk abundance patterns match or tend towards the values observed for halo stars with [Fe/H]~-1. This suggests that the thick disk stars had a chemical enrichment history similar to the metal-rich halo stars. With the possible exception of Si, the thick disk abundance patterns are in excellent agreement with the chemical abundances observed in the metal-poor bulge stars suggesting the two populations formed from the same gas reservoir at a common epoch. We disc...

  19. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    that do not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. Ephemera danica, a very abundant mayfly larva, was monitored monthly in a nitrate-polluted stream. Nitrous oxide production by this filter-feeder was highly dependent on nitrate availability...

  20. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  1. Abundance of Terrestrial Planets by Microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yock, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Terrestrial planets may be detected using the gravitational microlensing technique. This was demonstrated in the high magnification event MACHO-98-BLG-35. Observing strategies aimed at measuring the abundance of terrestrial planets are discussed, using both existing telescopes and planned telescopes.

  2. Line Broadening and the Solar Opacity Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, M.; Feigel, A.; Gazit, D.

    2016-06-01

    The calculation of line widths constitutes theoretical and computational challenges in the calculation of opacities of hot, dense plasmas. Opacity models use line broadening approximations that are untested at stellar interior conditions. Moreover, calculations of atomic spectra of the Sun indicate a large discrepancy in the K-shell line widths between several atomic codes and the Opacity-Project (OP). In this work, the atomic code STAR is used to study the sensitivity of solar opacities to line broadening. Variations in the solar opacity profile due to an increase of the Stark widths resulting from discrepancies with OP, are compared, in light of the solar opacity problem, with the required opacity variations of the present day Sun, as imposed by helioseismic and neutrino observations. The resulting variation profile is much larger than the discrepancy between different atomic codes, agrees qualitatively with the missing opacity profile, recovers about half of the missing opacity nearby the convection boundary, and has a little effect in the internal regions. Since it is hard to estimate quantitatively the uncertainty in the Stark widths, we show that an increase of all line widths by a factor of about ˜100 recovers quantitatively the missing opacity. These results emphasize the possibility that photoexcitation processes are not modeled properly, and more specifically, highlight the need for a better theoretical characterization of the line broadening phenomena at stellar interior conditions, and of the uncertainty due to the way it is implemented by atomic codes.

  3. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  4. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  5. Chemical abundances of damped Ly alpha systems:. A new method for estimating dust depletion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladilo, G.

    2002-08-01

    A new method is presented for recovering the abundances of Damped Ly alpha systems (DLAs) taking into account the effects of dust depletion. For the first time, possible variations of the chemical composition of the dust are taken into account in estimating the depletions. No prior assumptions on the extinction properties of the dust are required. The method requires a set of abundances measured in the gas and a set of parameters describing the chemical properties of the dust. A large subset of these parameters is determined from interstellar observations; the others are free parameters for which an educated guess can be made. The method is able to recover the abundances of the SMC starting from SMC interstellar measurements apparently discrepant from the stellar ones. Application of the method to 22 DLAs with available [Fe/H] and [Si/Fe] measurements gives the following results: (1) the mean metallicity of the corrected data is =~ -1.0 dex, about 0.5 dex higher than that of the original data; (2) the slope of the [Fe/H] versus redshift relation is steeper for the corrected data (m =~ -0.3 dex) than for the original ones (m =~ -0.2 dex); (3) the corrected [Si/Fe] ratios are less enhanced, on average, than those found in Galactic stars of similar, low metallicity; (4) a decrease of the [Si/Fe] versus [Fe/H] ratios, expected by ``time delay'' models of chemical evolution, is found for the corrected data; (5) the [Si/Fe] ratios tend to increase with redshift once corrected; (6) consistency between [Si/Fe] and [S/Zn] measurements, two independent estimators of the alpha /Fe ratio, is found only for the corrected abundances.

  6. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  7. Lateral loss and dose discrepancies of multileaf collimator segments in intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the step-and-shoot technique delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), each static field consists of a number of beamlets, some of which may be very small. In this study, we measured the dose characteristics for a range of field sizes: 2x2 to 12x10 cm2 for 6 and 15 MV x rays. For a given field length, a number of treatment fields are set up by sequentially increasing the field width using a multi leaf collimator. A set of fields is delivered with the accelerator operated in the IMRT mode. Using an ion chamber, the output factors at 1 cm and 3 cm laterally from a field edge are measured at different depths in a solid water phantom. Our results show that with insufficient lateral distance in at least one direction, the absorbed dose never reaches the equilibrium values, and can be significantly lower for very small field sizes. For example, the output factor of the 2x2 cm2 field relative to 10x10 cm2 at dmax is 0.832 and 0.790 for 6 MV and 15 MV x rays, respectively. Multiple output factor curves are obtained for different field lengths and different buildup conditions. Thus under nonequilibrium conditions, output factors are critically dependent on the field size and the conventional method of determining the equivalent square does not apply. Comparison of output factors acquired in the commissioning of the accelerator with those measured in the present study under conditions of nonequilibrium shows large discrepancies between the two sets of measurements. Thus monitor units generated by a treatment planning system using beam data commissioned with symmetric fields may be underestimated by >5%, depending on the size and shape of the segments. To facilitate manual MU calculation as an independent check in step-and-shoot IMRT, the concept of effective equivalent square (EES) is introduced. Using EES, output factors can be calculated using existing beam data for fields with asymmetric collimator settings and under conditions of lateral disequilibrium

  8. Lateral loss and dose discrepancies of multileaf collimator segments in intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chee W; Das, Indra J; Huq, M Saiful

    2003-11-01

    In the step-and-shoot technique delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), each static field consists of a number of beamlets, some of which may be very small. In this study, we measured the dose characteristics for a range of field sizes: 2 x 2 to 12 x 10 cm2 for 6 and 15 MV x rays. For a given field length, a number of treatment fields are set up by sequentially increasing the field width using a multi leaf collimator. A set of fields is delivered with the accelerator operated in the IMRT mode. Using an ion chamber, the output factors at 1 cm and 3 cm laterally from a field edge are measured at different depths in a solid water phantom. Our results show that with insufficient lateral distance in at least one direction, the absorbed dose never reaches the equilibrium values, and can be significantly lower for very small field sizes. For example, the output factor of the 2 x 2 cm2 field relative to 10 x 10 cm2 at d(max0 is 0.832 and 0.790 for 6 MV and 15 MV x rays, respectively. Multiple output factor curves are obtained for different field lengths and different buildup conditions. Thus under nonequilibrium conditions, output factors are critically dependent on the field size and the conventional method of determining the equivalent square does not apply. Comparison of output factors acquired in the commissioning of the accelerator with those measured in the present study under conditions of nonequilibrium shows large discrepancies between the two sets of measurements. Thus monitor units generated by a treatment planning system using beam data commissioned with symmetric fields may be underestimated by > 5%, depending on the size and shape of the segments. To facilitate manual MU calculation as an independent check in step-and-shoot IMRT, the concept of effective equivalent square (EES) is introduced. Using EES, output factors can be calculated using existing beam data for fields with asymmetric collimator settings and under conditions of lateral

  9. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  10. Discrepancy between femoral and capillary blood flow kinetics during knee extension exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, S J; Ade, C J; Broxterman, R M; Barstow, T J

    2015-12-01

    Capillary blood flow (QCAP) kinetics have previously been shown to be significantly slower than femoral artery (QFA) kinetics following the onset of dynamic knee extension exercise. If the increase in QCAP does not follow a similar time course to QFA, then a substantial proportion of the available blood flow is not distributed to the working muscle. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that blood flow also increases to the nonworking lower leg muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine if a reduction in lower limb blood flow, via arterial occlusion below the knee, alters the kinetics of QFA and QCAP during knee extension exercise, and thus provide insight into the potential mechanisms controlling the rapid increase in QFA. Subjects performed a ramp max test to determine the work rate at which gas exchange threshold (GET) occurred. At least four constant work rate trials with and without below-knee occlusion were conducted at work rates eliciting ∼ 80% GET. Pulmonary gas exchange, near-infrared spectroscopy and QFA measurements were taken continuously during each exercise bout. Muscle oxygen uptake (VO2m) and deoxy[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were used to estimate QCAP. There was no significant difference between the uncuffed and cuffed conditions in any response (P>0.05). The mean response times (MRT) of QFA were 18.7 ± 14.2s (uncuffed) and 24.6 ± 14.9s (cuffed). QCAP MRTs were 51.8 ± 23.4s (uncuffed) and 56.7 ± 23.2s (cuffed), which were not significantly different from the time constants (τ) of VO2m (39.7 ± 23.2s (uncuffed) and 46.3 ± 24.1s (cuffed). However, the MRT of QFA was significantly faster (Pkinetics tracked VO2m following exercise onset. Cuffing below the knee did not significantly change the kinetics of QFA, QCAP or VO2m, although an effect size of 1.02 suggested that a significant effect on QFA may have been hidden by small subject number.

  11. Phenomenology of gravitational aether as a solution to the old cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the deepest and most long-standing mysteries in physics has been the huge discrepancy between the observed vacuum density and our expectations from theories of high energy physics, which has been dubbed the old cosmological constant problem. One proposal to address this puzzle at the semiclassical level is to decouple quantum vacuum from spacetime geometry via a modification of gravity that includes an incompressible fluid, known as gravitational aether. In this paper, we discuss classical predictions of this theory along with its compatibility with cosmological and experimental tests of gravity. We argue that deviations from general relativity (GR) in this theory are sourced by pressure or vorticity. In particular, the theory predicts that the gravitational constant for radiation is 33% larger than that of nonrelativistic matter, which is preferred by (most) cosmic microwave background (CMB), Ly-α forest, and 7Li primordial abundance observations, while being consistent with other cosmological tests at ∼2σ level. It is further shown that all parametrized post-newtonian parameters have the standard GR values aside from the anomalous coupling to pressure ζ4, which has not been directly measured. A more subtle prediction of this model (assuming irrotational aether) is that the (intrinsic) gravitomagnetic effect is 33% larger than GR prediction. This is consistent with current limits from LAGEOS and Gravity Probe B at ∼2σ level.

  12. Model-measurement comparison of functional group abundance in α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Bernhard, Fabian A.; Henderson, Barron H.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation under different NOx regimes is simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 (MCM) coupled with an absorptive gas-particle partitioning module. Vapor pressures for individual compounds are estimated with the SIMPOL.1 group contribution model for determining apportionment of reaction products to each phase. We apply chemoinformatic tools to harvest functional group (FG) composition from the simulations and estimate their contributions to the overall oxygen to carbon ratio. Furthermore, we compare FG abundances in simulated SOA to measurements of FGs reported in previous chamber studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These simulations qualitatively capture the dynamics of FG composition of SOA formed from both α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in low-NOx conditions, especially in the first hours after start of photooxidation. Higher discrepancies are found after several hours of simulation; the nature of these discrepancies indicates sources of uncertainty or types of reactions in the condensed or gas phase missing from current model implementation. Higher discrepancies are found in the case of α-pinene photooxidation under different NOx concentration regimes, which are reasoned through the domination by a few polyfunctional compounds that disproportionately impact the simulated FG abundance in the aerosol phase. This manuscript illustrates the usefulness of FG analysis to complement existing methods for model-measurement evaluation.

  13. Cognitive Profiles of Mathematical Problem Solving Learning Disability for Different Definitions of Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Tammy D; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Three cohorts of third-grade students (N= 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students.

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Reading Disabilities Based on the Component Model of Reading: An Alternative to the Discrepancy Model of LD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, P. G.; Joshi, R. Malatesha; Gooden, Regina; Bentum, Kwesi E.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, learning disabilities (LD) are diagnosed on the basis of the discrepancy between students' IQ and reading achievement scores. Students diagnosed with LD often receive remedial instruction in resource rooms. The available evidence suggests that the educational policy based on this discrepancy model has not yielded satisfactory results.…

  15. A landscape analysis of cougar distribution and abundance in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, S J; Malecki, R A

    2001-09-01

    Recent growth in the distribution and abundance of cougars (Puma concolor) throughout western North America has created opportunities, challenges, and problems for wildlife managers and raises questions about what factors affect cougar populations. We present an analysis of factors thought to affect cougar distribution and abundance across the broad geographical scales on which most population management decisions are made. Our objectives were to: (1) identify and evaluate landscape parameters that can be used to predict the capability of habitats to support cougars, and (2) evaluate factors that may account for the recent expansion in cougar numbers. Habitat values based on terrain ruggedness and forested cover explained 73% of the variation in a cougar abundance index. Indices of cougar abundance also were spatially and temporally correlated with ungulate abundance. An increase in the number and total biomass of ungulate prey species is hypothesized to account for recent increases in cougars. Cougar populations in Montana are coping with land development by humans when other components of habitat and prey populations are sufficient. Our analysis provides a better understanding of what may have influenced recent growth in cougar distribution and abundance in Montana and, when combined with insights about stakeholder acceptance capacity, offers a basis for cougar management at broad scales. Long-term conservation of cougars necessitates a better understanding of ecosystem functions that affect prey distribution and abundance, more accurate estimates of cougar populations, and management abilities to integrate these components with human values. PMID:11531235

  16. Report to the 238U discrepancy task force on SIOB fits to the ORNL, CBNM, and JAERI transmission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code SIOB has been used to obtain least-squares simultaneous-sample shape fits to the recent 238U transmission data of ORNL, CBNM, and JAERI over the energy regions 1460 to 1820 eV, 2470 to 2740 eV, and 3820 to 4000 eV. The fits indicate that much of the systematic discrepancy in the published neutron widths from these data arose in the data analysis procedure. Except for the 3820- to 4000-eV JAERI data, the systematic differences in the resulting neutron widths from the present widths are larger than those contained in any existing evaluation. These fits were performed as part of the work for the NEANDC ad hoc 238U Discrepancy Task Force. 20 references

  17. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars.

  18. A Review on Discrepancies Between Parent-Child Reports of Children's Psychopathology%儿童青少年心理病理评定中的父母-子女报告者差异探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡毅; 郭菲; 陈祉妍

    2013-01-01

    儿童、青少年心理病理研究中经常使用多报告者的评估方法.不同报告者间的评价差异导致了研究者分析、理解数据的困难,因此引发了针对这一问题的大量研究.研究发现子女的人口学特征、被评估问题的特征和家庭环境特征等均对报告者差异有显著影响.从报告者获取信息和认知的角度整合当前研究结果有利于对报告者差异的产生进行更深入的分析,相关因素通过影响信息获得和作答过程对报告者差异产生影响.目前缺乏对报告者差异的系统理解和理论框架,进一步分析报告者差异对相关研究设计、数据处理和临床实践有实际意义.%In research on children's psychopathology, multiple informants' report is a widely used method. Since discrepancies among informants bring difficulties to researchers in data analysis, more and more studies have been done to investigate the phenomenon. Researchers explored factors influencing the direction and magnitude of discrepancies from different areas, including demographic factors of children, types of target problems, characteristics of informants and their families. Deeper understanding of how the discrepancies generates can be got by connecting present findings to behavior observation and cognitive process of respondents, whose information gathering and questionnaire responding process may be influenced by different factors. Systemic understanding and theoretical framework for the generation of discrepancies are needed. Further researches on the informant discrepancy would be significant to research design, data analysis and clinical practice.

  19. Self-discrepancy and MMORPGs: testing the moderating effects of avatar identification and pathological gaming in world of warcraft

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Cédric; Van Looy, Jan; De Vocht, Melanie; De Marez, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that MMORPG players create avatars that are considered to possess more ideal personality traits than their actual selves. More specifically, Bessière, Seay and Kiesler (2007) have demonstrated that for the personality traits conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism, the mean discrepancies between gamers' ideal self and avatar are significantly smaller than those between the gamers' ideal and actual self. These findings are automatically attributed to the ass...

  20. Should One Trust a Farmer's Succession Plan? Empirical Evidence on the Intention-Behaviour Discrepancy from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vare, Minna; Weiss, Christoph R.; Pietola, Kyosti

    2005-01-01

    This study examines and compares farmers' succession plans and actual succession behaviour and finds that the farm operator's age and regional variables influence both. We also find a discrepancy between intention and actual behaviour which is significantly related to the farm operator's age. Whereas the likelihood of planned succession is overestimated significantly for younger farm operators, the opposite is observed once the farm operator's age exceeds 65 years. Therefore, stated plans hav...

  1. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1...

  2. On the discrepancy of access to higher education in a province with a large ethnic minority population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yunchuan; ZHANG Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Based on a survey of students from different social strata,different family backgrounds and different levels of access to higher education in 10 higher education institutions (HEIs)in Yunnan,an ethnic minority (EM)province,this essay tries to find out the discrepancy in the enrollment opportunity of higher education for children from different strata in the EM province in order to find a breakthrough to narrow the gap.

  3. Greater night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy among older adults with a sleep complaint compared to noncomplaining older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Rowe, Meredeth; McCrae, Christina S

    2013-04-01

    Research in younger adults suggests sleep discrepancy (objective/subjective measurement difference) is a consistent pattern that primarily occurs within individuals with insomnia. To examine whether older adults exhibit a similar pattern, this study compared night-to-night inconsistency in sleep discrepancy between older adults with and without sleep complaints. Older adults (N = 103; mean age = 72.81, SD = 7.12) wore an Actiwatch-L® (24 hr per day) and concurrently completed sleep diaries for 14 days. Sleep discrepancy = diary (sleep onset latency [SOL] or wake [time] after sleep onset [WASO]) - actigraphy (SOL or WASO). Both groups exhibited sleep discrepancy, but complainers exhibited significantly more night-to-night variability. Sleep discrepancy was a variable behavior that was not limited to insomnia, but instead manifested by degree throughout our older sample. Greater attention to variability in sleep research and clinical practice is warranted. PMID:23137288

  4. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  5. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  6. Discrepancies in listed adverse drug reactions in pharmaceutical product information supplied by the regulatory authorities in Denmark and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Robert; Aagaard, Lise; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Borisova, Liza; Hørlück, Dorte; Brunak, Søren; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2014-06-01

    Pharmaceutical product information (PI) supplied by the regulatory authorities serves as a source of information on safe and effective use of drugs. The objectives of this study were to qualitatively and quantitatively compare PIs for selected drugs marketed in both Denmark and the USA with respect to consistency and discrepancy of listed adverse drug reaction (ADR) information. We compared individual ADRs listed in PIs from Denmark and the USA with respect to type and frequency. Consistency was defined as match of ADRs and of ADR frequency or match could not be ruled out. Discrepancies were defined as ADRs listed only in one country or listed with different frequencies. We analyzed PIs for 40 separate drugs from ten therapeutic groups and assigned the 4003 identified ADRs to System Organ Classes (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities [MedDRA] terminology). Less than half of listed ADRs (n = 1874; 47%) showed consistency. Discrepancies (n = 2129; 53%) were split into ADRs listed only in the USA (n = 1558; 39%), ADRs listed only in Denmark (n = 325; 8%) and ADRs listed with different frequencies (n = 246; 6%). The majority of listed ADRs were of the type "gastrointestinal disorders" and "nervous system disorders". Our results show great differences in PIs for drugs approved in both Denmark and the USA illuminating concerns about the credibility of the publicly available PIs. The results also represent an argument for further harmonization across borders to improve consistency between authority-supplied information. PMID:25505588

  7. A pilot study of memory impairment associated with discrepancies between retrospective and daily recall of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Randi; Rosenthal, Christina F; Malte, Carol A; Simpson, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have found discrepancies between daily report and retrospective recall of alcohol use. One possible explanation is that there may be an association between memory impairment and alcohol consumption recall errors. Should this possibility be substantiated it could have implications for the types of assessments conducted in alcohol treatment trials. The current study evaluated the degree to which memory impairment, as measured by the California Verbal Learning Test-II, predicted day-to-day discrepancies between daily Interactive Voice Response monitoring and retrospective recall of alcohol use assessed with a 42-day version of the Form-90. Significant differences were detected in absolute difference in days drinking across the two measurement methods between participants scoring above and below population means on two measures of immediate memory ability. Correlations between the absolute difference in days drinking and immediate memory ability and long-delay memory indices approached significance. There were no significant associations between memory indices and discrepancies in reports of standard drink units. These preliminary results suggest that verbal memory difficulties common in this population may result in inaccurate reports of days drinking for some individuals.

  8. Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: dynamics of self-acceptance and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, William S; Dehaan, Cody R; Przybylski, Andrew K; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M

    2012-04-01

    When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures.

  9. Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: dynamics of self-acceptance and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, William S; Dehaan, Cody R; Przybylski, Andrew K; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M

    2012-04-01

    When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures. PMID:22288529

  10. The mass discrepancy acceleration relation in early-type galaxies: extended mass profiles and the phantom menace to MOND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Joachim; Cappellari, Michele; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ciotti, Luca; Alabi, Adebusola; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2016-09-01

    The dark matter (DM) haloes around spiral galaxies appear to conspire with their baryonic content: empirically, significant amounts of DM are inferred only below a universal characteristic acceleration scale. Moreover, the discrepancy between the baryonic and dynamical mass, which is usually interpreted as the presence of DM, follows a very tight mass discrepancy acceleration (MDA) relation. Its universality, and its tightness in spiral galaxies, poses a challenge for the DM interpretation and was used to argue in favour of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). Here, we test whether or not this applies to early-type galaxies. We use the dynamical models of fast-rotator early-type galaxies by Cappellari et al. based on ATLAS3D and SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) data, which was the first homogenous study of this kind, reaching ˜4 Re, where DM begins to dominate the total mass budget. We find the early-type galaxies to follow an MDA relation similar to spiral galaxies, but systematically offset. Also, while the slopes of the mass density profiles inferred from galaxy dynamics show consistency with those expected from their stellar content assuming MOND, some profiles of individual galaxies show discrepancies.

  11. Sexual Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your sexual partner. Because they are complex, sexual concerns are treated in many different ways. Often, multiple types of treatment may be required and are used together to treat a problem. Education is important in understanding the anatomy and physiology ...

  12. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important to note that psychological problems such as sexual abuse can be involved as well. Pain caused by lack of lubrication or by vaginismus is not included in this ... woman wants sexual penetration. Women with this condition can still achieve ...

  13. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Kidney Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & ... The kidneys also help maintain body fluids at normal levels. In addition, the kidneys play important roles in controlling blood pressure and ...

  14. Relative abundance determinations in extremely metal poor giants. II. Transition probabilities and the abundance determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundances of Fe and other elements are determined for a star of intermediate metallicity and for nine extremely metal poor stars, including two members of the globular cluster M92 and CD -38 deg 245. The accuracy of the transition probabilities for Fe I and other elements is evaluated. The distribution of the abundances of other elements with respect to Fe is the same for most of the cases studied. Manganese is the only element that shows a different relative abundance in an extremely metal poor star. 120 refs

  15. The discrepancy hypothesis in children with language disorders : Does it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, A.L.; Post, W.J.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Analysis of the relationship between verbal and nonverbal development in children with language problems. Methods: From 134 children enrolled in a multidisciplinary diagnostic procedure in a speech and hearing clinic and diagnosed as having a language disorder, the language comprehension

  16. Earth Abundant Element Type I Clathrate Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Earth abundant element clathrate phases are of interest for a number of applications ranging from photovoltaics to thermoelectrics. Silicon-containing type I clathrate is a framework structure with the stoichiometry A8-xSi46 (A = guest atom such as alkali metal that can be tuned by alloying and doping with other elements. The type I clathrate framework can be described as being composed of two types of polyhedral cages made up of tetrahedrally coordinated Si: pentagonal dodecahedra with 20 atoms and tetrakaidecahedra with 24 atoms in the ratio of 2:6. The cation sites, A, are found in the center of each polyhedral cage. This review focuses on the newest discoveries in the group 13-silicon type I clathrate family: A8E8Si38 (A = alkali metal; E = Al, Ga and their properties. Possible approaches to new phases based on earth abundant elements and their potential applications will be discussed.

  17. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  18. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    CERN Document Server

    Aver, Erik; Porter, R L; Skillman, Evan D

    2013-01-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y_p. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, & Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, & Stasinska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y_p. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increase...

  19. Abundances in the diffuse interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wealth of interstellar absorption line data obtained with the Copernicus and IUE satellites has opened up a new era in studies of the interstellar gas. It is now well established that certain elements, generally those with high condensation temperatures, are substantially under-abundant in the gas-phase relative to total solar or cosmic abundances. This depletion of elements is due to the existence of solid material in the form of dust grains in the interstellar medium. Surprisingly, however, recent surveys indicate that even volatile elements such as Zn and S are significantly depleted in many sight lines. Developments in this field which have been made possible by the large base of UV interstellar absorption line data built up over recent years are reviewed and the implications of the results for our understanding of the physical processes governing depletion are discussed. (author)

  20. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Link, W.A.; Hines, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995-2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2-16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science.

  1. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    CERN Document Server

    De Smedt, Kenneth; Kamath, Devika; Siess, Lionel; Goriely, Stephane; Karakas, Amanda I; Manick, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show the Pb overabundance is not observed. We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of 14 Galactic post-AGB stars. We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. Stars with T(eff) > 7500 K do not provide strong constraints on the Pb abundance. We conclude that the discrepancy between theory and observation increases towards lower metallicities. All objects, except IRAS 17279-1119, confirm the relation between neutron exposure [hs/ls] and third dredge-up efficiency [s/Fe], whereas no relation be...

  2. Water Abundance in Molecular Cloud Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, R L; Ashby, M L N; Bergin, E A; Chin, G; Erickson, N R; Goldsmith, P F; Harwit, M; Kleiner, S C; Koch, D G; Neufeld, D A; Patten, B M; Plume, R; Schieder, R; Stauffer, J R; Tolls, V; Wang, Z; Winnewisser, G; Zhang, Y F; Melnick, G J

    2000-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) observations of the 1_{10}-1_{01} transition of ortho-water at 557 GHz toward 12 molecular cloud cores. The water emission was detected in NGC 7538, Rho Oph A, NGC 2024, CRL 2591, W3, W3(OH), Mon R2, and W33, and was not detected in TMC-1, L134N, and B335. We also present a small map of the water emission in S140. Observations of the H_2^{18}O line were obtained toward S140 and NGC 7538, but no emission was detected. The abundance of ortho-water relative to H_2 in the giant molecular cloud cores was found to vary between 6x10^{-10} and 1x10^{-8}. Five of the cloud cores in our sample have previous water detections; however, in all cases the emission is thought to arise from hot cores with small angular extents. The water abundance estimated for the hot core gas is at least 100 times larger than in the gas probed by SWAS. The most stringent upper limit on the ortho-water abundance in dark clouds is provided in TMC-1, where the 3-sigma upper limit on the ...

  3. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood-related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the "double geometric." Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  4. Elemental abundances and classification of CEMP stars

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Dinah M; Rossi, Silvia; Beers, Tim C; Tsangarides, Stelios A

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed study of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations of a sample of 18 stars. The stellar spectra for this sample were obtained at the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in 2001 and 2002, using the Utrecht Echelle Spectrograph (UES), at a resolving power R ~52000 and S/N ~ 40, covering the wavelength range lambda-lambda 3700-5700 A. The atmospheric parameters determined for this sample indicate temperatures ranging from 4750 C to 7100 K, log g from 1.5 to 4.3, and metallicities -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.7. Elemental abundances for C, Na, Mg, Sc, Ti, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy are determined. Abundances for an additional 109 stars were taken from the literature and combined with the data of our sample. The literature sample reveals a lack of reliable abundance estimates for species that might be associated with the r-process elements for about 67% of CEMP stars, preventing a complete understanding of this clas...

  5. Stellar Mixing and the Primordial Lithium Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsonneault, M H; Walker, T P; Narayanan, V K

    2002-01-01

    We compare the properties of recent samples of the lithium abundances in halo stars to one another and to the predictions of theoretical models including rotational mixing, and we examine the data for trends with metal abundance. We find from a KS test that in the absence of any correction for chemical evolution, the Ryan, Norris, & Beers (1999} sample is fully consistent with mild rotational mixing induced depletion and, therefore, with an initial lithium abundance higher than the observed value. Tests for outliers depend sensitively on the threshold for defining their presence, but we find a 10$--$45% probability that the RNB sample is drawn from the rotationally mixed models with a 0.2 dex median depletion (with lower probabilities corresponding to higher depletion factors). When chemical evolution trends (Li/H versus Fe/H) are treated in the linear plane we find that the dispersion in the RNB sample is not explained by chemical evolution; the inferred bounds on lithium depletion from rotational mixing...

  6. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, D B; Roig, F; Jilinski, E; Drake, N A; Chavero, C; Silva, J V Sales

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, $alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code {\\sc moog}. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of $alpha$-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heav...

  7. Abundances In Very Metal Poor Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; McWilliam, A; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Wasserburg, G J; Ivans, I I; Dehn, M; Karlsson, T; Melendez, J; Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; William, Andrew Mc; Shectman, Steve; Thompson, Ian; Ivans, Inese; Dehn, Matthias; Karlsson, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the detailed composition of 28 extremely metal-poor dwarfs, 22 of which are from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, based on Keck Echelle spectra. Our sample has a median [Fe/H] of -2.7 dex, extends to -3.5 dex, and is somewhat less metal-poor than was expected from [Fe/H](HK,HES) determined from low resolution spectra. Our analysis supports the existence of a sharp decline in the distribution of halo stars with metallicity below [Fe/H] = -3.0 dex. So far no additional turnoff stars with [Fe/H]}<-3.5 have been identified in our follow up efforts. For the best observed elements between Mg and Ni, we find that the abundance ratios appear to have reached a plateau, i.e. [X/Fe] is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H], except for Cr, Mn and Co, which show trends of abundance ratios varying with [Fe/H]. These abundance ratios at low metallicity correspond approximately to the yield expected from Type II SN with a narrow range in mass and explosion parameters; high mass Type II SN progenitors are requir...

  8. Relative Abundance Measurements in Plumes and Interplumes

    CERN Document Server

    Guennou, Chloé; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) 10 eV). We have used EIS spectroscopic observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over an ~24 hour period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we have used a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We have used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we have estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These res...

  9. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  10. CH abundance gradient in TMC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Suutarinen, Aleksi; Harju, Jorma; Heikkilä, Arto; Hotzel, Stephan; Juvela, Mika; Millar, Tom J; Walsh, Catherina; Wouterloot, Jan Gerard Amos

    2011-01-01

    We observed the 9-cm Lambda-doubling lines of CH along the dense filament of TMC-1. The CH column densities were compared with the total H2 column densities derived using the 2MASS NIR data and previously published SCUBA maps and with OH column densities derived using previous observations with Effelsberg. We also modelled the chemical evolution of TMC-1 adopting physical conditions typical of dark clouds using the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry gas-phase reaction network to aid the interpretation of the observed OH/CH abundance ratios. The CH column density has a clear peak in the vicinity of the cyanopolyyne maximum of TMC-1. The fractional CH abundance relative to H2 increases steadily from the northwestern end of the filament where it lies around 1.0e-8, to the southeast where it reaches a value of 2.0e-8. The OH and CH column densities are well correlated, and we obtained OH/CH abundance ratios of ~ 16 - 20. These values are clearly larger than what has been measured recently in diffuse interstellar g...

  11. Chromium: NLTE abundances in metal-poor stars and nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We investigate statistical equilibrium of Cr in the atmospheres of late-type stars to show whether the systematic abundance discrepancy between Cr I and Cr II lines, as often encountered in the literature, is due to deviations from LTE. Furthermore, we attempt to interpret the NLTE trend of [Cr/Fe] with [Fe/H] using chemical evolution models for the solar neighborhood. Methods. NLTE calculations are performed for the model of Cr atom, comprising 340 levels and 6806 transitions in total. We make use of the quantum-mechanical photoionization cross-sections of Nahar (2009) and investigate sensitivity of the model to uncertain cross-sections for H I collisions. NLTE line formation is performed for the MAFAGS-ODF model atmospheres of the Sun and 10 metal-poor stars with -3.2 < [Fe/H] < -0.5, and abundances of Cr are derived by comparison of the synthetic and observed flux spectra. Results. We achieve good ionization equilibrium of Cr for the models with different stellar parameters, if inelastic collis...

  12. Chemical Abundances for Evolved Stars in M5: Lithium through Thorium

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David K; Bolte, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer A; Lucatello, Sara; Kraft, Robert P; Sneden, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We present analysis of high-resolution spectra of a sample of stars in the globular cluster M5 (NGC 5904). The sample includes stars from the red giant branch (seven stars), the red horizontal branch (two stars), and the asymptotic giant branch (eight stars), with effective temperatures ranging from 4000 K to 6100 K. Spectra were obtained with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope, with a wavelength coverage from 3700 to 7950 angstroms for the HB and AGB sample, and 5300 to 7600 angstroms for the majority of the RGB sample. We find offsets of some abundance ratios between the AGB and the RGB branches. However, these discrepancies appear to be due to analysis effects, and indicate that caution must be exerted when directly comparing abundance ratios between different evolutionary branches. We find the expected signatures of pollution from material enriched in the products of the hot hydrogen burning cycles such as the CNO, Ne-Na, and Mg-Al cycles, but no significant differences within these signatures...

  13. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids : On the iron abundance gradient around 10-12 kpc

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasle, B.; Francois, P.; Piersimoni, A.; Pedicelli, S.; Bono, G.; Laney, C. D.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Classical Cepheids can be adopted to trace the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk since their distances can be estimated with very high accuracy. Aims: Homogeneous iron abundance measurements for 33 Galactic Cepheids located in the outer disk together with accurate distance determinations based on near-infrared photometry are adopted to constrain the Galactic iron gradient beyond 10 kpc. Methods: Iron abundances were determined using high resolution Cepheid spectra collected wit...

  14. How accurately can the deuterium abundance be determined?

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F

    1997-01-01

    By using a Reverse Monte Carlo technique aimed at the inverse problem in the analysis of the H+D Ly-a absorption from QSO spectra we have estimated the physical parameters of the gas and the large-scale line of sight velocity structure towards Q1009+2956 at z = 2.504 (observations by Burles and Tytler, astro-ph/9603070). We show that for a precise evaluation of the column densities, the detailed velocity field structure is to be determined simultaneously. Our study of the z = 2.504 system yields D/H = (3.75 +/- 0.85)*10^{-5} (2sigma) which gives good agreement between the standard BBN predictions and observational constraints on extra-galactic 4He mass fraction and 7Li abundances in the atmospheres of population II (halo) starts. We conclude that the discordance of D/H with the light element abundances discussed in the literature is a consequence of the assumption of microturbulence (i.e. completely uncorrelated bulk motions) in the analysis of line profiles. The generalized model accounting for a finite corr...

  15. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  16. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  17. A Critical Assessment of Sea-Level Rise Projections for the Northeast United States in the 21st Century: Discrepancies and Their Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have projected the magnitudes of sea-level rise (SLR) in the Northeast United States for the 21th Century as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Among them are those by NOAA, the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The projected magnitudes of SLR from some of these sources are being used by policymakers to make difficult choices of investments on infrastructure that can be resilient against anticipated SLR. While there is no question that SLR will happen and resilience measures against SLR is very necessary, this presentation questions the rigor of science behind some of these projections that can have significant costs to the society. A critical assessment of available SLR projections for the northeast US and their discrepancies is presented. It is concluded from the current understanding of science that the mean values and upper bounds of SLR from NOAA, NPCC and COE are likely exaggerated for the region. It is also argued that scientists should treat the SLR projection as a separate problem from policies so that the best cost-benefit analysis can be performed in the decision process.

  18. Can occupancy-abundance models be used to monitor wolf abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecilia Latham

    Full Text Available Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy-abundance curves derived from "virtual" surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy-abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2 were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2. However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2. Virtually-derived occupancy-abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  19. Efficient estimation of abundance for patchily distributed populations via two-phase, adaptive sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Runge, J.P.; Barker, R.J.; Schofield, M.R.; Fonnesbeck, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many organisms are patchily distributed, with some patches occupied at high density, others at lower densities, and others not occupied. Estimation of overall abundance can be difficult and is inefficient via intensive approaches such as capture-mark-recapture (CMR) or distance sampling. We propose a two-phase sampling scheme and model in a Bayesian framework to estimate abundance for patchily distributed populations. In the first phase, occupancy is estimated by binomial detection samples taken on all selected sites, where selection may be of all sites available, or a random sample of sites. Detection can be by visual surveys, detection of sign, physical captures, or other approach. At the second phase, if a detection threshold is achieved, CMR or other intensive sampling is conducted via standard procedures (grids or webs) to estimate abundance. Detection and CMR data are then used in a joint likelihood to model probability of detection in the occupancy sample via an abundance-detection model. CMR modeling is used to estimate abundance for the abundance-detection relationship, which in turn is used to predict abundance at the remaining sites, where only detection data are collected. We present a full Bayesian modeling treatment of this problem, in which posterior inference on abundance and other parameters (detection, capture probability) is obtained under a variety of assumptions about spatial and individual sources of heterogeneity. We apply the approach to abundance estimation for two species of voles (Microtus spp.) in Montana, USA. We also use a simulation study to evaluate the frequentist properties of our procedure given known patterns in abundance and detection among sites as well as design criteria. For most population characteristics and designs considered, bias and mean-square error (MSE) were low, and coverage of true parameter values by Bayesian credibility intervals was near nominal. Our two-phase, adaptive approach allows efficient estimation of

  20. An accurate and self-consistent chemical abundance catalogue for the APOGEE/Kepler sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, K.; Masseron, T.; Jofré, P.; Gilmore, G.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The APOGEE survey has obtained high-resolution infrared spectra of more than 100 000 stars. Deriving chemical abundances patterns of these stars is paramount to piecing together the structure of the Milky Way. While the derived chemical abundances have been shown to be precise for most stars, some calibration problems have been reported, in particular for more metal-poor stars. Aims: In this paper, we aim to (1) re-determine the chemical abundances of the APOGEE+Kepler stellar sample (APOKASC) with an independent procedure, line list and line selection, and high-quality surface gravity information from asteroseismology; and (2) extend the abundance catalogue by including abundances that are not currently reported in the most recent APOGEE release (DR12). Methods: We fixed the Teff and log g to those determined using spectrophotometric and asteroseismic techniques, respectively. We made use of the Brussels Automatic Stellar Parameter (BACCHUS) code to derive the metallicity and broadening parameters for the APOKASC sample. In addition, we derived differential abundances with respect to Arcturus. Results: We have validated the BACCHUS code on APOGEE data using several well-known stars, and stars from open and globular clusters. We also provide the abundances of C, N, O, Mg, Ca, Si, Ti, S, Al, Na, Ni, Mn, Fe, K, and V for every star and line, and show the impact of line selection on the final abundances. Improvements have been made for some elements (e.g. Ti, Si, V). Additionally, we measure new abundance ratios not found in the current APOGEE release including P, Cu, Rb, and Yb, which are only upper limits at this time, as well as Co and Cr which are promising. Conclusions: In this paper, we present an independent analysis of the APOKASC sample and provide abundances of up to 21 elements. This catalogue can be used not only to study chemical abundance patterns of the Galaxy but also to train data driven spectral approaches which can improve the abundance