WorldWideScience

Sample records for abundance chemical

  1. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  2. Origin of Cosmic Chemical Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological N-body hydrodynamic computations following atomic and molecular chemistry (e$^-$, H, H$^+$, H$^-$, He, He$^+$, He$^{++}$, D, D$^+$, H$_2$, H$_2^+$, HD, HeH$^+$), gas cooling, star formation and production of heavy elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, etc.) from stars covering a range of mass and metallicity are used to explore the origin of several chemical abundance patterns and to study both the metal and molecular content during simulated galaxy assembly. The resulting trends show a remarkable similarity to up-to-date observations of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers at redshift $z\\gtrsim 2$. These exhibit a transient nature and represent collapsing gaseous structures captured while cooling is becoming effective in lowering the temperature below $\\sim 10^4\\,\\rm K$, before they are disrupted by episodes of star formation or tidal effects. Our theoretical results agree with the available data for typical elemental ratios, such as [C/O], [Si/Fe], [O/Fe], [Si/O], [Fe/H], [O/...

  3. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  4. Chemical Fractionation and Abundances in Coronal Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, J J

    2003-01-01

    Much of modern astrophysics is grounded on the observed chemical compositions of stars and the diffuse plasma that pervades the space between stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. X-ray and EUV spectra of the hot plasma in the outer atmospheres of stars have demonstrated that these environments are subject to chemical fractionation in which the abundances of elements can be enhanced and depleted by an order of magnitude or more. These coronal abundance anomalies are discussed and some of the physical mechanisms that might be responsible for producing them are examined. It is argued that coronal abundances can provide important new diagnostics on physical processes at work in solar and stellar coronae. It seems likely that other hot astrophysical plasmas will be subject to similar effects.

  5. Detailed Chemical Abundances of Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, R A

    2005-01-01

    We outline a method to measure the detailed chemical composition of extragalactic (unresolved) globular clusters (GCs) from echelle spectra of their integrated light. Our goal is to use this method to measure abundance patterns of GCs in distant spiral and elliptical galaxies to constrain their formation histories. To develop this technique we have obtained a ``training set'' of integrated-light spectra of resolved GCs in the Milky Way and LMC by scanning across the clusters during exposures. Our training set also include spectra of individual stars in those GCs from which abundances can be obtained in the normal way to provide a check on our integrated-light results. We present here the preliminary integrated-light analysis of one GC in our training set, NGC 104 (47 Tuc), and outline some of the techniques utilized and problems encountered in that analysis.

  6. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, D B; Roig, F; Jilinski, E; Drake, N A; Chavero, C; Silva, J V Sales

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, $alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code {\\sc moog}. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of $alpha$-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heav...

  7. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH93JR, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  8. Chemical Abundances of Giants in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Raffaele G.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; D'Orazi, Valentina; Lucatello, Sara

    A large fraction of stars form in clusters. According to a widespread paradigma, stellar clusters are prototypes of single stellar populations. According to this concept, they formed on a very short time scale, and all their stars share the same chemical composition. Recently it has been understood that massive stellar clusters (the globular clusters) rather host various stellar populations, characterized by different chemical composition: these stellar populations have also slightly different ages, stars of the second generations being formed from the ejecta of part of those of an earlier one. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that the efficiency of the process is quite low: many more stars formed within this process than currently present in the clusters. This implies that a significant, perhaps even dominant fraction of the ancient population of galaxies formed within the episodes that lead to formation the globular clusters.

  9. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories Survey (OCCASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Pancino, E.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Murabito, S.; del Pino, A.; Aparicio, A.; Gallart, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 OCs older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk using OCs as tracers.

  10. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO)

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R; Balaguer-Núñez, L; Jordi, C; Pancino, E; Allende-Prieto, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Mártinez-Vázquez, C E; Murabito, S; del Pino, A; Aparicio, A; Gallart, C; Recio-Blanco, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 open clusters older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc using open clusters as tracers.

  11. The Detailed Chemical Abundance Patterns of M31 Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; Cohen, J

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances for $>$20 elements in $\\sim$30 globular clusters in M31. These results have been obtained using high resolution ($\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda\\sim$24,000) spectra of their integrated light and analyzed using our original method. The globular clusters have galactocentric radii between 2.5 kpc and 117 kpc, and therefore provide abundance patterns for different phases of galaxy formation recorded in the inner and outer halo of M31. We find that the clusters in our survey have a range in metallicity of $-2.2$20 kpc have a small range in abundance of [Fe/H]$=-1.6 \\pm 0.10$. We also measure abundances of alpha, r- and s-process elements. These results constitute the first abundance pattern constraints for old populations in M31 that are comparable to those known for the Milky Way halo.

  12. Chemical Cartography in the Milky Way with SDSS/APOGEE: Multi-element abundances and abundance ratio variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Hasselquist, Sten; Johnson, Jennifer; Bird, Jonathan C.; Majewski, Steven R.; SDSS/APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The SDSS/APOGEE project is measuring abundances of multiple elements for several hundred thousand stars across the Milky Way. These allow the mapping of abundances and abundance ratio variations. Results will be presented for multiple abundance ratios across of the Galactic disk. The interpretation of mean abundance maps is complicated by variations in star formation history across the disk and by changing abundance ratios that result from an overall metallicity gradient. Variations in chemical abundance sequences, however, show the potential for using abundance ratios to track the movement of stars through the disk, and provide key information for constraining Galaxy formation and chemical evolution models.

  13. On the influence of the environment on galactic chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Mattsson, L.

    2017-02-01

    We examine the influence of the environment on the chemical abundances of late-type galaxies with masses of 109.1-1011 M⊙ using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the environmental influence on galactic chemical abundances is strongest for galaxies with masses of 109.1-109.6 M⊙. The galaxies in the densest environments may exceed the average oxygen abundances by about ˜0.05 dex (the median value of the overabundances for 101 galaxies in the densest environments) and show higher abundances in nitrogen by about ˜0.1. The abundance excess decreases with increasing galaxy mass and with decreasing environmental density. Since only a small fraction of late-type galaxies is located in high-density environments, these galaxies do not have a significant influence on the general X/H-M relation. The metallicity-mass relations for isolated galaxies and for galaxies with neighbours are very similar. The mean shift of non-isolated galaxies around the metallicity-mass relation traced by the isolated galaxies is less than ˜0.01 dex for oxygen and less than ˜0.02 dex for nitrogen. The scatter in the galactic chemical abundances is large for any number of neighbour galaxies (at any environmental density), i.e. galaxies with both enhanced and reduced abundances can be found at any environmental density. This suggests that environmental effects do not play a key role in evolution of late-type galaxies, as was also concluded in some of the previous studies.

  14. Chemical Abundances of the S star GZ Peg

    CERN Document Server

    Pompéia, Luciana

    2009-01-01

    The chemical compositions of stars from the Asymptotic Giant Branch are still poorly known due to the low temperatures of their atmospheres and therefore the presence of many molecular transitions hampering the analysis of atomic lines. One way to overcome this difficulty is by the study of lines in regions free from molecular contamination. We have chosen some of those regions to study the chemical abundance of the S-type star GZ Peg. Stellar parameters are derived from spectroscopic analysis and a metallicity of -0.77 dex is found. Chemical abundances of 8 elements are reported and an enhancement of s-process elements is inferred, typical to that of an S-type star.

  15. Chemical abundances of stars with brown-dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, D Mata; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Sahlmann, J; Udry, S

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that stars with giant planets are on average more metal-rich than stars without giant planets, whereas stars with detected low-mass planets do not need to be metal-rich. With the aim of studying the weak boundary that separates giant planets and brown dwarfs (BDs) and their formation mechanism, we analyze the spectra of a sample of stars with already confirmed BD companions both by radial velocity and astrometry. We employ standard and automatic tools to perform an EW-based analysis and to derive chemical abundances from CORALIE spectra of stars with BD companions. We compare these abundances with those of stars without detected planets and with low-mass and giant-mass planets. We find that stars with BDs do not have metallicities and chemical abundances similar to those of giant-planet hosts but they resemble the composition of stars with low-mass planets. The distribution of mean abundances of $\\alpha$-elements and iron peak elements of stars with BDs exhibit a peak at about solar abundance...

  16. On the influence of the environment on galactic chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Pilyugin, L S; Zinchenko, I A; Nefedyev, Y A; Mattsson, L

    2016-01-01

    We examine the influence of the environment on the chemical abundances of late-type galaxies with masses of 10^9.1 M_sun - 10^11 M_sun using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS). We find that the environmental influence on galactic chemical abundances is strongest for galaxies with masses of 10^9.1 M_sun to 10^9.6 Msun. The galaxies in the densest environments may exceed the average oxygen abundances by about 0.05 dex (the median value of the overabundances for 101 galaxies in the densest environments) and show higher abundances in nitrogen by about 0.1. The abundance excess decreases with increasing galaxy mass and with decreasing environmental density. Since only a small fraction of late-type galaxies is located in high-density environments these galaxies do not have a significant influence on the general X/H - M relation. The metallicity - mass relations for isolated galaxies and for galaxies with neighbors are very similar. The mean shift of non-isolated galaxies around the metallicity - mass rela...

  17. Stellar chemical abundances: in pursuit of the highest achievable precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meléndez, Jorge; Leite, Paulo [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Ramírez, Ivan [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1206 (United States); Asplund, Martin, E-mail: mbedell@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epochs for the two spectra has a much smaller effect (∼0.007 dex). The asteroid used to obtain the solar standard also has a negligible effect (∼0.006 dex). Assuming that systematic errors from the stellar model atmospheres have been minimized, as in the case of solar twins, we confirm that differential chemical abundances can be obtained at sub-0.01 dex precision with due care in the observations, data reduction, and abundance analysis.

  18. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1)

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connell, Julia E; Frinchaboy, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high resolution (R $\\sim$60,000), high signal-to-noise ratio ($\\langle$SNR$\\rangle\\sim$100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1m telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 $\\leq$ [Fe/H] $\\leq$ 0.06 dex ($\\sigma$= 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 & W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only ir...

  19. Chemical abundances from planetary nebulae in local spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, M G

    2015-01-01

    While the chemical abudances observed in bright planetary nebulae in local spiral galaxies are less varied than their counterparts in dwarfs, they provide new insight. Their helium abundances are typically enriched by less than 50\\% compared to the primordial abundance. Nitrogen abundances always show some level of secondary enrichment, but the absolute enrichment is not extreme. In particular, type I PNe are rare among the bright PNe in local spirals. The oxygen and neon abundances are very well correlated and follow the relation between these abundances observed in star-forming galaxies, implying that either the progenitor stars of these PNe modify neither abundance substantially or that they modify both to maintain the ratio (not predicted by theory). According to theory, these results imply that the progenitor stars of bright PNe in local spirals have masses of about $2\\,\\mathrm M_{\\odot}$ or less. If so, the progenitors of these PNe have substantial lifetimes that allow us to use them to study the recent...

  20. Baade's window and APOGEE. Metallicities, ages, and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, M.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; García Pérez, A. E.; Jönsson, H.; Hayden, M.; Nandakumar, G.; Cunha, K.; Allende Prieto, C.; Holtzman, J. A.; Beers, T. C.; Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Carrera, R.; Cohen, R. E.; Geisler, D.; Hearty, F. R.; Fernandez-Tricado, J. G.; Maraston, C.; Minnitti, D.; Nitschelm, C.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schneider, D. P.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Baade's window (BW) is one of the most observed Galactic bulge fields in terms of chemical abundances. Owing to its low and homogeneous interstellar absorption it is considered the perfect calibration field for Galactic bulge studies. Aims: In the era of large spectroscopic surveys, calibration fields such as BW are necessary for cross calibrating the stellar parameters and individual abundances of the APOGEE survey. Methods: We use the APOGEE BW stars to derive the metallicity distribution function (MDF) and individual abundances for α- and iron-peak elements of the APOGEE ASPCAP pipeline (DR13), as well as the age distribution for stars in BW. Results: We determine the MDF of APOGEE stars in BW and find a remarkable agreement with that of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). Both exhibit a clear bimodal distribution. We also find that the Mg-metallicity planes of the two surveys agree well, except for the metal-rich part ([Fe/H] > 0.1), where APOGEE finds systematically higher Mg abundances with respect to the GES. The ages based on the [C/N] ratio reveal a bimodal age distribution, with a major old population at 10 Gyr, with a decreasing tail towards younger stars. A comparison of stellar parameters determined by APOGEE and those determined by other sources reveals detectable systematic offsets, in particular for spectroscopic surface gravity estimates. In general, we find a good agreement between individual abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from APOGEE with that of literature values. Conclusions: We have shown that in general APOGEE data show a good agreement in terms of MDF and individual chemical abundances with respect to literature works. Using the [C/N] ratio we found a significant fraction of young stars in BW.

  1. ASPCAP: The Apogee Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Ana E García; Holtzman, Jon A; Shetrone, Matthew; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Cunha, Katia; García-Hernández, D A; Johnson, Jennifer A; Majewski, Steven R; Nidever, David L; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Shane, Neville; Smith, Verne V; Sobeck, Jennifer; Troup, Nicholas; Zamora, Olga; Bovy, Jo; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Feuillet, Diane; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Hayden, Michael R; Hearty, Fred R; Nguyen, Duy C; O'Connell, Robert W; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Weinberg, David H; Wilson, John C; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has built the largest moderately high-resolution (R=22, 500) spectroscopic map of the stars across the Milky Way, and including dust-obscured areas. The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) is the software developed for the automated analysis of these spectra. ASPCAP determines atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances from observed spectra by comparing observed spectra to libraries of theoretical spectra, using chi-2 minimization in a multidimensional parameter space. The package consists of a fortran90 code that does the actual minimization, and a wrapper IDL code for book-keeping and data handling. This paper explains in detail the ASPCAP components and functionality, and presents results from a number of tests designed to check its performance. ASPCAP provides stellar effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities precise to 2%, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, for most APOGEE stars, wh...

  2. Chemical abundances of distant extremely metal-poor unevolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, M; Hernández, J I González; Behara, N T

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study is to determine the chemical composition of a sample of 16 candidate Extremely Metal-Poor (EMP) dwarf stars, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). There are two main purposes: in the first place to verify the reliability of the metallicity estimates derived from the SDSS spectra; in the second place to see if the abundance trends found for the brighter nearer stars studied previously also hold for this sample of fainter, more distant stars. Methods: We used the UVES at the VLT to obtain high-resolution spectra of the programme stars. The abundances were determined by an automatic analysis with the MyGIsFOS code, with the exception of lithium, for which the abundances were determined from the measured equivalent widths of the Li I resonance doublet. Results: All candidates are confirmed to be EMP stars, with [Fe/H]<= -3.0. The chemical composition of the sample of stars is similar to that of brighter and nearer samples. We measured the lithium abundance for 12 st...

  3. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Shetrone, Matthew; Smith, Verne; Holtzman, Jon; McWilliam, Andrew; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Beers, Timothy C.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Tang, Baitian; Tissera, Patricia B.; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Anguiano, Borja; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Carigi, Leticia; Delgado Inglada, Gloria; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. A.; Geisler, Doug; Minniti, Dante; Placco, Vinicius M.; Schultheis, Mathias; Sobeck, Jennifer; Villanova, Sandro

    2017-08-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity of measuring elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze thechemical-abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances, and it is the first time that C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ -0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that the Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light initial mass function, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the interstellar medium with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical-evolution model, flexCE, to further support our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud could also have formed according to a top-light initial mass function.

  4. Stellar Abundance and Galactic Chemical Evolution through LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Zhao; Yu-Qin Chen; Jian-RongShi; Yan-Chun Liang; Jin-Liang Hou; Li Chen; Hua-Wei Zhang; Ai-Gen Li

    2006-01-01

    A project of a spectroscopic survey of Galactic structure and evolution with a Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is presented. The spectroscopic survey consists of two observational modes for various targets in our Galaxy. One is a major survey of the Milky Way aimed at a systematic study of the stellar abundance and Galactic chemical evolution through low resolution (R=1000 - 2000) spectroscopy.Another is a follow-up observation with medium resolution (R=10000) spectrographs aimed at detailed studies of the selected stars with different chemical composition, kinematicsand dynamics.

  5. Fluorine abundances and the puzzle of globular cluster chemical history

    CERN Document Server

    de Laverny, P

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of fluorine in a few Galactic globular clusters is known to strongly vary from star-to-star. These unexpected chemical properties are an additional confirmation of the chemical inhomogeneities already found in several GC, and probably caused by the first generations of stars formed in these systems. The aim of this article is to complement our understanding of the F-behaviour in GC stars and to look for new constraints on the formation histories of their multiple stellar populations. We have collected near-IR spectra of 15 RGB stars belonging to GC spanning a wide range of metallicity: 47 Tuc, M4, NGC6397 and M30. F, Na and Fe abundances have been estimated by spectral synthesis. No anticorrelation between F and Na abundances are found for the most metal-rich cluster of the sample (47 Tuc). In this GC, RGB stars indeed exhibit rather small differences in [F/Fe] unlike the larger ones found for the [Na/Fe] ratios. This reveals a rather inhomogeneous stellar system and a complex chemical evolution...

  6. ASPCAP: The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pérez, Ana E.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Holtzman, Jon A.; Shetrone, Matthew; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Cunha, Katia; García-Hernández, D. A.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Shane, Neville; Smith, Verne V.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Troup, Nicholas; Zamora, Olga; Weinberg, David H.; Bovy, Jo; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Feuillet, Diane; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hearty, Fred R.; Nguyen, Duy C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2016-06-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has built the largest moderately high-resolution (R ≈ 22,500) spectroscopic map of the stars across the Milky Way, and including dust-obscured areas. The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) is the software developed for the automated analysis of these spectra. ASPCAP determines atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances from observed spectra by comparing observed spectra to libraries of theoretical spectra, using χ2 minimization in a multidimensional parameter space. The package consists of a fortran90 code that does the actual minimization and a wrapper IDL code for book-keeping and data handling. This paper explains in detail the ASPCAP components and functionality, and presents results from a number of tests designed to check its performance. ASPCAP provides stellar effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities precise to 2%, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, for most APOGEE stars, which are predominantly giants. It also provides abundances for up to 15 chemical elements with various levels of precision, typically under 0.1 dex. The final data release (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III contains an APOGEE database of more than 150,000 stars. ASPCAP development continues in the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 survey.

  7. Chempy: A flexible chemical evolution model for abundance fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybizki, J.; Just, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Fouesneau, M.

    2017-02-01

    Chempy models Galactic chemical evolution (GCE); it is a parametrized open one-zone model within a Bayesian framework. A Chempy model is specified by a set of 5-10 parameters that describe the effective galaxy evolution along with the stellar and star-formation physics: e.g. the star-formation history (SFH), the feedback efficiency, the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and the incidence of supernova of type Ia (SN Ia). Chempy can sample the posterior probability distribution in the full model parameter space and test data-model matches for different nucleosynthetic yield sets, performing essentially as a chemical evolution fitting tool. Chempy can be used to confront predictions from stellar nucleosynthesis with complex abundance data sets and to refine the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of stellar systems.

  8. Chemical abundances and kinematics of TYC 5619-109-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C. B.; Smith, V. V.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F.; Hasselquist, S.; Cunha, K.; Jilinski, E.

    2017-07-01

    Previous determinations of chemical abundances of the metal-poor red giant TYC 5619-109-1, derived via high-resolution near-infrared spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey, indicate that this star is strongly enriched in the elements N and Al. Here, we obtain and analyse high-resolution optical spectra of TYC 5619-109-1 to verify these large N and Al overabundances and to measure abundances of a wider range of chemical elements. Our analysis confirms the N- and Al-rich nature of this star, and shows that the abundances of the s-process elements are also strongly enhanced, particularly in the heavy second s-process peak elements (Ba, La, Ce, Nd). Lighter s-process elements (Y, Zr) show smaller overabundances, and the ratio of the light-to-heavy s-process elements is consistent with the 13C(α, n)16O neutron source operating in a low-metallicity environment. The lack of Tc i lines and the abundance of Nb compared to Zr indicate that this red giant is probably not a thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star. Mass transfer from a former s-process-rich TP-AGB companion may produce the observed overabundances, but our radial velocity analysis provides no evidence that TYC 5619-109-1 is a binary with a white dwarf companion. We suggest that TYC 5619-109-1 formed from gas already strongly enriched in s-process elements, as found in many dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. A dynamical analysis reveals that there is only a small probability that TYC 5619-109-1 is an escaped member of a globular cluster, and in this case the most likely candidate would be ω Cen.

  9. Chemical abundances of blue straggler stars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisi, L

    2014-01-01

    By using the high resolution spectrograph FLAMES@VLT we performed the first systematic campaign devoted to measure chemical abundances of blue straggler stars (BSSs). These stars, whose existence is not predicted by the canonical stellar evolutionary theory, are likely the product of the interactions between stars in the dense environment of Globular Clusters. Two main scenarios for BSS formation (mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions) have been proposed and hydrodynamical simulations predict different chemical patterns in the two cases, in particular C and O depletion for mass transfer BSSs. In this contribution, the main results for BSS samples in 6 Globular Clusters and their interpretation in terms of BSS formation processes are discussed. For the first time, evidence of radiative levitation in the shallow envelopes of BSSs hotter than $\\sim$8000 K has been found. C and O depletion for some BSSs has been detected in 47 Tucanae, M30 and $\\omega$ Centauri thus suggesting a mass transfer ori...

  10. Stellar Chemical Abundances: In Pursuit of the Highest Achievable Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Bedell, M; Bean, J; Ramirez, I; Leite, P; Asplund, M

    2014-01-01

    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epoc...

  11. Chemical abundances in Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Spitzer spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2014-01-01

    We present new low-resolution (R~800) optical spectra of 22 Galactic PNe with Spitzer spectra. These data are combined with recent optical spectroscopic data available in the literature to construct representative samples of compact (and presumably young) Galactic disc and bulge PNe with Spitzer spectra. Attending to the nature of the dust features seen in their Spitzer spectra, Galactic disc and bulge PNe are classified according to four major dust types (oxygen chemistry or OC, carbon chemistry or CC, double chemistry or DC, featureless or F) and subtypes (amorphous and crystalline, and aliphatic and aromatic). Nebular gas abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl and Ar, as well as plasma parameters (e.g. Ne, Te) are homogeneously derived and we study the median chemical abundances and nebular properties in Galactic disc and bulge PNe depending on their Spitzer dust types and subtypes. A comparison of the derived median abundance patterns with AGB nucleosynthesis predictions show mainly that: i) DC PNe, both with ...

  12. Chempy: A flexible chemical evolution model for abundance fitting. Do the Sun's abundances alone constrain chemical evolution models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybizki, Jan; Just, Andreas; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2017-09-01

    Elemental abundances of stars are the result of the complex enrichment history of their galaxy. Interpretation of observed abundances requires flexible modeling tools to explore and quantify the information about Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) stored in such data. Here we present Chempy, a newly developed code for GCE modeling, representing a parametrized open one-zone model within a Bayesian framework. A Chempy model is specified by a set of five to ten parameters that describe the effective galaxy evolution along with the stellar and star-formation physics: for example, the star-formation history (SFH), the feedback efficiency, the stellar initial mass function (IMF), and the incidence of supernova of type Ia (SN Ia). Unlike established approaches, Chempy can sample the posterior probability distribution in the full model parameter space and test data-model matches for different nucleosynthetic yield sets. It is essentially a chemical evolution fitting tool. We straightforwardly extend Chempy to a multi-zone scheme. As an illustrative application, we show that interesting parameter constraints result from only the ages and elemental abundances of the Sun, Arcturus, and the present-day interstellar medium (ISM). For the first time, we use such information to infer the IMF parameter via GCE modeling, where we properly marginalize over nuisance parameters and account for different yield sets. We find that 11.6+ 2.1-1.6% of the IMF explodes as core-collapse supernova (CC-SN), compatible with Salpeter (1955, ApJ, 121, 161). We also constrain the incidence of SN Ia per 103M⊙ to 0.5-1.4. At the same time, this Chempy application shows persistent discrepancies between predicted and observed abundances for some elements, irrespective of the chosen yield set. These cannot be remedied by any variations of Chempy's parameters and could be an indication of missing nucleosynthetic channels. Chempy could be a powerful tool to confront predictions from stellar

  13. Chemical tagging can work: Identification of stellar phase-space structures purely by chemical-abundance similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, David W; Ness, Melissa; Rix, Hans-Walter; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Chemical tagging promises to use detailed abundance measurements to identify spatially separated stars that were in fact born together (in the same molecular cloud), long ago. This idea has not previously yielded scientific successes, probably because of the noise and incompleteness in chemical-abundance measurements. However, we have succeeded in substantially improving spectroscopic measurements with The Cannon, which has delivered 15 individual abundances for 100,000 stars observed as part of the APOGEE spectroscopic survey, with precisions around 0.04 dex. We test the chemical-tagging hypothesis by looking at clusters in abundance space and confirming that they are clustered in phase space. We identify (by the k-means algorithm) overdensities of stars in the 15-dimensional chemical-abundance space delivered by The Cannon, and plot the associated stars in phase space. We use only abundance-space information (no positional information) to identify stellar groups. We find that clusters in abundance space are...

  14. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae I: Fundamental parameters and chemical abundance patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Thygesen, A O; Andrievsky, S; Korotin, S; Yong, D; Zaggia, S; Ludwig, H -G; Collet, R; Asplund, M; D'Antona, F; Meléndez, J; D'Ercole, A

    2014-01-01

    Context: The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is of key importance to constrain the different candidates for intra-cluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a large range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D LTE atmospheric models together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = $-0.78\\pm0.07$ and $[\\alpha/{\\rm Fe}]=0.34\\pm0.03$ in...

  15. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Nordlander, T.; Heiter, U.; Jofré, P.; Masseron, T.; Casamiquela, L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Bhat, S. S.; Casey, A. R.; Meléndez, J.; Ramírez, I.

    2017-03-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  16. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P; Masseron, T; Casamiquela, L; Tabernero, H M; Bhat, S S; Casey, A R; Meléndez, J; Ramírez, I

    2016-01-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  17. Chemical Abundance Patterns and the Early Environment of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Corlies, Lauren; Tumlinson, Jason; Bryan, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z=10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can ...

  18. Chemical Tagging Can Work: Identification of Stellar Phase-space Structures Purely by Chemical-abundance Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David W.; Casey, Andrew R.; Ness, Melissa; Rix, Hans-Walter; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hasselquist, Sten; Ho, Anna Y. Q.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Martell, Sarah L.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David L.; Shetrone, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Chemical tagging promises to use detailed abundance measurements to identify spatially separated stars that were, in fact, born together (in the same molecular cloud) long ago. This idea has not yielded much practical success, presumably because of the noise and incompleteness in chemical-abundance measurements. We have succeeded in substantially improving spectroscopic measurements with The Cannon, which has now delivered 15 individual abundances for ∼ {10}5 stars observed as part of the APOGEE spectroscopic survey, with precisions around 0.04 dex. We test the chemical-tagging hypothesis by looking at clusters in abundance space and confirming that they are clustered in phase space. We identify (by the k-means algorithm) overdensities of stars in the 15-dimensional chemical-abundance space delivered by The Cannon, and plot the associated stars in phase space. We use only abundance-space information (no positional information) to identify stellar groups. We find that clusters in abundance space are indeed clusters in phase space, and we recover some known phase-space clusters and find other interesting structures. This is the first-ever project to identify phase-space structures at the survey-scale by blind search purely in abundance space; it verifies the precision of the abundance measurements delivered by The Cannon the prospects for future data sets appear very good.

  19. Chemical abundances of giant stars in the Crater stellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Zaggia, S; François, P; Sbordone, L; Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A

    2015-01-01

    We obtained spectra for two giants of Crater (Crater J113613-105227 and Crater J113615-105244) using X-Shooter at the VLT. The spectra have been analysed with the MyGIsFoS code using a grid of synthetic spectra computed from one dimensional, Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres. Effective temperature and surface gravity have been derived from photometry measured from images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. The radial velocities are 144.3+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113613-105227 and and 134.1+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113615-105244. The metallicities are [Fe/H]=-1.73 and [Fe/H]=-1.67, respectively. Beside the iron abundance we could determine abundances for nine elements: Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni and Ba. For Na and Ba we took into account deviations from LTE, since the corrections are significant. The abundance ratios are similar in the two stars and resemble those of Galactic stars of the same metallicity. On the deep photometric images we could detect several stars that lie to the blue of t...

  20. Chemical Abundances for Seven Giant Stars in M68 (NGC 4590) A Globular Cluster with Abnormal Silicon and Titanium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J W; Habgood, M J; Lee, Jae-Woo; Carney, Bruce W.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance study of seven giant stars in M68 including six red giants and one post-AGB star. We find significant differences in the gravities determined using photometry and those obtained from ionization balance, which suggests that non-LTE effects are important for these low-gravity, metal-poor stars. We adopt an iron abundance using photometric gravities and Fe II lines to minimize those effects, finding [Fe/H] = -2.16 +/- 0.02. For element-to-iron ratios,we rely on neutral lines vs. Fe I and ionized lines vs. FeII (except for [O/Fe]) to also minimize non-LTE effects. We find variations in the abundances of sodium among the program stars. However, there is no correlation (or anti-correlation) with the oxygen abundances. Further, the post-AGB star has a normal (low) abundance of sodium. Both of these facts add further support to the idea that the variations seen among some light elements within individual globular clusters arises from primordial variations, and not from deep mi...

  1. Chemical abundances of solar neighborhood RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pancino, E; Romano, D; Cacciari, C; Mucciarelli, A; Clementini, G

    2014-01-01

    We have analysed a sample of 18 RR Lyrae stars (17 fundamental-mode - RRab - and one first overtone - RRc) and three Population II Cepheids (two BL Her stars and one W Vir star), for which high-resolution (R $\\ge$30000), high signal-to-noise (S/N$\\ge$30) spectra were obtained with either SARG at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (La Palma, Spain) or UVES at the ESO Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile). Archival data were also analyzed for a few stars, sampling $\\gtrsim$3 phases for each star. We obtained atmospheric parameters (T$_{\\rm{eff}}$, log$g$, v$_{\\rm{t}}$, and [M/H]) and abundances of several iron-peak and $\\alpha$-elements (Fe, Cr, Ni, Mg, Ca, Si, and Ti) for different pulsational phases, obtaining $$=+0.31$\\pm$0.19 dex over the entire sample covering -2.2$<$[Fe/H]$<$-1.1 dex. We find that silicon is indeed extremely sensitive to the phase, as reported by previous authors, and cannot be reliably determined. Apart from this, metallicities and abundance ratios are consistently determined, regard...

  2. An accurate and self-consistent chemical abundance catalogue for the APOGEE/Kepler sample

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Keith; Jofre, Paula; Gilmore, Gerry; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Context. The APOGEE survey has obtained high-resolution infrared spectra of more than 100,000 stars. Deriving chemical abundances patterns of these stars is paramount to piecing together the structure of the Milky Way. While the derived chemical abundances have been shown to be precise for most stars, some calibration problems have been reported, in particular for more metal- poor stars. Aims. In this paper, we aim to (1) re-determine the chemical abundances of the APOGEE+Kepler stellar sample (APOKASC) with an independent procedure, line list and line selection, and high quality surface gravity information from astroseismology, and (2) extend the abundance catalogue by including abundances that are not currently reported in the most recent APOGEE release (DR12). Methods. We fixed the Teff and log g to those determined using spectrophotometric and asteroseismic techniques, respectively. We made use of the Brussels Automatic Stellar Parameter (BACCHUS) code to derive the metallicity and broadening parameters f...

  3. Chemical Abundances of the magnetic CP star HD 168733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, A.; López-García, Z.

    2009-04-01

    A detailed abundance analysis has been carried out for the magnetic CP star HD 168733 using high-resolution spectra obtained with the EBASIM echelle spectrograph at the 2.1 m CASLEO telescope in Argentina. The spectral coverage is 382-700 nm. It is neither a silicon nor a mercury-manganese star. Compared to the Sun, C and N are slightly overabundant, while Mg and S are deficient, Si is normal and P and Cl are overabundant. The iron peak elements Sc, Ti, Cr and Fe are overabundant. Lines of Ti III and Fe III are also identified. HD 168733 shows a great overabundance of Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, Xe, Pt, Hg and of some rare earths.

  4. Toward a Comprehensive Sample of VLM Chemical Abundances with APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganze, Christian; Birky, Jessica L.; Theissen, Christopher; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Teske, Johanna K.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Bird, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of very low-mass (VLM, M R~ 22,500 spectrograph mounted on the 2.5 m SDSS telescope that has provided near-infrared (H-band, 1.5-1.7 micron) spectra of more than 150,000 stars down to a magnitude of H=12.2. The reduction pipeline produces precise, model-dependent determinations for temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and individual abundances for the majority of these targets. However, below Teff ≈ 3000 K, this pipeline does not produce reliable parameters. We have identified a sample of 46 M3-L5 dwarfs observed by this survey at distances of 5-30 pc by cross-matching the APOGEE catalog to catalogs of known late-M, L, T dwarfs. We characterize this sample using existing photometry and spectroscopy from other surveys, and examine the properties of their APOGEE spectra, including correlating atomic equivalent width measurements to parameters inferred from model fits of broad-band, low-resolution data and defining empirical trends . We discuss a potential sample for further APOGEE measurements that would diversify these trends and allow the use of APOGEE data to examine kinematics, rotation and multiplicity across the hydrogen-burning mass limit.This work is supported the SDSS Faculty and Student (FAST) initiative.

  5. Taxonomic and chemical assessment of exceptionally abundant rock mine biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Tomczyk-Żak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background An exceptionally thick biofilm covers walls of ancient gold and arsenic Złoty Stok mine (Poland in the apparent absence of organic sources of energy. Methods and Results We have characterized this microbial community using culture-dependent and independent methods. We sequenced amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene obtained using generic primers and additional primers targeted at Archaea and Actinobacteria separately. Also, we have cultured numerous isolates from the biofilm on different media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We discovered very high biodiversity, and no single taxonomic group was dominant. The majority of almost 4,000 OTUs were classified above genus level indicating presence of novel species. Elemental analysis, performed using SEM-EDS and X-ray, of biofilm samples showed that carbon, sulphur and oxygen were not evenly distributed in the biofilm and that their presence is highly correlated. However, the distribution of arsenic and iron was more flat, and numerous intrusions of elemental silver and platinum were noted, indicating that microorganisms play a key role in releasing these elements from the rock. Conclusions Altogether, the picture obtained throughout this study shows a very rich, complex and interdependent system of rock biofilm. The chemical heterogeneity of biofilm is a likely explanation as to why this oligotrophic environment is capable of supporting such high microbial diversity.

  6. An accurate and self-consistent chemical abundance catalogue for the APOGEE/Kepler sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, K.; Masseron, T.; Jofré, P.; Gilmore, G.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The APOGEE survey has obtained high-resolution infrared spectra of more than 100 000 stars. Deriving chemical abundances patterns of these stars is paramount to piecing together the structure of the Milky Way. While the derived chemical abundances have been shown to be precise for most stars, some calibration problems have been reported, in particular for more metal-poor stars. Aims: In this paper, we aim to (1) re-determine the chemical abundances of the APOGEE+Kepler stellar sample (APOKASC) with an independent procedure, line list and line selection, and high-quality surface gravity information from asteroseismology; and (2) extend the abundance catalogue by including abundances that are not currently reported in the most recent APOGEE release (DR12). Methods: We fixed the Teff and log g to those determined using spectrophotometric and asteroseismic techniques, respectively. We made use of the Brussels Automatic Stellar Parameter (BACCHUS) code to derive the metallicity and broadening parameters for the APOKASC sample. In addition, we derived differential abundances with respect to Arcturus. Results: We have validated the BACCHUS code on APOGEE data using several well-known stars, and stars from open and globular clusters. We also provide the abundances of C, N, O, Mg, Ca, Si, Ti, S, Al, Na, Ni, Mn, Fe, K, and V for every star and line, and show the impact of line selection on the final abundances. Improvements have been made for some elements (e.g. Ti, Si, V). Additionally, we measure new abundance ratios not found in the current APOGEE release including P, Cu, Rb, and Yb, which are only upper limits at this time, as well as Co and Cr which are promising. Conclusions: In this paper, we present an independent analysis of the APOKASC sample and provide abundances of up to 21 elements. This catalogue can be used not only to study chemical abundance patterns of the Galaxy but also to train data driven spectral approaches which can improve the abundance

  7. Chemical homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen abundances of B stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanz T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994. We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O = 8.78 and a small dispersion of ±0.05, dex which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994: A(O = 8.72 ± 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion association compares well with other results for the oxygen abundance in the solar neighborhood.

  8. The population of planetary nebulae near the Galactic Centre: chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavichia, O.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.; Mollá, M.

    2017-06-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) constitute an important tool to study the chemical evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, probing the nucleosynthesis processes, abundance gradients and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. In particular, Galactic bulge PNe (GBPNe) have been extensively used in the literature to study the chemical properties of this Galactic structure. However, the presently available GBPN chemical composition studies are strongly biased, since they were focused on brighter objects, predominantly located in Galactic regions of low interstellar reddening. In this work, we report physical parameters and abundances derived for a sample of 17 high-extinction PNe located in the inner 2° of the Galactic bulge, based on low-dispersion spectroscopy secured at the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope using the Goodman spectrograph. The new data allow us to extend our data base including faint objects, providing chemical compositions for PNe located in this region of the bulge and an estimation for the masses of their progenitors to explore the chemical enrichment history of the central region of the Galactic bulge. The results show that there is an enhancement in the N/O abundance ratio in the Galactic Centre PNe compared with PNe located in the outer regions of the Galactic bulge. This may indicate recent episodes of star formation occurring near the Galactic Centre.

  9. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  10. The metallicity gradient of M 33: chemical abundances of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Magrini, L; Mampaso, A; Corradi, R L M; Leisy, P

    2007-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of a sample of 72 emission-line objects, including mainly HII regions, in the spiral galaxy M 33. Spectra were obtained with the multi-object, wide field spectrograph AF2/WYFFOS at the 4.2m WHT telescope. Line intensities, extinction, and electron density were determined for the whole sample of objects. The aim of the present work was to derive chemical and physical parameters of a set of HII regions, and from them the metallicity gradient. Electron temperatures and chemical abundances were derived for the 14 HII regions where both [OII] and [OIII] emission line fluxes were measured, including the electron temperature sensitive emission line [OIII] 436.3 nm and in a few cases [NII] 575.5 nm. The ionization correction factor (ICF) method was used to derive the total chemical abundances. The presence of abundance gradients was inferred from the radial behaviour of several emission-line ratios, and accurately measured from chemical abundances directly derived in 14 HII regio...

  11. Chemical Homogeneity in the Orion Association: Oxygen Abundances of B Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, K; Lanz, T

    2011-01-01

    We present non-LTE oxygen abundances for a sample of B stars in the Orion association. The abundance calculations included non-LTE line formation and used fully blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres. The stellar parameters were the same as adopted in the previous study by Cunha & Lambert (1994). We find that the young Orion stars in this sample of 10 stars are described by a single oxygen abundance with an average value of A(O)=8.78 and a small dispersion of +/- 0.05 dex, which is of the order of the uncertainties in the analysis. This average oxygen abundance compares well with the average oxygen abundance obtained previously in Cunha & Lambert (1994): A(O) = 8.72 +/- 0.13 although this earlier study, based upon non-blanketed model atmospheres in LTE, displayed larger scatter. Small scatter of chemical abundances in Orion B stars had also been found in our previous studies for neon and argon; all based on the same effective temperature scale. The derived oxygen abundance distribution for the Orion asso...

  12. Chemical Abundances of the Outer Halo Stars in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Ishigaki, M; Aoki, W

    2009-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of 57 metal-poor stars that are likely constituents of the outer stellar halo in the Milky Way. Almost all of the sample stars have an orbit reaching a maximum vertical distance (Z_max) of >5 kpc above and below the Galactic plane. High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra for the sample stars obtained with Subaru/HDS are used to derive chemical abundances of Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Y and Ba with an LTE abundance analysis code. The resulting abundance data are combined with those presented in literature that mostly targeted at smaller Z_max stars, and both data are used to investigate any systematic trends in detailed abundance patterns depending on their kinematics. It is shown that, in the metallicity range of -25 kpc are systematically lower (~0.1 dex) than those with smaller Z_max. This result of the lower [alpha/Fe] for the assumed outer halo stars is consistent with previous studies that found a signature of lower [alpha/Fe] ratios for stars with extreme ki...

  13. Chemical Abundances in a Sample of Red Giants in the Open Cluster NGC 2420 from APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Diogo; Smith, Verne; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Pinsonneault, Marc; Zamora, Olga; García-Hernández, D Anibal; Bovy, Szabolcs Meszaros Jo; Pérez, Ana Elia García; Anders, Friedrich; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Frinchaboy, Peter; Holtzman, Jon; Ivans, Inese; Majewski, Steve; Shetrone, Matthew; Sobeck, Jennifer; Pan, Kaike; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, Sandro; Geisler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NGC 2420 is a $\\sim$2 Gyr-old well-populated open cluster that lies about 2 kpc beyond the solar circle, in the general direction of the Galactic anti-center. Most previous abundance studies have found this cluster to be mildly metal-poor, but with a large scatter in the obtained metallicities for this open cluster. Detailed chemical abundance distributions are derived for 12 red-giant members of NGC 2420 via a manual abundance analysis of high-resolution (R = 22,500) near-infrared ($\\lambda$1.5 - 1.7$\\mu$m) spectra obtained from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The sample analyzed contains 6 stars that are identified as members of the first-ascent red giant branch (RGB), as well as 6 members of the red clump (RC). We find small scatter in the star-to-star abundances in NGC 2420, with a mean cluster abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.16 $\\pm$ 0.04 for the 12 red giants. The internal abundance dispersion for all elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni...

  14. Chemical Abundance Analysis of the Extremely Metal-Poor Star HE 1300+0157

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, A; Aoki, W; Honda, S; Bessell, M S; Takada-Hidai, M; Beers, T C; Christlieb, N; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Bessell, Michael S.; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of HE 1300+0157, a subgiant with [Fe/H]=-3.9. From a high-resolution, high-S/N Subaru/HDS spectrum we find the star to be enriched in C ([C/Fe]_1D ~ +1.4) and O ([O/Fe]_1D ~ +1.8). With the exception of these species, HE 1300+0157 exhibits an elemental abundance pattern similar to that found in many other very and extremely metal-poor stars. The Li abundance is lower than the Spite-plateau value, in agreement with expectation for its evolutionary status. Of particular interest, no neutron-capture elements are detected in HE 1300+0157. This type of abundance pattern has been found by recent studies in several other metal-poor giants. We suggest that HE 1300+0157 is an unevolved example of this group of stars, which exhibit high C abundances together with low (or absent) abundances of neutron-capture elements. Several potential enrichment scenarios are presented. The low neutron-capture elements, including Sr, Ba, and Pb, suggests that the carbon excess observed...

  15. CHAOS I: Direct Chemical Abundances for HII Regions in NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Danielle A; Skillman, Evan D; Pogge, Richard W; Moustakas, John; Groh-Johnson, Mara

    2015-01-01

    The CHemical Abundances of Spirals (CHAOS) project leverages the combined power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with the broad spectral range and sensitivity of the Multi Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) to measure "direct" abundances in large samples of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We present LBT MODS observations of 62 HII regions in the nearby NGC628. We measure one or more auroral lines ([OIII] 4363, [NII] 5755, [SIII] 6312, or [OII] 7320,7330) in a large number of HII regions (40). Comparing derived temperatures from multiple auroral line measurements, we find: a strong correlation between temperatures based on [SIII] and [NII]; and large discrepancies for some temperatures based on [OII] and [OIII]. These trends are consistent with other observations in the literature, yet, given the widespread use and acceptance of [OIII] as a temperature determinant, the magnitude of the T[OIII] discrepancies still came as a surprise. Based on these results, we conduct a uniform abundance analysis using the...

  16. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of Globular Cluster Giants in the Inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavon, Ricardo P; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Zasowski, Gail; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Cohen, Roger E; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, Sandro; Geisler, Douglas; Beers, Timothy C; Fernandez-Trincado, J G; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Lucatello, Sara; Majewski, Steven R; Martell, Sarah L; O'Connell, Robert W; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Lane, Richard R; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Munoz, Ricardo R; Nitschelm, Christian; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Schultheis, Matthias; Simmons, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    We report chemical abundances obtained by SDSS-III/APOGEE for giant stars in five globular clusters located within 2.2 kpc of the Galactic centre. We detect the presence of multiple stellar populations in four of those clusters (NGC 6553, NGC 6528, Terzan 5, and Palomar 6) and find strong evidence for their presence in NGC 6522. All clusters present a significant spread in the abundances of N, C, Na, and Al, with the usual correlations and anti-correlations between various abundances seen in other globular clusters. Our results provide important quantitative constraints on theoretical models for self-enrichment of globular clusters, by testing their predictions for the dependence of yields of elements such as Na, N, C, and Al on metallicity. They also confirm that, under the assumption that field N-rich stars originate from globular cluster destruction, they can be used as tracers of their parental systems in the high- metallicity regime.

  17. All quiet in the outer halo: chemical abundances in the globular cluster Pal 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Côté, P.; McWilliam, A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Globular clusters (GCs) in the outer halo are important probes of the composition and origin of the Galactic stellar halo. Aims: We derive chemical element abundance ratios in red giants belonging to the remote (R ~ 90 kpc) GC Pal 3 and compare our measurements to those for red giant stars in both inner and outer halo GCs. Methods: From high-resolution spectroscopy of four red giants, obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph at moderately high S/N, we derive chemical abundances for 25 α-, iron peak-, and neutron-capture elements. These abundance ratios are confirmed by co-adding low S/N HIRES spectra of 19 stars along the red giant branch. Results: Pal 3 shows α-enhanced abundance patterns, and also its Fe-peak and neutron-capture element ratios, are fully compatible with those found in halo field stars and representative inner halo GCs of the same metallicity (such as M 13). The heavy elements in Pal 3 appear to be governed by r-process nucleosynthesis. Our limited sample does not show any significant star-to-star abundance variations in this cluster, although a weak Na-O anti-correlation cannot be ruled out by the present data. Conclusions: Pal 3 thus appears as an archetypical GC with abundance ratios dissimilar to dwarf spheroidal stars, ruling out a direct connection to such external systems. This conclusion is underscored by the lack of significant abundance spreads in this GC, in contrast to the broad abundance distributions seen in the dwarf galaxies. Pal 3 appears to have evolved chemically in analogy to the majority of GCs belonging to the Galactic inner and outer halo, experiencing a similar enrichment history. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National

  18. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF A NEUTRON-CAPTURE ENHANCED RED GIANT IN THE BULGE PLAUT FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: cijohnson@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present chemical abundances for 27 elements ranging from oxygen to erbium in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –1.67) bulge red giant branch star 2MASS 18174532-3353235. The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of a high-resolution (R ∼ 30, 000) spectrum obtained with the Magellan-MIKE spectrograph. While the light (Z ∼< 30) element abundance patterns match those of similar metallicity bulge and halo stars, the strongly enhanced heavy element abundances are more similar to 'r-II' halo stars (e.g., CS 22892-052) typically found at [Fe/H] ∼< – 2.5. We find that the heaviest elements (Z ≥ 56) closely follow the scaled-solar r-process abundance pattern. We do not find evidence supporting significant s-process contributions; however, the intermediate mass elements (e.g., Y and Zr) appear to have been produced through a different process than the heaviest elements. The light and heavy element abundance patterns of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are in good agreement with the more metal-poor r-process enhanced stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17{sup o}3248. 2MASS 18174532-3353235 also shares many chemical characteristics with the similar metallicity but comparatively α-poor Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy giant COS 82. Interestingly, the Mo and Ru abundances of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are also strongly enhanced and follow a similar trend recently found to be common in moderately metal-poor main-sequence turn-off halo stars.

  19. All quiet in the outer halo: chemical abundances in the globular cluster Pal 3

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Context: Globular clusters (GCs) in the outer halo are important probes of the composition and origin of the Galactic stellar halo. Aims: We derive chemical element abundance ratios in red giants belonging to the remote (R~90 kpc) GC Pal 3 and compare our measurements to those for red giant stars in both inner and outer halo GCs. Methods: From high-resolution spectroscopy of four red giants, obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph at moderately high S/N, we derive chemical abundances for 25 alpha-, iron peak-, and neutron-capture elements. These abundance ratios are confirmed by co-adding low S/N HIRES spectra of 19 stars along the red giant branch. Results: Pal 3 shows alpha-enhanced abundance patterns, and also its Fe-peak and neutron-capture element ratios, are fully compatible with those found in halo field stars and representative inner halo GCs of the same metallicity (such as M 13). The heavy elements in Pal 3 appear to be governed by r-process nucleosyn-thesis. Our limited sample does not show an...

  20. Chemical abundances in a high velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Camilla Juul; Koch, Andreas; Xu, Siyi; Kunder, Andrea; Ludwig, Hans-Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass, variable, high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic centre. Wide-area surveys like APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities larger than 350 km/s. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass, RR Lyrae star, located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~ -400 km/s. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derive abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allow us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, combining its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances suggests that the star was accelerated from the out...

  1. Detailed chemical abundances of distant RR Lyrae stars in the Virgo Stellar Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Duffau, S; Vivas, A K; Hansen, C J; Zoccali, M; Catelan, M; Minniti, D; Grebel, E K

    2016-01-01

    We present the first detailed chemical abundances for distant RR Lyrae stars members of the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS), derived from X-Shooter medium-resolution spectra. Sixteen elements from carbon to barium have been measured in six VSS RR Lyrae stars, sampling all main nucleosynthetic channels. For the first time we will be able to compare in detail the chemical evolution of the VSS progenitor with those of Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies (LG dSph) as well as the one of the smooth halo.

  2. Chemical abundances in seven red giants of NGC 2360 and NGC 2447

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdani, S; Mowlavi, N; Raboud, D; Mermilliod, J C

    2000-01-01

    Chemical abundances of about fifteen elements from oxygen to europium are measured in seven red giants of the two open clusters NGC 2360 and NGC 2447. The effective temperatures of the giants are determined spectroscopically by taking advantage of their known masses (~2 Mo in NGC 2360 and ~3 Mo in NGC 2447) and bolometric magnitudes. The average iron abundances we obtain for the two clusters are [Fe/H]=0.07 for NGC 2360 and [Fe/H]=0.03 for NGC 2447. Evolutionary stellar model calculations are performed in the mass range 1-4 Mo in order to analyze the surface Na and O abundances predicted after the first dredge-up. The sodium abundance shows a well defined correlation with stellar mass in the 2-3 Mo range. The agreement between our Na abundance determinations in NGC 2360 and our model predictions at 2 Mo is very good. In contrast, the overabundance in one of the three stars in NGC 2447 exceeds that predicted at 3 Mo by ~0.08 dex, which is significant compared to the observational error bars. The effects of cor...

  3. Chemical abundance analysis of the Open Clusters Berkeley 32, NGC 752, Hyades and Praesepe

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R

    2011-01-01

    Context. Open clusters are ideal test particles to study the chemical evolution of the Galactic disc. However the existing high-resolution abundance determinations, not only of [Fe/H], but also of other key elements, is largely insufficient at the moment. Aims. To increase the number of Galactic open clusters with high quality abundance determinations, and to gather all the literature determinations published so far. Methods. Using high-resolution (R~30000), high-quality (S/N$>60 per pixel), we obtained spectra for twelve stars in four open clusters with the fiber spectrograph FOCES, at the 2.2 Calar Alto Telescope in Spain. We use the classical equivalent widths analysis to obtain accurate abundances of sixteen elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mg, Na, Nd, Ni, Sc, Si, Ti, V, Y. Oxygen abundances have been derived through spectral synthesis of the 6300 A forbidden line. Results. We provide the first determination of abundance ratios other than Fe for NGC 752 giants, and ratios in agreement with the litera...

  4. A comprehensive chemical abundance study of the outer halo globular cluster M 75

    CERN Document Server

    Kacharov, Nikolay; McWilliam, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: M 75 is a relatively young Globular Cluster (GC) found at 15 kpc from the Galactic centre at the transition region between the inner and outer Milky Way halos. Aims: Our aims are to perform a comprehensive abundance study of a variety of chemical elements in this GC such as to investigate its chemical enrichment history in terms of early star formation, and to search for any multiple populations. Methods: We have obtained high resolution spectroscopy with the MIKE instrument at the Magellan telescope for 16 red giant stars. Their membership within the GC is confirmed from radial velocity measurements. Our chemical abundance analysis is performed via equivalent width measurements and spectral synthesis, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Results: We present the first comprehensive abundance study of M 75 to date. The cluster is metal-rich ([Fe/H]=-1.16+/-0.02 dex, [alpha/Fe]=+0.30+/-0.02 dex), and shows a marginal spread in [Fe/H] of 0.07 dex, typical of most GCs of similar luminosity. A ...

  5. Chemical behavior of the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822. Its PN and HII region abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Martinez, Liliana; Carigi, Leticia; Garcia-Rojas, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    We aim to derive the chemical behavior of a significant sample of PNe and HII regions in the irregular galaxy NGC 6822 The selected objects are distributed in different zones of the galaxy. Due to the faintness of PNe and HII regions in NGC 6822, to gather spectroscopic data with large telescopes is necessary. We obtained a well suited sample of spectra by employing VLT-FORS 2 and Gemini-GMOS spectrographs. Ionic and total abundances are calculated for the objects where electron temperatures can be determined through the detection of [OIII] \\lambda 4363 or/and [NII] \\lambda 5755 lines. A "simple" chemical evolution model has been developed and the observed data are used to compute a model for NGC 6822 in order to infer a preliminary chemical history in this galaxy. Confident determinations of He, O, N, Ne, S and Ar abundances were derived for a sample of 11 PNe and one HII region. We confirm that the present ISM is chemically homogeneous, at least in the central 2 kpc of the galaxy, showing a value 12+log O/H...

  6. Chemical abundances of the PRGs UGC7576 and UGC9796. I. Testing the formation scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Spavone, M; Arnaboldi, M; Longo, G; Gerhard, O

    2011-01-01

    The study of the chemical abundances of HII regions in polar ring galaxies and their implications for the evolutionary scenario of these systems has been a step forward both in tracing the formation history of the galaxy and giving hints on the mechanisms at work during the building of disk by cold accretion process. It's now important to establish whether such results are typical for the class of polar disk galaxies as whole. The present work aims at checking the cold accretion of gas through a "cosmic filament" as a possible scenario for the formation of the polar structures in UGC7576 and UGC9796. If these form by cold accretion, we expect the HII regions abundances and metallicities to be lower than those of same-luminosity spiral disks, with values of the order of Z ~ 1/10 Zsun, as predicted by cosmological simulations. We have used deep long-slit spectra, obtained with DOLORES@TNG in the optical wavelengths, of the brightest HII regions associated with the polar structures to derive their chemical abund...

  7. The chemical abundance analysis of normal early A- and late B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Bagnulo, S; Alecian, E; Grunhut, J; Kochukhov, O; Wade, G

    2009-01-01

    Modern spectroscopy of early-type stars often aims at studying complex physical phenomena. Comparatively less attention is paid to identifying and studying the "normal" A- and B-type stars and testing how the basic atomic parameters and standard spectral analysis allow one to fit the observations. We wish to stablish whether the chemical composition of the solar photosphere can be regarded as a reference for early A- and late B-type stars. We have obtained optical high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of three slowly rotating early-type stars (HD 145788, 21 Peg and pi Cet) that show no obvious sign of chemical peculiarity, and performed a very accurate LTE abundance analysis of up to 38 ions of 26 elements (for 21 Peg), using a vast amount of spectral lines visible in the spectral region covered by our spectra. We provide an exhaustive description of the abundance characteristics of the three analysed stars with a critical review of the line parameters used to derive the abundances. We compiled ...

  8. Chemical Feature of Eu abundance in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Aoki, Wako

    2015-01-01

    Chemical abundance of r-process elements in nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is a powerful tool to probe the site of r-process since their small-mass scale can sort out individual events producing r-process elements. A merger of binary neutron stars is a promising candidate of this site. In faint, or less massive dSph galaxies such as the Draco, a few binary neutron star mergers are expected to have occurred at most over the whole past. We have measured chemical abundances including Eu and Ba of three red giants in the Draco dSph by Subaru/HDS observation. The Eu detection for one star with [Fe/H]=-1.45 confirms a broadly constant [Eu/H] of ~-1.3 for stars with [Fe/H]>-2. This feature is shared by other dSphs with similar masses, i.e., the Sculptor and the Carina, and suggests that neutron star merger is the origin of r-process elements in terms of its rarity. In addition, two very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H]=-2.12 and -2.51 are found to exhibit very low Eu abundances such as [Eu/H]<-2 with an impl...

  9. Chemical abundances and properties of the ionized gas in NGC 1705

    CERN Document Server

    Annibali, F; Pasquali, A; Aloisi, A; Mignoli, M; Romano, D

    2015-01-01

    We obtained [O III] narrow-band imaging and multi-slit MXU spectroscopy of the blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 1705 with FORS2@VLT to derive chemical abundances of PNe and H II regions and, more in general, to characterize the properties of the ionized gas. The auroral [O III]\\lambda4363 line was detected in all but one of the eleven analyzed regions, allowing for a direct estimate of their electron temperature. The only object for which the [O III]\\lambda4363 line was not detected is a possible low-ionization PN, the only one detected in our data. For all the other regions, we derived the abundances of Nitrogen, Oxygen, Neon, Sulfur and Argon out to ~1 kpc from the galaxy center. We detect for the first time in NGC 1705 a negative radial gradient in the oxygen metallicity of -0.24 \\pm 0.08 dex kpc^{-1}. The element abundances are all consistent with values reported in the literature for other samples of dwarf irregular and blue compact dwarf galaxies. However, the average (central) oxygen abundance, 12 +...

  10. Determining stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of FGK stars with iSpec

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P

    2014-01-01

    Context. An increasing number of high-resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing extensive spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, the scientific community needs automatic procedures to derive atmospheric parameters and individual element abundances. Aims. Based on the widely known SPECTRUM code by R. O. Gray, we developed an integrated spectroscopic software framework suitable for the determination of atmospheric parameters (i.e., effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity) and individual chemical abundances. The code, named iSpec and freely distributed, is written mainly in Python and can be used on different platforms. Methods. iSpec can derive atmospheric parameters by using the synthetic spectral fitting technique and the equivalent width method. We validated the performance of both approaches by developing two different pipelines and analyzing the Gaia FGK benchmark stars spectral library. The analysis was complemented with several tests designed to assess other ...

  11. High Resolution HDS/SUBARU chemical abundances of the young stellar cluster Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Correnti, M; Bonifacio, P; Geisler, D

    2010-01-01

    Context. Palomar\\,1 is a peculiar globular cluster (GC). It is the youngest Galactic GC and it has been tentatively associated to several of the substructures recently discovered in the Milky Way (MW), including the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity and the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS). Aims. In order to provide further insights into its origin, we present the first high resolution chemical abundance analysis for one red giant in Pal\\,1. Methods. We obtained high resolution (R=30000) spectra for one red giant star in Pal\\,1 using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted at the SUBARU telescope. We used ATLAS-9 model atmospheres coupled with the SYNTHE and WIDTH calculation codes to derive chemical abundances from the measured line equivalent widths of 18 among $\\alpha$, Iron-peak, light and heavy elements. Results. The Palomar~1 chemical pattern is broadly compatible to that of the MW open clusters population and similar to disk stars. It is, instead, remarkably different from that of the Sa...

  12. Chemical Elements Abundance in the Universe and the Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Valkovic, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Element synthesis which started with p-p chain has resulted in several specific characteristics including lack of any stable isotope having atomic masses 5 or 8. The carbon to oxygen ratio is fixed early by the chain of coincidences. These, remarkably fine-tuned, conditions are responsible for our own existence and indeed the existence of any carbon based life in the Universe. Chemical evolution of galaxies reflects in the changes of chemical composition of stars, interstellar gas and dust. The evolution of chemical element abundances in a galaxy provides a clock for galactic aging. On the other hand, the living matter on the planet Earth needs only some elements for its existence. Compared with element requirements of living matter a hypothesis is put forward, by accepting the Anthropic Principle, which says: life as we know, (H-C-N-O) based, relying on the number of bulk and trace elements originated when two element abundance curves, living matter and galactic, coincided. This coincidence occurring at part...

  13. Stellar parameters and chemical abundances of 223 evolved stars with and without planets

    CERN Document Server

    Jofré, E; Saffe, C; Saker, L; de la Villarmois, E Artur; Chavero, C; Gómez, M; Mauas, P

    2014-01-01

    We present fundamental stellar parameters and chemical abundances for a sample of 86 evolved stars with planets and for a control sample of 137 stars without planets. The analysis was based on both high S/N and resolution echelle spectra. The goals of this work are i) to investigate chemical differences between stars with and without planets; ii) to explore potential differences between the properties of the planets around giants and subgiants; and iii) to search for possible correlations between these properties and the chemical abundances of their host stars. In agreement with previous studies, we find that subgiants with planets are, on average, more metal-rich than subgiants without planets by ~ 0.16 dex. The [Fe/H] distribution of giants with planets is centered at slightly subsolar metallicities and there is no metallicity enhancement relative to the [Fe/H] distribution of giants without planets. Furthermore, contrary to recent results, we do not find any clear difference between the metallicity distrib...

  14. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu

    2017-01-01

    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohols and water using tin......-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters with additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. We employ an NMR approach to identify, quantify and optimize the formation these building blocks in the chemocatalytic transformation of abundant carbohydrates by Sn...

  15. Oxygen abundance in local disk and bulge: chemical evolution with a strictly universal IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, R.; Milanese, E.

    2009-09-01

    This paper has two parts: one about observational constraints related to the empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD), and the other about inhomogeneous models of chemical evolution, in particular the theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD). In the first part, the EDOD is deduced from subsamples related to two different samples involving (i) N=532 solar neighbourhood (SN) stars within the range, -1.5Prochaska et al. in Astron. J. 120:2513, 2000); (3) the fit to thin disk data implies an oxygen abundance range similar to its thick disk counterpart, with the extension of conclusion (2) to the thin disk, and the evolution of the thick + thin disk as a whole (Haywood in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 388:1175, 2008) cannot be excluded; (4) leaving outside the outer halo, a fit to the data related to different environments is provided by models with a strictly universal IMF but different probabilities of a region being active, which implies different global efficiencies of the star formation rate; (5) a special case of stellar migration across the disk can be described by models with enhanced star formation, where a fraction of currently observed SN stars were born in situ and a comparable fraction is due to the net effect of stellar migration, according to recent results based on high-resolution N-body + smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations (Ro\\vskar et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 684:L79, 2008).

  16. Young stars and ionized nebulae in M83: comparing chemical abundances at high metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A; Gieren, Wolfgang; Ho, I-Ting; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    We present spectra of 14 A-type supergiants in the metal-rich spiral galaxy M83. We derive stellar parameters and metallicities, and measure a spectroscopic distance modulus m-M = 28.47 +\\- 0.10 (4.9 +\\- 0.2 Mpc), in agreement with other methods. We use the stellar characteristic metallicity of M83 and other systems to discuss a version of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation that is independent of the analysis of nebular emission lines and the associated systematic uncertainties. We reproduce the radial metallicity gradient of M83, which flattens at large radii, with a chemical evolution model, constraining gas inflow and outflow processes. We carry out a comparative analysis of the metallicities we derive from the stellar spectra and published HII region line fluxes, utilizing both the direct, Te-based method and different strong-line abundance diagnostics. The direct abundances are in relatively good agreement with the stellar metallicities, once we apply a modest correction to the nebular oxygen abundance...

  17. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Snaith, O; Di Matteo, P; Lehnert, M D; Combes, F; Katz, D; Gómez, A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model in order to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way is formed from a closed box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc experience some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) in order to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age in order to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables one to recover with unprecedented accuracy the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs, in both the inner (R9-10kpc) discs as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that, in the inner disc, half of the stellar mass formed during the thick disc phase, in the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in the star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick disc phase ha...

  18. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Stellar Halo from Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Duane M; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies of halo stars during the last two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2-D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from eleven "MW-like" halos to generate satellite template sets of 2-D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites which are comprised of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of $\\sim10^{3-4}$ mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([$\\alpha$/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those eleven halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion ...

  19. Chemical abundance gradients from open clusters in the Milky Way disk: results from the APOGEE survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, Katia; Souto, Diogo; Thompson, Benjamin; Zasowski, Gail; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Carrera, Ricardo; Chiappini, Cristina; Donor, John; Garcia-Hernandez, Anibal; Perez, Ana Elia Garcia; Hayden, Michael R; Holtzman, Jon; Jackson, Kelly M; Johnson, Jennifer A; Majewski, Steven R; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meyer, Brianne; Nidever, David L; O'Connell, Julia; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schultheis, Mathias; Shetrone, Matthew; Simmons, Audrey; Smith, Verne V; Zamora, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Metallicity gradients provide strong constraints for understanding the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We report on radial abundance gradients of Fe, Ni, Ca, Si, and Mg obtained from a sample of 304 red-giant members of 29 disk open clusters, mostly concentrated at galactocentric distances between ~8 - 15 kpc, but including two open clusters in the outer disk. The observations are from the APOGEE survey. The chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS III Data Release 12. The gradients, obtained from least squares fits to the data, are relatively flat, with slopes ranging from -0.026 to -0.033 dex/kpc for the alpha-elements [O/H], [Ca/H], [Si/H] and [Mg/H] and -0.035 dex/kpc and -0.040 dex/kpc for [Fe/H] and [Ni/H], respectively. Our results are not at odds with the possibility that metallicity ([Fe/H]) gradients are steeper in the inner disk (R_GC ~7 - 12 kpc) and flatter towards the outer disk. The open cluster sample studied spans a significant ran...

  20. The Contribution of Chemical Abundances in Nova Ejecta to the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fanger; Lu, Guoliang; Wang, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    According to the nova model from \\citet{Yaron2005} and \\citet{Jose1998} and using Monte Carlo simulation method, we investigate the contribution of chemical abundances in nova ejecta to the interstellar medium (ISM) of the Galaxy. We find that the ejected mass by classical novae (CNe) is about $2.7\\times10^{-3}$ $ \\rm M_\\odot\\ {\\rm yr^{-1}}$. In the nova ejecta, the isotopic ratios of C, N and O, that is, $^{13}$C/$^{12}$C, $^{15}$N/$^{14}$N and $^{17}$O/$^{16}$O, are higher about one order of magnitude than those in red giants. We estimate that about 10$\\%$, 5$\\%$ and 20$\\%$ of $^{13}$C, $^{15}$N and $^{17}$O in the ISM of the Galaxy come from nova ejecta, respectively. However, the chemical abundances of C, N and O calculated by our model can not cover all of observational values. This means that there is still a long way to go for understanding novae.

  1. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions.

  2. Magnetic field topology and chemical abundance distributions of the young, rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar star HR 5624

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.; Silvester, J.; Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The young, rapidly rotating Bp star HR 5624 (HD 133880) shows an unusually strong non-sinusoidal variability of its longitudinal magnetic field. This behaviour was previously interpreted as the signature of an exceptionally strong, quadrupole-dominated surface magnetic field geometry. Aims: We studied the magnetic field structure and chemical abundance distributions of HR 5624 with the aim to verify the unusual quadrupolar nature of its magnetic field and to investigate correlations between the field topology and chemical spots. Methods: We analysed high-resolution, time series Stokes parameter spectra of HR 5624 with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging inversion code based on detailed polarised radiative transfer modelling of the line profiles. Results: We refined the stellar parameters, revised the rotational period, and obtained new longitudinal magnetic field measurements. Our magnetic Doppler inversions reveal that the field structure of HR 5624 is considerably simpler and the field strength is much lower than proposed by previous studies. We find a maximum local field strength of 12 kG and a mean field strength of 4 kG, which is about a factor of three weaker than predicted by quadrupolar field models. Our model implies that overall large-scale field topology of HR 5624 is better described as a distorted, asymmetric dipole rather than an axisymmetric quadrupole. The chemical abundance maps of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Nd obtained in our study are characterised by large-scale, high-contrast abundance patterns. These structures correlate weakly with the magnetic field geometry and, in particular, show no distinct element concentrations in the horizontal field regions predicted by theoretical atomic diffusion calculations. Conclusions: We conclude that the surface magnetic field topology of HR 5624 is not as unusual as previously proposed. Considering these results together with other recent magnetic mapping analyses of early-type stars suggests that

  3. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Halo Using Stellar Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will

    2016-08-01

    In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from eleven ``MW-like'' halos to generate satellite template sets of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites which are comprised of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ~ 103-4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those eleven halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the satellite template set (STS) used and the sample size. For certain STS used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of 2. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminous dwarfs e.g. ultra-faint dwarfs - precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early Universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ~ 6-9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us (given the development of new CARD-generating dwarf models) to recover the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies - and the detailed accretion history of the halo - across cosmic time.

  4. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants. RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara

    CERN Document Server

    Galan, Cezary; Hinkle, Kenneth H; Schmidt, Miroslaw R; Gromadzki, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are the long period, binary systems of strongly interacting stars at the final stages of evolution which can be useful tool to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the formation of stellar populations. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the symbiotic giants is essential to advancing our understanding of these issues but unfortunately reliably determinations exist only in a few cases. We perform a program for detailed chemical composition analysis in over 30 symbiotic giants, based on the high resolution, near-IR spectra, obtained with Phoenix/Gemini South spectrometer. The methods of the standard LTE analysis is used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around iron peak. Here we present results obtained for four objects: RW Hya, SY Mus, BX Mon, and AE Ara. Our analysis revealed a significantly sub-solar metallicity (Me/H ~ -0.75) for RW Hya, a slightly sub-solar metallicities (Me/H ~ 0.2-0.3) in BX Mon and AE Ara, and a near-solar metallicity in SY Mus. 12...

  5. Importance of the H2 abundance in protoplanetary disk ices for the molecular layer chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Wakelam, V; Hersant, F; Dutrey, A; Semenov, D; Majumdar, L; Guilloteau, S

    2016-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are the target of many chemical studies (both observational and theoretical) as they contain the building material for planets. Their large vertical and radial gradients in density and temperature make them challenging objects for chemical models. In the outer part of these disks, the large densities and low temperatures provide a particular environment where the binding of species onto the dust grains can be very efficient and can affect the gas-phase chemical composition. We attempt to quantify to what extent the vertical abundance profiles and the integrated column densities of molecules predicted by a detailed gas-grain code are affected by the treatment of the molecular hydrogen physisorption at the surface of the grains. We performed three different models using the Nautilus gas-grain code. One model uses a H2 binding energy on the surface of water (440 K) and produces strong sticking of H2. Another model uses a small binding energy of 23 K (as if there were already a monolayer of H...

  6. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Samuel G; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Taarning, Esben; Meier, Sebastian

    2017-07-21

    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters, and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohol and water solvents using tin-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters bearing additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. An NMR approach was used to identify, quantify, and optimize the formation of these building blocks in the Sn-Beta-catalyzed transformation of abundant carbohydrates. Record yields of the target molecules can be achieved by obstructing competing reactions through solvent selection. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Episodic model for star formation history and chemical abundances in giant and dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debsarma, Suma; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Das, Sukanta; Pfenniger, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    In search for a synthetic understanding, a scenario for the evolution of the star formation rate and the chemical abundances in galaxies is proposed, combining gas infall from galactic haloes, outflow of gas by supernova explosions, and an oscillatory star formation process. The oscillatory star formation model is a consequence of the modelling of the fractional masses changes of the hot, warm and cold components of the interstellar medium. The derived periods of oscillation vary in the range (0.1-3.0) × 107 yr depending on various parameters existing from giant to dwarf galaxies. The evolution of metallicity varies in giant and dwarf galaxies and depends on the outflow process. Observed abundances in dwarf galaxies can be reproduced under fast outflow together with slow evaporation of cold gases into hot gas whereas slow outflow and fast evaporation is preferred for giant galaxies. The variation of metallicities in dwarf galaxies supports the fact that low rate of SNII production in dwarf galaxies is responsible for variation in metallicity in dwarf galaxies of similar masses as suggested by various authors.

  8. The Chemical Evolution Carousel of Spiral Galaxies: Azimuthal Variations of Oxygen Abundance in NGC1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, I.-Ting; Seibert, Mark; Meidt, Sharon E.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Groves, Brent A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Madore, Barry F.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Schinnerer, Eva; D’Agostino, Joshua; Poetrodjojo, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of oxygen in the interstellar medium of galaxies is the key to understanding how efficiently metals that are synthesized in massive stars can be redistributed across a galaxy. We present here a case study in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 1365 using 3D optical data obtained in the TYPHOON Program. We find systematic azimuthal variations of the H ii region oxygen abundance imprinted on a negative radial gradient. The 0.2 dex azimuthal variations occur over a wide radial range of 0.3–0.7 R 25 and peak at the two spiral arms in NGC 1365. We show that the azimuthal variations can be explained by two physical processes: gas undergoes localized, sub-kiloparsec-scale self-enrichment when orbiting in the inter-arm region, and experiences efficient, kiloparsec-scale mixing-induced dilution when spiral density waves pass through. We construct a simple chemical evolution model to quantitatively test this picture and find that our toy model can reproduce the observations. This result suggests that the observed abundance variations in NGC 1365 are a snapshot of the dynamical local enrichment of oxygen modulated by spiral-driven, periodic mixing and dilution.

  9. Bimodal chemical evolution of the Galactic disk and the Barium abundance of Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Lepine, Jacques R D; Barros, Douglas A; Junqueira, Thiago C; Scarano, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the Barium abundance distribution in the Galactic disk based on Cepheids, one must first be aware of important effects of the corotation resonance, situated a little beyond the solar orbit. The thin disk of the Galaxy is divided in two regions that are separated by a barrier situated at that radius. Since the gas cannot get across that barrier, the chemical evolution is independent on the two sides of it. The barrier is caused by the opposite directions of flows of gas, on the two sides, in addition to a Cassini-like ring void of HI (caused itself by the flows). A step in the metallicity gradient developed at corotation, due to the difference in the average star formation rate on the two sides, and to this lack of communication between them. In connection with this, a proof that the spiral arms of our Galaxy are long-lived (a few billion years) is the existence of this step. When one studies the abundance gradients by means of stars which span a range of ages, like the Cepheids, one has...

  10. The chemical abundances in the Galactic Centre from the atmospheres of Red Supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Figer, Don F; Rich, R Michael; Najarro, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The Galactic Centre (GC) has experienced a high degree of recent star-forming activity, as evidenced by the large number of massive stars currently residing there. The relative abundances of chemical elements in the GC may provide insights into the origins of this activity. Here, we present high-resolution $H$-band spectra of two Red Supergiants in the GC (IRS~7 and VR~5-7), and in combination with spectral synthesis we derive abundances for Fe and C, as well as other $\\alpha$-elements Ca, Si, Mg Ti and O. We find that the C-depletion in VR~5-7 is consistent with the predictions of evolutionary models of RSGs, while the heavy depletion of C and O in IRS~7's atmosphere is indicative of deep mixing, possibly due to fast initial rotation and/or enhanced mass-loss. Our results indicate that the {\\it current} surface Fe/H content of each star is slightly above Solar. However, comparisons to evolutionary models indicate that the {\\it initial} Fe/H ratio was likely closer to Solar, and has been driven higher by H-de...

  11. On the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances and the evolution of the "green pea" galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Amorín, Ricardo O; Vílchez, J M

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in extremely compact star-forming galaxies with redshifts between $\\sim$0.11-0.35, popularly referred to as "green peas". Direct and strong-line methods sensitive to the N/O ratio applied to their SDSS spectra reveals that these systems are genuine metal-poor galaxies, with mean oxygen abundances 20% solar. At a given metallicity these galaxies display systematically large N/O ratios compared to normal galaxies, which can explain the strong difference between our metallicities measurements and previous ones. While their N/O ratios follow the relation with stellar mass of local star-forming galaxies in the SDSS, we find that the mass--metallicity relation of the "green peas" is offset $\\ga$0.3 dex to lower metallicities. We argue that recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss, driven by supernova winds, may explain our findings and the known galaxy properties, namely high specific star formati...

  12. Episodic Model For Star Formation History and Chemical Abundances in Giant and Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Debsarma, Suma; Das, Sukanta; Pfenniger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In search for a synthetic understanding, a scenario for the evolution of the star formation rate and the chemical abundances in galaxies is proposed, combining gas infall from galactic halos, outflow of gas by supernova explosions, and an oscillatory star formation process. The oscillatory star formation model is a consequence of the modelling of the fractional masses changes of the hot, warm and cold components of the interstellar medium. The observed periods of oscillation vary in the range $(0.1-3.0)\\times10^{7}$\\,yr depending on various parameters existing from giant to dwarf galaxies. The evolution of metallicity varies in giant and dwarf galaxies and depends on the outflow process. Observed abundances in dwarf galaxies can be reproduced under fast outflow together with slow evaporation of cold gases into hot gas whereas slow outflow and fast evaporation is preferred for giant galaxies. The variation of metallicities in dwarf galaxies supports the fact that low rate of SNII production in dwarf galaxies i...

  13. Gas accretion as the origin of chemical abundance gradients in distant galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, G; Mannucci, F; Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Gnerucci, A; Magrini, L

    2010-10-14

    It has recently been suggested that galaxies in the early Universe could have grown through the accretion of cold gas, and that this may have been the main driver of star formation and stellar mass growth. Because the cold gas is essentially primordial, it has a very low abundance of elements heavier than helium (referred to as metallicity). If funnelled to the centre of a galaxy, it will result in the central gas having an overall lower metallicity than gas further from the centre, because the gas further out has been enriched by supernovae and stellar winds, and not diluted by the primordial gas. Here we report chemical abundances across three rotationally supported star-forming galaxies at redshift z ≈ 3, only 2 Gyr after the Big Bang. We find 'inverse' gradients, with the central, star-forming regions having lower metallicities than less active ones, which is opposite to what is seen in local galaxies. We conclude that the central gas has been diluted by the accretion of primordial gas, as predicted by 'cold flow' models.

  14. Detailed Chemical Abundances in NGC 5824: Another Metal-Poor Globular Cluster with Internal Heavy Element Abundance Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Bailey, John I; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.94+/-0.02 (statistical) +/-0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anti-correlated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/F...

  15. Abundances of chemical elements of the granitoids in different geotectonic units of China and their characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Changyi; YAN Mingcai; CHI Qinghua

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of actual analytical data of 767 composited samples collected mainly from about 750 large to middle representative granitoid bodies all over China, the average chemical compositions and element abundances of about 70 chemical elements of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, FeO, MgO,CaO, Na2O, K2O, H2O+, CO2, TFe2O3, Ag, As, Au, B, Ba, Be,Bi, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb,Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, W, Zn,Zr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and Y in alkalifeldspar granite, syenogranite and adamellite in 7 geotectonic units in China such as Tianshan-Xing'an orogenic series, Sino-Korean metaplatform, Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling orogenic series, Yunnan-Tibet orogenic series,Yangtze metaplatform, South China-Youjiang orogenic zone and Himalayan orogenic belt, are calculated and presented in this paper. In addition, the characteristics of petrochemical parameters, trace element contents and rare earth element dis-tributions of different rock types of the granitoids in different geotectonic units are also sufficiently discussed.

  16. Chemical Abundances in Field Red Giants from High-Resolution H-Band Spectra using the APOGEE Spectral Linelist

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Verne V; Shetrone, Matthew D; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Perez, Ana Garcia; Majewski, Steven R; Schiavon, Ricardo; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the SDSS III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes 12C, 13C, 14N, and 16O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to ~0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is, thus, well-suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as inter...

  17. Reconstructing the star formation history of the Milky Way disc(s) from chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, O.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Gómez, A.

    2015-06-01

    We develop a chemical evolution model to study the star formation history of the Milky Way. Our model assumes that the Milky Way has formed from a closed-box-like system in the inner regions, while the outer parts of the disc have experienced some accretion. Unlike the usual procedure, we do not fix the star formation prescription (e.g. Kennicutt law) to reproduce the chemical abundance trends. Instead, we fit the abundance trends with age to recover the star formation history of the Galaxy. Our method enables us to recover the star formation history of the Milky Way in the first Gyrs with unprecedented accuracy in the inner (R 9-10 kpc) discs, as sampled in the solar vicinity. We show that half the stellar mass formed during the thick-disc phase in the inner galaxy during the first 4-5 Gyr. This phase was followed by a significant dip in star formation activity (at 8-9 Gyr) and a period of roughly constant lower-level star formation for the remaining 8 Gyr. The thick-disc phase has produced as many metals in 4 Gyr as the thin-disc phase in the remaining 8 Gyr. Our results suggest that a closed-box model is able to fit all the available constraints in the inner disc. A closed-box system is qualitatively equivalent to a regime where the accretion rate maintains a high gas fraction in the inner disc at high redshift. In these conditions the SFR is mainly governed by the high turbulence of the interstellar medium. By z ~ 1 it is possible that most of the accretion takes place in the outer disc, while the star formation activity in the inner disc is mostly sustained by the gas that is not consumed during the thick-disc phase and the continuous ejecta from earlier generations of stars. The outer disc follows a star formation history very similar to that of the inner disc, although initiated at z ~ 2, about 2 Gyr before the onset of the thin-disc formation in the inner disc.

  18. Chemical abundances in the extremely Carbon and Xenon-rich halo planetary nebula H4-1

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    We performed detailed chemical abundance analysis of the extremely metal-poor ([Ar/H]-2) halo planetary nebula H4-1 based on the multi-wavelength spectra from Subaru/HDS, GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer/IRS and determined the abundances of 10 elements. The C and O abundances were derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and are almost consistent with abundances from recombination lines (RLs). We demonstrated that the large discrepancy in the C abundance between CEL and RL in H4-1 can be solved using the temperature fluctuation model. We reported the first detection of the [Xe III]5846 A line in H4-1 and determination of its elemental abundance ([Xe/H]>+0.48). H4-1 is the most Xe-rich PN among the Xe-detected PNe. The observed abundances are close to the theoretical prediction by a ~2.0 Msun single star model with initially r-process element rich ([r/Fe]=+2.0 dex). The observed Xe abundance would be a product of the r-process in primordial SNe. The [C/O]-[Ba/(Eu or Xe)] diagram suggests that the progenitor of ...

  19. Effects of episodic gas infall on the chemical abundances in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Köppen, J

    2005-01-01

    The chemical evolution of galaxies that undergo an episode of massive and rapid accretion of metal-poor gas is investigated with models using both simplified and detailed nucleosynthesis recipes. The rapid decrease of the oxygen abundance during infall is followed by a slower evolution which leads back to the closed-box relation, thus forming a loop in the N/O-O/H diagram. For large excursions from the closed-box relation, the mass of the infalling material needs to be substantially larger than the gas remaining in the galaxy, and the accretion rate should be larger than the star formation rate. We apply this concept to the encounter of high velocity clouds with galaxies of various masses, finding that the observed properties of these clouds are indeed able to cause substantial effects not only in low mass galaxies, but also in the partial volumes in large massive galaxies that would be affected by the collision. Numerical models with detailed nucleosynthesis prescriptions are constructed. We assume star form...

  20. Detailed Chemical Abundances of Four Stars in the Unusual Globular Cluster, Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Sakari, Charli M; Irwin, Mike; Aoki, Wako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Dotter, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances for twenty one elements are presented for four red giants in the anomalous outer halo globular cluster Palomar 1 ($R_{\\rm{GC}} = 17.2$ kpc, $Z=3.6$ kpc) using high-resolution (R=36000) spectra from the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) on the Subaru Telescope. Pal 1 has long been considered unusual because of its low surface brightness, sparse red giant branch, young age, and its possible association with two extragalactic streams of stars---this paper shows that its chemistry further confirms its unusual nature. The mean metallicity of the four stars, $[\\rm{Fe/H}] = -0.60 \\pm 0.01$, is high for a globular cluster so far from the Galactic center, but is low for a typical open cluster. The [$\\alpha$/Fe] ratios, though in agreement with the Galactic stars within the $1\\sigma$ errors, agree best with the lower values in dwarf galaxies. No signs of the Na/O anticorrelation are detected in Pal 1, though Na appears to be marginally high in all four stars. Pal 1's neutron capture elemen...

  1. Integrated Light Chemical Abundance Analyses of 7 M31 Outer Halo Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli; Venn, Kim; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dotter, Aaron L.; Wallerstein, George

    2015-01-01

    Detailed chemical abundances of globular clusters provide insight into the formation and evolution of galaxies and their globular cluster systems. This talk presents detailed chemical abundances for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected radii greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high resolution integrated light spectra. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS). The integrated abundances show that 4 of these clusters are metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5) while the other 3 are more metal-rich. The most metal-poor globular clusters are α-enhanced, though 3 of the 4 are possibly less α-enhanced than MW stars (at the 1σ level). Other chemical abundance ratios ([Ba/Eu], [Eu/Ca], and [Ni/Fe]) are consistent with origins in low mass dwarf galaxies (similar to Fornax). The most metal-rich cluster ([Fe/H] ~ -1) stands out as being chemically distinct from Milky Way field stars of the same metallicity---its chemical abundance ratios agree best with the stars and clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal (Sgr) than with the Milky Way field stars. The other metal-rich clusters, H10 and H23, look similar to the LMC and Milky Way field stars in all abundance ratios. These results indicate that M31's outer halo is being at least partially built up by the accretion of dwarf satellites, in agreement with previous observations.

  2. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN FIELD RED GIANTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION H-BAND SPECTRA USING THE APOGEE SPECTRAL LINELIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto d' Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  3. Chemical Abundances and Dust in Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Gutenkunst, S; Pottasch, S R; Sloan, G C; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of eleven planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the Bulge, the infrared spectra allow us to determine abundances for certain elements more accurately that previously possible with optical data alone. Abundances of argon and sulfur (and in most cases neon and oxygen) in planetary nebulae in the Bulge give the abundances of the interstellar medium at the time their progenitor stars formed; thus these abundances give information about the formation and evolution of the Bulge. The abundances of Bulge planetary nebulae tend to be slightly higher than those in the Disk on average, but they do not follow the trend of the Disk planetary nebulae, thus confirming the difference between Bulge and Disk evolution. Additionally, the Bulge planetary nebulae show peculiar dust properties compared...

  4. Parent Stars of Extrasolar Planets. VIII. Chemical Abundances for 18 Elements in 31 Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of detailed spectroscopic abundance analyses for 18 elements in 31 nearby stars with planets. The resulting abundances are combined with other similar studies of nearby stars with planets and compared to a sample of nearby stars without detected planets. We find some evidence for abundance differences between these two samples for Al, Si and Ti. Some of our results are in conflict with a recent study of stars with planets in the SPOCS database. We encourage continued study of the abundance patterns of stars with planets to resolve these discrepancies.

  5. Chemical abundances for A-and F-type supergiant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, R E

    2016-01-01

    We present the stellar parameters and elemental abundances of a set of A--F-type supergiant stars HD\\,45674, HD\\,180028, HD\\,194951 and HD\\,224893 using high resolution ($R$\\,$\\sim$\\,42,000) spectra taken from ELODIE library. We present the first results of the abundance analysis for HD\\,45674 and HD\\,224893. We reaffirm the abundances for HD\\,180028 and HD\\,194951 studied previously by Luck (2014) respectively. Alpha-elements indicates that objects belong to the thin disc population. From their abundances and its location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram seems point out that HD\\,45675, HD\\,194951 and HD\\,224893 are in the post-first dredge-up (post-1DUP) phase and they are moving in the red-blue loop region. HD~180028, on the contary, shows typical abundances of the population I but its evolutionary status could not be satisfactorily defined.

  6. Chemical abundances for A-and F-type supergiant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, R. E.; Rivera, H.

    2016-04-01

    We present the stellar parameters and elemental abundances of a set of A-F-type supergiant stars HD 45674, HD 180028, HD 194951 and HD 224893 using high resolution (R≈ 42,000) spectra taken from ELODIE library. We present the first results of the abundance analysis for HD 45674 and HD 224893. We reaffirm the abundances for HD 180028 and HD 194951 studied previously by Luck. Alpha-elements indicate that the objects belong to the thin disc population. Their abundances and their location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram seem to indicate that HD 45675, HD 194951 and HD 224893 are in the post-first dredge-up (post-1DUP) phase, and that they are moving in the red-blue loop region. HD 180028, on the contary, shows typical abundances of Population I, but its evolutionary status cannot be satisfactorily defined.

  7. Chemical Abundances of the Secondary Star in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Jonay I González; Rebolo, Rafael; Israelian, Garik; Filippenko, Alexei V; Chornock, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of the secondary star in the black hole binary V404 Cygni, using Keck I/HIRES spectra. We adopt a $\\chi^2$-minimization procedure to derive the stellar parameters, taking into account any possible veiling from the accretion disk. With these parameters we determine the atmospheric abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni. The abundances of Al, Si, and Ti appear to be slightly enhanced when comparing with average values in thin-disk solar-type stars. The O abundance, derived from optical lines, is particularly enhanced in the atmosphere of the secondary star in V404 Cygni. This, together with the peculiar velocity of this system as compared with the Galactic velocity dispersion of thin-disk stars, suggests that the black hole formed in a supernova or hypernova explosion. We explore different supernova/hypernova models having various geometries to study possible contamination of nucleosynthetic products in the chemical abundance pattern of the secondary star. W...

  8. Chemical abundances in the extremely carbon-rich and xenon-rich halo planetary nebula H4-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tajitsu, Akito, E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: tajitsu@subaru.naoj.org [Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We performed detailed chemical abundance analysis of the extremely metal-poor ([Ar/H] ∼ –2) halo planetary nebula (PN) H4-1 based on the multi-wavelength spectra from Subaru/HDS, GALEX, SDSS, and Spitzer/IRS and determined the abundances of 10 elements. The C and O abundances were derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and are almost consistent with abundances from recombination lines (RLs). We demonstrated that the large discrepancy in the C abundance between CEL and RL in H4-1 can be solved using the temperature fluctuation model. We reported the first detection of the [Xe III] λ5846 line in H4-1 and determination of its elemental abundance ([Xe/H] > +0.48). H4-1 is the most Xe-rich PN among the Xe-detected PNe. The observed abundances are close to the theoretical prediction by a 2.0 M {sub ☉} single star model with an initially element rich ([r/Fe] = +2.0 dex) rapid neutron-capture process (r-process). The observed Xe abundance would be a product of the r-process in primordial supernovae. The [C/O]-[Ba/(Eu or Xe)] diagram suggests that the progenitor of H4-1 shares the evolution with carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP)-r/s and CEMP-no stars. The progenitor of H4-1 is presumably a binary formed in an r-process-rich environment.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of zeta Reticuly (Adibekyan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Harutyunyan, G.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Hakobyan, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The file table1.dat lists stellar parameters, S/N, and observation dates of zeta1 Ret and zeta2 Ret derived from individual and combined spectra The file ew.dat lists the equivalent widths (EW) of all the spectral lines. The file s_lines.dat lists the lines that were used in this study. The file abund.dat lists the derived abundances of the elements for each star and spectra. (4 data files).

  10. Planetary Nebula Abundances and Morphology: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, L; Cunha, K; Manchado, A; Villaver, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a homogeneous study of abundances in a sample of 79 northern galactic planetary nebulae whose morphological classes have been uniformly determined. Ionic abundances and plasma diagnostics were derived from selected optical line strengths in the literature, and elemental abundances were estimated with the Ionization Correction Factor developed by Kingsbourgh & Barlow (1994). We compare the elemental abundances to the final yields obtained from stellar evolution models of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and we confirm that most Bipolar planetary nebulae have high nitrogen and helium abundance, and are the likely progeny of stars with main-sequence mass larger than 3 solar masses. We derive =0.27, and discuss the implication of such a high ratio in connection with the solar neon abundance. We determine the galactic gradients of oxygen and neon, and found Delta log (O/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc$ and Delta log (Ne/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc. These flat PN gradients do not reconcile with galact...

  11. Chemical Abundances of Seven Irregular and Three Tidal Dwarf Galaxies in the M81 Group

    CERN Document Server

    Croxall, Kevin V; Lee, Henry; Skillman, Evan D; Lee, Janice C; Côté, Stéphanie; Kennicutt, Robert C; Miller, Bryan W; 10.1088/0004-637X/705/1/723

    2009-01-01

    We have derived nebular abundances for 10 dwarf galaxies belonging to the M81 Group, including several galaxies which do not have abundances previously reported in the literature. For each galaxy, multiple H \\ii regions were observed with GMOS-N at the Gemini Observatory in order to determine abundances of several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, neon, and argon). For seven galaxies, at least one H \\ii region had a detection of the temperature sensitive [OIII] $\\lambda$4363 line, allowing a "direct" determination of the oxygen abundance. No abundance gradients were detected in the targeted galaxies and the observed oxygen abundances are typically in agreement with the well known metallicity-luminosity relation. However, three candidate "tidal dwarf" galaxies lie well off this relation, UGC 5336, Garland, and KDG 61. The nature of these systems suggests that UGC 5336 and Garland are indeed recently formed systems, whereas KDG 61 is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy which lies along the same line of sigh...

  12. Low-Resolution Spectroscopic Study of the Intriguing Globular Cluster NGC 2808: Chemical Abundance Patterns among Subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seungsoo; Lim, Dongwook; Han, Sang-Il; Lee, Young-Wook

    2017-01-01

    The presence of multiple stellar populations is now well established in most globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way. The origin of this phenomenon, however, is yet to be understood. In this respect, the study of NGC 2808, an intriguing GC which hosts subpopulations with extreme helium and light-element abundances, would help to understand this phenomenon. In order to investigate chemical abundance patterns among different subpopulations, we have performed low-resolution spectroscopy for the red-giant-branch stars and measured CN & CH bands, and Ca line strength. We have identified at least three subpopulations from the CN band strength. The CN band strength appears to be more efficient than Na abundance in separating earlier populations. We also find that this GC shows the CN-CH anti-correlation following the general trend of most GCs which are less affected by supernovae enrichment.

  13. Chemical Evolution of Damped Ly $\\alpha$ galaxies The [S/Zn] abundance ratio at redshift z > 2

    CERN Document Server

    Centurion, M; Molaro, P; Vladilo, G; Centurion, Miriam; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Molaro, Paolo; Vladilo, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Relative elemental abundances, and in particular the alpha/Fe ratio, are an important diagnostic tool of the chemical evolution of damped Ly alpha systems (DLAs). The S/Zn ratio is not affected by differential dust depletion and is an excellent estimator of the alpha/Fe ratio. We report 6 new determinations of sulphur abundance in DLAs at zabs greater than or equal to 2 with already known zinc abundances. The combination with extant data from the literature provides a measure of the S/Zn abundance ratio for a total of 11 high redshift DLA systems. The observed [S/Zn] ratios do not show the characteristic [alpha/Fe] enhancement observed in metal-poor stars of the Milky Way at comparable level of metallicity ([Zn/H] ~ -1). The behaviour of DLAs data is consistent with a general trend of decreasing [S/Zn] ratio with increasing metallicity [Zn/H]. This would be the first evidence of the expected decrease of the alpha/Fe ratio in the course of chemical evolution of DLA systems. However, in contrast to what observe...

  14. 'Chemical abundances in H II regions and their implications -- Retrospective on: M. Peimbert & R. Costero, Boletin de los Observatorios de Tonantzintla y Tacubaya, Vol. 5, 3, 1969'

    CERN Document Server

    Peimbert, M

    2009-01-01

    We present a review about the relevance of the paper by Peimbert and Costero (1969), on the chemical abundance determinations of H II regions. We analize the observational evidence in favor of the presence of temperature variations inside gaseous nebulae. We make a brief mention of the methods used to estimate the contribution of the unobserved ions to the total chemical abundances.

  15. Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur. Sulphur abundances from the [S i] λ1082 nm line in giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Ryde, N.; Dupree, A. K.

    2013-11-01

    Context. The Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur is still under debate. At low metallicities some studies find no correlation between [S/Fe] and [Fe/H], which is typical for α-elements, while others find [S/Fe] increasing towards lower metallicities, and still others find a combination of the two. Each scenario has different implications for the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur. Aims: The aim of this study is to contribute to the discussion on the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur by deriving sulphur abundances from non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) insensitive spectral diagnostics in disk and halo stars with homogeneously determined stellar parameters. Methods: We derived effective temperatures from photometric colours, surface gravities from stellar isochrones and Bayesian estimation, and metallicities and sulphur abundances from spectrum synthesis. We derived sulphur abundances from the [S i] λ1082 nm line in 39 mostly cool and metal-poor giants using 1D LTE MARCS model atmospheres to model our high-resolution near-infrared spectra obtained with the VLT, NOT, and Gemini South telescopes. Results: We derive homogeneous stellar parameters for 29 of the 39 stars. Our results argue for a chemical evolution of sulphur that is typical for α-elements, contrary to some previous studies that have found high sulphur abundances ([S/Fe] ≳ 0.6) for stars with -2.5 PPARC (UK), the NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the ARC, CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).Based partly on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO program 080.D-0675).Figures 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Dust and Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius dwarf Galaxy Planetary Nebula Hen2-436

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Riebel, David; Hyung, Siek; Tajitsu, Akito; Izumiura, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have estimated elemental abundances of the planetary nebula (PN) Hen2-436 in the Sagittarius (Sgr) spheroidal dwarf galaxy using ESO/VLT FORS2, Magellan/MMIRS, and Spitzer/IRS spectra. We have detected candidates of [F II] 4790A, [Kr III] 6826A, and [P II] 7875A lines and successfully estimated the abundances of these elements ([F/H]=+1.23, [Kr/H]=+0.26, [P/H]=+0.26) for the first time. We present a relation between C, F, P, and Kr abundances among PNe and C-rich stars. The detections of F and Kr support the idea that F and Kr together with C are synthesized in the same layer and brought to the surface by the third dredge-up. We have estimated the N^2+ and O^2+ abundances using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs). The discrepancy between the abundance derived from the O ORL and that derived from the O CEL is >1 dex. To investigate the status of the central star of the PN, nebula condition, and dust properties, we construct a theoretical SED model with CLOUDY. By compar...

  17. Astrophysical Origins for the Unusual Chemical Abundance of the Globular Cluster Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Geying

    2015-01-01

    We study the abundances of {\\alpha} elements, Fe-peak elements, and neutron-capture elements in Pal 1. We found that the abundances of the SNe Ia and main s-process components of Pal 1 are larger than those of the disk stars and the abundances of the primary component of Pal 1 are smaller than those of the disk stars with similar metallicity. The Fe abundances of Pal 1 and the disk stars mainly originate from the SNe Ia and the primary component, respectively. Although the {\\alpha} abundances dominantly produced by the primary process for the disk stars and Pal 1, the contributions of the primary component to Pal 1 are smaller than the corresponding contributions to the disk stars. The Fe-peak elements V and Co mainly originate from the primary and secondary components for the disk stars and Pal 1, but the contributions of the massive stars to Pal 1 are lower than those of the massive stars to the disk stars. The Yabundances mainly originate from the weak r-component for the disk stars. However, the contribut...

  18. Chemical Abundances for the Outer Halo Cluster Pal 4 from Co-added High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Context: Chemical element abundances for distant Galactic globular clusters (GCs) hold important clues to the origin of the Milky Way halo and its substructures. Aims: We study the chemical composition of red giant stars in Pal 4 - one of the most remote GCs in the Milky Way - and compare our abundance measurements to those for both low surface brightness dwarf galaxies, and GCs in the inner and the outer halo. Methods: By co-adding high-resolution, low-S/N Keck/HIRES spectra of 19 stars along the red giant branch, we estimate chemical abundance ratios of 20 alpha-, iron peak-, and neutron-capture elements. Our method gives total uncertainties on most element-to-iron ratios of typically 0.2 dex. Results: We measure [Fe/H] = -1.41 +- 0.04 (statistical) +- 0.17 (systematic) and an alpha-enhancement of [alpha/Fe] = +0.38 +- 0.11 dex, which is consistent with the canonical value of +0.4 dex found for Galactic halo field stars and most halo GCs at this metallicity. Although Pal 4 has higher enhancements in the hea...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of solar analogues (Adibekyan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Minchev, I.; Faria, J. P.; Israelian, G.; Harutyunyan, G.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Hakobyan, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    To understand if the abundance trend observed with the condensation temperature is a function of Galactocentric distances for a fixed age of stars, we selected about 40 stars with ages similar to that of the Sun but with different mean Galactocentric distances from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey sample (GCS, Nordstroem et al., 2004A&A...418..989N, Cat. V/117): with the smallest (Rmean~6.5kpc), largest (Rmean~9kpc), and solar (Rmean~8kpc) Galactocentric Rmean values. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra for these stars were obtained by performing new observations with HARPS (22 stars) and UVES (six stars) ESO spectrographs, and by extracting spectra for 14 stars from the ESO archive. The file param.dat lists the stellar parameters of the stars. The file abund.dat lists the derived abundances of the elements for each star. (2 data files).

  20. Abundances in Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Systems and Chemical Evolution of High Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, L; Barlow, T A; Lu, Limin; Sargent, Wallace L.W.; Barlow, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent abundance measurements in damped Lyman-alpha galaxies, supplemented with unpublished Keck observations, are discussed. The metallicity distribution with cosmic time is examined for clues about the degree of enrichment, the onset of initial star formation, and the nature of the galxies. The relative abundances of the elements are compared with the abundnce pattern in Galactic halo stars and in the Sun, taking into account of the effects of dust depletion, in order to gain insight into the stellar processes and the time scales by which the enrichment occurred.

  1. The Cannon 2: A data-driven model of stellar spectra for detailed chemical abundance analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R; Ness, Melissa; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ho, Anna Q Y; Gilmore, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    We have shown that data-driven models are effective for inferring physical attributes of stars (labels; Teff, logg, [M/H]) from spectra, even when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here we explore whether this is possible when the dimensionality of the label space is large (Teff, logg, and 15 abundances: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni) and the model is non-linear in its response to abundance and parameter changes. We adopt ideas from compressed sensing to limit overall model complexity while retaining model freedom. The model is trained with a set of 12,681 red-giant stars with high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations and stellar parameters and abundances taken from the APOGEE Survey. We find that we can successfully train and use a model with 17 stellar labels. Validation shows that the model does a good job of inferring all 17 labels (typical abundance precision is 0.04 dex), even when we degrade the signal-to-noise by discarding ~50% of the observing time. The model dependencie...

  2. Chemical abundances and dust in planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutenkunst, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of 11 planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the bulge, the infrared

  3. Chemical abundances in the nucleus of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Romano, D.; Chapman, S. C.; Monaco, L.

    2017-09-01

    We present iron, magnesium, calcium, and titanium abundances for 235 stars in the central region of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (within 9.0' ≃ 70 pc from the centre) from medium-resolution Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra. All the considered stars belong to the massive globular cluster M 54 or to the central nucleus of the galaxy (Sgr, N). In particular we provide abundances for 109 stars with [Fe/H] ≥-1.0, more than doubling the available sample of spectroscopic metallicity and α-elements abundance estimates for Sgr dSph stars in this metallicity regime. We find for the first time a metallicity gradient in the Sgr, N population, whose peak iron abundance goes from [Fe/H] =-0.38 for R ≤ 2.5' to [Fe/H] =-0.57 for 5.0 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A46

  4. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants - II. AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałan, Cezary; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the elemental abundances of symbiotic giants is essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However, there are few symbiotic giants for which the photospheric abundances are fairly well determined. This is the second in a series of papers on chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) near-IR spectra. Results are presented for the late-type giant star in the AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco systems. Spectrum synthesis employing standard local thermal equilibrium (LTE) analysis and stellar atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis resulted in sub-solar metallicities in BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco by [Fe/H] ˜ -0.3 or -0.5 depending on the value of microturbulence. AE Ara shows metallicity closer to solar by ˜ 0.2 dex. The enrichment in 14N isotope found in all these objects indicates that the giants have experienced the first dredge-up. In the case of BX Mon first dredge-up is also confirmed by the low 12C/13C isotopic ratio of ˜ 8.

  5. Chemical Abundances of Seven Outer Halo M31 Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sakari, Charli M

    2016-01-01

    Observations of stellar streams in M31's outer halo suggest that M31 is actively accreting several dwarf galaxies and their globular clusters (GCs). Detailed abundances can chemically link clusters to their birth environments, establishing whether or not a GC has been accreted from a satellite dwarf galaxy. This talk presents the detailed chemical abundances of seven M31 outer halo GCs (with projected distances from M31 greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high-resolution integrated-light spectra taken with the Hobby Eberly Telescope. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS)---this talk presents the first determinations of integrated Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, and Eu abundances for these clusters. Four of the target clusters (PA06, PA53, PA54, and PA56) are metal-poor ($[\\rm{Fe/H}] < -1.5$), $\\alpha$-enhanced (though they are possibly less alpha-enhanced than Milky Way stars at the 1 sigma level), and show signs of star-to-star Na and Mg variatio...

  6. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Sodium and aluminium abundances in giants and dwarfs - Implications for stellar and Galactic chemical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R; Bragaglia, A; Donati, P; Magrini, L; Friel, E; Jacobson, H; Randich, S; Ventura, P; Lind, K; Bergemann, M; Nordlander, T; Morel, T; Pancino, E; Tautvaisiene, G; Adibekyan, V; Tosi, M; Vallenari, A; Gilmore, G; Bensby, T; Francois, P; Koposov, S; Lanzafame, A C; Recio-Blanco, A; Bayo, A; Carraro, G; Casey, A R; Costado, M T; Franciosini, E; Heiter, U; Hill, V; Hourihane, A; Jofre, P; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Lewis, J; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Sbordone, L; Sousa, S G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S

    2016-01-01

    Stellar evolution models predict that internal mixing should cause some sodium overabundance at the surface of red giants more massive than ~ 1.5--2.0 Msun. The surface aluminium abundance should not be affected. Nevertheless, observational results disagree about the presence and/or the degree of the Na and Al overabundances. In addition, Galactic chemical evolution models adopting different stellar yields lead to quite different predictions for the behavior of [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. Overall, the observed trends of these abundances with metallicity are not well reproduced. We readdress both issues, using new Na and Al abundances determined within the Gaia-ESO Survey, using two samples: i) more than 600 dwarfs of the solar neighborhood and of open clusters and ii) low- and intermediate-mass clump giants in six open clusters. Abundances of Na in giants with mass below ~2.0 Msun, and of Al in giants below ~3.0 Msun, seem to be unaffected by internal mixing processes. For more massive giants, the Na o...

  7. Chemical abundances of damped Lyman alpha systems in the XQ-100 survey

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, T A M; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Prochaska, J X; Lopez, S; D'Odorico, V; Becker, G; Christensen, L; Cupani, G; Denney, K; Worsek, G

    2016-01-01

    The XQ-100 survey has provided high signal-noise spectra of 100 redshift 3-4.5 quasars with the X-Shooter spectrograph. The metal abundances for 13 elements in the 41 damped Lyman alpha systems (DLAs) identified in the XQ-100 sample are presented, and an investigation into abundances of a variety of DLA classes is conducted. The XQ-100 DLA sample contains five DLAs within 5000 km/s of their host quasar (proximate DLAs; PDLAs) as well as three sightlines which contain two DLAs within 10,000 km/s of each other along the same line-of-sight (multiple DLAs; MDLAs). Combined with previous observations in the literature, we demonstrate that PDLAs with logN(HI)21.0. These abundance discrepancies are independent of their line-of-sight velocity separation from the host quasar, and the velocity width of the metal lines (v90). Contrary to previous studies, MDLAs show no difference in [alpha/Fe] relative to single DLAs matched in metallicity and redshift. In addition, we present follow-up UVES data of J0034+1639, a sightl...

  8. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Xuan; Guerrero, Martin A; Liu, Xiaowei; Yuan, Haibo; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    We present deep spectroscopy of planetary nebulae (PNe) that are associated with the substructures of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The spectra were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the 10.4 m GTC. Seven targets were selected for the observations, three in the Northern Spur and four associated with the Giant Stream. The most distant target in our sample, with a rectified galactocentric distance >100 kpc, was the first PN discovered in the outer streams of M31. The [O III] 4363 auroral line was well detected in the spectra of all targets, enabling electron temperature determination. Ionic abundances are derived based on the [O III] temperatures, and elemental abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon are estimated. The relatively low N/O and He/H ratios as well as abundance ratios of alpha-elements indicate that our target PNe might belong to populations as old as ~2 Gyr. Our PN sample, including the current seven and the previous three observed by Fang et al., have rather homogeneo...

  9. Chemical abundances in Orion protoplanetary discs: integral field spectroscopy and photoevaporation models of HST 10

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, Y G; Henney, W J; Walsh, J R; Mesa-Delgado, A

    2012-01-01

    Photoevaporating protoplanetary discs (proplyds) in the vicinity of hot massive stars, such as those found in Orion, are important objects of study for the fields of star formation, early disc evolution, planetary formation, and H II region astrophysics. Their element abundances are largely unknown, unlike those of the main-sequence stars or the host Orion nebula. We present a spectroscopic analysis of the Orion proplyd HST 10, based on integral field observations with the Very Large Telescope/FLAMES fibre array at a resolution of 0.31" x 0.31". The proplyd and its vicinity are imaged in a variety of emission lines across a 6.6" x 4.2" area. The reddening, electron density and temperature are mapped out from various line diagnostics. The abundances of helium, and eight heavy elements are measured relative to hydrogen using the direct method based on the [O III] electron temperature. The abundance ratios of O/H and S/H are derived without resort to ionization correction factors. We construct dynamic photoevapo...

  10. Chemical Abundances of the Highly Obscured Galactic Globular Clusters 2MASS GC02 and Mercer 5

    CERN Document Server

    Penaloza, Francisco; Vasquez, Sergio; Borissova, Jura; Kurtev, Radostin; Zoccali, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We present the first high spectral resolution abundance analysis of two newly discovered Galactic globular clusters, namely Mercer 5 and 2MASS GC02 residing in regions of high interstellar reddening in the direction of the Galactic center. The data were acquired with the Phoenix high-resolution near-infrared echelle spectrograph at Gemini South (R~50000) in the 15500.0 A - 15575.0 A spectral region. Iron, Oxygen, Silicon, Titanium and Nickel abundances were derived for two red giant stars, in each cluster, by comparing the entire observed spectrum with a grid of synthetic spectra generated with MOOG. We found [Fe/H] values of -0.86 +/- 0.12 and -1.08 +/- 0.13 for Mercer 5 and 2MASS GC02 respectively. The [O/Fe], [Si/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] ratios of the measured stars of Mercer 5 follow the general trend of both bulge field and cluster stars at this metallicity, and are enhanced by > +0.3. The 2MASS GC02 stars have relatively lower ratios, but still compatible with other bulge clusters. Based on metallicity and abund...

  11. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Sodium and aluminium abundances in giants and dwarfs. Implications for stellar and Galactic chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, R.; Romano, D.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Magrini, L.; Friel, E.; Jacobson, H.; Randich, S.; Ventura, P.; Lind, K.; Bergemann, M.; Nordlander, T.; Morel, T.; Pancino, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Tosi, M.; Vallenari, A.; Gilmore, G.; Bensby, T.; François, P.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Stellar evolution models predict that internal mixing should cause some sodium overabundance at the surface of red giants more massive than ~1.5-2.0 M⊙. The surface aluminium abundance should not be affected. Nevertheless, observational results disagree about the presence and/or the degree of Na and Al overabundances. In addition, Galactic chemical evolution models adopting different stellar yields lead to very different predictions for the behavior of [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. Overall, the observed trends of these abundances with metallicity are not well reproduced. Aims: We readdress both issues, using new Na and Al abundances determined within the Gaia-ESO Survey. Our aim is to obtain better observational constraints on the behavior of these elements using two samples: i) more than 600 dwarfs of the solar neighborhood and of open clusters and ii) low- and intermediate-mass clump giants in six open clusters. Methods: Abundances were determined using high-resolution UVES spectra. The individual Na abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects. For the Al abundances, the order of magnitude of the corrections was estimated for a few representative cases. For giants, the abundance trends with stellar mass are compared to stellar evolution models. For dwarfs, the abundance trends with metallicity and age are compared to detailed chemical evolution models. Results: Abundances of Na in stars with mass below ~2.0 M⊙, and of Al in stars below ~3.0 M⊙, seem to be unaffected by internal mixing processes. For more massive stars, the Na overabundance increases with stellar mass. This trend agrees well with predictions of stellar evolutionary models. For Al, our only cluster with giants more massive than 3.0 M⊙, NGC 6705, is Al enriched. However, this might be related to the environment where the cluster was formed. Chemical evolution models that well fit the observed [Na/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] trend in solar neighborhood dwarfs

  12. Chemical Abundances of M-dwarfs from the APOGEE Survey. I. The Exoplanet Hosting Stars Kepler-138 and Kepler-186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, D.; Cunha, K.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O.; Allende Prieto, C.; Smith, V. V.; Mahadevan, S.; Blake, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Jönsson, H.; Pinsonneault, M.; Holtzman, J.; Majewski, S. R.; Shetrone, M.; Teske, J.; Nidever, D.; Schiavon, R.; Sobeck, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Stassun, K.

    2017-02-01

    We report the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of the exoplanet-hosting M-dwarf stars Kepler-138 and Kepler-186 from the analysis of high-resolution (R ∼ 22,500) H-band spectra from the SDSS-IV–APOGEE survey. Chemical abundances of 13 elements—C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe—are extracted from the APOGEE spectra of these early M-dwarfs via spectrum syntheses computed with an improved line list that takes into account H2O and FeH lines. This paper demonstrates that APOGEE spectra can be analyzed to determine detailed chemical compositions of M-dwarfs. Both exoplanet-hosting M-dwarfs display modest sub-solar metallicities: [Fe/H]Kepler-138 = ‑0.09 ± 0.09 dex and [Fe/H]Kepler-186 = ‑0.08 ± 0.10 dex. The measured metallicities resulting from this high-resolution analysis are found to be higher by ∼0.1–0.2 dex than previous estimates from lower-resolution spectra. The C/O ratios obtained for the two planet-hosting stars are near-solar, with values of 0.55 ± 0.10 for Kepler-138 and 0.52 ± 0.12 for Kepler-186. Kepler-186 exhibits a marginally enhanced [Si/Fe] ratio.

  13. Chemical abundances of the damped Lyman α systems in the XQ-100 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, T. A. M.; Ellison, S. L.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Prochaska, J. X.; Lopez, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Becker, G.; Christensen, L.; Cupani, G.; Denney, K.; Worseck, G.

    2016-12-01

    The XQ-100 survey has provided high signal-noise spectra of 100 redshift 3-4.5 quasars with the X-Shooter spectrograph. The metal abundances for 13 elements in the 41 damped Ly α systems (DLAs) identified in the XQ-100 sample are presented, and an investigation into abundances of a variety of DLA classes is conducted. The XQ-100 DLA sample contains five DLAs within 5000 km s-1 of their host quasar (proximate DLAs; PDLAs) as well as three sightlines which contain two DLAs within 10 000 km s-1 of each other along the same line of sight (multiple DLAs; MDLAs). Combined with previous observations in the literature, we demonstrate that PDLAs with log N(H I) systems with similar redshift and N(H I)], whilst higher [S/H] and [Si/H] are seen in PDLAs with log N(H I) > 21.0. These abundance discrepancies are independent of their line-of-sight velocity separation from the host quasar, and the velocity width of the metal lines (v90). Contrary to previous studies, MDLAs show no difference in [α/Fe] relative to single DLAs matched in metallicity and redshift. In addition, we present follow-up UVES data of J0034+1639, a sightline containing three DLAs, including a metal-poor DLA with [Fe/H] = -2.82 (the third lowest [Fe/H] in DLAs identified to date) at zabs = 4.25. Lastly we study the dust-corrected [Zn/Fe], emphasizing that near-IR coverage of X-Shooter provides unprecedented access to Mg II, Ca II and Ti II lines (at redshifts 3-4) to provide additional evidence for subsolar [Zn/Fe] ratio in DLAs.

  14. Comparison of the chemical alteration trajectory of Liriodendron tulipifera L. leaf litter among forests with different earthworm abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Timothy R.; McCormick, Melissa K.; Crow, Susan E.; Szlavecz, Katalin; Whigham, Dennis F.; Johnston, Cliff T.; van den Heuvel, Ronald N.

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the control of earthworm populations on leaf litter biopolymer decay dynamics, we analyzed the residues of Liriodendron tulipifera L. (tulip poplar) leaves after six months of decay, comparing open surface litter and litter bag experiments among forests with different native and invasive earthworm abundances. Six plots were established in successional tulip poplar forests where sites varied in earthworm density and biomass, roughly 4-10 fold, of nonnative lumbricid species. Analysis of residues by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline CuO extraction indicated that open decay in sites with abundant earthworms resulted in residues depleted in cuticular aliphatic and polysaccharide components and enriched in ether-linked lignin relative to open decay in low earthworm abundance plots. Decay within earthworm-excluding litter bags resulted in an increase in aliphatic components relative to initial amendment and similar chemical trajectory to low earthworm open decay experiments. All litter exhibited a decline in cinnamyl-based lignin and an increase in nitrogen content. The influence of earthworm density on the chemical trajectory of litter decay was primarily a manifestation of the physical separation and concentration of lignin-rich and cutin-poor petioles with additional changes promoted by either microorganisms and/or mesofauna resulting in nitrogen addition and polysaccharide loss. These results illustrate how projected increases in invasive earthworm activity in northern North American forests could alter the chemical composition of organic matter in litter residues and potentially organic matter reaching the soil which may result in shifts in the aromatic and aliphatic composition of soils in different systems.

  15. Differential chemical abundance analysis of a 47 Tuc AGB star with respect to Arcturus

    CERN Document Server

    Worley, C C; Freeman, K C; Boer, E C Wylie-de

    2009-01-01

    This study resolves a discrepancy in the abundance of Zr in the 47 Tucanae asymptotic giant branch star Lee 2525. This star was observed using the echelle spectrograph on the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. The analysis was undertaken by calibrating Lee 2525 with respect to the standard giant star Arcturus. This work emphasises the importance of using a standard star with stellar parameters comparable to the star under analysis rather than a calibration with respect to the Sun (Koch & McWilliam 2008). Systematic errors in the analysis process are then minimised due to the similarity in atmospheric structure between the standard and programme stars. The abundances derived for Lee 2525 were found to be in general agreement with the Brown & Wallerstein (1992) values except for Zr. In this study Zr has a similar enhancement ([Zr/Fe] = +0.51 dex) to another light s-process element, Y ([Y/Fe] = +0.53 dex), which reflects current theory regarding the enrichment of s-process elements by nuclear ...

  16. Detailed Chemical Abundances in the r-Process-Rich Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Bailey, John I; Song, Yingyi; Bell, Eric F; Crane, Jeffrey D; Loebman, Sarah; Nidever, David L; Olszewski, Edward W; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B; Valluri, Monica; Walker, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    The ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum 2 (Ret 2) was recently discovered in images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. We have observed the four brightest red giants in Ret 2 at high spectral resolution using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System. We present detailed abundances for as many as 20 elements per star, including 12 elements heavier than the Fe group. We confirm previous detection of high levels of r-process material in Ret 2 (mean [Eu/Fe]=+1.69+/-0.05) found in three of these stars (mean [Fe/H]=-2.88+/-0.10). The abundances closely match the r-process pattern found in the well-studied metal-poor halo star CS22892-052. Such r-process-enhanced stars have not been found in any other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy, though their existence has been predicted by at least one model. The fourth star in Ret 2 ([Fe/H]=-3.42+/-0.20) contains only trace amounts of Sr ([Sr/Fe]=-1.73+/-0.43) and no detectable heavier elements. One r-process enhanced star is also enhanced in C (natal [C/Fe]=+1.1). This is only the third s...

  17. Chemical Abundances in 35 Metal-Poor Stars. I. Basic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Deok; Kim, Kang-Min

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a homogeneous abundance study for various elements, including $\\alpha$-elements, iron peak elements and $n$-capture elements for 35 metal-poor stars with a wide metallicity range ($-3.0\\lesssim$[Fe/H]$\\lesssim-0.5$). High-resolution ($R\\simeq30$k), high signal-to-noise($S/N\\geq110$) spectra with a wavelength range of 3800 to 10500 \\AA using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES). Equivalent widths were measured by means of the Gaussian-fitting method for numerous isolated weak lines of elements. Atmospheric parameters were determined by a self-consistent LTE analysis technique using Fe I and Fe II lines. In this study, we present the EWs of lines and atmospheric parameters for 35 metal-poor stars.

  18. Element Abundances in a Gas-rich Galaxy at z = 5: Clues to the Early Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Sean; Som, Debopam; DeMarcy, Bryan; Quiret, Samuel; Peroux, Celine

    2016-01-01

    Element abundances in high-redshift quasar absorbers offer excellent probes of the chemical enrichment of distant galaxies, and can constrain models for population III and early population II stars. Recent observations indicate that the sub-damped Lyman-alpha (sub-DLA) absorbers are more metal-rich than the damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers at redshifts 0$$4.7. However, only 3 DLAs at $z$$>$4.5 and no sub-DLAs at $z$$>$3.5 have "dust-free" metallicity measurements of undepleted elements. We report the first measurement of element abundances in a sub-DLA at $z$=5.0, using Keck HIRES and ESI data. We obtain fairly robust abundances of C, O, Si, and Fe, using lines outside the Lyman-alpha forest. We find this absorber to be metal-poor, with [O/H]=$-2.02$$\\pm$0.12, which is $>$5$\\sigma$ below the level expected from an extrapolation of the trend for $z$$<$3.5 sub-DLAs. The C/O ratio is $1.7^{+0.4}_{-0.3}$ times lower than in the Sun. More strikingly, Si/O is $3.0^{+0.6}_{-0.5}$ times lower than in the Sun, wh...

  19. Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium - II. Chemical enrichment and supernova yield models

    CERN Document Server

    Mernier, François; Pinto, Ciro; Kaastra, Jelle S; Kosec, Peter; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Mao, Junjie; Werner, Norbert; Pols, Onno R; Vink, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesised by supernovae (SNe) and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z~2-3). In this study, we compare the most accurate average X/Fe abundance ratios (compiled in a previous work from XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS observations of 44 galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals), representative of the chemical enrichment in the nearby ICM, to various SNIa and SNcc nucleosynthesis models found in the literature. The use of a SNcc model combined to any favoured standard SNIa model (deflagration or delayed-detonation) fails to reproduce our abundance pattern. In particular, the Ca/Fe and Ni/Fe ratios are significantly underestimated by the model...

  20. Chemical Abundances in Twelve Red Giants of the Large Magellanic Cloud from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, V V; Cunha, K; Plez, B; Lambert, D L; Pilachowski, C A; Barbuy, B; Melendez, J; Balachandran, S C; Bessell, M S; Geisler, D; Hesser, J E; Winge, C

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution infrared spectra (R=50,000) have been obtained for twelve red-giant members of the LMC with the Gemini South 8.3-meter telescope plus Phoenix spectrometer. Quantitative chemical abundances of carbon-12, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-16 were derived from molecular lines of CO, CN, and OH, while sodium, scandium, titanium, and iron abundances were derived from neutral atomic lines. The LMC giants have masses from about 1 to 4 solar masses and span a metallicity range from [Fe/H]= -1.1 to -0.3. The program red giants all show evidence of first dredge-up mixing, with low 12C/13C ratios, and low 12C correlated with high 14N abundances. Comparisons of the oxygen-to-iron ratios in the LMC and the Galaxy indicate that the trend of [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in the LMC falls about 0.2 dex below the Galactic trend. Such an offset can be modeled as due to an overall lower rate of supernovae per unit mass in the LMC relative to the Galaxy, as well as a slightly lower ratio of supernovae of type II to super...

  1. Boundary conditions for the paleoenvironment: Chemical and physical processes in the pre-solar nebula. [molecular clouds, interstellar matter, and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    Two additional hyperfine components of the interstellar radical C3H were detected. In addition, methanol was discovered in interstellar clouds. The abundance of HCCN and various chemical isomers in molecular clouds was investigated.

  2. Chemical Abundances of Seven Outer Halo M31 Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of stellar streams in M31's outer halo suggest that M31 is actively accreting several dwarf galaxies and their globular clusters (GCs). Detailed abundances can chemically link clusters to their birth environments, establishing whether or not a GC has been accreted from a satellite dwarf galaxy. This talk presents the detailed chemical abundances of seven M31 outer halo GCs (with projected distances from M31 greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high-resolution integrated-light spectra taken with the Hobby Eberly Telescope. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS)-this talk presents the first determinations of integrated Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, and Eu abundances for these clusters. Four of the target clusters (PA06, PA53, PA54, and PA56) are metal-poor ([Fe/H] stars at the 1 sigma level), and show signs of star-to-star Na and Mg variations. The other three GCs (H10, H23, and PA17) are more metal-rich, with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = -1.4 to -0.9. While H23 is chemically similar to Milky Way field stars, Milky Way GCs, and other M31 clusters, H10 and PA17 have moderately-low [Ca/Fe], compared to Milky Way field stars and clusters. Additionally, PA17's high [Mg/Ca] and [Ba/Eu] ratios are distinct from Milky Way stars, and are in better agreement with the stars and clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). None of the clusters studied here can be conclusively linked to any of the identified streams from PAndAS; however, based on their locations, kinematics, metallicities, and detailed abundances, the most metal-rich PAndAS clusters H23 and PA17 may be associated with the progenitor of the Giant Stellar Stream, H10 may be associated with the SW Cloud, and PA53 and PA56 may be associated with the Eastern Cloud.

  3. A chemical solver to compute molecule and grain abundances and non-ideal MHD resistivities in prestellar core collapse calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, Pierre; Chabrier, Gilles; Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoit; Vaytet, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We develop a detailed chemical network relevant to the conditions characteristic of prestellar core collapse. We solve the system of time-dependent differential equations to calculate the equilibrium abundances of molecules and dust grains, with a size distribution given by size-bins for these latter. These abundances are used to compute the different non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities (ambipolar, Ohmic and Hall), needed to carry out simulations of protostellar collapse. For the first time in this context, we take into account the evaporation of the grains, the thermal ionisation of Potassium, Sodium and Hydrogen at high temperature, and the thermionic emission of grains in the chemical network, and we explore the impact of various cosmic ray ionisation rates. All these processes significantly affect the non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamics resistivities, which will modify the dynamics of the collapse. Ambipolar diffusion and Hall effect dominate at low densities, up to n_H = 10^12 cm^-3, after which Oh...

  4. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOOeTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Monaco, Lorenzo [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3900 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geisler, D., E-mail: gil@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: lmonaco@eso.org, E-mail: wyse@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-20

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Booetes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Booetes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [{alpha}/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [{alpha}/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  5. Phytoplankton Composition and Abundance in Restored Maltanski Reservoir under the Influence of Physico-Chemical Variables and Zooplankton Grazing Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the effects of environmental factors and zooplankton food pressure on phytoplankton in the restored man-made Maltański Reservoir (MR. Two methods of restoration: biomanipulation and phosphorus inactivation have been applied in the reservoir. Nine taxonomical groups of phytoplankton represented in total by 183 taxa were stated there. The richest groups in respect of taxa number were green algae, cyanobacteria and diatoms. The diatoms, cryptophytes, chrysophytes, cyanobacteria, green algae and euglenophytes dominated in terms of abundance and/or biomass. There were significant changes among environmental parameters resulting from restoration measures which influenced the phytoplankton populations in the reservoir. These measures led to a decrease of phosphorus concentration due to its chemical inactivation and enhanced zooplankton grazing as a result of planktivorous fish stocking. The aim of the study is to analyse the reaction of phytoplankton to the restoration measures and, most importantly, to determine the extent to which the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton depends on variables changing under the influence of restoration in comparison with other environmental variables. We stated that application of restoration methods did cause significant changes in phytoplankton community structure. The abundance of most phytoplankton taxa was negatively correlated with large zooplankton filter feeders, and positively with zooplankton predators and concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and partly of phosphates. However, restoration was insufficient in the case of decreasing phytoplankton abundance. The effects of restoration treatments were of less importance for the abundance of phytoplankton than parameters that were independent of the restoration. This was due to the continuous inflow of large loads of nutrients from the area of the river catchment.

  6. Infrared Spectra and Chemical Abundance of Methyl Propionate in Icy Astrochemical Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaraman, B; Das, A; Gopakumar, G; Majumdar, L; Chakrabarti, S K; Subramanian, K P; Sekhar, B N Raja; Hada, M

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an experiment in order to obtain the InfraRed (IR) spectra of methyl propionate (CH3CH2COOCH3) in astrochemical conditions and present the IR spectra for future identification of this molecule in the InterStellar Medium (ISM). The experimental IR spectrum is compared with the theoretical spectrum and an attempt was made to assign the observed peak positions to their corresponding molecular vibrations in condensed phase. Moreover, our calculations suggest that methyl propionate must be synthesized efficiently within the complex chemical network of the ISM and therefore be present in cold dust grains, awaiting identification.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Line list for stellar chemical abundances (Bedell+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, M.; Melendez, J.; Bean, J. L.; Ramirez, I.; Leite, P.; Asplund, M.

    2017-05-01

    The five solar spectra used in this analysis were obtained with very high resolution and signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) characteristic of data used in past stellar abundance analyses. Two spectra were taken with the Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) instrument (Donati 2003, Solar Polarization (ASP Conf. Ser. 307), ed. J. Trujillo-Bueno & J. Sanchez Almeida (San Francisco, CA: ASP), 41) at the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on the night of 2013 March 4. The asteroids Ceres and Vesta were each observed in "star only" mode at a spectral resolving power R=81000. The remaining three solar spectra were taken with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph (Bernstein et al. 2003SPIE.4841.1694B) at the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope. The asteroid Vesta was observed twice and Iris was observed once during three separate observing runs spanning January to September of 2011. All observations were carried out in MIKE's standard setup with the 0.35 arcsec width slit, giving a spectral resolving power of R=83000 on the blue CCD and 65000 on the red CCD. (1 data file).

  8. Derivation of chemical abundances in star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Martinez, J M

    2014-01-01

    We have studied a sample of 11 blue, luminous, metal-poor galaxies at redshift 0.744 < z < 0.835 from the DEEP2 redshift survey. They were selected by the presence of the [OIII]4363 auroral line and the [OII]3726,3729 doublet together with the strong emission nebular [OIII] lines in their spectra from a sample of around 6000 galaxies within a narrow redshift range. All the spectra have been taken with DEIMOS, which is a multi-slit, double-beam spectrograph which uses slitmasks to allow the spectra from many objects to be imaged at the same time. The selected objects present high luminosities (20.3 < MB < 18.5), remarkable blue color index, and total oxygen abundances between 7.69 and 8.15 which represent 1/3 to 1/10 of the solar value. The wide spectral coverage (from 6500 to 9100 angstroms) of the DEIMOS spectrograph and its high spectral resolution, R around 5000, bring us an opportunity to study the behaviour of these star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshift with high quality spectra. We ...

  9. Galaxy pairs in cosmological simulations: effects of interactions on colours and chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, M J; Lambas, D G; Scannapieco, C; Tissera, P B; Lambas, Diego G.; Rossi, Maria E. De; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Tissera, Patricia B.

    2006-01-01

    We perform an statistical analysis of galaxies in pairs in a Lambda-CDM scenario by using the chemical GADGET-2 of Scannapieco et al. (2005) in order to study the effects of galaxy interactions on colours and metallicities. We find that galaxy-galaxy interactions can produce a bimodal colour distribution with galaxies with significant recent star formation activity contributing mainly to blue colours. In the simulations, the colours and the fractions of recently formed stars of galaxies in pairs depend on environment more strongly than those of galaxies without a close companion, suggesting that interactions play an important role in galaxy evolution. If the metallicity of the stellar populations is used as the chemical indicator, we find that the simulated galaxies determine luminosity-metallicity and stellar mass-metallicity relations which do not depend on the presence of a close companion. However, in the case of the luminosity-metallicity relation, at a given level of enrichment, we detect a systematic d...

  10. Absolute Proper Motions and Chemical Abundances of Stars Along the Sagittarius Trailing Tidal Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Majewski, S. R.; Casetti-Dinescu, D. I.; Patterson, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    We show results from our deep proper-motion survey of Kapteyn's Selected Areas (SAs; Casetti-Dinescu et al. 2006, AJ,132,2082), with a focus on fields that intersect the Sagittarius (Sgr) trailing tidal stream. Our data set, derived from matched, deep photographic plate pairs taken nearly 100 years apart, provides a unique window on the motions of stars in these SA fields. We find the signature of a common-motion population among our accurate proper motions of stars in five of these fields, as well as corresponding stellar excesses which are identified as stellar debris from the disrupted Sgr dwarf. Spectroscopic follow-up confirms that these stars are Sgr members, and the resultant radial velocities and spectroscopic parallaxes are combined with proper motions to derive full space motions of 30-100 tidal stream members per field. These kinematical data are compared to the predictions of the Law et al. (2009, ApJL,703,67) models of Sgr disruption, which have thus far reproduced most observed features of the Sgr stream, and have also constrained the triaxial shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo. We also derive low-resolution spectroscopic abundances along this stretch of the Sgr stream, and explore the stream metallicity gradient reported by Chou et al. (2007, ApJ,670,346). Majewski et al. (2006, ApJL,627,25) showed that because the Sgr debris plane is nearly coincident with the Galactic X-Z Cartesian plane, proper motions in the portion of the Sgr trailing tail in our study almost entirely reflect the solar motion, and can be used to make a direct measurement of the rotation speed at the Solar circle (the "Local Standard of Rest") almost completely independent of the Sun's distance from the Galactic center. Here, we report our derived constraints on the solar motion from absolute proper motions of Sgr debris in our SA fields.

  11. On the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur. Sulphur abundances from the [S i] 1082 nm line in giants

    CERN Document Server

    Matrozis, E; Dupree, A K

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur is still under debate. At low metallicities some studies find no correlation between [S/Fe] and [Fe/H], others find [S/Fe] increasing towards lower metallicities, and still others find a combination of the two. Each scenario has different implications for the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur. Aims. To contribute to the discussion on the Galactic chemical evolution of sulphur by deriving sulphur abundances from non-LTE insensitive spectral diagnostics in Disk and Halo stars with homogeneously determined stellar parameters. Methods. We derive Teff from photometric colours, logg from stellar isochrones and Bayesian estimation, and [Fe/H] and [S/Fe] from spectrum synthesis. We derive [S/Fe] from the [S i] 1082 nm line in 39 mostly cool and metal-poor giants, using 1D LTE MARCS model atmospheres to model our high-resolution NIR spectra obtained with the VLT, NOT and Gemini South telescopes. Results. We derive homogeneous stellar parameters for 29 stars. Our...

  12. Solving the excitation and chemical abundances in shocks: the case of HH1

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; Nisini, B; Bacciotti, F; Podio, L

    2015-01-01

    We present deep spectroscopic (3600 - 24700 A) X-shooter observations of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH1, one of the best laboratories to study the chemical and physical modifications caused by protostellar shocks on the natal cloud. We observe atomic fine structure lines, HI, and He, recombination lines and H_2, ro-vibrational lines (more than 500 detections in total). Line emission was analyzed by means of Non Local Thermal Equilibiurm codes to derive the electron temperature and density, and, for the first time, we are able to accurately probe different physical regimes behind a dissociative shock. We find a temperature stratification in the range 4000 - 80000 K, and a significant correlation between temperature and ionization energy. Two density regimes are identified for the ionized gas, a more tenuous, spatially broad component (density about 10^3 cm^-3), and a more compact component (density > 10^5 cm^-3) likely associated with the hottest gas. A further neutral component is also evidenced, having te...

  13. Element Abundances in a Gas-rich Galaxy at z = 5: Clues to the Early Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sean; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; DeMarcy, Bryan; Quiret, Samuel; Péroux, Celine

    2016-10-01

    Element abundances in high-redshift quasar absorbers offer excellent probes of the chemical enrichment of distant galaxies, and can constrain models for population III and early population II stars. Recent observations indicate that the sub-damped Lyα (sub-DLA) absorbers are more metal-rich than DLA absorbers at redshifts 0 4.7. However, only three DLAs at z > 4.5 and no sub-DLAs at z > 3.5 have “dust-free” metallicity measurements of undepleted elements. We report the first quasar sub-DLA metallicity measurement at z > 3.5, from detections of undepleted elements in high-resolution data for a sub-DLA at z = 5.0. We obtain fairly robust abundances of C, O, Si, and Fe, using lines outside the Lyα forest. This absorber is metal-poor, with [O/H] = ‑2.00 ± 0.12, which is ≳4σ below the level expected from extrapolation of the trend for z Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy of RGB stars in the Sagittarius Streams. I. Radial velocities and chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Bonifacio, P; Buzzoni, A; Ferraro, F R; Marconi, G; Sbordone, L; Zaggia, S

    2006-01-01

    Aims. The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy is currently disrupting under the strain of the Milky Way. A reliable reconstructions of Sgr star formation history can only be obtained joining core and stream informations. We present radial velocities for 67 stars belonging to the Sgr Stream. For 12 stars in the sample we also present iron (Fe) and $\\alpha$-element (Mg, Ca) abundances. Methods. Spectra were secured using different high resolution facilities: UVES@VLT, HARPS@3.6m and SARG@TNG. Radial velocities are obtained through cross correlation with a template spectra. Concerning chemical analysis, for the various elements, selected line equivalent widths (EWs) were measured and abundances computed using the WIDTH code and ATLAS model atmospheres. Results. The velocity dispersion of the trailing tail is found to be $\\sigma$=8.3$\\pm$0.9 km s$^{-1}, i.e. significantly lower than in the core of the Sgr galaxy and marginally lower than previous estimates in the same portion of the stream. Stream stars fol...

  15. A high precision chemical abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary: constraints on planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F; Ramirez, I; Yong, D; Melendez, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-precision, differential elemental abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio Keck/HIRES spectra. The secondary star in this double system is known to host a transiting giant planet while no planets have yet been detected around the primary star. The derived metallicities ([Fe/H]) of the primary and secondary stars are identical within the errors: $0.146 \\pm 0.014$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.033 dex) and $0.155 \\pm 0.007$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.023 dex), respectively. Extremely precise differential abundance ratios of 23 elements have been measured (mean error of $\\sigma$([X/Fe]) = 0.013 dex) and are found to be indistinguishable between the two stars: $\\Delta$[X/Fe] (secondary - primary) = $+0.001 \\pm 0.006$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.008 dex). The striking similarity in the chemical composition of the two stellar components in HAT-P-1 is contrary to the possible 0.04 dex level difference seen in 16 Cyg A+B, which also hosts a giant planet, at least 3 time...

  16. Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium. II. Chemical enrichment and supernova yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.; Pols, O. R.; Vink, J.

    2016-11-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesised by supernovae (SNe) and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z 2-3). In this study, we compare the most accurate average X/Fe abundance ratios (compiled in a previous work from XMM-Newton EPIC and RGS observations of 44 galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals), representative of the chemical enrichment in the nearby ICM, to various SNIa and SNcc nucleosynthesis models found in the literature. The use of a SNcc model combined to any favoured standard SNIa model (deflagration or delayed-detonation) fails to reproduce our abundance pattern. In particular, the Ca/Fe and Ni/Fe ratios are significantly underestimated by the models. We show that the Ca/Fe ratio can be reproduced better, either by taking a SNIa delayed-detonation model that matches the observations of the Tycho supernova remnant, or by adding a contribution from the "Ca-rich gap transient" SNe, whose material should easily mix into the hot ICM. On the other hand, the Ni/Fe ratio can be reproduced better by assuming that both deflagration and delayed-detonation SNIa contribute in similar proportions to the ICM enrichment. In either case, the fraction of SNIa over the total number of SNe (SNIa+SNcc) contributing to the ICM enrichment ranges within 29-45%. This fraction is found to be systematically higher than the corresponding SNIa/(SNIa+SNcc) fraction contributing to the enrichment of the proto-solar environnement (15-25%). We also discuss and quantify two useful constraints on both SNIa (i.e. the initial metallicity on SNIa progenitors and the fraction of low-mass stars that result in SNIa) and SNcc (i.e. the effect of

  17. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.

    2011-04-01

    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy of RGB stars in the Sagittarius streams. I. Radial velocities and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Buzzoni, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Marconi, G.; Sbordone, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2007-03-01

    Context: The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy is currently being disrupted under the strain of the Milky Way. A reliable reconstruction of Sgr star formation history can only be obtained by combining core and stream information. Aims: We present radial velocities for 67 stars belonging to the Sgr Stream. For 12 stars in the sample we also present iron (Fe) and α-element (Mg, Ca) abundances. Methods: Spectra were secured using different high resolution facilities: UVES@VLT, HARPS@3.6 m, and SARG@TNG. Radial velocities are obtained through cross correlation with a template spectra. Concerning chemical analysis, for the various elements, selected line equivalent widths were measured and abundances computed using the WIDTH code and ATLAS model atmospheres. Results: The velocity dispersion of the trailing tail is found to be σ = 8.3 ± 0.9 km s-1, i.e., significantly lower than in the core of the Sgr galaxy and marginally lower than previous estimates in the same portion of the stream. Stream stars follow the same trend as Sgr main body stars in the [ α/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. However, stars are, on average, more metal poor in the stream than in the main body. This effect is slightly stronger in stars belonging to more ancient wraps of the stream, according to currently accepted models of Sgr disruption. Based on observations taken at ESO VLT Kueyen telescope (Cerro Paranal, Chile, program: 075.B-0127(A)) and 3.6 m telescope (La Silla, Chile). Also based on spectroscopic observations taken at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, operated by the Fundación G. Galilei of INAF at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC (La Palma, Spain). Appendix A and Table [see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Three-dimensional chemically homogeneous and bi-abundance photoionization models of the "super-metal-rich" planetary nebula NGC 6153

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, H -B; Péquignot, D; Rubin, R H; Ercolano, B; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    Deep spectroscopy of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC\\,6153 shows that its heavy element abundances derived from optical recombination lines (ORLs) are ten times higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines (CELs), and points to the existence of H-deficient inclusions embedded in the diffuse nebula. In this study, we have constructed chemically homogeneous and bi-abundance three-dimensional photoionization models, using the Monte Carlo photoionization code {\\sc mocassin}. We attempt to reproduce the multi-waveband spectroscopic and imaging observations of NGC\\,6153, and investigate the nature and origin of the postulated H-deficient inclusions, as well as their impacts on the empirical nebular analyses assuming a uniform chemical composition. Our results show that chemically homogeneous models yield small electron temperature fluctuations and fail to reproduce the strengths of ORLs from C, N, O and Ne ions. In contrast, bi-abundance models incorporating a small amount of metal-rich inclusions ($\\si...

  20. Abundance Ratios in Stars vs. Hot Gas in Elliptical Galaxies: the Chemical Evolution Modeller Point of View

    CERN Document Server

    Pipino, A

    2009-01-01

    I will present predictions from chemical evolution model aimed at a self-consistent study of both optical (i.e. stellar) and X-ray (i.e.gas) properties of present-day elliptical galaxies. Detailed cooling and heating processes in the interstellar medium (ISM) are taken into and allow a reliable modelling of the SN-driven galactic wind. SNe Ia activity, in fact, may power a galactic wind lasting for a considerable amount of the galactic lifetime, even in the case for which the efficiency of energy transfer into the ISM per SN Ia event is less than unity. The model simultaneously reproduces the mass-metallicity, the colour-magnitude, the L_X - L_B and the L_X - T relations, as well as the observed trend of the [Mg/Fe] ratio as a function of sigma, by adopting the prescriptions of Pipino & Matteucci (2004) for the gas infall and star formation timescales. The "iron discrepancy", namely the too high predicted iron abundance in X-ray haloes of ellipticals compared to observations, can be solved by taking into ...

  1. Carbon and oxygen abundances from recombination lines in low-metallicity star-forming galaxies. Implications for chemical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban, C; Carigi, L; Peimbert, M; Bresolin, F; López-Sánchez, A R; Mesa-Delgado, A

    2014-01-01

    We present deep echelle spectrophotometry of the brightest emission-line knots of the star-forming galaxies He 2-10, Mkn 1271, NGC 3125, NGC 5408, POX 4, SDSS J1253-0312, Tol 1457-262, Tol 1924-416 and the HII region Hubble V in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. The data have been taken with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph in the 3100-10420 $\\AA$ range. We determine electron densities and temperatures of the ionized gas from several emission-line intensity ratios for all the objects. We derive the ionic abundances of C$^{2+}$ and/or O$^{2+}$ from faint pure recombination lines (RLs) in several of the objects, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios. We have explored the chemical evolution at low metallicities analysing the C/O vs. O/H, C/O vs. N/O and C/N vs. O/H relations for Galactic and extragalactic HII regions and comparing with results for halo stars and DLAs. We find that HII regions in star-forming dwarf galaxies occupy a different locus in the C/O...

  2. S3 and S4 abundances and improved chemical kinetic model for the lower atmosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2013-07-01

    Mixing ratios of S3 and S4 are obtained from reanalysis of the spectra of true absorption in the visible range retrieved by Maiorov et al. (Maiorov, B.S. et al. [2005]. Solar Syst. Res. 39, 267-282) from the Venera 11 observations. These mixing ratios are fS3 = 11 ± 3 ppt at 3-10 km and 18 ± 3 ppt at 10-19 km, fS4 = 4 ± 4 ppt at 3-10 km and 6 ± 2 ppt at 10-19 km, and show a steep decrease in both S3 and S4 above 19 km. Photolysis rates of S3 and S4 at various altitudes are calculated using the Venera 11 spectra and constant photolysis yields as free parameters. The chemical kinetic model for the Venus lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2007]. Icarus 191, 25-37) has been improved by inclusion of the S4 cycle from Yung et al. (Yung, Y.L. et al. [2009]. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E00B34), reduction of the H2SO4 and CO fluxes at the upper boundary of 47 km by a factor of 4 in accord with the recent photochemical models for the middle atmosphere, by using a closed lower boundary for OCS instead of a free parameter for this species at the surface, and some minor updates. Our model with the S4 cycle but without the SO3 + 2 OCS reaction suggested by Krasnopolsky and Pollack (Krasnopolsky, V.A., Pollack, J.B. [1994]. Icarus 109, 58-78) disagrees with the observations of OCS, CO, S3, and S4. However, inclusion of the S4 cycle improves the model fit to all observational constraints. The best-fit activation energy of 7800 K for thermolysis of S4 supports the S4 enthalpy from Mills (Mills, K.C. [1974]. Thermodynamic Data for Inorganic Sulfides, Selenides and Tellurides. Butterworths, London). Chemistry of the Venus lower atmosphere is initiated by disequilibrium products H2SO4 and CO from the middle atmosphere, photolysis of S3 and S4, and thermochemistry in the lowest scale height. The chemistry is mostly driven by sulfur that is formed in a slow reaction SO + SO, produces OCS, and results in dramatic changes in abundances of OCS, CO, and free sulfur allotropes. The SX + OCS

  3. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF THE MILKY WAY THICK DISK AND STELLAR HALO. II. SODIUM, IRON-PEAK, AND NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, M. N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Chiba, M., E-mail: miho.ishigaki@ipmu.jp, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We present chemical abundance analyses of sodium, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements for 97 kinematically selected thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo stars with metallicities -3.3 < [Fe/H] <-0.5. The main aim of this study is to examine chemical similarities and differences among metal-poor stars belonging to these old Galactic components as a clue to determine their early chemodynamical evolution. In our previous paper, we obtained abundances of {alpha} elements by performing a one-dimensional LTE abundance analysis based on the high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) spectra obtained with the Subaru/HDS. In this paper, a similar analysis is performed to determine abundances of an additional 17 elements. We show that, in metallicities below [Fe/H] {approx}-2, the abundance ratios of many elements in the thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo subsamples are largely similar. In contrast, in higher metallicities ([Fe/H] {approx}> -1.5), differences in some of the abundance ratios among the three subsamples are identified. Specifically, the [Na/Fe], [Ni/Fe], [Cu/Fe], and [Zn/Fe] ratios in the inner and outer halo subsamples are found to be lower than those in the thick disk subsample. A modest abundance difference between the two halo subsamples in this metallicity range is also seen for the [Na/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] ratios. In contrast to that observed for [Mg/Fe] in our previous paper, [Eu/Fe] ratios are more enhanced in the two halo subsamples rather than in the thick disk subsample. The observed distinct chemical abundances of some elements between the thick disk and inner/outer halo subsamples with [Fe/H] >-1.5 support the hypothesis that these components formed through different mechanisms. In particular, our results favor the scenario that the inner and outer halo components formed through an assembly of multiple progenitor systems that experienced various degrees of chemical enrichments, while the thick disk formed through rapid star formation with an

  4. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Jofré, P.; Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Sneden, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Blue metal-poor (BMP) stars are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts.Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator of their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2 dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity and lithium. Using a sample of 80 BMP stars (T > 6300 K), we find that 97% of the BMP binaries have V-Ks0 < 1.08 ± 0.03, while BMP stars that are not binaries lie above this cut in two thirds of the cases. This cut can help classify stars that lack radial velocities from follow-up observations. We then trace the origin of two BMP stars from the photometric sample by conducting a full chemical analysis using new high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra. Based on their radial velocities, Li, α and s- and r-process abundances we show that BPS CS22874-042 is a single star (A(Li) = 2.38 ± 0.10 dex) while with A(Li)= 2.23 ± 0.07 dex CD-48 2445 is a binary, contrary to earlier findings. Our analysis emphasises that field blue stragglers can be segregated from single metal-poor stars, using (V-Ks) colours with a fraction of single stars polluting the binary sample, but not vice versa. These two groups can only be properly separated by using information from

  5. Does IRAS 16293-2422 have a hot core? Chemical inventory and abundance changes in its protostellar environment

    CERN Document Server

    Schöier, F L; Van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A

    2002-01-01

    A detailed radiative transfer analysis of the observed continuum and molecular line emission toward the deeply embedded young stellar object IRAS 16293-2422 is performed. The continuum modelling is used to constrain the temperature and density distributions in the envelope, enabling quantitative estimates of various molecular abundances. The molecular excitation analysis reveals that the emission from some molecular species is well reproduced assuming a constant fractional abundance throughout the envelope. The abundances and isotope ratios are generally close to typical values found in cold molecular clouds in these cases, and there is a high degree of deuterium fractionation. There are, however, a number of notable exceptions. Lines covering a wide range of excitation conditions indicate for some molecules, e.g., H2CO, CH3OH, SO, SO2 and OCS, a drastic increase in their abundances in the warm and dense inner region of the circumstellar envelope. The location at which this increase occurs is consistent with ...

  6. Chemical Abundances and Kinematics in Globular Clusters and Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and Their Implications for Formation Theories of the Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Doug; Smith, Verne V; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I

    2007-01-01

    We review Galactic halo formation theories and supporting evidence, in particular kinematics and detailed chemical abundances of stars in some relevant globular clusters as well as Local Group dwarf galaxies. Outer halo red HB clusters tend to have large eccentricities and inhabit the area populated by dwarf spheroidal stars, favoring an extraGalactic origin. Old globulars show the full range of eccentricities, while younger ones seem to have preferentially high eccentricities, again hinting at their extraGalactic origin. We compare detailed abundances of a variety of elements between the halo and all dwarf galaxies studied to date, including both dwarf spheroidals and irregulars. The salient feature is that halo abundances are essentially unique. In particular, the general alpha vs. [Fe/H] pattern of 12 of the 13 galaxies studied are similar to each other and very different from the Milky Way. Sagittarius appears to be the only possible exception. It appears very unlikely that a significant fraction of the m...

  7. Detailed Abundances of Planet-Hosting Wide Binaries. I. Did Planet Formation Imprint Chemical Signatures in the Atmospheres of HD 20782/81?

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, Claude E; Stassun, Keivan G; Pepper, Joshua; Norris, John

    2014-01-01

    Using high-resolution echelle spectra obtained with Magellan/MIKE, we present a chemical abundance analysis of both stars in the planet-hosting wide binary system HD20782 + HD20781. Both stars are G dwarfs, and presumably coeval, forming in the same molecular cloud. Therefore we expect that they should possess the same bulk metallicities. Furthermore, both stars also host giant planets on eccentric orbits with pericenters $\\lesssim 0.2\\,$ AU. We investigate if planets with such orbits could lead to the host stars ingesting material, which in turn may leave similar chemical imprints in their atmospheric abundances. We derived abundances of 15 elements spanning a range of condensation temperatures ($T_{C}\\approx 40-1660\\,$ K). The two stars are found to have a mean element-to-element abundance difference of $0.04\\pm0.07\\,$ dex, which is consistent with both stars having identical bulk metallicities. In addition, for both stars, the refractory elements ($T_{C} > 900\\,$ K) exhibit a positive correlation between a...

  8. A window on the efficiency of the s-process in AGB stars: chemical abundances of n-capture elements in the planetary nebula NGC 3918

    CERN Document Server

    Madonna, S; Luridiana, V; Sterling, N C; Morisset, C

    2015-01-01

    The chemical content of the planetary nebula NGC 3918 is investigated through deep, high-resolution (R~40000) UVES at VLT spectrophotometric data. We identify and measure more than 750 emission lines, making ours one of the deepest spectra ever taken for a planetary nebula. Among these lines we detect very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (Se, Kr, Rb, and Xe), which enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up in the progenitor star of NGC 3918.

  9. The chemical composition of the Orion star-forming region. III. C, N, Ne, Mg and Fe abundances in B-type stars revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Early B-type stars are invaluable indicators for elemental abundances of their birth environments. In contrast to the surrounding neutral interstellar matter (ISM) and HII regions their chemical composition is unaffected by depletion onto dust grains and by the derivation of different abundances from recombination and collisional lines. In combination with ISM or nebular gas-phase abundances they facilitate the dust-phase composition to be constrained. Precise abundances of C, N, Mg, Ne, Fe in early B-type stars in the Orion star-forming region are determined in order to: a) review previous determinations using a self-consistent quantitative spectral analysis based on modern stellar atmospheres and recently updated model atoms, b) complement results found in Paper I for oxygen and silicon, c) establish an accurate and reliable set of stellar metal abundances to constrain the dust-phase composition of the Orion HII region in Paper II of the series. A detailed, self-consistent spectroscopic study of a sample of...

  10. The Origin and Evolution of the Halo PN BoBn 1: From a Viewpoint of Chemical Abundances Based on Multiwavelength Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, M; Hyung, S; Izumiura, H; STScI,; Telescope/NAOJ, Subaru; University, Chungbuk National; Observatory/NAOJ, Okayama Astrophysical

    2010-01-01

    We have performed a comprehensive chemical abundance analysis of the extremely metal-poor ([Ar/H]<-2) halo planetary nebula (PN) BoBn 1 based on IUE archive data, Subaru/HDS spectra, VLT/UVES archive data, and Spitzer/IRS spectra. We have detected over 600 lines in total and calculated ionic and elemental abundances of 13 elements using detected optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs). The estimations of C, N, O, and Ne abundances from the ORLs and Kr, Xe, and Ba from the CELs are done the first for this nebula, empirically and theoretically. The C, N, O, and Ne abundances from ORLs are systematically larger than those from CELs. The abundance discrepancies apart from O could be explained by a temperature fluctuation model, and that of O might be by a hydrogen deficient cold component model. We have detected 5 fluorine and several s-process elements. The amounts of [F/H], [Kr/H], and [Xe/H] suggest that BoBn 1 is the most F-rich among F detected PNe and is a heavy s-proces...

  11. Chemical abundances of the Milky Way thick disk and stellar halo II.: sodium, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements

    CERN Document Server

    Ishigaki, Miho N; Chiba, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundance analyses of sodium, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements for 97 kinematically selected thick disk, inner halo and outer halo stars with metallicities -3.3-1.5), differences in some of the abundance ratios among the three subsamples are identified. Specifically, the [Na/Fe], [Ni/Fe], [Cu/Fe], and [Zn/Fe] ratios in the inner and outer halo subsamples are found to be lower than those in the thick disk subsample. In contrast to what was observed for [Mg/Fe] in our previous paper, [Eu/Fe] ratios are more enhanced in the two halo subsamples rather than in the thick disk subsample. The observed distinct chemical abundances of some elements between the thick disk and inner/outer halo subsamples with [Fe/H]>-1.5 support the hypothesis that these components formed through different mechanisms. In particular, our results favor the scenario that the inner and outer halo components formed through an assembly of multiple progenitor systems that experienced various degrees of chemical enrichm...

  12. Chemical Abundances in the PN Wray16-423 in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy: Constraining the Dust Composition

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of elemental abundances, dust features, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the C-rich planetary nebula (PN) Wray16-423 in the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, based on a unique dataset taken from the Subaru/HDS, MPG/ESO FEROS, HST/WFPC2, and Spitzer/IRS. We performed the first measurements of Kr, Fe, and recombination O abundance in this PN. The extremely small [Fe/H] implies that most Fe atoms are in the solid phase, considering into account the abundance of [Ar/H]. The Spitzer/IRS spectrum displays broad 16-24 um and 30 um features, as well as PAH bands at 6-9 um and 10-14 um. The unidentified broad 16-24 um feature may not be related to iron sulfide (FeS), amorphous silicate, or PAHs. Using the spectral energy distribution model, we derived the luminosity and effective temperature of the central star, and the gas and dust masses. The observed elemental abundances and derived gas mass are in good agreement with asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis models f...

  13. Three carbon-enhanced metal-poor dwarf stars from the SDSS. Chemical abundances from CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, N. T.; Bonifacio, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Sbordone, L.; González Hernández, J. I.; Caffau, E.

    2010-04-01

    Context. The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars enriched with both s and r elements is highly debated. Detailed abundances of these types of stars are crucial to understand the nature of their progenitors. Aims: The aim of this investigation is to study in detail the abundances of SDSS J1349-0229, SDSS J0912+0216 and SDSS J1036+1212, three dwarf CEMP stars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Methods: Using high resolution VLT/UVES spectra (R ~ 30 000) we determine abundances for Li, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and 21 neutron-capture elements. We made use of CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres in the analysis of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances. NLTE corrections for Ci and Oi lines were computed using the Kiel code. Results: We classify SDSS J1349-0229 and SDSS J0912+0216 as CEMP-r+s stars. SDSS J1036+1212 belongs to the class CEMP-no/s, with enhanced Ba, but deficient Sr, of which it is the third member discovered to date. Radial-velocity variations have been observed in SDSS J1349-0229, providing evidence that it is a member of a binary system. Conclusions: The chemical composition of the three stars is generally compatible with mass transfer from an AGB companion. However, many details remain difficult to explain. Most notably of those are the abundance of Li at the level of the Spite plateau in SDSS J1036+1212 and the large over-abundance of the pure r-process element Eu in all three stars. Based on observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (programmes 078.D-0217 and 383.D-0927).

  14. Detailed abundances of planet-hosting wide binaries. I. Did planet formation imprint chemical signatures in the atmospheres of HD 20782/81?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack III, Claude E.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Schuler, Simon C. [University of Tampa, Tampa, FL 33606 (United States); Norris, John, E-mail: claude.e.mack@vanderbilt.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise echelle spectra obtained with Magellan/MIKE, we present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of both stars in the planet-hosting wide binary system HD 20782 + HD 20781. Both stars are G dwarfs, and presumably coeval, forming in the same molecular cloud. Therefore we expect that they should possess the same bulk metallicities. Furthermore, both stars also host giant planets on eccentric orbits with pericenters ≲0.2 AU. Here, we investigate if planets with such orbits could lead to the host stars ingesting material, which in turn may leave similar chemical imprints in their atmospheric abundances. We derived abundances of 15 elements spanning a range of condensation temperature, T {sub C} ≈ 40-1660 K. The two stars are found to have a mean element-to-element abundance difference of 0.04 ± 0.07 dex, which is consistent with both stars having identical bulk metallicities. In addition, for both stars, the refractory elements (T {sub C} >900 K) exhibit a positive correlation between abundance (relative to solar) and T {sub C}, with similar slopes of ≈1×10{sup –4} dex K{sup –1}. The measured positive correlations are not perfect; both stars exhibit a scatter of ≈5×10{sup –5} dex K{sup –1} about the mean trend, and certain elements (Na, Al, Sc) are similarly deviant in both stars. These findings are discussed in the context of models for giant planet migration that predict the accretion of H-depleted rocky material by the host star. We show that a simple simulation of a solar-type star accreting material with Earth-like composition predicts a positive—but imperfect—correlation between refractory elemental abundances and T {sub C}. Our measured slopes are consistent with what is predicted for the ingestion of 10-20 Earths by each star in the system. In addition, the specific element-by-element scatter might be used to distinguish between planetary accretion and Galactic chemical evolution scenarios.

  15. The RAVE-on catalog of stellar atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for chemo-dynamic studies in the Gaia era

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R; Hogg, David W; Ness, Melissa; Walter-Rix, Hans; Kordopatis, Georges; Kunder, Andrea; Steinmetz, Matthias; Koposov, Sergey; Enke, Harry; Sanders, Jason; Gilmore, Gerry; Zwitter, Tomaž; Freeman, Kenneth C; Casagrande, Luca; Matijevič, Gal; Seabroke, George; Bienaymé, Olivier; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Gibson, Brad K; Grebel, Eva K; Helmi, Amina; Munari, Ulisse; Navarro, Julio F; Reid, Warren; Siebert, Arnaud; Wyse, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    The orbits, atmospheric parameters, chemical abundances, and ages of individual stars in the Milky Way provide the most comprehensive illustration of galaxy formation available. The Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) will deliver astrometric parameters for the largest ever sample of Milky Way stars, though its full potential cannot be realized without the addition of complementary spectroscopy. Among existing spectroscopic surveys, the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) has the largest overlap with TGAS ($\\gtrsim$200,000 stars). We present a data-driven re-analysis of 520,781 RAVE spectra using The Cannon. For red giants, we build our model using high-fidelity APOGEE stellar parameters and abundances for stars that overlap with RAVE. For main-sequence and sub-giant stars, our model uses stellar parameters from the K2/EPIC. We derive and validate effective temperature $T_{\\rm eff}$, surface gravity $\\log{g}$, and chemical abundances of up to seven elements (O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni). We report a total of 1...

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy of RGB stars in the Sagittarius Streams. I. Radial velocities and chemical abundances

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, L.; Bellazzini, M; Bonifacio, P.; A. Buzzoni; Ferraro, F. R.; Marconi, G; Sbordone, L.; S. Zaggia

    2006-01-01

    Context. The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy is currently being disrupted under the strain of the Milky Way. A reliable reconstruction of Sgr star formation history can only be obtained by combining core and stream information. Aims. We present radial velocities for 67 stars belonging to the Sgr Stream. For 12 stars in the sample we also present iron (Fe) and $\\alpha$-element (Mg, Ca) abundances. Methods. Spectra were secured using different high resolution facilities: UVES@VLT, HAR...

  17. Chemical Abundances in the Externally Polluted White Dwarf GD 40: Evidence of a Rocky Extrasolar Minor Planet

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, B; Koester, D; Zuckerman, B; Melis, C

    2009-01-01

    We present Keck/HIRES data with model atmosphere analysis of the helium-dominated polluted white dwarf GD 40, in which we measure atmospheric abundances relative to helium of 9 elements: H, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, and Fe. Apart from hydrogen whose association with the other contaminants is uncertain, this material most likely accreted from GD 40's circumstellar dust disk whose existence is demonstrated by excess infrared emission. The data are best explained by accretion of rocky planetary material, in which heavy elements are largely contained within oxides, derived from a tidally disrupted minor planet at least the mass of Juno, and probably as massive as Vesta. The relatively low hydrogen abundance sets an upper limit of 10% water by mass in the inferred parent body, and the relatively high abundances of refractory elements, Ca and Ti, may indicate high-temperature processing. While the overall constitution of the parent body is similar to the bulk Earth being over 85% by mass composed of oxygen, magnes...

  18. THE C+N+O ABUNDANCE OF {omega} CENTAURI GIANT STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL-ENRICHMENT SCENARIO AND THE RELATIVE AGES OF DIFFERENT STELLAR POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, A. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Piotto, G. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, Padova, I-35122 (Italy); Cassisi, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via M. Maggini, 64100 Teramo (Italy); D' Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bedin, L. R.; Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy); Villanova, S., E-mail: amarino@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: milone@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es, E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: jayander@stsci.edu, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: alvio.renzini@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: svillanova@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-02-10

    We present a chemical-composition analysis of 77 red-giant stars in Omega Centauri. We have measured abundances for carbon and nitrogen, and combined our results with abundances of O, Na, La, and Fe that we determined in our previous work. Our aim is to better understand the peculiar chemical-enrichment history of this cluster by studying how the total C+N+O content varies among the different metallicity stellar groups, and among stars at different places along the Na-O anticorrelation. We find that the (anti)correlations among the light elements that would be expected on theoretical grounds for matter that has been nuclearly processed via high-temperature proton captures. The overall [(C+N+O)/Fe] increases by {approx}0.5 dex from [Fe/H] {approx}-2.0 to [Fe/H] {approx}-0.9. Our results provide insight into the chemical-enrichment history of the cluster, and the measured CNO variations provide important corrections for estimating the relative ages of the different stellar populations.

  19. The C+N+O abundance of Omega Centauri giant stars: implications on the chemical enrichment scenario and the relative ages of different stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A F; Piotto, G; Cassisi, S; D'Antona, F; Anderson, J; Aparicio, A; Bedin, L R; Renzini, A; Villanova, S

    2011-01-01

    We present a chemical-composition analysis of 77 red-giant stars in Omega Centauri. We have measured abundances for carbon and nitrogen, and combined our results with abundances of O, Na, La, and Fe that we determined in our previous work. Our aim is to better understand the peculiar chemical-enrichment history of this cluster, by studying how the total C+N+O content varies among the different-metallicity stellar groups, and among stars at different places along the Na-O anticorrelation. We find the (anti)correlations among the light elements that would be expected on theoretical ground for matter that has been nuclearly processed via high-temperature proton captures. The overall [(C+N+O)/Fe] increases by 0.5 dex from [Fe/H] -2.0 to [Fe/H] -0.9. Our results provide insight into the chemical-enrichment history of the cluster, and the measured CNO variations provide important corrections for estimating the relative ages of the different stellar populations.

  20. Two Groups of Red Giants with Distinct Chemical Abundances in the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6553 Through the Eyes of APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Cohen, Roger; Geisler, Douglas; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Carrera, Ricardo; Zamora, Olga; Garcia-Hernandez, D.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fernandez Trincado, Jose Gregorio; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    Multiple populations revealed in globular clusters (GCs) are important windows to the formation and evolution of these stellar systems. The metal-rich GCs in the Galactic bulge are an indispensable part of this picture, but the high optical extinction in this region has prevented extensive research. In this work, we use the high resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data from APOGEE to study the chemical abundances of NGC 6553, which is one of the most metal-rich bulge GCs. We identify ten red giants as cluster members using their positions, radial velocities, iron abundances, and NIR photometry. Our sample stars show a mean radial velocity of -0.14 km/s, and a mean [Fe/H] of -0.15. We clearly separate two populations of stars in C and N in this GC for the first time. NGC 6553 is the most metal-rich GC where the multiple stellar population phenomenon is found until now. Substantial chemical variations are also found in Na, O, and Al. However, the two populations show similar Si, Ca, and iron-peak element abundances. Therefore, we infer that the CNO, NeNa, and MgAl cycles have been activated, but the MgAl cycle is too weak to show its effect on Mg. The Si leakage from the MgAl cycle is negligible. Type Ia and Type II supernovae do not seem to have significantly polluted the second generation stars. Comparing the APOGEE results with other GC studies, we find that NGC 6553 shows similar chemical variations as other relatively metal-rich GCs. We also confront current GC formation theories with our results, and suggest possible avenues for improvement in the models.

  1. Two groups of red giants with distinct chemical abundances in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 through the eyes of APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Cohen, Roger E.; Geisler, Doug; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Carrera, Ricardo; Zamora, Olga; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Shetrone, Matthew; Frinchaboy, Peter; Meza, Andres; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lane, Richard R.; Nitschelm, Christian; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey

    2017-02-01

    Multiple populations revealed in globular clusters (GCs) are important windows to the formation and evolution of these stellar systems. The metal-rich GCs in the Galactic bulge are an indispensable part of this picture, but the high optical extinction in this region has prevented extensive research. In this work, we use the high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data from Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to study the chemical abundances of NGC 6553, which is one of the most metal-rich bulge GCs. We identify 10 red giants as cluster members using their positions, radial velocities, iron abundances, and NIR photometry. Our sample stars show a mean radial velocity of -0.14 ± 5.47 km s-1, and a mean [Fe/H] of -0.15 ± 0.05. We clearly separate two populations of stars in C and N in this GC for the first time. NGC 6553 is the most metal-rich GC where the multiple stellar population phenomenon is found until now. Substantial chemical variations are also found in Na, O, and Al. However, the two populations show similar Si, Ca, and iron-peak element abundances. Therefore, we infer that the CNO, NeNa, and MgAl cycles have been activated, but the MgAl cycle is too weak to show its effect on Mg. Type Ia and Type II supernovae do not seem to have significantly polluted the second generation stars. Comparing with other GC studies, NGC 6553 shows similar chemical variations as other relatively metal-rich GCs. We also confront current GC formation theories with our results, and suggest possible avenues for improvement in the models.

  2. Differential chemical abundance analysis of a 47 Tucanæ asymptotic giant branch star with respect to Arcturus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, C. C.; Cottrell, P. L.; Freeman, K. C.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    This study resolves a discrepancy in the abundance of Zr in the 47 Tucanæ asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star Lee 2525. This star was observed using the echelle spectrograph on the 2.3-m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. The analysis was undertaken by calibrating Lee 2525 with respect to the standard giant star Arcturus. This work emphasizes the importance of using a standard star with stellar parameters comparable to the star under analysis rather than a calibration with respect to the Sun as in Koch & McWilliam. Systematic errors in the analysis process are then minimized due to the similarity in atmospheric structure between the standard and programme stars. The abundances derived for Lee 2525 were found to be in general agreement with the Brown & Wallerstein values except for Zr. In this study Zr has a similar enhancement ([Zr/Fe] = +0.51 dex) to another light s-process element, Y ([Y/Fe] = +0.53 dex), which reflects current theory regarding the enrichment of s-process elements by nuclear processes within AGB stars. This is contrary to the results of Brown & Wallerstein where Zr was underabundant ([Zr/Fe] = -0.51 dex) and Y was overabundant ([Y/Fe] = +0.50 dex) with respect to Fe.

  3. Abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in Metal-Poor Stars and Implications for Chemical Evolution in the Early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Y -Z

    2008-01-01

    Studies of nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds from nascent neutron stars show that the elements from Sr through Ag with mass numbers A~88-110 are produced by charged-particle reactions (CPR) during the alpha-process in the winds. Accordingly, we have attributed all these elements in stars of low metallicities ([Fe/H]-0.32 for all metal-poor stars. The high-resolution data now available on Sr abundances in Galactic halo stars show that there is a great shortfall of Sr relative to Fe in many stars with [Fe/H]<-3. This is in direct conflict with the above prediction. The same conflict also exists for two other CPR elements Y and Zr. The very low abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr observed in stars with [Fe/H]<-3 thus require a stellar source that cannot be low-mass or normal SNe. We show that this observation requires a stellar source leaving behind black holes and that hypernovae (HNe) from progenitors of ~25-50M_sun are the most plausible candidates. (Abridged)

  4. Oxygen Abundances in Nearby FGK Stars and the Galactic Chemical Evolution of the Local Disk and Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, I; Lambert, D L

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters and oxygen abundances of 825 nearby FGK stars are derived using high-quality spectra and a non-LTE analysis of the 777 nm O I triplet lines. We assign a kinematic probability for the stars to be thin-disk (P1), thick-disk (P2), and halo (P3) members. We confirm previous findings of enhanced [O/Fe] in thick-disk (P2>0.5) relative to thin-disk (P1>0.5) stars with [Fe/H]-0.2. Nevertheless, we find that the kinematic membership criterion fails at separating perfectly the stars in the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane, even when a very restrictive kinematic separation is employed. Stars with "intermediate" kinematics (P10.5) show a large star-to-star scatter in [O/Fe]-[Fe/H], but most of it is due to stars with Galactocentric rotational velocity V-200 km/s follow an [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation with almost no star-to-star scatter. Early mergers with satellite galaxies explain most of our observations, but the significant fraction of disk stars with "ambiguous" kinematics and abundances suggests that scattering ...

  5. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion) - II. High-dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of the LV 2 proplyd is presented taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31 × 0.31 arcsec2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km s-1 pixel-1. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV 2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula falling within a 6.6 × 4.2 arcsec2 field of view. It is found that far-ultraviolet to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncr, ranging from 103 to 109 cm-3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncr are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV 2 is spectrally and spatially well detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV 2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with the red-shifted lobe of the jet, possibly being due to a shock discontinuity. From the velocity-resolved analysis the ionized gas near the rest frame of LV 2 has Te= 9200 ± 800 K and Ne˜ 106 cm-3, while the red-shifted jet lobe has Te≈ 9000-104 K and Ne˜ 106-107 cm-3. The jet flow is highly ionized but contains dense semineutral clumps emitting neutral oxygen lines. The abundances of N+, O2 +, Ne2 +, Fe2 +, S+and S2 +are measured for the strong red-shifted jet lobe. Iron in the core of LV 2 is depleted by 2.54 dex with respect to solar as a result of sedimentation on dust, whereas the efficient destruction of dust grains in the fast microjet raises its Fe abundance to at least 30 per cent solar. Sulphur does not show evidence of significant depletion on dust, but its abundance both in the core and the jet is only about half solar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory

  6. The chemical composition of nearby young associations: s-process element abundances in AB Doradus, Carina-Near, and Ursa Major

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Desidera, Silvano; Covino, Elvira; Andrievsky, Sergei M; Gratton, Raffaele G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several studies have shown that young, open clusters are characterised by a considerable over-abundance in their barium content. In particular, D'Orazi et al. (2009) reported that in some younger clusters [Ba/Fe] can reach values as high as ~0.6 dex. The work also identified the presence of an anti-correlation between [Ba/Fe] and cluster age. For clusters in the age range ~4.5 Gyr-500 Myr, this is best explained by assuming a higher contribution from low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars to the Galactic chemical enrichment. The purpose of this work is to investigate the ubiquity of the barium over-abundance in young stellar clusters. We analysed high-resolution spectroscopic data, focusing on the s-process elemental abundance for three nearby young associations, i.e. AB Doradus, Carina-Near, and Ursa Major. The clusters have been chosen such that their age spread would complement the D'Orazi et al. (2009) study. We find that while the s-process elements Y, Zr, La, and Ce exhibit solar ratios in all...

  7. Chemical abundance analysis of the Open Clusters Cr110, NGC2099 (M37), NGC2420, NGC7789 and M67 (NGC2682)

    CERN Document Server

    Pancino, E; Rossetti, E; Gallart, C

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The present number of Galactic Open Clusters that have high-resolution abundance determinations, not only of [Fe/H], but also of other key elements, is largely insufficient to enable a clear modeling of the Galactic Disk chemical evolution. We obtained high-resolution (R~30000), high quality (S/N~50-100 per pixel), echelle spectra with FOCES, at Calar Alto, for 3 red clump stars in each of five Open Clusters. We used the classical Equivalent Width analysis method to obtain accurate abundances of 16 elements. We also derived the oxygen abundance through spectral synthesis of the 6300A forbidden line. Three of the clusters were never studied previously with high-resolution: we found [Fe/H]=+0.03 +/- 0.02 dex for Cr110; [Fe/H]=+0.01 +/- 0.05 dex for NGC2099 (M37) and [Fe/H]=-0.05 +/- 0.03 dex for NGC2420. For the remaining clusters, we find: [Fe/H]=+0.05 +/- 0.02 dex for M67 and [Fe/H]=+0.04 +/- 0.07 dex for NGC7789. We provide the first high-resolution based velocity estimate for Cr110, V=41.0 +/- 3....

  8. Chemical Abundances in the Secondary Star of the Black Hole Binary V4641 Sagittarii (SAX J1819.3-2525)

    CERN Document Server

    Sadakane, K; Aoki, W; Arimoto, N; Takada-Hidai, M; Ohnishi, T; Tajitsu, A; Beers, T C; Iwamoto, N; Tominaga, N; Umeda, H; Maeda, K; Nomoto, K; Sadakane, Kozo; Arai, Akira; Aoki, Wako; Arimoto, Nobuo; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tajitsu, Akito; Beers, Timothy C.; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Umeda, Hideyuki; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2006-01-01

    We report on detailed spectroscopic studies performed for the secondary star in the black hole binary (micro-quasar) V4641 Sgr in order to examine its surface chemical composition and to see if its surface shows any signature of pollution by ejecta from a supernova explosion. High-resolution spectra of V4641 Sgr observed in the quiescent state in the blue-visual region are compared with those of the two bright well-studied B9 stars (14 Cyg and $\

  9. Chemical, Physical, and zooplankton abundance/biomass data collected using several instruments in the Coastal Waters of California as a part of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, from 07 January 2000 to 01 July 2000 (NODC Accession 0000298)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, and zooplankton abundance/biomass data were collected using secchi disk, zooplankton net, current meter (ADCP), bottle, and CTD casts in the...

  10. Two Groups of Red Giants with Distinct Chemical Abundances in the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6553 Through the Eyes of APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Baitian; Geisler, Doug; Schiavon, Ricardo; Majewski, Steven R; Villanova, Sandro; Carrera, Ricardo; Zamora, Olga; Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Shetrone, Matthew; Frinchaboy, Peter; Meza, Andres; Fernández-Trincado, J G; Muñoz, Ricardo R; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lane, Richard R; Nitschelm, Christian; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Multiple populations revealed in globular clusters (GCs) are important windows to the formation and evolution of these stellar systems. The metal-rich GCs in the Galactic bulge are an indispensable part of this picture, but the high optical extinction in this region has prevented extensive research. In this work, we use the high resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data from APOGEE to study the chemical abundances of NGC 6553, which is one of the most metal-rich bulge GCs. We identify ten red giants as cluster members using their positions, radial velocities, iron abundances, and NIR photometry. Our sample stars show a mean radial velocity of $-0.14\\pm5.47$ km s$^{-1}$, and a mean [Fe/H] of $-0.15\\pm 0.05$. We clearly separate two populations of stars in C and N in this GC for the first time. NGC 6553 is the most metal-rich GC where the multiple stellar population phenomenon is found until now. Substantial chemical variations are also found in Na, O, and Al. However, the two populations show similar S...

  11. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, L; Bidin, C Moni; Bonifacio, P; Villanova, S; Bellazzini, M; Ibata, R; Chiba, M; Geisler, D; Caffau, E; Duffau, S

    2015-01-01

    The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, the Sgr dSph is suspected to have lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are suspected to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed due to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two among these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. We analize high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of "unassociated" MW halo globulars, and of the metal poor Sgr dSph main body population...

  12. Terminal carbohydrates abundance, immune related enzymes, bactericidal activity and physico-chemical parameters of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) skin mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco A; Cuartero, María; Del Mar Collado-González, María; Díaz Baños, F Guillermo; Cuesta, Alberto; Moriñigo, Miguel Ángel; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    Recently, interest in mucosal surfaces, more specifically fish skin and its secreted mucus, has greatly increased among immunologists. The abundance of terminal carbohydrates, several enzymes (proteases, lysozyme, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, esterases and ceruloplasmin), bactericidal activity against fish pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and several physico-chemical parameters (protein concentration, pH, conductivity, redox potential, osmolarity, density and viscosity) in the skin mucus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup) have been evaluated. Present results evidence the abundance of N-acetylneuraminic acid, mannose, glucose and N-acetyl-galactosamine in skin mucus. The levels of lysozyme, proteases, esterases and alkaline phosphatase were very similar (from 20 to 30 Units mg(-1) protein). However, 93 Units mg(-1) protein were detected of ceruloplasmin and only 4'88 Units mg(-1) protein of peroxidase. Skin mucus of S. senegalensis showed high bactericidal activity against the tested pathogen bacteria but weak activity against non-pathogenic bacteria. Finally, a clear relationship between mucus density and temperature was detected, while viscosity showed a direct shear- and temperature-dependent behaviour. These results could be useful for better understanding the role of the skin mucus as a key component of the innate immune system, as well as, for elucidating possible relationships between biological and physico-chemical parameters and disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthetic photometry for M and K giants and stellar evolution: hydrostatic dust-free model atmospheres and chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Aringer, Bernhard; Nowotny, Walter; Marigo, Paola; Bressan, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Based on a grid of hydrostatic spherical COMARCS models for cool stars we have calculated observable properties of these objects, which will be mainly used in combination with stellar evolution tracks and population synthesis tools. The high resolution opacity sampling and low resolution convolved spectra as well as bolometric corrections for a large number of filter systems are made electronically available. We exploit those data to study the effect of mass, C/O ratio and nitrogen abundance on the photometry of K and M giants. Depending on effective temperature, surface gravity and the chosen wavelength ranges variations of the investigated parameters cause very weak to moderate and, in the case of C/O values close to one, even strong shifts of the colours. For the usage with stellar evolution calculations they will be treated as correction factors applied to the results of an interpolation in the main quantities. When we compare the synthetic photometry to observed relations and to data from the Galactic Bu...

  14. Synthetic photometry for M and K giants and stellar evolution: hydrostatic dust-free model atmospheres and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aringer, B.; Girardi, L.; Nowotny, W.; Marigo, P.; Bressan, A.

    2016-04-01

    Based on a grid of hydrostatic spherical COMARCS models for cool stars, we have calculated observable properties of these objects, which will be mainly used in combination with stellar evolution tracks and population synthesis tools. The high-resolution opacity sampling and low-resolution convolved spectra as well as bolometric corrections for a large number of filter systems are made electronically available. We exploit those data to study the effect of mass, C/O ratio and nitrogen abundance on the photometry of K and M giants. Depending on effective temperature, surface gravity and the chosen wavelength ranges, variations of the investigated parameters cause very weak to moderate and, in the case of C/O values close to 1, even strong shifts of the colours. For the usage with stellar evolution calculations, they will be treated as correction factors applied to the results of an interpolation in the main quantities. When we compare the synthetic photometry to observed relations and to data from the Galactic bulge, we find in general a good agreement. Deviations appear for the coolest giants showing pulsations, mass-loss and dust shells, which cannot be described by hydrostatic models.

  15. Computational and statistical analyses of amino acid usage and physico-chemical properties of the twelve late embryogenesis abundant protein classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jaspard

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins (LEAPs are ubiquitous proteins expected to play major roles in desiccation tolerance. Little is known about their structure - function relationships because of the scarcity of 3-D structures for LEAPs. The previous building of LEAPdb, a database dedicated to LEAPs from plants and other organisms, led to the classification of 710 LEAPs into 12 non-overlapping classes with distinct properties. Using this resource, numerous physico-chemical properties of LEAPs and amino acid usage by LEAPs have been computed and statistically analyzed, revealing distinctive features for each class. This unprecedented analysis allowed a rigorous characterization of the 12 LEAP classes, which differed also in multiple structural and physico-chemical features. Although most LEAPs can be predicted as intrinsically disordered proteins, the analysis indicates that LEAP class 7 (PF03168 and probably LEAP class 11 (PF04927 are natively folded proteins. This study thus provides a detailed description of the structural properties of this protein family opening the path toward further LEAP structure - function analysis. Finally, since each LEAP class can be clearly characterized by a unique set of physico-chemical properties, this will allow development of software to predict proteins as LEAPs.

  16. The Chemical Abundance Structure of the Inner Milky Way: A Signature of "Upside-Down" Disk Formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Freudenburg, Jenna K C; Hayden, Michael R; Holtzman, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for the [alpha/Fe]-[Fe/H] distribution of stars in the inner Galaxy, R=3-5 kpc, measured as a function of vertical distance |z| from the midplane by Hayden et al. (2015, H15). Motivated by an "upside-down" scenario for thick disk formation, in which the thickness of the star-forming gas layer contracts as the stellar mass of the disk grows, we combine one-zone chemical evolution with a simple prescription in which the scale-height of the stellar distribution drops linearly from z_h=0.8 kpc to z_h=0.2 kpc over a timescale t_c, remaining constant thereafter. We assume a linear-exponential star-formation history, SFR ~ te^{-t/t_sf}. With a star-formation efficiency timescale of 2 Gyr, an outflow mass-loading factor of 1.5, t_sf=3 Gyr, and t_c=2.5 Gyr, the model reproduces the observed locus of inner disk stars in [alpha/Fe]-[Fe/H] and the metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) measured by H15 at |z|=0-0.5 kpc, 0.5-1 kpc, and 1-2 kpc. Substantial changes to model parameters lead to disagreem...

  17. Chemical abundances in the multiple sub-giant branch of 47 Tucanae: insights on its faint sub-giant branch component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Casagrande, L.; Collet, R.; Dotter, A.; Johnson, C. I.; Lind, K.; Bedin, L. R.; Jerjen, H.; Aparicio, A.; Sbordone, L.

    2016-06-01

    The globular cluster 47 Tuc exhibits a complex sub-giant branch (SGB) with a faint-SGB comprising only about the 10 per cent of the cluster mass and a bright-SGB hosting at least two distinct populations. We present a spectroscopic analysis of 62 SGB stars including 21 faint-SGB stars. We thus provide the first chemical analysis of the intriguing faint-SGB population and compare its abundances with those of the dominant populations. We have inferred abundances of Fe, representative light elements C, N, Na, and Al, α elements Mg and Si for individual stars. Oxygen has been obtained by co-adding spectra of stars on different sequences. In addition, we have analysed 12 stars along the two main RGBs of 47 Tuc. Our principal results are (i) star-to-star variations in C/N/Na among RGB and bright-SGB stars; (ii) substantial N and Na enhancements for the minor population corresponding to the faint-SGB; (iii) no high enrichment in C+N+O for faint-SGB stars. Specifically, the C+N+O of the faint-SGB is a factor of 1.1 higher than the bright-SGB, which, considering random (±1.3) plus systematic errors (±0.3), means that their C+N+O is consistent within observational uncertainties. However, a small C+N+O enrichment for the faint-SGB, similar to what predicted on theoretical ground, cannot be excluded. The N and Na enrichment of the faint-SGB qualitatively agrees with this population possibly being He-enhanced, as suggested by theory. The iron abundance of the bright and faint-SGB is the same to a level of ˜0.10 dex, and no other significant difference for the analysed elements has been detected.

  18. How to Make an Atomic Blog in Your Own Kitchen. Summary of the Workshop: Uncertainties in Atomic Data and How They Propagate in Chemical Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Luridiana, Valentina; Aggarwal, Kanti; Bautista, Manuel; Bergemann, Maria; Delahaye, Franck; del Zanna, Giulio; Ferland, Gary; Lind, Karin; Manchado, Arturo; Mendoza, Claudio; Delgado, Adal Mesa; Díaz, Manuel Núñez; Shaw, Richard A; Wesson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This workshop brought together scientists (including atomic physicists, theoretical astrophysicists and astronomers) concerned with the completeness and accuracy of atomic data for astrophysical applications. The topics covered in the workshop included the evaluation of uncertainties in atomic data, the propagation of such uncertainties in chemical abundances, and the feedback between observations and calculations. On a different level, we also discussed communication issues such as how to ensure that atomic data are correctly understood and used, and which forum is the best one for a fluid interaction between all communities involved in the production and use of atomic data. This paper reports on the discussions held during the workshop and introduces AstroAtom, a blog created as a platform for timely and open discussions on the needs and concerns over atomic data, and their effects on astronomical research. The complete proceedings will be published on http://astroatom.wordpress.com/.

  19. Chemical abundances in the multiple sub-giant branch of 47 Tucanae: insights on its faint sub-giant branch component

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A F; Casagrande, L; Collet, R; Dotter, A; Johnson, C I; Lind, K; Bedin, L R; Jerjen, H; Aparicio, A; Sbordone, L

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster 47 Tuc exhibits a complex sub-giant branch (SGB) with a faint-SGB comprising only about the 10% of the cluster mass and a bright-SGB hosting at least two distinct populations.We present a spectroscopic analysis of 62 SGB stars including 21 faint-SGB stars. We thus provide the first chemical analysis of the intriguing faint-SGB population and compare its abundances with those of the dominant populations. We have inferred abundances of Fe, representative light elements C, N, Na, and Al, {\\alpha} elements Mg and Si for individual stars. Oxygen has been obtained by co-adding spectra of stars on different sequences. In addition, we have analysed 12 stars along the two main RGBs of 47 Tuc. Our principal results are: (i) star-to-star variations in C/N/Na among RGB and bright-SGB stars; (ii) substantial N and Na enhancements for the minor population corresponding to the faint-SGB; (iii) no high enrichment in C+N+O for faint-SGB stars. Specifically, the C+N+O of the faint-SGB is a factor of 1.1 hi...

  20. Extragalactic chemical abundances: do HII regions and young stars tell the same story? The case of the spiral galaxy NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Urbaneja, Miguel A; Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have obtained new spectrophotometric data for 28 HII regions in the spiral galaxy NGC 300, a member of the nearby Sculptor Group. The detection of auroral lines, including [OIII]4363, [SIII]6312 and [NII]5755, has allowed us to measure electron temperatures and direct chemical abundances for the whole sample. We determine for the first time in this galaxy a radial gas-phase oxygen abundance gradient based solely on auroral lines, and obtain the following least-square solution: 12+log(O/H)=8.57-0.41 R/R25, where the galactocentric distance is expressed in terms of the isophotal radius R25. The gradient corresponds to -0.077 dex/kpc, and agrees very well with the galactocentric trend in metallicity obtained for 29 B and A supergiants in the same galaxy. The intercept of the regression for the nebular data virtually coincides with the intercept obtained from the stellar data. This allows little room for depletion of nebular oxygen onto dust grains, although in this kind of comparison we are somewha...

  1. Comparative study on composition and abundance of major planktons and physico-chemical characteristics among two ponds and Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondie Zelalem Amanu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the difference in physico-chemical characteristics, composition and abundance of plankton communities owing to the supplementary feed added in fish ponds as compared to Lake Tana. Methods:Physico-chemical and biological data of plankton were collected from 3 studied sites from November 2008 to October 2009. Data were compared using One-wayANOVA to see the difference among sites. Diversity indices such as Margalef's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and evenness index were employed to describe the distribution of plankton community among the studied sites. Results:ThepH value was remarkably higher in ponds water. However, conductivity and total dissolved solids were the highest in lake water. Nitrate concentration was relatively high in ponds. Zooplankton species richness was higher in lake water than ponds. The lake also had the highest mean value of both Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index in phytoplankton. Conclusions:The results revealed that the supplementary feed added to each pond had influence on nutrient content which enhanced algal biomass and productivity of the ponds. However, the pond water has to be regularly refreshed to control eutrophication.

  2. Comparative study on composition and abundance of major planktons and physico-chemical characteristics among two ponds and Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondie Zelalem Amanu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the difference in physico-chemical characteristics, composition and abundance of plankton communities owing to the supplementary feed added in fish ponds as compared to Lake Tana. Methods: Physico-chemical and biological data of plankton were collected from 3 studied sites from November 2008 to October 2009. Data were compared using One-way ANOVA to see the difference among sites. Diversity indices such as Margalef's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and evenness index were employed to describe the distribution of plankton community among the studied sites. Results: The pH value was remarkably higher in ponds water. However, conductivity and total dissolved solids were the highest in lake water. Nitrate concentration was relatively high in ponds. Zooplankton species richness was higher in lake water than ponds. The lake also had the highest mean value of both Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index in phytoplankton. Conclusions: The results revealed that the supplementary feed added to each pond had influence on nutrient content which enhanced algal biomass and productivity of the ponds. However, the pond water has to be regularly refreshed to control eutrophication.

  3. TOPoS . II. On the bimodality of carbon abundance in CEMP stars Implications on the early chemical evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Spite, M.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Klessen, R. S.; François, P.; Molaro, P.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Zaggia, S.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Christlieb, N.; Clark, P. C.; Glover, S. C. O.; Hammer, F.; Koch, A.; Monaco, L.; Sbordone, L.; Steffen, M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. In the course of the Turn Off Primordial Stars (TOPoS) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. These stars are very common among the stars of extremely low metallicity and provide important clues to the star formation processes. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Aims: We want to provide the most complete chemical inventory for these six stars in order to constrain the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the abundance patterns. Methods: We analyse both X-Shooter and UVES spectra acquired at the VLT. We used a traditional abundance analysis based on OSMARCS 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres and the turbospectrum line formation code. Results: Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0 ≤ [Ca/H] band we derived A(C) = 7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3σ) upper limit of [Fe/H] iron-poor (UIP) stars. No lithium is detected in the spectrum of SDSS J1742+2531 or SDSS J1035+0641, which implies a robust upper limit of A(Li) band and a low-carbon band. We propose an interpretation of this bimodality according to which the stars on the high-carbon band are the result of mass transfer from an AGB companion, while the stars on the low-carbon band are genuine fossil records of a gas cloud that has also been enriched by a faint supernova (SN) providing carbon and the lighter elements. The abundance pattern of the UIP stars shows a large star-to-star scatter in the [X/Ca] ratios for all elements up to aluminium (up to 1 dex), but this scatter drops for heavier elements and is at most of the order of a factor of two. We propose that this can be explained if these stars are formed from gas that has been chemically enriched by several SNe, that produce the roughly constant [X/Ca] ratios for the heavier elements, and in some cases

  4. Late stages of the evolution of A-type stars on the main sequence: comparison between observed chemical abundances and diffusion models for 8 Am stars of the Praesepe cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Monier, R; Khan, S A; Kochukhov, O; Landstreet, J; Wade, G; Weiss, W

    2007-01-01

    Aims. We aim to provide observational constraints on diffusion models that predict peculiar chemical abundances in the atmospheres of Am stars. We also intend to check if chemical peculiarities and slow rotation can be explained by the presence of a weak magnetic field. Methods. We have obtained high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of eight previously-classified Am stars, two normal A-type stars and one Blue Straggler, considered to be members of the Praesepe cluster. For all of these stars we have determined fundamental parameters and photospheric abundances for a large number of chemical elements, with a higher precision than was ever obtained before for this cluster. For seven of these stars we also obtained spectra in circular polarization and applied the LSD technique to constrain the longitudinal magnetic field. Results. No magnetic field was detected in any of the analysed stars. HD 73666, a Blue Straggler previously considered as an Ap (Si) star, turns out to have the abundances of a no...

  5. VLT/X-Shooter spectroscopy of the afterglow of the Swift GRB 130606A. Chemical abundances and reionisation at z ~ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoog, O. E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Goto, T.; Krühler, T.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Xu, D.; Møller, P.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Krogager, J.-K.; Kaper, L.; Ledoux, C.; Levan, A. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Sollerman, J.; Sparre, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Wiersema, K.; Datson, J.; Salinas, R.; Mikkelsen, K.; Aghanim, N.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The reionisation of the Universe is a process that is thought to have ended around z ~ 6, as inferred from spectroscopy of distant bright background sources, such as quasars (QSO) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Furthermore, spectroscopy of a GRB afterglow provides insight in its host galaxy, which is often too dim and distant to study otherwise. Aims: For the Swift GRB 130606A at z = 5.913 we have obtained a high S/N spectrum covering the full optical and near-IR wavelength region at intermediate spectral resolution with VLT/X-Shooter. We aim to measure the degree of ionisation of the intergalactic medium (IGM) between z = 5.02-5.84 and to study the chemical abundance pattern and dust content of its host galaxy. Methods: We estimated the UV continuum of the GRB afterglow using a power-law extrapolation, then measured the flux decrement due to absorption at Lyα,β, and γ wavelength regions. Furthermore, we fitted the shape of the red damping wing of Lyα. The hydrogen and metal absorption lines formed in the host galaxy were fitted with Voigt profiles to obtain column densities. We investigated whether ionisation corrections needed to be applied. Results: Our measurements of the Lyα-forest optical depth are consistent with previous measurements of QSOs, but have a much smaller uncertainty. The analysis of the red damping wing yields a neutral fraction xH i 5.6. GRBs are useful probes of the ionisation state of the IGM in the early Universe, but because of internal scatter we need a larger statistical sample to draw robust conclusions. The high [Si/Fe] in the host can be due to dust depletion, α-element enhancement, or a combination of both. The very high value of [ Al/Fe ] = 2.40 ± 0.78 might be due to a proton capture process and is probably connected to the stellar population history. We estimate the host metallicity to be -1.7 Telescope (VLT), Unit 2 - Kueyen, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. Partly

  6. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-Enhanced Metal-poor Stars with S-process Element Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Hollek, Julie K; Placco, Vinicius M; Karakas, Amanda I; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, log g = 1.25, vmic = 2.20 km/s, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has [C/Fe] = 1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as "CEMP-r/s" star. Based on abundance comparisons with AGB star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically-motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly-understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of therma...

  7. Gaseous abundances in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Origlia, L; Maiolino, R; Makishima, K; Ranalli, Piero; Comastri, Andrea; Origlia, Livia; Maiolino, Roberto; Makishima, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of a deep (100ks) XMM-Newton observation of M82. The spatial distribution of the abundances of chemical elements (Fe, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S) is investigated through narrow-band imaging analisys and spatially-resolved spectroscopy. We find that the abundances of alpha-elements follow a bipolar distribution, these elements being more abundant in the gaseous outflow than in the galaxy centre. This behaviour is found to be more marked for lighter elements (O, Ne) than for heavier elements.

  8. TOPoS: II. On the bimodality of carbon abundance in CEMP stars. Implications on the early chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Spite, M; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A; Klessen, R S; François, P; Molaro, P; Ludwig, H G; Zaggia, S; Spite, F; Plez, B; Cayrel, R; Christlieb, N; Clark, P C; Glover, S C O; Hammer, F; Koch, A; Monaco, L; Sbordone, L; Steffen, M

    2015-01-01

    In the course of the TOPoS (Turn Off Primordial Stars) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0<=[Ca/H]< -2.1 and 7.12<=A(C)<=8.65. For star SDSS J1742+2531 we were able to detect three FeI lines from which we deduced [Fe/H]=-4.80, from four CaII lines we derived [Ca/H]=-4.56, and from synthesis of the G-band we derived A(C)=7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3sigma) upper limit of [Fe/H]< -5.0 and measure the Ca abundance, with [Ca/H]=-5.0, and carbon, A(C)=6.90. No lithium is detected in the spectrum of SDSS J1742+2531 or SDSS J1035+0641, which implies a robust upper limit of A(Li)<1.8 for both stars. Our measured carbon abundances confirm the bimodal distribution of carbon in CEMP stars, identifying a hi...

  9. Chemical Abundances and Dust in the Halo Planetary Nebula K648 in M15: Its Origin and Evolution based on an Analysis of Multiwavelength Data

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Tajitsu, Akito

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of the extremely metal-poor and C-rich planetary nebula (PN) K648 in the globular cluster M15 using the UV to far-IR data obtained using the Subaru, HST, FUSE, Spitzer, and Herschel. We determined the nebular abundances of ten elements. The enhancement of F ([F/H]=+0.96) is comparable to that of the halo PN BoBn1. The central stellar abundances of seven elements are determined. The stellar C/O ratio is similar to the nebular C/O ratios from recombination line and from collisionally excited line (CEL) within error, and the stellar Ne/O ratio is also close to the nebular CEL Ne/O ratio. We found evidence of carbonaceous dust grains and molecules including Class B 6-9 um and 11.3 um polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the broad 11 um feature. The profiles of these bands are similar to those of the C-rich halo PNe H4-1 and BoBn1. Based on the theoretical model, we determined the physical conditions of the gas and dust and their masses, i.e., 0.048 Msun and 4.95x10^{-7} Msun, respective...

  10. The First Observations of Low-Redshift Damped Lyman-{\\alpha} Systems with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph: Chemical Abundances and Affiliated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Battisti, A J; Tripp, T M; Prochaska, J X; Werk, J K; Jenkins, E B; Lehner, N; Tumlinson, J; Thom, C

    2011-01-01

    We present Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) measurements of metal abundances in eight 0.083 < zabs < 0.321 damped Lyman-{\\alpha} (DLA) and sub-damped Ly{\\alpha} absorption systems serendipitously discovered in the COS-Halos survey. We find that these systems show a large range in metallicities, with -1.10 < [Z/H] < 0.31, similar to the spread found at higher redshifts. These low-redshift systems on average have subsolar metallicities, but do show a rise in metallicity over cosmic time when compared to higher-redshift systems. Utilizing our sources and those in the literature, we find the average sub-DLA metallicity is higher than the average DLA metallicity at all redshifts. Nitrogen is underabundant with respect to {\\alpha}-group elements in all but perhaps one of the absorbers. In some cases, [N/{\\alpha}] is significantly below the lowest nitrogen measurements in nearby galaxies; the nitrogen abundances are more similar to those observed in high-redshift DLAs. Systems for which depletion patter...

  11. The SPLASH Survey: Internal Kinematics, Chemical Abundances, and Masses of the Andromeda I, II, III, VII, X, and XIV dSphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kalirai, Jason S; Geha, Marla C; Gilbert, Karoline M; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kirby, Evan N; Majewski, Steven R; Ostheimer, James C; Patterson, Richard J; Wolf, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We present new Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations of hundreds of individual stars along the sightline to Andromeda's first three discovered dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) - And I, II, and III, and leverage recent observations by our team of three additional dSphs, And VII, X, and XIV, as a part of the SPLASH Survey. Member stars of each dSph are isolated from foreground Milky Way dwarf and M31 field contamination using a variety of photometric and spectroscopic diagnostics. Our final spectroscopic sample of member stars in each dSph, for which we measure accurate radial velocities with a median uncertainty (random plus systematic errors) of 4 - 5 km/s, includes 80 red giants in And I, 95 in And II, and 43 in And III, 18 in And VII, 22 in And X, and 38 in And XIV. The sample of confirmed members in the six dSphs are used to derive each system's mean radial velocity, intrinsic central velocity dispersion, mean abundance, abundance spread, and dynamical mass. This combined data set presents us with a uniq...

  12. CHEMICALS

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  13. The use of natural abundance stable isotopic ratios to indicate the presence of oxygen-containing chemical linkages between cellulose and lignin in plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youping; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H

    2010-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the chemical linkages between the three major biochemical components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of plant cell walls is crucial to the understanding of cell wall structure. Although there is convincing evidence for chemical bonds between hemicellulose and lignin and the absence of chemical bonds between hemicellulose and cellulose, there is no conclusive evidence for the presence of covalent bonds between cellulose and lignin. This is caused by the lack of selectivity of current GC/MS-, NMR- and IR-based methods for lignin characterisation as none of these techniques directly targets the possible ester and ether linkages between lignin and cellulose. We modified the widely-accepted "standard" three-step extraction method for isolating cellulose from plants by changing the order of the steps for hemicellulose and lignin removal (solubilisation with concentrated NaOH and oxidation with acetic acid-containing NaClO(2), respectively) so that cellulose and lignin could be isolated with the possible chemical bonds between them intact. These linkages were then cleaved with NaClO(2) reagent in aqueous media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios. We produced cellulose with higher purity (a lower level of residual hemicellulose and no detectable lignin) than that produced by the "standard" method. Oxidative artefacts may potentially be introduced at the lignin removal stage; but testing showed this to be minimal. Cellulose samples isolated from processing plant-derived cellulose-lignin mixtures in media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios were compared to provide the first quantitative evidence for the presence of oxygen-containing ester and ether bonds between cellulose and lignin in Zea mays leaves. However, no conclusive evidence for the presence or lack of similar bonds in Araucaria cunninghamii wood was obtained. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical, physical, zooplankton abundance, and other data collected using fluorometer, laboratory analysis, visual analysis, and zooplankton net casts from multiple ships from the Coastal Waters of California and North Pacific Ocean as part of the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, from 01 January 1951 to 28 August 1993 (NODC Accession 9400052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical, zooplankton abundance, and other data were collected using fluorometer, laboratory analysis, visual analysis, and zooplankton net casts from...

  15. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants - III. V694 Mon, CD-36 8436, WRAY 16-202, Hen 3-1213, V455 Sco, and Hen 2-247

    CERN Document Server

    Galan, Cezary; Hinkle, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    The elemental abundances of symbiotic giants are essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However,the number of symbiotic giants with fairly well determined photospheric composition is still insufficient for statistical analyses. This is the third in a series of papers on the chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high resolution (R 50000), near-IR spectra. We present results here for the giant star in the V694 Mon, CD-36 8436, WRAY 16-202, Hen 3-1213, V455 Sco, and Hen 2-247 systems. Spectrum synthesis employing standard local thermal equilibrium (LTE) analysis and atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis reveals metallicities from slightly super-solar for V455 Sco ([Fe/H] +0.3 dex), near solar for WRAY 16-202 and Hen 2-247, slightly sub-solar for V694 Mon and CD-36 8436...

  16. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Z G; Hinkle, K

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and one M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H$^{35}$Cl at 3.69851 $\\mu$m. The high resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m telescope. The average [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with --0.72$<$[Fe/H]$<$0.20 is [$^{35}$Cl/Fe]=(--0.10$\\pm$0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16$\\pm$0.15) dex. The [$^{35}$Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of $\\sim$0.35 dex above model predictions suggesting chemical evolution models are under producing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and \\ion{H}{2} regions. In one star where both H$^{35}$Cl a...

  17. Chemical evolution of the Universe at 0.7 < z < 1.6 derived from abundance diagnostics of the broad-line region of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Sameshima, Hiroaki; Kawara, Kimiaki

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Mg II $\\lambda2798$ and Fe II UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of $0.72 < z < 1.63$. A strong anticorrelation between Mg II equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between Fe II EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg II and Fe II emission lines, we have performed photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (i) Mg II and Fe II emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (ii) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indic...

  18. THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-REDSHIFT DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS WITH THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND AFFILIATED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, A. J.; Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, J.; Thom, C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) measurements of metal abundances in eight 0.083 < z{sub abs} < 0.321 damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems serendipitously discovered in the COS-Halos survey. We find that these systems show a large range in metallicities, with -1.10 < [Z/H] < 0.31, similar to the spread found at higher redshifts. These low-redshift systems on average have subsolar metallicities, but do show a rise in metallicity over cosmic time when compared to higher-redshift systems. We find that the average sub-DLA metallicity is higher than the average DLA metallicity at all redshifts. Nitrogen is underabundant with respect to {alpha}-group elements in all but perhaps one of the absorbers. In some cases, [N/{alpha}] is significantly below the lowest nitrogen measurements in nearby galaxies. Systems for which depletion patterns can be studied show little, if any, depletion, which is characteristic of Milky Way halo-type gas. We also identify affiliated galaxies for three of the sub-DLAs using spectra obtained from a Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS). None of these sub-DLAs arise in the stellar disks of luminous galaxies; instead, these absorbers may exist in galaxy halos at impact parameters ranging from 38 to 92 kpc. Multiple galaxies are present near two of the sub-DLAs, and galaxy interactions may play a role in the dispersal of the gas. Many of these low-redshift absorbers exhibit simple kinematics, but one sub-DLA has a complicated mix of at least 13 components spread over 150 km s{sup -1}. We find three galaxies near this sub-DLA, which also suggests that galaxy interactions roil the gas. This study reinforces the view that DLAs have a variety of origins, and low-redshift studies are crucial for understanding absorber-galaxy connections.

  19. Relative abundance of chemical forms of Cu(II) and Cd(II) on soybean roots as influenced by pH, cations and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Liu, Zhao-Dong; Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2016-11-01

    Little information is available on chemical forms of heavy metals on integrate plant roots. KNO3 (1 M), 0.05M EDTA at pH6 and 0.01 M HCl were used sequentially to extract the exchangeable, complexed and precipitated forms of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from soybean roots and then to investigate chemical form distribution of Cu(II) and Cd(II) on soybean roots. Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorbed on soybean roots were mainly exchangeable form, followed by complexed form, while their precipitated forms were very low under acidic conditions. Soybean roots had a higher adsorption affinity to Cu(II) than Cd(II), leading to higher toxic of Cu(II) than Cd(II). An increase in solution pH increased negative charge on soybean and thus increased exchangeable Cu(II) and Cd(II) on the roots. Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ reduced exchangeable Cu(II) and Cd(II) levels on soybean roots and these cations showed greater effects on Cd(II) than Cu(II) due to greater adsorption affinity of the roots to Cu(II) than Cd(II). L-malic and citric acids decreased exchangeable and complexed Cu(II) on soybean roots. In conclusion, Cu(II) and Cd(II) mainly existed as exchangeable and complexed forms on soybean roots. Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations and citric and L-malic acids can potentially alleviate Cu(II) and Cd(II) toxicity to plants.

  20. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars with s-process Element Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Placco, Vinicius M.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, {log}g=1.25,\\ξ = 2.20 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has {{[C/Fe]}}=1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as a “CEMP-r/s” star. Based on abundance comparisons with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of thermal pulses the AGB companion underwent, the effect of different AGB star masses on their nucleosynthetic yields, and physics that is not well approximated in 1D stellar models such as proton ingestion episodes and rotation. Based on a set of detailed AGB models, we suggest the abundance signature of HE 0414-0343 to have arisen from a >1.3 M⊙ mass AGB star and a late-time mass transfer that transformed HE 0414-0343 into a CEMP-sC star. We also find that the [Y/Ba] ratio well parametrizes the classification and can thus be used to easily classify any future such stars. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  1. Raccoon abundance inventory report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  2. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF DWARF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hidalgo-Gámez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las abundancias de oxígeno para una muestra de galaxias espirales enanas. En casi todos los casos, ésta se obtuvo mediante los llamados métodos semiempíricos. Los valores de la abundancia que se obtienen son, en la mayoría de los casos, menores que la abundancia solar y muy similares a los que se observan en otras galaxias tardías, como las BCG o las irregulares enanas. Se pudo calcular el gradiente para el caso de cuatro de estas galaxias. En todos los casos, el gradiente es muy grande, siendo mayor que -0.2 dex/kpc para las galaxias no barradas y de -0.1 dex/kpc para la galaxia barrada estudiada.

  3. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  4. Detecting Abundance Variations in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, H.; Santos, P. M.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.

    2014-04-01

    Empirical methods of investigating chemical abundances are still widely used as a primary tool to study planetary nebulae (PNe) as well as HII regions. In this work we investigate the capacity of the empirical abundance determination methods to recover pre-defined parameters and abundance variations in a realistically modeled planetary nebula. To perform the test we use a threedimensional density structure obtained from a hydrodynamical simulation which is fed through a threedimensional photoionization code. The density structure is an asymetrical and inhomogeneous elongated closed shell. The input parameters used, such as, ionizing source, density, and chemical abundances are typical values of type I PNe. The model emissivities are then projected in the line of sight and emission line maps are generated, which are used to obtain the temperature and density diagnostics. The diagnostics and line emission maps are then used to obtain spatially resolved maps of the abundances. In this work we use the method described above to investigate abundances for two distinct orientations of the density structure. Our results show that for typical signal to noise ratios obtained from long-slit spectroscopy, only large abundance variations can be determined with good precision.

  5. Abundance analysis of Barium stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Liu; Yan-Chun Liang; Li-Cai Deng

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the chemical abundances of six barium stars and two CH subgiant stars based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra. The neu- tron capture process elements Y, Zr, Ba, La and Eu show obvious overabundances relative to the Sun, for example, their [Ba/Fe] values are from 0.45 to 1.27. Other elements, in- cluding Na, Mg, A1, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni, show comparable abundances to the Solar ones, and their [Fe/H] covers a range from -0.40 to 0.21, which means they belong to the Galactic disk. The predictions of the theoretical model of wind accretion for bi- nary systems can explain the observed abundance patterns of the neutron capture process elements in these stars, which means that their overabundant heavy-elements could be caused by accreting the ejecta of AGB stars, the progenitors of present-day white dwarf companions in binary systems.

  6. Surface abundances of ON stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Palacios, A; Howarth, I; Georgy, C; Walborn, N R; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient, or when mass transfer in binary systems happens, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle or not is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determine the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measure the projected rotational velocities. We compare the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. We show that ON stars are usually helium-rich. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cann...

  7. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  8. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  9. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC2392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The spectra of the planetary nebula NGC2392 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the

  10. Deuterium abundance and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal-Madjar, A; Lemoine, M

    1996-01-01

    We review the status of the measurements of the deuterium abundance from the local interstellar medium to the solar system and high redshifts absorbers toward quasars. We present preliminary results toward a white dwarf and a QSO. We conclude that the deuterium evolution from the Big-Bang to now is still not properly understood.

  11. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  12. Radial molecular abundances and gas cooling in starless cores

    CERN Document Server

    Sipilä, O

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We aim to simulate radial profiles of molecular abundances and the gas temperature in cold and heavily shielded starless cores by combining chemical and radiative transfer models. Methods: A determination of the dust temperature in a modified Bonnor-Ebert sphere is used to calculate initial radial molecular abundance profiles. The abundances of selected cooling molecules corresponding to two different core ages are then extracted to determine the gas temperature at two time steps. The calculation is repeated in an iterative process yielding molecular abundances consistent with the gas temperature. Line emission profiles for selected substances are calculated using simulated abundance profiles. Results: The gas temperature is a function of time; the gas heats up as the core gets older because the cooling molecules are depleted onto grain surfaces. The contributions of the various cooling molecules to the total cooling power change with time. Radial chemical abundance profiles are non-trivial: different s...

  13. The RAVE Catalog of Stellar Elemental Abundances: First Data Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeche, C.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Fulbright, J. P.; Ruchti, G. R.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present chemical elemental abundances for 36,561 stars observed by the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), an ambitious spectroscopic survey of our Galaxy at Galactic latitudes |b| > 25° and with magnitudes in the range 9

  14. The Solar Heavy Element Abundances: I. Constraints from Stellar Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, F; Delahaye, Franck; Pinsonneault, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The latest solar atmosphere models include non-LTE corrections and 3D hydrodynamic convection simulations. These models predict a significant reduction in the solar metal abundance, which leads to a serious conflict between helioseismic data and the predictions of solar interiors models. We demonstrate that the helioseismic constraints on the surface convection zone depth and helium abundance combined with stellar interiors models can be used to define the goodness of fit for a given chemical composition. After a detailed examination of the errors in the theoretical models we conclude that models constructed with the older solar abundances are consistent (<2 \\sigma) with the seismic data. Models constructed with the proposed new low abundance scale are strongly disfavored, disagreeing at the 15 \\sigma level. We then use the sensitivity of the seismic properties to abundance changes to invert the problem and infer a seismic solar heavy element abundance mix with two components: meteoritic abundances, and th...

  15. Nucleosynthesis: Stellar and Solar Abundances and Atomic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, J J; Sneden, C; Den Hartog, E A; Collier, J L; Cowan, John J.; Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Christopher; Collier, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of often surprisingly large amounts of neutron capture (i.e., s- and r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy -- the progenitors of the halo stars -- responsible for neutron-capture synthesis. Comparisons of abundance trends can be used to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the nature of heavy element nucleosynthesis. In addition age determinations, based upon long-lived radioactive nuclei abundances, can now be obtained. These stellar abundance determinations depend critically upon atomic data. Improved laboratory transition probabilities have been recently obtained for a number of elements. These new gf values have been used to greatly refine the abundances of neutron-capture elemental abundances in the solar photosphere and in very metal-poor Galactic halo stars. The newly determined stellar abundances are surprisingl...

  16. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  17. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  18. Elemental Abundances of Solar Sibling Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, I.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  19. Stellar Mixing and the Primordial Lithium Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsonneault, M H; Walker, T P; Narayanan, V K

    2002-01-01

    We compare the properties of recent samples of the lithium abundances in halo stars to one another and to the predictions of theoretical models including rotational mixing, and we examine the data for trends with metal abundance. We find from a KS test that in the absence of any correction for chemical evolution, the Ryan, Norris, & Beers (1999} sample is fully consistent with mild rotational mixing induced depletion and, therefore, with an initial lithium abundance higher than the observed value. Tests for outliers depend sensitively on the threshold for defining their presence, but we find a 10$--$45% probability that the RNB sample is drawn from the rotationally mixed models with a 0.2 dex median depletion (with lower probabilities corresponding to higher depletion factors). When chemical evolution trends (Li/H versus Fe/H) are treated in the linear plane we find that the dispersion in the RNB sample is not explained by chemical evolution; the inferred bounds on lithium depletion from rotational mixing...

  20. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, Texas 78712-1205 (United States); Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V. [Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of RAS, 65/1, Pulkovskoye Chaussee, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Roederer, I. U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wittenmyer, R. A. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  1. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. VI. Age and abundance structure of the stellar populations in the central sub-kpc of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Johnson, J. A.; Asplund, M.; Meléndez, J.; Lucatello, S.; Howes, L. M.; McWilliam, A.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Bennett, D. P.; Hirao, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Koshimoto, N.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed elemental abundance study of 90 F and G dwarf, turn-off, and subgiant stars in the Galactic bulge. Based on high-resolution spectra acquired during gravitational microlensing events, stellar ages and abundances for 11 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Zn, Y and Ba) have been determined. Four main findings are presented: (1) a wide metallicity distribution with distinct peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.09, -0.63, -0.20, + 0.12, + 0.41; (2) a highfraction of intermediate-age to young stars where at [Fe/H] > 0 more than 35% are younger than 8 Gyr, and for [Fe/H] ≲ -0.5 most stars are 10 Gyr or older; (3) several episodes of significant star formation in the bulge has been identified: 3, 6, 8, and 11 Gyr ago; (4) tentatively the "knee" in the α-element abundance trends of the sub-solar metallicity bulge is located at a slightly higher [Fe/H] than in the local thick disk. These findings show that the Galactic bulge has complex age and abundance properties that appear to be tightly connected to the main Galactic stellar populations. In particular, the peaks in the metallicity distribution, the star formation episodes, and the abundance trends, show similarities with the properties of the Galactic thin and thick disks. At the same time, the star formation rate appears to have been slightly faster in the bulge than in the local thick disk, which most likely is an indication of the denser stellar environment closer to the Galactic centre. There are also additional components not seen outside the bulge region, and that most likely can be associated with the Galactic bar. Our results strengthen the observational evidence that support the idea of a secular origin for the Galactic bulge, formed out of the other main Galactic stellar populations present in the central regions of our Galaxy. Additionally, our analysis of this enlarged sample suggests that the (V-I)0 colour of the bulge red clump should be revised to 1.09. Based on data obtained with the

  2. Primordial Deuterium Abundance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.; Takahara, Fumio

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium abundances measured recently from QSO absorption-line systems lie in the range from 3 10^{-5} to 3 10^{-4}, which shed some questions on standard big bang theory. We show that this discordance may simply be an artifact caused by inadequate analysis ignoring spatial correlations in the velocity field in turbulent media. The generalized procedure (accounting for such correlations) is suggested to reconcile the D/H measurements. An example is presented based on two high-resolution observations of Q1009+2956 (low D/H) [1,2] and Q1718+4807 (high D/H) [8,9]. We show that both observations are compatible with D/H = 4.1 - 4.6 10^{-5}, and thus support SBBN. The estimated mean value = 4.4 10^{-5} corresponds to the baryon-to-photon ratio during SBBN eta = 4.4 10^{-10} which yields the present-day baryon density Omega_b h^2 = 0.015.

  3. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  4. Analysis of 26 Barium Stars I. Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, D M; Allen, Dinah M.; Barbuy, Beatriz

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 26 barium stars, including dwarf barium stars, providing their atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], vt) and elemental abundances. We aim at deriving gravities and luminosity classes of the sample stars, in particular to confirm the existence of dwarf barium stars. Accurate abundances of chemical elements were derived. Abundance ratios between nucleosynthetic processes, by using Eu and Ba as representatives of the r- and s-processes are presented. High-resolution spectra with the FEROS spectrograph at the ESO-1.5m Telescope, and photometric data with Fotrap at the Zeiss telescope at the LNA were obtained. The atmospheric parameters were derived in an iterative way, with temperatures obtained from colour-temperature calibrations. The abundances were derived using spectrum synthesis for Li, Na, Al, alpha-, iron peak, s- and r-elements atomic lines, and C and N molecular lines. Atmospheric parameters in the range 4300 < Teff < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] < 0.0 and 1.4...

  5. Elemental Abundances of Solar Sibling Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, I; Bobylev, V V; Roederer, I U; Lambert, D L; Endl, M; Cochran, W D; MacQueen, P J; Wittenmyer, R A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying a...

  6. Cosmic ray source abundance of calcium

    CERN Document Server

    Perron, C

    1978-01-01

    Re-examines the results of experiments in which ultra-high purity iron targets were irradiated by protons from the two CERN accelerators (600 MeV and 21 GeV); the spallation products were then chemically separated, and their isotopic composition determined by mass spectrometry. Ratios of cross-sections for calcium production by spallation of iron show that /sup 42/Ca, /sup 43/Ca and /sup 44/Ca have about the same abundance, about 10-15% that of iron, confirming earlier studies. (11 refs).

  7. Abundance Survey of M and K Dwarf Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Vincent M. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98133 (United States); Wallerstein, George [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98133 (United States)

    2005-07-25

    We report the measurement of chemical abundances in 35 low-mass main sequence (M and K dwarf) stars. We have measured the abundance of 12 elements in Kapteyn's Star, a nearby halo M subdwarf. The abundances indicate an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.98, which is about 0.5 dex smaller than that measured in the only previous published measurement using atomic absorption lines. We have measured Fe and Ti abundances in 35 M and K dwarfs with -2.39 [Fe/H] +0.21 using atomic absorption lines, mostly in the 8000A <{lambda} < 8850A range. These will be used to calibrate photometric and low-resolution spectrum metallicity indices for low mass dwarfs, which will make metallicity estimates for these stars more certain. We also describe some difficulties encountered which are not normally necessary to consider when studying warmer stars.

  8. (Un)true deuterium abundance in the Galactic disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, Tijana; Steigman, Gary; Fields, Brian D.

    2010-04-01

    Deuterium has a special place in cosmology, nuclear astrophysics, and galactic chemical evolution, because of its unique property that it is only created in the big bang nucleosynthesis while all other processes result in its net destruction. For this reason, among other things, deuterium abundance measurements in the interstellar medium (ISM) allow us to determine the fraction of interstellar gas that has been cycled through stars, and set constraints and learn about different Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models. However, recent indications that deuterium might be preferentially depleted onto dust grains complicate our understanding about the meaning of measured ISM deuterium abundances. For this reason, recent estimates by Linsky et al. (2006) have yielded a lower bound to the “true”, undepleted, ISM deuterium abundance that is very close to the primordial abundance, indicating a small deuterium astration factor contrary to the demands of many GCE models. To avoid any prejudice about deuterium dust depletion along different lines of sight that are used to determine the “true” D abundance, we propose a model-independent, statistical Bayesian method to address this issue and determine in a model-independent manner the undepleted ISM D abundance. We find the best estimate for the gas-phase ISM deuterium abundance to be (D/H)ISM ≥ (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-5. Presented are the results of Prodanović et al. (2009).

  9. Abundances and diffusion of elements in M67 stars

    CERN Document Server

    Önehag, Anna; Korn, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic study at high resolution, R~50,000, of 14 stars located on the main sequence, at the turn-off point and on the early subgiant branch in the cluster M67 in order to investigate its detailed chemical composition, for comparison with the Sun and solar twins in the solar neighbourhood, and to explore selective atomic diffusion of chemical elements as predicted by stellar-structure theory. We have obtained VLT/FLAMES-UVES spectra and analysed these strictly differentially in order to explore chemical-abundance similarities and differences between the M67 stars and the Sun, and among the M67 stars themselves. Individual abundances of 19 different chemical elements are obtained for the stars. They are found to agree very well with solar abundances, with abundance ratios closer to solar than those of most solar twins in the solar neighbourhood. An exception is Li which shows a considerable scatter among the cluster stars. There is a tendency for the cluster-star abundances to be depleted re...

  10. Abundances in Stars with Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchey, Adam M; Stone, Myra; Wallerstein, George

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a detailed chemical abundance analysis for a sample of solar-type stars known to exhibit excess infrared emission associated with dusty debris disks. Our sample of 28 stars was selected based on results from the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems (FEPS) Spitzer Legacy Program, for the purpose of investigating whether the stellar atmospheres have been polluted with planetary material, which could indicate that the metallicity enhancement in stars with planets is due to metal-rich infall in the later stages of star and planet formation. The preliminary results presented here consist of precise abundances for 15 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for half of the stars in our sample. We find that none of the stars investigated so far exhibit the expected trend of increasing elemental abundance with increasing condensation temperature, which would result from the stars having accreted planetary debris. Rather, the slopes of linear least...

  11. Abundance analyses of cool extreme helium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, G; Lambert, D L; Jeffery, C S; Asplund, M; Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L.; Asplund, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Extreme helium stars (EHe) with effective temperatures from 8000K to 13000K are among the coolest EHe stars and overlap the hotter R CrB stars in effective temperature. The cool EHes may represent an evolutionary link between the hot EHes and the R CrBs. Abundance analyses of four cool EHes are presented. To test for an evolutionary connection, the chemical compositions of cool EHes are compared with those of hot EHes and R CrBs. Relative to Fe, the N abundance of these stars is intermediate between those of hot EHes and R CrBs. For the R CrBs, the metallicity M derived from the mean of Si and S appears to be more consistent with the kinematics than that derived from Fe. When metallicity M derived from Si and S replaces Fe, the observed N abundances of EHes and R CrBs fall at or below the upper limit corresponding to thorough conversion of initial C and O to N. There is an apparent difference between the composition of R CrBs and EHes; the former having systematically higher [N/M] ratios. The material present...

  12. Abundances of Galactic Anticenter Planetary Nebulae and the Oxygen Abundance Gradient in the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C; Jaskot, Anne E; Balick, Bruce; Morrison, Michael A; Milingo, Jacquelynne B

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained spectrophotometric observations of 41 anticenter planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the disk of the Milky Way. Electron temperatures and densities, as well as chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar were determined. Incorporating these results into our existing database of PN abundances yielded a sample of 124 well-observed objects with homogeneously-determined abundances extending from 0.9-21 kpc in galactocentric distance. We performed a detailed regression analysis which accounted for uncertainties in both oxygen abundances and radial distances in order to establish the metallicity gradient across the disk to be: 12+log(O/H)=(9.09+/-.05) - (0.058+/-.006) x Rg, with Rg in kpc. While we see some evidence that the gradient steepens at large galactocentric distances, more objects toward the anticenter need to be observed in order to confidently establish the true form of the metallicity gradient. We find no compelling evidence that the gradient differs between Peimbert Types I and ...

  13. CHROMOSPHERIC MODELS AND THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H.; Kurucz, R. L., E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    Realistic stellar atmospheric models of two typical metal-poor giant stars in Omega Centauri, which include a chromosphere (CHR), influence the formation of optical lines of O i: the forbidden lines (λ6300, λ6363) and the infrared triplet (λλ7771−7775). One-dimensional semi-empirical non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) models are constructed based on observed Balmer lines. A full non-LTE formulation is applied for evaluating the line strengths of O i, including photoionization by the Lyman continuum and photoexcitation by Lyα and Lyβ. Chromospheric models (CHR) yield forbidden oxygen transitions that are stronger than those in radiative/convective equilibrium (RCE) models. The triplet oxygen lines from high levels also appear stronger than those produced in an RCE model. The inferred oxygen abundance from realistic CHR models for these two stars is decreased by factors of ∼3 as compared to values derived from RCE models. A lower oxygen abundance suggests that intermediate-mass AGB stars contribute to the observed abundance pattern in globular clusters. A change in the oxygen abundance of metal-poor field giants could affect models of deep mixing episodes on the red giant branch. Changes in the oxygen abundance can impact other abundance determinations that are critical to astrophysics, including chemical tagging techniques and galactic chemical evolution.

  14. Chromospheric Models and the Oxygen Abundance in Giant Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    Realistic stellar atmospheric models of two typical metal-poor giant stars in Omega Centauri, which include a chromosphere (CHR), influence the formation of optical lines of O i: the forbidden lines (λ6300, λ6363) and the infrared triplet (λλ7771-7775). One-dimensional semi-empirical non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) models are constructed based on observed Balmer lines. A full non-LTE formulation is applied for evaluating the line strengths of O i, including photoionization by the Lyman continuum and photoexcitation by Lyα and Lyβ. Chromospheric models (CHR) yield forbidden oxygen transitions that are stronger than those in radiative/convective equilibrium (RCE) models. The triplet oxygen lines from high levels also appear stronger than those produced in an RCE model. The inferred oxygen abundance from realistic CHR models for these two stars is decreased by factors of ˜3 as compared to values derived from RCE models. A lower oxygen abundance suggests that intermediate-mass AGB stars contribute to the observed abundance pattern in globular clusters. A change in the oxygen abundance of metal-poor field giants could affect models of deep mixing episodes on the red giant branch. Changes in the oxygen abundance can impact other abundance determinations that are critical to astrophysics, including chemical tagging techniques and galactic chemical evolution.

  15. Sunspots, Starspots, and Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doschek, George A.; Warren, Harry P.

    2017-08-01

    The composition of plasma in solar and stellar atmospheres is not fixed, but varies from feature to feature. These variations are organized by the First Ionization Potential (FIP) of the element. Solar measurements often indicate that low FIP elements (10 eV, such as C, N, O, Ar, He) compared to abundances in the photosphere. Stellar observations have also shown similar enrichments. An inverse FIP effect, where the low FIP elements are depleted, has been observed in stellar coronae of stars believed to have large starspots in their photospheres. The abundances are important for determining radiative loss rates in models, tracing the origin of the slow solar wind, and for understanding wave propagation in the chromosphere and corona. Recently, inverse FIP effects have been discovered in the Sun (Doschek, Warren, & Feldman 2015, ApJ, 808, L7) from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft. The inverse FIP regions seem always to be near sunspots and cover only a very small area (characteristic length = a few arcseconds). However, in pursuing the search for inverse FIP regions, we have found that in some sunspot groups the coronal abundance at a temperature of 3-4 MK can be near photospheric over much larger areas of the sun near the sunspots (e.g., 6,000 arcsec2). Also, sometimes the abundances at 3-4 MK are in between coronal and photospheric values. This can occur in small areas of an active region. It is predicted (Laming 2015, Sol. Phys., 12, 2) that the FIP effect should be highly variable in the corona. Several examples of coronal abundance variations are presented. Our work indicates that a comprehensive re-investigation of solar abundances is highly desirable. This work is supported by a NASA Hinode grant.

  16. Anthropogenic noise changes arthropod abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkley, Jessie P; McClure, Christopher J W; Kawahara, Akito Y; Francis, Clinton D; Barber, Jesse R

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic noise is a widespread and growing form of sensory pollution associated with the expansion of human infrastructure. One specific source of constant and intense noise is that produced by compressors used for the extraction and transportation of natural gas. Terrestrial arthropods play a central role in many ecosystems, and given that numerous species rely upon airborne sounds and substrate-borne vibrations in their life histories, we predicted that increased background sound levels or the presence of compressor noise would influence their distributions. In the second largest natural gas field in the United States (San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA), we assessed differences in the abundances of terrestrial arthropod families and community structure as a function of compressor noise and background sound level. Using pitfall traps, we simultaneously sampled five sites adjacent to well pads that possessed operating compressors, and five alternate, quieter well pad sites that lacked compressors, but were otherwise similar. We found a negative association between sites with compressor noise or higher levels of background sound and the abundance of five arthropod families and one genus, a positive relationship between loud sites and the abundance of one family, and no relationship between noise level or compressor presence and abundance for six families and two genera. Despite these changes, we found no evidence of community turnover as a function of background sound level or site type (compressor and noncompressor). Our results indicate that anthropogenic noise differentially affects the abundances of some arthropod families. These preliminary findings point to a need to determine the direct and indirect mechanisms driving these observed responses. Given the diverse and important ecological functions provided by arthropods, changes in abundances could have ecological implications. Therefore, we recommend the consideration of arthropods in the environmental

  17. Understanding and reducing statistical uncertainties in nebular abundance determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, R; Scicluna, P

    2012-01-01

    Whenever observations are compared to theories, an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the observations is vital if the comparison is to be meaningful. However, many determinations of temperatures, densities and abundances in photoionized nebulae do not quote the associated uncertainty. Those that do typically propagate the uncertainties using analytical techniques which rely on assumptions that generally do not hold. Motivated by this issue, we have developed NEAT (Nebular Empirical Analysis Tool), a new code for calculating chemical abundances in photoionized nebulae. The code carries out an analysis of lists of emission lines using long-established techniques to estimate the amount of interstellar extinction, calculate representative temperatures and densities, compute ionic abundances from both collisionally excited lines and recombination lines, and finally to estimate total elemental abundances using an ionization correction scheme. NEAT uses a Monte Carlo technique to robustly propagate uncer...

  18. Abundances of PNe in the Outer Disk of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, Karen B; Balick, Bruce; Henry, R B C

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations and chemical abundances of 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the outer disk of M31. The [O III] 4363 line is detected in all objects, allowing a direct measurement of the nebular temperature essential for accurate abundance determinations. Our results show that the abundances in these M31 PNe display the same correlations and general behaviors as Type II PNe in the Milky Way Galaxy. We also calculate photoionization models to derive estimates of central star properties. From these we infer that our sample PNe, all near the peak of the Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function, originated from stars near 2 M_sun. Finally, under the assumption that these PNe are located in M31's disk, we plot the oxygen abundance gradient, which appears shallower than the gradient in the Milky Way.

  19. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN PNE IN THE SPIRAL NGC 300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos obtenido abundancias químicas para una muestra de más de 20 nebulosas planetarias y varias regiones HII compactas de la galaxia NGC 300, para los cuales se pudo determinar temperaturas electrónicas de [O III], basadas en la medición del cociente [O III]hh4363/5007. Estos datos muestra que para las regiones HII existe un claro gradiente de abundancias en el disco de la galaxia. El gradiente es menos empinado y más disperso para el caso de las nebulosas planetarias. Se discuten algunas diferencias entre el comportamiento químico de las nebulosas planetarias y el de las regiones HII.

  20. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF THE MAGNETIC CP STAR HD 168733

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Collado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha llevado a cabo un an lisis detallado de las abundancias en la estrella CP magn tica HD 168733 utilizando espectros de alta resoluci n obtenidos con el espectr grafo echelle EBASIM del telescopio de 2.1 m de CASLEO en Argentina. Los espectros cubren la regi n 382{700 nm. La estrella no puede ser clasi cada ni como una peculiar de HgMn ni como perteneciente al grupo CP2 de silicio. Comparada con el Sol, C, N son levementes sobreabundantes mientras que el Mg y S son de cientes, Si es normal y P y Cl son sobreabundantes. Los elementos del pico de hierro: Sc, Ti, Cr y Fe son sobreabundantes. Se han identi cado tambi n l neas de Ti III y Fe III. HD 168733 muestra una gran sobreabundancia de Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, Xe, Pt, Hg y algunas tierras raras.

  1. H II Regions and Protosolar Abundances in Galactic Chemical Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carigi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos modelos de evolución química del disco galáctico con diferentes rendimientos dependientes de Z. Encontramos que una tasa moderada de pérdida de masa en estrellas masivas de metalicidad solar produce un excelente ajuste con los gradientes de C/H y C/O del disco de la Galaxia. El mejor modelo reproduce: las abundancias de H, He, C y O derivadas de líneas de recombinación en M17, las abundancias protosolares y las relaciones C/O-O/H, C/Fe-Fe/H y O/Fe-Fe/H derivadas de estrellas de la vecindad solar. La concordancia del modelo con las abundancias protosolares implica que el Sol se originó a una distancia galactocéntrica similar a la actual. El modelo para r = 3 kpc implica que una fracción de las estrellas en la dirección del bulbo se formó en el disco interno. Nuestro modelo reproduce la relación C/O-O/H derivada de regiones H II extragalácticas en galaxias espirales.

  2. Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Labby, Z E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J; Ivans, I I

    2006-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf...

  3. Gd Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Den Hartog, E A; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2006-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 49 even-parity and 14 odd-parity levels of Gd II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 611 lines of Gd II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Gd II transition probabilities and the first using a high performance Fourier transform spectrometer. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Gd abundance, log epsilon = 1.11 +/- 0.03. Revised Gd abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, and HD 115444. The resulting Gd/Eu abundance ratios are in very good agreement with the solar-system r-process ratio. We have employed the increasingly accurate stellar abundance determinations, resulting in large part from the more precise laboratory atomic data, to predict directly the Solar System r-process elemental...

  4. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  5. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  6. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  7. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  8. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  9. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  10. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  11. The Primordial Abundance of 4He Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Thuan, Trinh X.

    1998-06-01

    We use a sample of 45 low-metallicity H II regions to determine the primordial helium abundance Yp with a precision of better than 1%. The data includes new spectrophotometric observations of 15 blue compact galaxies (BCGs) with oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) between 7.83 and 8.35 (Z⊙/13 Lipovetsky, but higher than previous determinations (Yp = 0.230-0.234). Part of the difference comes from the fact that previous investigators have used the northwest component of I Zw 18 in the determination of Yp. This component is subject to strong underlying He I stellar absorption that reduces the He I line intensities by 5%-25%. The derived Y is 0.233 +/- 0.008 from the He I λ6678 line. Instead, by using the southeast component of I Zw 18, which is much less subject to underlying He I stellar absorption, we obtain Y = 0.242 +/- 0.009. The mean Y of the two most metal-deficient BCGs, I Zw 18 and SBS 0335-052, is Ȳ=0.245+/-0.004, in excellent agreement with the Yp derived from the linear regressions. We derive a slope dY/dZ = 2.3 +/- 1.0, considerably smaller than those derived before. With this smaller slope and taking into account the errors, chemical evolution models with an outflow of well-mixed material can be built for star-forming dwarf galaxies that satisfy all the observational constraints. Our Yp gives Ωbh250=0.058+/-0.007, consistent with the lower limit set by dynamical measurements and X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies. It is also consistent, within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis theory, with measurements of primordial 7Li in galactic halo stars, and at the 1 σ level with the D/H abundance measured in absorption systems toward quasars by Tytler & Burles.

  12. Iron Abundance Diagnostics in High-Redshift QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, M R; Freduling, N K W; Corbin, Michael R.; Korista, Kirk T.; Freduling, Nalaka Kodituwakku & Wolfram

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of alpha-process elements such as magnesium and carbon relative to iron measured from the broad emission lines of QSOs can serve as a diagnostic of the star formation and chemical enrichment histories of their host galaxies. We investigate the relationship between Fe/Mg and Fe/C abundance ratios and the resulting Fe II / Mg II 2800A and Fe II / 1900A-blend flux ratios, both of which have been measured in QSOs out to redshifts of approximately six. Using a galactic chemical evolution model based on a starburst in a giant elliptical galaxy, we find that these flux ratios are good tracers of the chemical enrichment of the nuclei. However, the values of these ratios measured in objects at redshifts of approximately six suggest that iron enrichment has occurred more rapidly in these objects than predicted by the assumed elliptical starburst model, under currently favored cosmologies.

  13. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A; Trevisan, M; Dutra, N

    2013-01-01

    Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut beween the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Gala...

  14. Understanding and reducing statistical uncertainties in nebular abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.; Stock, D. J.; Scicluna, P.

    2012-06-01

    Whenever observations are compared to theories, an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the observations is vital if the comparison is to be meaningful. However, many or even most determinations of temperatures, densities and abundances in photoionized nebulae do not quote the associated uncertainty. Those that do typically propagate the uncertainties using analytical techniques which rely on assumptions that generally do not hold. Motivated by this issue, we have developed Nebular Empirical Analysis Tool (NEAT), a new code for calculating chemical abundances in photoionized nebulae. The code carries out a standard analysis of lists of emission lines using long-established techniques to estimate the amount of interstellar extinction, calculate representative temperatures and densities, compute ionic abundances from both collisionally excited lines and recombination lines, and finally to estimate total elemental abundances using an ionization correction scheme. NEATuses a Monte Carlo technique to robustly propagate uncertainties from line flux measurements through to the derived abundances. We show that, for typical observational data, this approach is superior to analytic estimates of uncertainties. NEAT also accounts for the effect of upward biasing on measurements of lines with low signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to accurately quantify the effect of this bias on abundance determinations. We find not only that the effect can result in significant overestimates of heavy element abundances derived from weak lines, but also that taking it into account reduces the uncertainty of these abundance determinations. Finally, we investigate the effect of possible uncertainties in R, the ratio of selective-to-total extinction, on abundance determinations. We find that the uncertainty due to this parameter is negligible compared to the statistical uncertainties due to typical line flux measurement uncertainties.

  15. Sulfur and zinc abundances of red giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur and zinc are chemically volatile elements, which play significant roles as depletion-free tracers in studying galactic chemical evolution. However, regarding red giants having evolved off the main sequence, reliable abundance determinations of S and Zn seem to be difficult despite that a few studies have been reported so far. Given this situation, we tried to establish the abundances of these elements for an extensive sample of 239 field GK giants (-0.8 < [Fe/H] < +0.2), by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to S I 8694-5, S I 6757, and Zn I 6362 lines and by taking into account the non-LTE effect. Besides, similar abundance analysis was done for 160 FGK dwarfs to be used for comparison. The non-LTE corrections for the S and Zn abundances derived from these lines turned out < 0.1(-0.2) dex for most cases and not very significant. It revealed that the S I 6757 feature is more reliable as an abundance indicator than S I 8694-5 for the case of red giants, because the latter suffers blending ...

  16. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Cipriano, L Toribio San; Domínguez-Guzmán, G; García-Rojas, J

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of HII regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint CII and OII recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^2+ abundances from recombination lines and O^2+ abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^2+ and C^2+, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other HII regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  17. Detailed photospheric abundances of 28 Peg and HD 202240

    CERN Document Server

    Elmasli, Asli; Kilicoglu, Tolgahan; Unal, Kubraozge; Nasolo, Yahya; Albayrak, Berahitdin

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of two neglected A-type stars, 28 Peg and HD 202240, were derived using high resolution spectra obtained at the TUBITAK National Observatory. We determined the photospheric abundances of eleven elements for 28 Peg and twenty for HD 202240, using equivalent-width measurement and spectral synthesis methods. Their abundance patterns are in good agreement with those of chemically normal A-type stars having similar atmospheric parameters. We pinpoint the position of these stars on the H-R diagram and estimate their masses and ages as; $2.60\\pm0.10\\ M_\\odot$ and $650\\pm50\\ Myr$ for 28 Peg and $4.50\\pm0.09\\ M_\\odot$ and $150\\pm10\\ Myr$ for HD 202240. To compare our abundance determinations with those of stars having similar ages and atmospheric parameters, we select members of open clusters. We notice that our target stars exhibit similar abundance patterns with these members.

  18. Sulfur and zinc abundances of red giant stars†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur and zinc are chemically volatile elements, which play significant roles as depletion-free tracers in studying galactic chemical evolution. However, regarding red giants having evolved off the main sequence, reliable abundance determinations of S and Zn seem to be difficult, despite the several studies that have been reported so far. Given this situation, we tried to establish the abundances of these elements for an extensive sample of 239 field GK giants ( - 0.8 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.2), by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to S I 8694-5, S I 6757, and Zn I 6362 lines and by taking into account the non-LTE effect. Besides, similar abundance analysis was done for 160 FGK dwarfs to be used for comparison. The non-LTE corrections for the S and Zn abundances derived from these lines turned out to be ≲ 0.1(-0.2) dex for most cases and not very significant. It revealed that the S I 6757 feature is more reliable as an abundance indicator than S I 8694-5 for the case of red giants, because the latter suffers blending of unidentified lines. The finally resulting [S/Fe]-[Fe/H] and [Zn/Fe]-[Fe/H] relations for GK giants were confirmed to be in good agreement with those for FGK dwarfs, indicating that S and Zn abundances of red giants are reliably determinable from the S I 6757 and Zn I 6362 lines. Accordingly, not only main-sequence stars but also evolved red giant stars are usable for tracing the chemical evolution history of S and Zn in the regime of disk metallicity by using these lines.

  19. Sm Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2005-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 212 odd-parity levels of Sm II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier-transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for more than 900 lines of Sm II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Sm II transition probabilities using modern methods. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Sm abundance, log epsilon = 1.00 +/- 0.03, from 26 lines. The spectra of three very metal-poor, neutron-capture-rich stars also have been analyzed, employing between 55 and 72 Sm II lines per star. The abundance ratios of Sm relative to other rare earth elements in these stars are in agreement, and are consistent with ratios expected from rapid neutron-capture nucleosynthesis (the r-process).

  20. Element abundances at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, D.M.; Welty, D.E.; York, D.G. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA); Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe( ), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value. 25 refs.

  1. Element abundances at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  2. Fe-peak element abundances in disk and halo stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria

    2009-01-01

    At present none of Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models provides a self-consistent description of observed trends for all iron-peak elements with metallicity simultaneously. The question is whether the discrepancy is due to deficiencies of GCE models, such as stellar yields, or due to erroneous spectroscopically-determined abundances of these elements in metal-poor stars. The present work aims at a critical reevaluation of the abundance trends for several odd and even-Z Fe-peak elements, which are important for understanding explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

  3. Carbon Abundances in the Small Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, T H; Shaw, R A; Balick, B; Villaver, E

    2006-01-01

    As an ongoing study of Magellanic Cloud PNe we have obtained UV spectra of 9 PNe in the SMC to measure their carbon abundances. The spectra have been acquired with ACS HRC/PR200L and SBC/PR130L. The ACS prisms give a reasonable resolution in the range of 1200 -- 2500 A to detect the C IV, C III], and C II] nebular emission, essential for chemical studies of the PNe. The carbon abundances of SMC PNe, together with those of the LMC previously determined with STIS spectroscopy, will allow a comparative study of nebular enrichment and provide the basis for comparison with stellar evolution models at various metallicity.

  4. Sensitivity of low degree oscillations to the change in solar abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Zaatri, A; Berthomieu, G; Morel, P; Corbard, T

    2007-01-01

    Context. The most recent determination of the solar chemical composition, using a time-dependent, 3D hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere, exhibits a significant decrease of C, N, O abundances compared to their previous values. Solar models that use these new abundances are not consistent with helioseismological determinations of the sound speed profile, the surface helium abundance and the convection zone depth. Aims. We investigate the effect of changes of solar abundances on low degree p-mode and g-mode characteristics which are strong constraints of the solar core. We consider particularly the increase of neon abundance in the new solar mixture in order to reduce the discrepancy between models using new abundances and helioseismology. Methods. The observational determinations of solar frequencies from the GOLF instrument are used to test solar models computed with different chemical compositions. We consider in particular the normalized small frequency spacings in the low degree p-mode frequency r...

  5. Nitrogen Abundances in High-z DLAs

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P; D'Odorico, V; Péroux, C

    2003-01-01

    Determination of chemical abundances for elements produced mainly by Type I SNae and intermediate mass stars in high redshift DLAs probes the early chemical build-up on time-scales comparable with their production. Nitrogen shows a peculiar behaviour never detected before in any other class of objects. For [N/H] < -3 there is a plateau with [N/Si]= -1.45(\\pm 0.05). We interpret this as empirical evidence for primary N production by massive stars in young systems where AGB stars have not yet had time to make their contribution. The plateau provides the observational integrated yields for N production by massive stars which are theoretically rather uncertain. High N/Si and solar [alpha/iron-peak] ratios are observed at high redshift and place at an earlier epoch the onset of star formation. On the other hand, low N/Si, i.e. young objects, are observed also at relatively low redshifts. These evidences suggest that DLAs started to be formed at a very early epoch but their formation has been extended up to late...

  6. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Shields, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We examine rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of 70 high redshift quasars (z>3.5) to study the chemical enrichment history of the gas closely related to the quasars, and thereby estimate the epoch of first star formation. The fluxes of several ultraviolet emission lines were investigated within...... the framework of the most recent photoionization models to estimate the metallicity of the gas associated with the high-z quasars. Standard photoionization parameters and the assumption of secondary nitrogen enrichment indicate an average abundance of Z/Z_sol = 4 to 5 in the line emitting gas. Assuming a time...... scale of t_evol = 0.5 - 0.8 Gyrs for the chemical enrichment of the gas, the first major star formation for quasars with z>=4 should have started at a redshift of z_f = 6 - 8, corresponding to an age of the universe of several 10^8 yrs (H_o = 65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7). We note...

  7. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Shields, J C; Constantin, A; Heidt, J; Jäger, K; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2003-01-01

    We examine rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of 70 high redshift quasars (z>3.5) to study the chemical enrichment history of the gas closely related to the quasars, and thereby estimate the epoch of first star formation. The fluxes of several ultraviolet emission lines were investigated within the framework of the most recent photoionization models to estimate the metallicity of the gas associated with the high-z quasars. Standard photoionization parameters and the assumption of secondary nitrogen enrichment indicate an average abundance of Z/Z_sol = 4 to 5 in the line emitting gas. Assuming a time scale of t_evol = 0.5 - 0.8 Gyrs for the chemical enrichment of the gas, the first major star formation for quasars with z>=4 should have started at a redshift of z_f = 6 - 8, corresponding to an age of the universe of several 10^8 yrs (H_o = 65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7). We note that this also appears to be the era of re-ionization of the universe. Finally, there is some evidence for a positive lum...

  8. Early disc accretion as the origin of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastian, N.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; de Mink, S.E.; Longmore, S.N.; Goodwin, S.P.; Gieles, M.

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs), once thought to be well approximated as simple stellar populations (i.e. all stars having the same age and chemical abundance), are now known to host a variety of anomalies, such as multiple discrete (or spreads in) populations in colour-magnitude diagrams and abundance

  9. An MCMC determination of the primordial helium abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Aver, Erik; Skillman, Evan D

    2011-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chemical abundances in metal-poor H II regions provide an independent method for estimating the primordial helium abundance. H II regions are described by several physical parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, and reddening, in addition to y, the ratio of helium to hydrogen. It had been customary to estimate or determine self-consistently these parameters to calculate y. Frequentist analyses of the parameter space have been shown to be successful in these determinations, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have proven to be very efficient in sampling this parameter space. Nevertheless, accurate determination of the primordial helium abundance from observations of H II regions is constrained by both systematic and statistical uncertainties. In an attempt to better reduce the latter, and better characterize the former, we apply MCMC methods to the large dataset recently compiled by Izotov, Thuan, & Stasinska (2007). To improve the reliability...

  10. Abundance of atomic carbon /C I/ in dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T. G.; Huggins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The abundance of interstellar neutral atomic carbon is investigated by means of its ground state fine-structure line emission at 492 GHz using the 91.5 cm telescope of NASAs Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Atomic carbon is found to be very abundant in dense interstellar molecular clouds with column densities of about 10 to the 19th per sq cm. Because the observations have considerably greater column densities than current theories of carbon chemistry, it is suggested that the physical conditions of these clouds are not as simple as assumed in the models. Various situations are discussed which would lead to large C I abundances, including the possibility that the chemical lifetimes of the clouds are relatively short.

  11. O, Na, Ba and Eu abundance patterns in open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, B T; Lattanzio, J

    2014-01-01

    Open clusters are historically regarded as single-aged stellar populations representative of star formation within the Galactic disk. Recent literature has questioned this view, based on discrepant Na abundances relative to the field, and concerns about the longevity of bound clusters contributing to a selection bias: perhaps long-lived open clusters are chemically different to the star formation events that contributed to the Galactic disk. We explore a large sample of high resolution Na, O, Ba & Eu abundances from the literature, homogenized as much as reasonable including accounting for NLTE effects, variations in analysis and choice of spectral lines. Compared to a template globular cluster and representative field stars, we find no significant abundance trends, confirming that the process producing the Na-O anti-correlation in globular clusters is not present in open clusters. Furthermore, previously reported Na-enhancement of open clusters is found to be an artefact of NLTE effects, with the open cl...

  12. Accurate Enthalpies of Formation of Astromolecules: Energy, Stability and Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Etim, Emmanuel E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate enthalpies of formation are reported for known and potential astromolecules using high level ab initio quantum chemical calculations. A total of 130 molecules comprising of 31 isomeric groups and 24 cyanide/isocyanide pairs with atoms ranging from 3 to 12 have been considered. The results show an interesting, surprisingly not well explored, relationship between energy, stability and abundance (ESA) existing among these molecules. Among the isomeric species, isomers with lower enthalpies of formation are more easily observed in the interstellar medium compared to their counterparts with higher enthalpies of formation. Available data in literature confirm the high abundance of the most stable isomer over other isomers in the different groups considered. Potential for interstellar hydrogen bonding accounts for the few exceptions observed. Thus, in general, it suffices to say that the interstellar abundances of related species are directly proportional to their stabilities. The immediate consequences of ...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-precision abundances for stars with planets (Ramirez+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.; Asplund, M.

    2013-11-01

    High-precision stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented for 111 stars; 52 of them are late-F type dwarfs and 59 are metal-rich solar analogs. The atomic linelist employed in the derivation of chemical abundances is also given. This linelist includes hyperfine structure parameters for some species. The stars' isochrone masses and ages are also reported, along with estimates of chromospheric activity. (5 data files).

  14. Lead abundance in the uranium star CS 31082-001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plez, B.; Hill, V.; Cayrel, R.

    2004-01-01

    stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data......stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data...

  15. First Stellar Abundances in the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Geisler, Doug; Wallerstein, George; Borissova, Jura; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pagel, Bernard E. J.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Smith, Verne

    2007-12-01

    Chemical abundances in three M supergiants in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. A detailed synthetic-spectrum analysis has been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, La, and Eu. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H] = -0.67 ± 0.09 and the age 9-13 Myr, which is in excellent agreement with the present-day values in the age-metallicity relationship model of IC 1613 by Skillman et al. We have found that the three supergiants investigated have a mean [α/Fe] equal to about -0.1, which is lower than seen in Galactic stars at the same metallicity and is in agreement with the results obtained in other dwarf irregular galaxies. The oxygen abundances are in agreement with the upper values of the nebular oxygen determinations in IC 1613. The abundance ratios of s- and r-process elements to iron are enhanced relative to solar by about 0.3 dex. The abundance pattern of the elements studied is similar to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud, except for Co and Ni, which are underabundant in the SMC. The observed elemental abundances are generally in very good agreement with the recent chemical evolution model of Yuk and Lee. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the 2.2 m Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 70.B-0361(A) and 072.D-0113(D).

  16. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. New Radial Abundance Gradients for NGC 628 and NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Danielle A; Garnett, Donald R; Croxall, Kevin V; Marble, Andrew R; Smith, J D; Gordon, Karl; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Motived by recent ISM studies, we present high quality MMT and Gemini spectroscopic observations of H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403 in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy, we obtained measurements of the temperature sensitive auroral lines [O III] {\\lambda}4363 and/or [N II] {\\lambda}5755 at a strength of 4{\\sigma} or greater in 11 H II regions in NGC 628 and 7 regions in NGC 2403. These observations allow us, for the first time, to derive an oxygen abundance gradient in NGC 628 based solely on "direct" oxygen abundances of H II regions: 12 + log(O/H) = (8.43+/-0.03) + (-0.017+/-0.002) x Rg (dex/kpc), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of {\\sigma} = 0.10 dex, from 14 regions with a radial coverage of ~2-19 kpc. This is a significantly shallower slope than found by previous "strong-line" abundance studies. In NGC 2403, we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = (8.48+/-0.04) + (-0.032+/-0.007) ...

  18. Enhanced Abundances in Spiral Galaxies of the Pegasus I Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Blanc, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of cluster environment on the chemical evolution of spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster. We determine the gas-phase heavy element abundances of six galaxies in Pegasus derived from H II region spectra obtained from integral-field spectroscopy. These abundances are analyzed in the context of Virgo, whose spirals are known to show increasing interstellar metallicity as a function of H I deficiency. The galaxies in the Pegasus cluster, despite its lower density and velocity dispersion, also display gas loss due to ISM-ICM interaction, albeit to a lesser degree. Based on the abundances of 3 H I deficient spirals and 2 H I normal spirals, we observe a heavy element abundance offset of +0.13\\pm0.07 dex for the H I deficient galaxies. This abundance differential is consistent with the differential observed in Virgo for galaxies with a similar H I deficiency, and we observe a correlation between log(O/H) and the H I deficiency parameter DEF for the two clusters analyzed together. Our resul...

  19. Carbon and Oxygen abundances across the Hertzsprung gap

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczak, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We derived atmospheric parameters and spectroscopic abundances for C and O for a large sample of stars located in the Hertzsprung gap in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram in order to detect chemical peculiarities and get a comprehensive overview of the population of stars in this evolutionary state. We have observed and analyzed high resolution spectra (R = 60 000) of 188 stars in the mass range 2 - 5 Msun with the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory including 28 stars previously identified as Am/Ap stars. We find that the C and O abundances of the majority of stars in the Hertzsprung gap are in accordance with abundances derived for local lower mass dwarfs but detect expected peculiarities for the Am/Ap stars. The C and O abundances of stars with Teff < 6500 K are slightly lower than for the hotter objects but the C/O ratio is constant in the analyzed temperature domain. No indication of an alteration of the C and O abundances of the stars by mixing during the evolution across the He...

  20. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-Resolution spectra (R ~ 42000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 A, are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature T_eff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] > 1.16 the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars wit...

  1. Abundances of metal-weak thick-disc candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P

    1999-01-01

    High resolution spectra of 5 candidate metal-weak thick-disc stars suggested by Beers & Sommer-Larsen (1995) are analyzed to determine their chemical abundances. The low abundance of all the objects has been confirmed with metallicity reaching [Fe/H]=-2.9. However, for three objects, the astrometric data from the Hipparcos catalogue suggests they are true halo members. The remaining two, for which proper-motion data are not available, may have disc-like kinematics. It is therefore clear that it is useful to address properties of putative metal-weak thick-disc stars only if they possess full kinematic data. For CS 22894-19 the abundance pattern similar to those of typical halo stars is found, suggesting that chemical composition is not a useful discriminant between thick-disc and halo stars. CS 29529-12 is found to be C enhanced with [C/Fe]=+1.0; other chemical peculiarities involve the s process elements: [Sr/Fe]=-0.65 and [Ba/Fe]=+0.62, leading to a high [Ba/Sr] considerably larger than what is found in ...

  2. Abundance analysis of DAZ white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, Adela; Dinnbier, Frantisek; Cibulkova, Helena; Nemeth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present an abundance analysis of a sample of 33 hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs. We have used archival high-resolution spectra to measure abundances of calcium, magnesium and iron in a set of 30 objects. In addition, we present preliminary calcium abundances in three new white dwarfs based on low-dispersion spectra. We investigate some abundance ratios (Mg/Ca, Fe/Ca) that may help uncover the composition of the accretion source.

  3. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradi

  4. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. In recent years mid-and far infrared spectra of planetary nebulae have been analysed and lead to more accurate abundances. It may be expected that these better abundances lead to a better understanding of the evolution of these objects. Aims. The observed abundances in planetary nebulae are

  5. Chemical inhomogeneities and pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2001-01-01

    Major improvements in models of chemically peculiar stars have been achieved in the past few years. With these new models it has been possible to test quantitatively some of the processes involved in the formation of abundance anomalies and their effect on stellar structure. The models of metallic A (Am) stars have shown that a much deeper mixing has to be present to account for observed abundance anomalies. This has implications on their variability, which these models also reproduce qualitatively. These models also have implications for other chemically inhomogeneous stars such as HgMn B stars which are not known to be variable and lambda Bootis stars which can be. The study of the variability of chemically inhomogeneous stars can provide unique information on the dynamic processes occurring in many types of stars in addition to modeling of the evolution of their surface composition.

  6. Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mollá, M; da Costa, R; Gibson, B K; Díaz, A I

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of oxygen abundance radial gradients resulting from our chemical evolution models calculated with different prescriptions for the star formation rate (SFR) and for the gas infall rate, in order to assess their respective roles in shaping gradients. We also compare with cosmological simulations and confront all with recent observational datasets, in particular with abundances inferred from planetary nebulae. We demonstrate the critical importance in isolating the specific radial range over which a gradient is measured, in order for their temporal evolution to be useful indicators of disk growth with redshift.

  7. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the

  8. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the ef

  9. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  10. A new abundance scale for the globular cluster 47 Tuc

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe in eight red giants and one turnoff star in the metal rich globular cluster 47 Tuc, based on spectroscopy with the MIKE high resolution spectrograph on the Magellan 6.5-m Clay telescope. A robust line by line differential abundance analysis technique, relative to the K-giant Arcturus, was used to reduce systematic errors from atmospheric and atomic parameters. Our derived mean LTE [Fe/H] of -0.76 +- 0.01 +- 0.04 dex (random and systematic error, respectively) is more metal poor by about 0.1 dex than recent literature results. The chemical element ratios in this nearby globular cluster most closely resemble those of the Galactic bulge, although there is a non-negligible overlap with the composition of thick-disk stars. We find that the [Al/Fe] and [Na/Fe] ratios coincide with the upper boundary of the trends seen in the bulge and thick disk. There is only a small intrinsic scatter in the majority of the abundance ratios, indicating that 47 Tuc...

  11. A complete dataset of copper for investigation of element abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiaolong; Liu, Yanpeng; Yuan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    The abundance of copper plays an important role in the chemical evolution of various stars, such as giant stars and solar-type stars. Accurate determination of its abundance helps to clarify a number of problems including the quite different behavior from other Fe-peak elements both in our Galaxy and extragalactic systems and the [Cu/Fe] ratios in Galactic stars. To accurately determine the copper abundance, it is necessary to include the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects, which depend on a complete dataset of atomic data. However, the complexity of electronic structure of copper makes the accurate prediction of a complete set of atomic data difficult. For both atomic Cu and the first ionized Cu II, the energies of 3d and 4s orbitals are very close and their competition results in complex energy levels. The excitation energy of 3d orbital is very low resulting in an opening 3d atomic system which is difficult to deal with theoretically due to the strong electron correlations. We present a complete set of atomic data including the energy levels, oscillator strengths, and photoionization cross sections of Cu I for the NLTE modeling in copper abundance investigation of astrophysical objects. The calculations are performed with the R-matrix method.

  12. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  13. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  14. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide va...

  15. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  16. Abundance ratios in the hot ISM of elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pipino, A

    2011-01-01

    To constrain the recipes put forth to solve the theoretical Fe discrepancy in the hot interstellar medium of elliptical galaxies and at the same time explain the [alpha/Fe] ratios. In order to do so we use the latest theoretical nucleosynthetic yields, we incorporate the dust, we explore differing SNIa progenitor scenarios by means of a self-consistent chemical evolution model which reproduces the properties of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. Models with Fe-only dust and/or a lower effective SNIa rate achieve a better agreement with the observed Fe abundance. However, a suitable modification to the SNIa yield with respect to the standard W7 model is needed to fully match the abundance ratio pattern. The 2D explosion model C-DDT by Maeda et al. (2010) is a promising candidate for reproducing the [Fe/H] and the [alpha/Fe] ratios. (A&A format)

  17. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  18. Histogrammatic Method for Determining Relative Abundance of Input Gas Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrake, Lukas; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Madzunkov, Stojan; MacAskill, John A.

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the Major Constituents Analysis (MCA) requirements for the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM), this software analyzes the relative abundance ratios for N2, O2, Ar, and CO2 as a function of time and constructs their best-estimate mean. A histogram is first built of all abundance ratios for each of the species vs time. The abundance peaks corresponding to the intended measurement and any obfuscating background are then separated via standard peak-finding techniques in histogram space. A voting scheme is then used to include/exclude this particular time sample in the final average based on its membership to the intended measurement or the background population. This results in a robust and reasonable estimate of the abundance of trace components such as CO2 and Ar even in the presence of obfuscating backgrounds internal to the VCAM device. VCAM can provide a means for monitoring the air within the enclosed environments, such as the ISS (International Space Station), Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a Lunar Habitat, or another vehicle traveling to Mars. Its miniature pre-concentrator, gas chromatograph (GC), and mass spectrometer can provide unbiased detection of a large number of organic species as well as MCA analysis. VCAM s software can identify the concentration of trace chemicals and whether the chemicals are on a targeted list of hazardous compounds. This innovation s performance and reliability on orbit, along with the ground team s assessment of its raw data and analysis results, will validate its technology for future use and development.

  19. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter

  20. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa.

  1. Abundant Semigroups with a Multiplicative Adequate Transversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao Jiang

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate abundant semigroups with a multiplicative adequate transversal. Some properties and characterizations for such semigroups are obtained. In particular,we establish the structure of this class of abundant semigroups in terms of left normal bands, right normal bands and adequate semigroups with some simple compatibility conditions. Finally, we apply this structure to some special cases.

  2. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter depositi

  3. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  4. On the Solar Nickel and Oxygen Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pat; Asplund, Martin; Grevesse, Nicolas; Sauval, A. Jacques

    2009-02-01

    Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on the neutral forbidden transition at 630 nm depend upon the nickel abundance, due to a Ni I blend. Here, we rederive the solar nickel abundance, using the same ab initio three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the solar photosphere employed in the recent revision of the abundances of C, N, O, and other elements. Using 17 weak, unblended lines of Ni I together with the most accurate atomic and observational data available, we find log epsilonNi = 6.17 ± 0.02(statistical) ± 0.05(systematic), a downward shift of 0.06-0.08 dex relative to previous abundances based on one-dimensional model atmospheres. We investigate the implications of the new nickel abundance for studies of the solar oxygen abundance based on the [O I] 630 nm line in the quiet Sun. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen abundance implied by the recent sunspot spectropolarimetric study of Centeno & Socas-Navarro needs to be revised downward from log epsilonO = 8.86 ± 0.07 to 8.71 ± 0.10. This revision is based on the new nickel abundance, the application of the best available gf value for the 630 nm forbidden oxygen line, and a more transparent treatment of CO formation. Determinations of the solar oxygen content relying on forbidden lines now appear to converge around log epsilonO = 8.7.

  5. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter depositi

  6. Diversity, abundance and natural products of marine sponge-associated actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-01

    Actinomycetes are known for their unprecedented ability to produce novel lead compounds of clinical and pharmaceutical importance. This review focuses on the diversity, abundance and methodological approaches targeting marine sponge-associated actinomycetes. Additionally, novel qPCR data on actinomycete abundances in different sponge species and other environmental sources are presented. The natural products literature is covered, and we are here reporting on their chemical structures, their biological activities, as well as the source organisms from which they were isolated.

  7. Quest for the Sun's siblings based on elemental abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Ruchti, G.; Feltzing, S.; Martínez-Barbosa, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    We present stellar parameters, stellar ages, and detailed elemental abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni for 32 solar sibling candidates. Technique of chemical tagging gives us a high probability that four stars might be from the same open cluster. Only one candidate HIP 40317 which has solar metallicity and age could be a solar sibling. We performed simulations of the Sun's birth cluster in analytical Galactic model and found that there is quite low probability to find solar siblings with radial velocity up to Vr = 34.2 km s-1.

  8. Can X-rays provide a solution to the abundance discrepancy problem in photoionised nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We re-examine the well-known discrepancy between ionic abundances determined via the analysis of recombination lines (RLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs). We show that abundance variations can be mimicked in a {\\it chemically homogeneous} medium by the presence of dense X-ray irradiated regions which present different ionisation and temperature structures from those of the more diffuse medium they are embedded in, which is predominantly ionised by extreme-ultraviolet radiation. The presence of X-ray ionised dense clumps or filaments also naturally explains the lower temperatures often measured from O {\\sc ii} recombination lines and from the Balmer jump when compared to temperatures determined by CELs. We discuss the implications for abundances determined via the analysis of CELs and RLs and provide a simple analytical procedure to obtain upwards corrections for CEL-determined abundance. While we show that the abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) and the Balmer Jump temperature determined from observati...

  9. The Abundance of Iron-Peak Elements and the Dust Composition in eta Carinae: Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, M. A.; Melendez, M.; Hartman, H.; Gull, T. R.; Lodders, K.

    2010-01-01

    We study the chemical abundances of the Strontium Filament found in the ejecta of (eta) Carinae. In particular, we derive the abundances of iron-peak elements front spectra of their singly ionized ions present in the optical/IR spectra. In this paper we analyze the spectrum of Mn II using a new non-LTE model for this system. In constructing this models we carried out theoretical calculations of radiative transition rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients. We find that relative to Ni the gas phase abundance ratio of Mn is roughly solar, similar to the Cr abundance but in contrast to the large enhancements in the abundances of Sc and Ti. NVe interpret this result as an indication of non-equilibrium condensation in the ejecta of (eta) Carinae.

  10. NEW RADIAL ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS FOR NGC 628 AND NGC 2403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Marble, Andrew R. [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gordon, Karl [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Garnett, Donald R., E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: croxall.5@osu.edu, E-mail: amarble@nso.edu, E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu, E-mail: robk@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2013-10-01

    Motivated by recent interstellar medium studies, we present high quality MMT and Gemini spectroscopic observations of H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403 in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy, we obtained measurements of the temperature sensitive auroral lines [O III] λ4363 and/or [N II] λ5755 at a strength of 4σ or greater in 11 H II regions in NGC 628 and 7 regions in NGC 2403. These observations allow us, for the first time, to derive an oxygen abundance gradient in NGC 628 based solely on 'direct' oxygen abundances of H II regions: 12 + log(O/H) = (8.43 ± 0.03) + (–0.017 ± 0.002) × R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.10 dex, from 14 regions with a radial coverage of ∼2-19 kpc. This is a significantly shallower slope than found by previous 'strong-line' abundance studies. In NGC 2403, we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = (8.48 ± 0.04) + (–0.032 ± 0.007)× R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.07 dex, from seven H II with a radial coverage of ∼1-10 kpc. Additionally, we measure the N, S, Ne, and Ar abundances. We find the N/O ratio decreases with increasing radius for the inner disk, but reaches a plateau past R{sub 25} in NGC 628. NGC 2403 also has a negative N/O gradient with radius, but we do not sample the outer disk of the galaxy past R{sub 25} and so do not see evidence for a plateau. This bi-modal pattern measured for NGC 628 indicates dominant contributions from secondary nitrogen inside of the R{sub 25} transition and dominantly primary nitrogen farther out. As expected for α-process elements, S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are consistent with constant values over a range in oxygen abundance.

  11. Bacterioplankton abundance and production and nanozooplankton abundance in Kenyan coastal waters (Western Indian Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, N.K.; Van Rijswijk, P.; De Bie, M.J.M.; Peene, J.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial abundance, [H-3]thymidine incorporation rate and heterotrophic nanoflagellate abundance were measured in the water column along transects perpendicular to the Kenyan coast (western Indian Ocean) during June-July (SE monsoon) and November-December (intermonsoon) 1992. Bacterial abundance wa

  12. Study of the primordial lithium abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lithium isotopes have attracted an intense interest because the abundance of both 6Li and 6Li from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the puzzles in nuclear astrophysics. Many investigations of both astrophysical observation and nucleosynthesis calculation have been carried out to solve the puzzle, but it is not solved yet. Several nuclear reactions involving lithium have been indirectly measured at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The Standard BBN (SBBN) network calculations are then performed to investigate the primordial Lithium abundance. The result shows that these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the SBBN abundances of 6Li and 7Li.

  13. Introduction to Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this lecture I will introduce the concept of galactic chemical evolution, namely the study of how and where the chemical elements formed and how they were distributed in the stars and gas in galaxies. The main ingredients to build models of galactic chemical evolution will be described. They include: initial conditions, star formation history, stellar nucleosynthesis and gas flows in and out of galaxies. Then some simple analytical models and their solutions will be discussed together with the main criticisms associated to them. The yield per stellar generation will be defined and the hypothesis of instantaneous recycling approximation will be critically discussed. Detailed numerical models of chemical evolution of galaxies of different morphological type, able to follow the time evolution of the abundances of single elements, will be discussed and their predictions will be compared to observational data. The comparisons will include stellar abundances as well as interstellar medium ones, measured in galax...

  14. CHAOS II: Gas-Phase Abundances in NGC 5194

    CERN Document Server

    Croxall, Kevin V; Berg, Danielle; Skillman, Evan D; Moustakas, John

    2015-01-01

    We have observed NGC5194 (M51a) as part of the CHemical Abundances of Spirals (CHAOS) project. Using the Multi Object Double Spectrographs (MODS) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) we are able to measure one or more of the temperature-sensitive auroral lines ([O III] 4363, [N II] 5755, [S III] 6312) and thus measure "direct" gas-phase abundances in 29 individual HII regions. [O III] 4363 is only detected in two HII regions both of which show indications of excitation by shocks. We compare our data to previous direct abundances measured in NGC5194 and find excellent agreement for all but one region (Delta[log(O/H)] ~ 0.04). We find no evidence of trends in Ar/O, Ne/O, or S/O within NGC5194 or compared to other galaxies. We find modest negative gradients in both O/H and N/O with very little scatter (sigma = -0.62) suggests secondary nitrogen production is responsible for a significantly larger fraction of nitrogen (e.g., factor of 8-10) relative to primary production mechanisms than predicted by theoretica...

  15. Nitrogen and oxygen abundances in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo; Maiolino, Roberto; Matteucci, Francesca; Ventura, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical evolution models aimed at reproducing the observed (N/O) vs. (O/H) abundance pattern of star forming galaxies in the Local Universe. We derive gas-phase abundances from SDSS spectroscopy and a complementary sample of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies, making use of a consistent set of abundance calibrations. This collection of data clearly confirms the existence of a plateau in the (N/O) ratio at very low metallicity, followed by an increase of this ratio up to high values as the metallicity increases. This trend can be interpreted as due to two main sources of nitrogen in galaxies: i) massive stars, which produce small amounts of pure primary nitrogen and are responsible for the (N/O) ratio in the low metallicity plateau; ii) low- and intermediate-mass stars, which produce both secondary and primary nitrogen and enrich the interstellar medium with a time delay relative to massive stars, and cause the increase of the (N/O) ratio. We find that the length of the low-metallicity plateau is almos...

  16. The distribution and abundance of interstellar C2H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, P. J.; Carlson, W. J.; Kinney, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    C2H(N = 1-0) emission has been extensively observed in a variety of molecular clouds, including: 12 hot, dense, cloud cores, 3 bright-rimmed clouds (in NGC 1977, IC 1396, and IC 1848), and across the extended OMC - 1 cloud. It has also been observed in the circumstellar envelopes IRC + 10216 and AFGL 2688. Abundance analyses of the molecular clouds yield C2H/(C-13)O abundance ratios of about 0.01, with little variation (less than about a factor of 4) either between clouds or across individual clouds. In the Orion plateau source, the C2H abundance is enhanced by less than a factor of 4, relative to the extended cloud. The generally high levels of C2H found in the molecular clouds are not readily accounted for by simple, steady-state chemical models, and suggest, as do earlier observations of atomic carbon, that the carbon chemistry in dense clouds is more active than is commonly assumed.

  17. The Origin of Fluorine: Abundances in AGB Carbon Stars Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Abia, C; Cristallo, S; de Laverny, P

    2015-01-01

    Revised spectroscopic parameters for the HF molecule and a new CN line list in the 2.3 mu region have been recently available, allowing a revision of the F content in AGB stars. AGB carbon stars are the only observationally confirmed sources of fluorine. Nowadays there is not a consensus on the relevance of AGB stars in its Galactic chemical evolution. The aim of this article is to better constrain the contribution of these stars with a more accurate estimate of their fluorine abundances. Using new spectroscopic tools and LTE spectral synthesis, we redetermine fluorine abundances from several HF lines in the K-band in a sample of Galactic and extragalactic AGB carbon stars of spectral types N, J and SC spanning a wide range of metallicities. On average, the new derived fluorine abundances are systematically lower by 0.33 dex with respect to previous determinations. This may derive from a combination of the lower excitation energies of the HF lines and the larger macroturbulence parameters used here as well as...

  18. NGC 55: a disc galaxy with flat abundance gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Magrini, Laura; Vajgel, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations obtained with GMOS@Gemini-S of a sample of 25 hii regions located in NGC 55, a late-type galaxy in the nearby Sculptor group. We derive physical conditions and chemical composition through the te-method for 18 hii regions, and strong-line abundances for 22 hii regions. We provide abundances of He, O, N, Ne, S, Ar, finding a substantially homogenous composition in the ionised gas of the disc of NGC 55, with no trace of radial gradients. The oxygen abundances, both derived with \\te- and strong-line methods, have similar mean values and similarly small dispersion: 12+$\\log$(O/H)=8.13$\\pm$0.18~dex with the former and 12+$\\log$(O/H)=8.17$\\pm$0.13~dex with the latter. The average metallicities and the flat gradients agree with previous studies of smaller samples of \\hii\\ regions and there is a qualitative agreement with the blue supergiant radial gradient as well. We investigate the origin of such flat gradients comparing NGC 55 with NGC 300, its companion galaxy, which is ...

  19. Calibration of Nebular Emission-line Diagnostics; 2, Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S

    2000-01-01

    (Abridged) We examine standard methods of measuring nebular chemical abundances, including estimates based on direct T_e measurements, and also bright-line diagnostics. We use observations of 4 LMC HII regions whose ionizing stars have classifications ranging from O7 to WN3. We assume a 2-zone T_e structure to compute ionic abundances. We compare with photoionization models tailored to the properties of the individual objects, and emphasize the importance of correctly relating T_e in the two zones, which can otherwise cause errors of ~0.2 dex in abundance estimates. There are no spatial variations to within 0.1 - 0.15 dex in any of the objects, even one hosting 3 WR stars. Our data agree with the modeled R23 and S23 diagnostics of O and S. We present the first theoretical tracks for S23, which are in excellent agreement with a larger dataset. However, contrary to earlier suggestions, S23 is much more sensitive to the ionization parameter than is R23, because S23 does not sample S IV. We therefore introduce S2...

  20. A holistic abundance analysis of r-rich stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiang; Zhang, Bo; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17374.x

    2010-01-01

    The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars are an excellent test bed by which to set new constraints on models of neutron-capture processes at low metallicity. Some r-process-rich (hereafter r-rich) metal-poor stars, such as HD221170, show an overabundance of the heavier neutron-capture elements and excesses of lighter neutron-capture elements. The study of these r-rich stars could give us a better understanding of weak and main r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Based on conclusions from the observation of metal-poor stars and neutron-capture element nucleosynthesis theory, we set up a model to determine the relative contributions from weak and main r-processes to the heavy-element abundances in metal-poor stars. Using this model, we find that the abundance patterns of light elements for most sample stars are close to the pattern of weak r-process stars, and those of heavier neutron-capture elements very similar to the pattern of main r-process stars, while the lighter neutron-capture elements ca...

  1. Abundances and kinematics for ten anticentre open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat-Gaudin, T; Vallenari, A; Sordo, R; Bragaglia, A; Magrini, L

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters are distributed all across the disk and are convenient tracers of its properties. In particular, outer disk clusters bear a key role for the investigation of the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk. The goal of this study is to derive homogeneous elemental abundances for a sample of ten outer disk OCs, and investigate possible links with disk structures such as the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure. We analyse high-resolution spectra of red giants, obtained from the HIRES@Keck and UVES@VLT archives. We derive elemental abundances and stellar atmosphere parameters by means of the classical equivalent width method. We also performed orbit integrations using proper motions. The Fe abundances we derive trace a shallow negative radial metallicity gradient of slope -0.027+/-0.007 dex.kpc-1 in the outer 12 kpc of the disk. The [alpha/Fe] gradient appears flat, with a slope of 0.006+/-0.007 dex.kpc-1 . The two outermost clusters (Be 29 and Sau 1) appear to follow elliptical orbits. Be 20 also ex...

  2. Estimating Squirrel Abundance From Live trapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A reprint of an article from the Journal of Wildlife Management entitled "Estimating Squirrel Abundance from Live Trapping Data" by Nixon, Edwards and Eberhardt. The...

  3. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  4. Iron abundance in the atmosphere of Arcturus

    CERN Document Server

    Sheminova, V A

    2015-01-01

    Abundance of iron in the atmosphere of Arcturus has been determined from the profiles or regions of the profiles of the weak lines sensitive to iron abundance. The selected lines of Fe I and Fe II were synthesized with the MARCS theoretical models of the atmosphere. From the observed profiles of lines available with a high spectral resolution in the atlas by Hinkle and Wallace (2005), the values of the iron abundance $A = 6.95 \\pm 0.03$ and the radial-tangential macroturbulent velocity $5.6 \\pm 0.2$ km/s were obtained for Arcturus. The same physical quantities were found for the Sun as a star; they are $7.42 \\pm 0.02$ and $3.4 \\pm 0.3$ km/s, respectively. For Arcturus, the iron abundance relative to the solar one was determined with the differential method as [Fe/H] $=-0.48 \\pm 0.02$.

  5. SWFSC/MMTD: Vaquita Abundance Survey 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1997, the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) conducted a survey designed to estimate the abundance of vaquita, the Gulf of California harbor porpoise...

  6. Does land abundance explain African institutions?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The land abundance view of African history uses sparse population to explain pre-colonial land tenure and slavery. I document the geographic forcing variables that predict land rights, slavery, and population density in a cross section of global societies. I discuss whether these correlations support theories of land rights and slavery, including the land abundance view. I show that pre-colonial institutions predict institutional outcomes in Africa in the present, including land transactions,...

  7. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  8. Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U

    2012-01-01

    The elements germanium (Ge, Z=32), arsenic (As, Z=33), and selenium (Se, Z=34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4. We perform a standard abundance analysis of germanium, arsenic, selenium, and several other elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. When combined with previous derivations of germanium abundances in metal-poor stars, our sample reveals an increase in the [Ge/Fe] ratios at higher metallicities. This could mark the onset of the weak s-process contribution to germanium. In contrast, the [As/Fe] and [Se/Fe] ratios rema...

  9. Study of Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongjie; Liang, Shuai; Cui, Wenyuan; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a study of elemental abundances for 30 metal-poor stars whose chemical abundances provide excellent information for setting constraints on models of neutron-capture processes. Based on the abundances of main r- and weak r-process stars, the abundance patterns of main r-process and weak r-process are obtained. The two r-process component coefficients are defined to determine the relative contributions from individual neutron-capture process to abundances of metal-poor stars. Based on the component coefficients, we find that metal-poor stars BD+4 2621 and HD 4306 are also weak r-process stars, which means that the abundance pattern produced by weak r-process is stable. All metal-poor star abundances contain the contributions of both main r-process and weak r-process. The elements produced by weak r-process have increased along with Fe over the polluted history. Most of the metal-poor star abundances do not follow the pattern observed in solar system, but there is a small fraction that do. Fo...

  10. Subaru/HDS Abundances in Three Giant Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Sadakane, K; Ikuta, C; Aoki, W; Jablonka, P; Tajitsu, A

    2004-01-01

    With the HDS (High Dispersion Spectrograph) on the Subaru telescope, we obtained high resolution optical region spectra of three red giant stars (cos 4, cos 82, and cos 347) in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheriodal galaxy. Chemical abundances in these stars have been analysed for 26 elements including alpha-, iron-peak, and neutron capture elements. All three stars show low abundances of alpha-elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) and two stars (cos 82 and cos 347) show high abundance of Mn compared to Galactic halo stars of similar metallicity. One star (cos 4) has been confirmed to be very metal deficient ([Fe/H]=-2.7) and found to show anomalously low abundances of Mn, Cu, and Ba. In another star cos 82 ([Fe/H]=-1.5), we have found large excess of heavy neutron-capture elements with the general abundance pattern similar to the scaled solar system r-process abundance curve. These observational results are rather puzzling: low abundances of alpha-elements and high abundance of Mn seem to sugggest a significant contribution of...

  11. Modelling Void Abundance in Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F

    2016-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f(R) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surv...

  12. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this is discussed. The higher solar neon abundance is confirmed; this is discussed in terms of the results of helioseismology. Evidence is presented for oxygen destruction via ON cycling having occurred in the progenitors of four planetary nebulae with bilobal structure. These progenitor stars had a high mass, probably greater than 5 solar masses. This is deduced from the high values of He/H and N/H found in these nebulae. Formation of nitrogen, helium and carbon are discussed. The high mass progenitors which showed oxygen de...

  13. Chemical composition of interstellar dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    Study of chemical evolution of interstellar medium is well recognized to be a challenging task. Interstellar medium (ISM) is a rich reservoir of complex molecules. So far, around 180 gas phase molecules and around 20 molecular species on the interstellar dust have been detected in various regions of ISM, especially in regions of star formation. In last decade, it was well established that gas phase reactions alone cannot explain molecular abundances in ISM. Chemical reactions which occur on interstellar dust grains are essential to explain formation of several molecules especially hydrogenated species including simplest and most abundant molecule H2. Interstellar grains provide surface for accreted species to meet and react. Therefore, an understanding of formation of molecules on grain surfaces is of prime importance. We concentrate mainly on water, methanol, carbon dioxide, which constitute nearly 90% of the grain mantle. These molecules are detected on grain surface due to their strong absorption bands arising out of multiple vibrational modes. Water is the most abundant species (with a surface coverage >60% ) on a grain in dense interstellar medium. CO2 is second most abundant molecule in interstellar medium with an abundance of around 20% with respect to H2O. However, this can vary from cloud to cloud. In clouds like W 33A it could be even less than 5% of water abundance. The next most abundant molecule is CO, which is well studied ice with an abundance varying between 2%\\ to 15% of water. Methanol (CH3OH) is also very abundant having abundance 2% to 30% of water. Measurement of water deuterium fractionation is a relevant tool for understanding mechanisms of water formation and evolution from prestellar phase to formation of planets and comets. We are also considering deuterated species in our simulation. We use Monte Carlo method (considering multilayer regime) to mimic the exact scenario. We study chemical evolution of interstellar grain mantle by varying

  14. Evolution of lithium abundance in the Sun and solar twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, F.; Oreshina, A. V.; Baturin, V. A.; Gorshkov, A. B.; Morel, P.; Provost, J.

    2017-02-01

    Evolution of the 7Li abundance in the convection zone of the Sun during different stages of its life time is considered to explain its low photospheric value in comparison with that of the solar system meteorites. Lithium is intensively and transiently burned in the early stages of evolution (pre-main sequence, pMS) when the radiative core arises, and then the Li abundance only slowly decreases during the main sequence (MS). We study the rates of lithium burning during these two stages. In a model of the Sun, computed ignoring pMS and without extra-convective mixing (overshooting) at the base of the convection zone, the lithium abundance does not decrease significantly during the MS life time of 4.6 Gyr. Analysis of helioseismic inversions together with post-model computations of chemical composition indicates the presence of the overshooting region and restricts its thickness. It is estimated to be approximately half of the local pressure scale height (0.5HP) which corresponds to 3.8% of the solar radius. Introducing this extra region does not noticeably deplete lithium during the MS stage. In contrast, at the pMS stage, an overshooting region with a value of approximately 0.18HP is enough to produce the observed lithium depletion. If we conclude that the dominant lithium burning takes place during the pMS stage, the dispersion of the lithium abundance in solar twins is explained by different physical conditions, primarily during the early stage of evolution before the MS.

  15. Discovery of interstellar ketenyl (HCCO), a surprisingly abundant radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José; Guélin, Michel

    2015-05-01

    We conducted radioastronomical observations of 9 dark clouds with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the first identification in space of the ketenyl radical (HCCO) toward the starless core Lupus-1A and the molecular cloud L483 and the detection of the related molecules ketene (H2CCO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in these two sources and 3 additional dark clouds. We also report the detection of the formyl radical (HCO) in the 9 targeted sources and of propylene (CH2CHCH3) in 4 of the observed sources, which significantly extends the number of dark clouds where these molecules are known to be present. We have derived a beam-averaged column density of HCCO of ~5 × 1011 cm-2 in both Lupus-1A and L483, which means that the ketenyl radical is just ~10 times less abundant than ketene in these sources. The non-negligible abundance of HCCO found implies that there must be a powerful formation mechanism able to counterbalance the efficient destruction of this radical through reactions with neutral atoms. The column densities derived for HCO, (0.5-2.7) ×1012 cm-2, and CH2CHCH3, (1.9-4-2) ×1013 cm-2, are remarkably uniform across the sources where these species are detected, confirming their ubiquity in dark clouds. Gas phase chemical models of cold dark clouds can reproduce the observed abundances of HCO, but cannot explain the presence of HCCO in Lupus-1A and L483 and the high abundances derived for propylene. The chemistry of cold dark clouds needs to be revised in light of these new observational results. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Tables 3-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Discovery of interstellar ketenyl (HCCO), a surprisingly abundant radical★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José; Guélin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted radioastronomical observations of 9 dark clouds with the IRAM 30m telescope. We present the first identification in space of the ketenyl radical (HCCO) toward the starless core Lupus-1A and the molecular cloud L483, and the detection of the related molecules ketene (H2CCO) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in these two sources and 3 additional dark clouds. We also report the detection of the formyl radical (HCO) in the 9 targeted sources and of propylene (CH2CHCH3) in 4 of the observed sources, which extends significantly the number of dark clouds where these molecules are known to be present. We derive a beam-averaged column density of HCCO of ~ 5 × 1011 cm−2 in both Lupus-1A and L483, which means that the ketenyl radical is just ~10 times less abundant than ketene in these sources. The non-negligible abundance of HCCO found implies that there must be a powerful formation mechanism able to counterbalance the efficient destruction of this radical through reactions with neutral atoms. The column densities derived for HCO, (0.5-2.7) ×1012 cm−2, and CH2CHCH3, (1.9-4-2) ×1013 cm−2, are remarkably uniform across the sources where these species are detected, confirming their ubiquity in dark clouds. Gas phase chemical models of cold dark clouds can reproduce the observed abundances of HCO, but cannot explain the presence of HCCO in Lupus-1A and L483 and the high abundances derived for propylene. The chemistry of cold dark clouds needs to be revised in the light of these new observational results. PMID:26722130

  17. Relic abundance of WIMPs in non-standard cosmological scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yimingniyazi, W.

    2007-08-06

    In this thesis we study the relic density n{sub {chi}} of non--relativistic long--lived or stable particles {chi} in various non--standard cosmological scenarios. First, we discuss the relic density in the non--standard cosmological scenario in which the temperature is too low for the particles {chi} to achieve full chemical equilibrium. We also investigated the case where {chi} particles are non--thermally produced from the decay of heavier particles in addition to the usual thermal production. In low temperature scenario, we calculate the relic abundance starting from arbitrary initial temperatures T{sub 0} of the radiation--dominated epoch and derive approximate solutions for the temperature dependence of the relic density which can accurately reproduces numerical results when full thermal equilibrium is not achieved. If full equilibrium is reached, our ansatz no longer reproduces the correct temperature dependence of the {chi} number density. However, we can contrive a semi-analytic formula which gives the correct final relic density, to an accuracy of about 3% or better, for all cross sections and initial temperatures. We also derive the lower bound on the initial temperature T{sub 0}, assuming that the relic particle accounts for the dark matter energy density in the universe. The observed cold dark matter abundance constrains the initial temperature T{sub 0} {>=}m{sub {chi}}/23, where m{sub {chi}} is the mass of {chi}. Second, we discuss the {chi} density in the scenario where the the Hubble parameter is modified. Even in this case, an approximate formula similar to the standard one is found to be capable of predicting the final relic abundance correctly. Choosing the {chi} annihilation cross section such that the observed cold dark matter abundance is reproduced in standard cosmology, we constrain possible modifications of the expansion rate at T {proportional_to}m{sub {chi}}/20, well before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. (orig.)

  18. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Main, Katharina M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...

  19. Chemical evolution of molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sheo S.; Tarafdar, Sankar P.; Villere, Karen R.; Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The principles behind the coupled chemical-dynamical evolution of molecular clouds are described. Particular attention is given to current problems involving the simplest species (i.e., C. CO, O2, and H2) in quiescent clouds. The results of a comparison made between the molecular abundances in the Orion ridge and the hot core (Blake, 1986) are presented.

  20. Abundance analysis of 5 early-type stars in the young open cluster IC2391

    CERN Document Server

    Stuetz, C; Jehin, E; Ledoux, C; Cabanac, R A; Melo, C; Smoker, J V; Stuetz, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear whether chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence represent a class completely distinct from normal A-type stars, or whether there exists a continuous transition from the normal to the most peculiar late F- to early B-type stars. A systematic abundance analysis of open cluster early-type stars would help to relate the observed differences of the chemical abundances of the photospheres to other stellar characteristics, without being concerned by possible different original chemical composition. Furthermore, if a continuous transition region from the very peculiar to the so called normal A-F stars exists, it should be possible to detect objects with mild peculiarities. As a first step of a larger project, an abundance analysis of 5 F-A type stars in the young cluster IC2391 was performed using high resolution spectra obtained with the UVES instrument of the ESO VLT. Our targets seem to follow a general abundance pattern: close to solar abundance of the light elements and iron peak eleme...

  1. TOWARD A REMOVAL OF TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCIES FROM ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS: NGC 628

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croxall, Kevin V. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Smith, J. D.; Pellegrini, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Brandl, B. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Groves, B. A.; Kreckel, K.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Walter, F.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kennicutt, R. C.; Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Johnson, B. D. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Beirão, P. [Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hinz, J. L. [MMT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hunt, L. K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Koda, J., E-mail: croxall@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The metal content of a galaxy, a key property for distinguishing between viable galaxy evolutionary scenarios, strongly influences many of the physical processes in the interstellar medium. An absolute and robust determination of extragalactic metallicities is essential in constraining models of chemical enrichment and chemical evolution. Current gas-phase abundance determinations, however, from optical fine-structure lines are uncertain to 0.8 dex as conversion of these optical line fluxes to abundances is strongly dependent on the electron temperature of the ionized gas. In contrast, the far-infrared (far-IR) emission lines can be used to derive an O{sup ++} abundance that is relatively insensitive to temperature, while the ratio of the optical to far-IR lines provides a consistent temperature to be used in the derivation of an O{sup +} abundance. We present observations of the [O III] 88 μm fine-structure line in NGC 628 that were obtained as part of the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far Infared Survey with Herschel program. These data are combined with optical integrated field unit data to derive oxygen abundances for seven H II regions. We find the abundance of these regions to all lie between the high and low values of strong-line calibrations and to be in agreement with estimates that assume temperature fluctuations are present in the H II regions.

  2. Abundance, distribution and patch formation of zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffenhöfer, Gustav-Adolf; Sherman, Byron K.; Lee, Thomas N.

    The goal of studies described here was to determine the responses of zooplankton taxa to phytoplankton patches which develop in and near intrusions of cold, nutrient-rich Gulf Stream water. To achieve this goal we determined the horizontal and vertical distributions of abundant mesozooplankton taxa on the south-eastern continental shelf of the USA between 29°30‧ and 31°N. The study period was from June 23 to August 16, 1981. Highest concentrations of zooplankton usually occurred in and near patches of phytoplankton. Increased phytoplankton appeared to trigger the formation of patches of the calanoid copepod Temora turbinata and the cyclopoid copepods Oithona spp. and Oncaea spp. The patches of zooplankton had greater alongshore than cross-shelf dimensions. T. turbinata responded rapidly to increased concentrations of phytoplankton by reproducing and aggregating in and above intruded waters. Oithonidae which were often, but not always, abundant in phytoplankton patches eventually attained high concentrations over most of the middle and part of the inner shelf. Their concentration and that of Oncaeidae increased steadily. Oncaeidae were not abundant in recently upwelled waters, as was T. turbinata but reached high concentrations in older intrusions when the abundance of T. turbinata remained level or decreased slowly. Both cyclopoid taxa are thought to reproduce slowly (egg sacs) compared to T. turbinata. Another taxon, the doliolids, became abundant far more rapidly in intruded waters (by asexual reproduction) than did the other three taxa. Doliolids were the most opportunistic intrusion zooplankton form. They do not regularly occur in low abundance on the shelf, as do the three copepod taxa, but develop in pulses in regions where T. turbinata and Oncaea are not abundant. Of the four taxa studied the abundance of doliolids increased and decreased most rapidly, whereas Oithona and Oncaea increased slowly and did not decrease during the study period. T. turbinata

  3. Abundance differences among G and K giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, Sharon Lynn Montgomery

    Effective temperatures and surface gravities were derived for 52 G and K giants using model atmosphere. Of these, 33 were called very strong-lined (or VSL) stars primarily because of their CN line strength. We find that when compared to normal stars, the VSL stars show a mean iron overabundance of 0.15 dex. Contrary to earlier suggestions, none of the heavier elements (Z greater than 10) appear selectively enhanced. Red giants are believed to undergo mixing, thereby driving the surface abundances towards those of the stellar interior. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances are most sensitive to mixing as they are produced through nucleosynthesis at various depths beneath the star's surface. The CNO abundances (normalized to the iron abundances) of the VSLs appear on average to be normal for G and K giants. This result suggests that the strong CN absorption seen in VSLs is not the result of unusual mixing. Their general overabundance of metal appears instead to be innate, presumably reflecting the metallicity of the gaseous clouds from which they formed. This should be settled once the appropriate number of VSL dwarfs is found. The deviations from the normal population of giants are rather small, however, and certainly not of the magnitude envisioned by Spinrad and Taylor (1969). It is likely that VSLs are merely the stars lying in the tail of the normal abundance distribution.

  4. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zinchenko, I A; Grebel, E K; Sanchez, S F; Vilchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the disks of 88 galaxies using CALIFA data release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the center of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) were also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the SDSS $g$ and $r$ bands of the photometric maps of SDSS data release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the disks of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e., the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, $\\lesssim 0.05$ dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxie...

  5. The iron abundance of the Magellanic Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Dufton, P L; Thompson, H M A; Street, R A

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution HST ultra-violet spectra for five B-type stars in the Magellanic Bridge and in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have been analysed to estimate their iron abundances. Those for the Clouds are lower than estimates obtained from late-type stars or the optical lines in B-type stars by approximately 0.5 dex. This may be due to systematic errors possibly arising from non-LTE effects or from errors in the atomic data as similar low Fe abundances having previously been reported from the analysis of the ultra-violet spectra of Galactic early-type stars. The iron abundance estimates for all three Bridge targets appear to be significantly lower than those found for the SMC and LMC by approximately -0.5 dex and -0.8 dex respectively and these differential results should not be affected by any systematic errors present in the absolute abundance estimates. These differential iron abundance estimates are consistent with the underabundances for C, N, O, Mg and Si of approximately -1.1 dex relative to our...

  6. The Iron abundance in Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Inglada, G; Mampaso, A; Viironen, K

    2008-01-01

    We constrain the iron abundance in a sample of 33 low-ionization Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) using [Fe III] lines and correcting for the contribution of higher ionization states with ionization correction factors (ICFs) that take into account uncertainties in the atomic data. We find very low iron abundances in all the objects, suggesting that more than 90% of their iron atoms are condensed onto dust grains. This number is based on the solar iron abundance and implies a lower limit on the dust-to-gas mass ratio, due solely to iron, of M_dust/M_gas>1.3x10^{-3} for our sample. The depletion factors of different PNe cover about two orders of magnitude, probably reflecting differences in the formation, growth, or destruction of their dust grains. However, we do not find any systematic difference between the gaseous iron abundances calculated for C-rich and O-rich PNe, suggesting similar iron depletion efficiencies in both environments. The iron abundances of our sample PNe are similar to those derived follow...

  7. Abundance of sea kraits correlates with precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)--amphibious sea snakes--dehydrate without a source of fresh water, drink only fresh water or very dilute brackish water, and have a spatial distribution of abundance that correlates with freshwater sites in Taiwan. The spatial distribution correlates with sites where there is a source of fresh water in addition to local precipitation. Here we report six years of longitudinal data on the abundance of sea kraits related to precipitation at sites where these snakes are normally abundant in the coastal waters of Lanyu (Orchid Island), Taiwan. The number of observed sea kraits varies from year-to-year and correlates positively with previous 6-mo cumulative rainfall, which serves as an inverse index of drought. Grouped data for snake counts indicate that mean abundance in wet years is nearly 3-fold greater than in dry years, and this difference is significant. These data corroborate previous findings and suggest that freshwater dependence influences the abundance or activity of sea kraits on both spatial and temporal scales. The increasing evidence for freshwater dependence in these and other marine species have important implications for the possible impact of climate change on sea snake distributions.

  8. Abundance of sea kraits correlates with precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B Lillywhite

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that sea kraits (Laticauda spp.--amphibious sea snakes--dehydrate without a source of fresh water, drink only fresh water or very dilute brackish water, and have a spatial distribution of abundance that correlates with freshwater sites in Taiwan. The spatial distribution correlates with sites where there is a source of fresh water in addition to local precipitation. Here we report six years of longitudinal data on the abundance of sea kraits related to precipitation at sites where these snakes are normally abundant in the coastal waters of Lanyu (Orchid Island, Taiwan. The number of observed sea kraits varies from year-to-year and correlates positively with previous 6-mo cumulative rainfall, which serves as an inverse index of drought. Grouped data for snake counts indicate that mean abundance in wet years is nearly 3-fold greater than in dry years, and this difference is significant. These data corroborate previous findings and suggest that freshwater dependence influences the abundance or activity of sea kraits on both spatial and temporal scales. The increasing evidence for freshwater dependence in these and other marine species have important implications for the possible impact of climate change on sea snake distributions.

  9. The solar photospheric abundance of zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Steffen, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr), together with strontium and yttrium, is an important element in the understanding of the Galactic nucleosynthesis. In fact, the triad Sr-Y-Zr constitutes the first peak of s-process elements. Despite its general relevance not many studies of the solar abundance of Zr were conducted. We derive the zirconium abundance in the solar photosphere with the same CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere that we previously used to investigate the abundances of C-N-O. We review the zirconium lines available in the observed solar spectra and select a sample of lines to determine the zirconium abundance, considering lines of neutral and singly ionised zirconium. We apply different line profile fitting strategies for a reliable analysis of Zr lines that are blended by lines of other elements. The abundance obtained from lines of neutral zirconium is very uncertain because these lines are commonly blended and weak in the solar spectrum. However, we believe that some lines of ionised zirconium are...

  10. Estimating the relationship between abundance and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies investigate the relationship between abundance and distribution using indices reflecting one of the three aspects of distribution: proportion of area occupied, aggregation, and geographical range. Using simulations and analytical derivations, we examine whether these indices...... based on Euclidean distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution. Only the proportion of structurally empty areas, Lloyds index, and indices of the distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution are unbiased at all levels of abundance. The remaining indices generate...... relationships between abundance and distribution even in cases where no underlying relationships exists, although the problem decreases for measures derived from Lorenz curves when samples contain more than four individuals on average. To illustrate the problem, the indices are applied to juvenile North Sea cod...

  11. CHEERS: Future perspectives for abundance measurements in clusters with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    de Plaa, J

    2016-01-01

    The CHEERS (CHEmical Enrichment RGS Sample) observations of clusters of galaxies with XMM-Newton have shown to be valuable to constrain the chemical evolution of the universe. The soft X-ray spectrum contains lines of the most abundant metals from N to Ni, which provide relatively accurate abundances that can be compared to supernova enrichment models. The accuracy of the abundances is currently limited by systematic uncertainties introduced by the available instruments and uncertainties in the modeling of the spectra, which are of the order of 20-30%. We discuss the possible gain of extending the current samples at low and high redshift. We conclude that expanding the samples would be expensive in terms of exposure time, but will not yield significantly improved results, because the current samples already reach the systematic limits. New instrumentation, like Astro-H2 and ATHENA, and improvements to the atomic databases are needed to make significant advances in this field.

  12. Experimental and theoretical oscillator strengths of Mg I for accurate abundance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodin, A Pehlivan; Nilsson, H; Jonsson, P

    2016-01-01

    Context. With the aid of stellar abundance analysis, it is possible to study the galactic formation and evolution. Magnesium is an important element to trace the alpha-element evolution in our Galaxy. For chemical abundance analysis, such as magnesium abundance, accurate and complete atomic data are essential. Inaccurate atomic data lead to uncertain abundances and prevent discrimination between different evolution models. Aims. We study the spectrum of neutral magnesium from laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. Our aim is to improve the oscillator strengths ( f -values) of Mg I lines and to create a complete set of accurate atomic data, particularly for the near-IR region. Methods. We derived oscillator strengths by combining the experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes reported in the literature and computed in this work. A hollow cathode discharge lamp was used to produce free atoms in the plasma and a Fourier transform spectrometer recorded the intensity-calibrated high-r...

  13. On the Relationship Between Molecular Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide Abundances in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Glover, S C O

    2010-01-01

    The most usual tracer of molecular gas is line emission from CO. However, the reliability of that tracer has long been questioned in environments different from the Milky Way. We study the relationship between H2 and CO abundances using a fully dynamical model of magnetized turbulence coupled to a chemical network simplified to follow only the dominant pathways for H2 and CO formation and destruction, and including photodissociation using a six-ray approximation. We find that the abundance of H2 is primarily determined by the amount of time available for its formation, which is proportional to the product of the density and the metallicity, but insensitive to photodissociation. Photodissociation only becomes important at extinctions under a few tenths of a visual magnitude, in agreement with both observational and prior theoretical work. On the other hand, CO forms quickly, within a dynamical time, but its abundance depends primarily on photodissociation, with only a weak secondary dependence on H2 abundance....

  14. Abundance distributions over the surfaces of magnetic ApBp stars: theoretical predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Alecian, G

    2015-01-01

    Recently published empirical abundance maps, obtained through (Zeeman) Doppler mapping (ZDM), do not currently agree with the abundance structures predicted by means of numerical models of atomic diffusion in magnetic atmospheres of ApBp stars. In a first step towards the resolution of these discrepancies, we present a state of the art grid of equilibrium abundance stratifications in the atmosphere of a magnetic Ap star with T_eff = 10000 K and log g = 4.0. A description of the behaviour of 16 chemical elements including predictions concerning the over- and/or under-abundances over the stellar surface is followed by a discussion of the possible influence of presently neglected physical processes.

  15. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Boffin, H M J; Monteiro, H; Jones, D; Wesson, R; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Rodríguez-Gil, P

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O II ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O II ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [O III] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  16. ABUNDANCES OF PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE OUTER DISK OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwitter, Karen B.; Lehman, Emma M. M. [Department of Astronomy, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Henry, R. B. C., E-mail: kkwitter@williams.edu, E-mail: emmalehman@gmail.com, E-mail: balick@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: rhenry@ou.edu [H.L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present spectroscopic observations and chemical abundances of 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the outer disk of M31. The [O III] {lambda}4363 line is detected in all objects, allowing a direct measurement of the nebular temperature essential for accurate abundance determinations. Our results show that the abundances in these M31 PNe display the same correlations and general behaviors as Type II PNe in the Milky Way. We also calculate photoionization models to derive estimates of central star properties. From these we infer that our sample PNe, all near the bright-end cutoff of the planetary nebula luminosity function, originated from stars near 2 M{sub Sun }. Finally, under the assumption that these PNe are located in M31's disk, we plot the oxygen abundance gradient, which appears shallower than the gradient in the Milky Way.

  17. The complex relationship between olivine abundance and thermal inertia on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Romy D.; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.

    2016-07-01

    We examine four olivine-bearing regions at a variety of spatial scales with thermal infrared, visible to near-infrared, and visible imagery data to investigate the hypothesis that the relationship between olivine abundance and thermal inertia (i.e., effective particle size) can be used to infer the occurrence of olivine chemical alteration during sediment production on Mars. As in previous work, Nili Fossae and Isidis Planitia show a positive correlation between thermal inertia and olivine abundance in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data, which could be interpreted as indicating olivine chemical weathering. However, geomorphological analysis reveals that relatively olivine-poor sediments are not derived from adjacent olivine-rich materials, and therefore, chemical weathering cannot be inferred based on the olivine-thermal inertia relationship alone. We identify two areas (Terra Cimmeria and Argyre Planitia) with significant olivine abundance and thermal inertias consistent with sand, but no adjacent rocky (parent) units having even greater olivine abundances. More broadly, global analysis with TES reveals that the most typical olivine abundance on Mars is ~5-7% and that olivine-bearing (5-25%) materials have a wide range of thermal inertias, commonly 25-600 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2. TES also indicates that the majority of olivine-rich (>25%) materials have apparent thermal inertias less than 400 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2. In summary, we find that the relationship between thermal inertia and olivine abundance alone cannot be used in infer olivine weathering in the examined areas, that olivine-bearing materials have a large range of thermal intertias, and therefore that a complex relationship between olivine abundance and thermal inertia exists on Mars.

  18. GIANO Y-band spectroscopy of dwarf stars: Phosphorus, sulphur, and strontium abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffau, E.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Origlia, L.; Oliva, E.; Sanna, N.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Bonifacio, P.

    2016-01-01

    Context. In recent years a number of poorly studied chemical elements, such as phosphorus, sulphur, and strontium, have received special attention as important tracers of the Galactic chemical evolution. Aims: By exploiting the capabilities of the infrared echelle spectrograph GIANO mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we acquired high resolution spectra of four Galactic dwarf stars spanning the metallicity range between about one-third and twice the solar value. We performed a detailed feasibility study about the effectiveness of the P, S, and Sr line diagnostics in the Y band between 1.03 and 1.10 μm. Methods: Accurate chemical abundances have been derived using one-dimensional model atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We computed the line formation assuming LTE for P, while we performed non-LTE analysis to derive S and Sr abundances. Results: We were able to derive phosphorus abundance for three stars and an upper limit for one star, while we obtained the abundance of sulphur and strontium for all of the stars. We find [P/Fe] and [S/Fe] abundance ratios consistent with solar-scaled or slightly depleted values, while the [Sr/Fe] abundance ratios are more scattered (by ±0.2 dex) around the solar-scaled value. This is fully consistent with previous studies using both optical and infrared spectroscopy. Conclusions: We verified that high-resolution, Y-band spectroscopy as provided by GIANO is a powerful tool to study the chemical evolution of P, S, and Sr in dwarf stars. Based on observations obtained with GIANO.

  19. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: abundances of alpha and iron-peak elements

    CERN Document Server

    Jofré, P; Soubiran, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Masseron, T; Nordlander, T; Chemin, L; Worley, C C; Van Eck, S; Hourihane, A; Gilmore, G; Adibekyan, V; Bergemann, M; Cantat-Gaudin, T; Delgado-Mena, E; Hernández, J I González; Guiglion, G; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Lind, K; Magrini, L; Mikolaitis, S; Montes, D; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Sordo, R; Sousa, S; Tabernero, H M; Vallenari, A

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way, reference stars for calibrating astrophysical parameters and chemical abundances are of paramount importance. We determine elemental abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni for our predefined set of Gaia FGK benchmark stars. By analysing high-resolution and high-signal to noise spectra taken from several archive datasets, we combined results of eight different methods to determine abundances on a line-by-line basis. We perform a detailed homogeneous analysis of the systematic uncertainties, such as differential versus absolute abundance analysis, as well as we assess errors due to NLTE and the stellar parameters in our final abundances. Our results are provided by listing final abundances and the different sources of uncertainties, as well as line-by-line and method-by-method abundances. The Gaia FGK benchmark stars atmospheric parameters are already being widely used for calibration of several pipelines applied to different su...

  20. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  1. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20, 2015. Anitha B. Prevention of complications in chemical peeling. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 2010;3:186. Langsdon PR, et al. Latest chemical peel innovations. Facial and Plastic Surgery Clinics of ...

  2. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  3. Simulation of arthropod abundance from plant composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between arthropod abundance and plant composition is extremely complex. It is very hard to develop a mechanistic model to describe the relationship. This study aimed to simulate arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland using an artificial neural network developed by the author, and to compare simulation performances between the neural network and conventional models. The results revealed that there were complex interactions between plants and arthropods, and the arthropod abundance on grassland was significantly determined of plant families and their cover-degrees rather than plant species and their cover-degrees. Neural network exhibited a better simulation performance than multivariate regression and response surface model. Cross validation indicated that prediction performance of neural network was also superior to these models. It was concluded that neural network is an effective tool to model arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland. A moderate dimensionality for input space may be determined to produce a reasonably trained neural network. Such procedures for dimensionality reduction as PCE, etc., were suggested being used in the data treatment in neural network modeling. A high dimensionality for input space and a few samples in the input set would result in the deficient learning of neural network. Randomization procedure for sample submission would help to eliminate the sequence correlation but may result in a worse performance in simulation and prediction. It was suggested that randomization procedure could be used to the sample submission for these situations with a lot of samples and a lower dimensionality.

  4. Zooplankton abundance of the Andaman sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Nair, V.R.

    Zooplankton biomass and abundance of major groups from the Andaman Sea in February 1979 are presented. Average zooplankton biomass is 5.6 ml/100 m3 and is generally poor compared to reported values from east and west coasts of India. Copepoda forms...

  5. Securing abundance : The politics of energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Energy Security is a concept that is known in the literature for its ‘slippery’ nature and subsequent wide range of definitions. Instead of another attempt at grasping the essence of this concept, Securing Abundance reformulates the problem and moves away from a definitional problem to a theoretical

  6. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  7. North Sea Elasmobranchs: distribution, abundance and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N.; Heessen, H.J.L.; Hofstede, ter R.

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from various international and national surveys, an overview is given of the fine-scale distribution (resolution of 20¿longitude * 10¿ latitude; ¿ 10*10 nm) and trends in abundance of elasmobranch species reported from the North Sea. Presence-absence maps are produced based on 4

  8. Toward reliable estimates of abundance: comparing index methods to assess the abundance of a Mammalian predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Güthlin

    Full Text Available Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations. The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result.

  9. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  10. NLTE strontium abundance in a sample of extremely metal poor stars and the Sr/Ba ratio in the early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Francois, P; Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V

    2011-01-01

    Heavy element abundances in extremely metal-poor stars provide strong constraints on the processes of forming these elements in the first stars. We attempt to determine precise abundances of strontium in a homogeneous sample of extremely metal-poor stars. The abundances of strontium in 54 very or extremely metal-poor stars, was redetermined by abandoning the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis, and fitting non-LTE (NLTE) profiles to the observed spectral lines. The corrected Sr abundances and previously obtained NLTE Ba abundances are compared to the predictions of several hypothetical formation processes for the lighter neutron-capture elements. Our NLTE abundances confirm the previously determined huge scatter of the strontium abundance in low metallicity stars. This scatter is also found (and is even larger) at very low metallicities (i. e. early in the chemical evolution). The Sr abundance in the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars is compatible with the main r-process involved in other processe...

  11. The Deep Water Abundance on Jupiter: New Constraints from Thermochemical Kinetics and Diffusion Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Visscher, Channon; Saslow, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a one-dimensional thermochemical kinetics and diffusion model for Jupiter's atmosphere that accurately describes the transition from the thermochemical regime in the deep troposphere (where chemical equilibrium is established) to the quenched regime in the upper troposphere (where chemical equilibrium is disrupted). The model is used to calculate chemical abundances of tropospheric constituents and to identify important chemical pathways for CO-CH4 interconversion in hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. In particular, the observed mole fraction and chemical behavior of CO is used to indirectly constrain the Jovian water inventory. Our model can reproduce the observed tropospheric CO abundance provided that the water mole fraction lies in the range (0.25-6.0) x 10^-3 in Jupiter's deep troposphere, corresponding to an enrichment of 0.3 to 7.3 times the protosolar abundance (assumed to be H2O/H2 = 9.61 x 10^-4). Our results suggest that Jupiter's oxygen enrichment is roughly similar to that for carb...

  12. The Elemental Abundance Distributions of Milky Way Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N

    2010-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the stars in Milky Way (MW) satellite galaxies reveals the history of gas flows and star formation (SF) intensity. This talk presented a Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances of nearly 3000 red giants in eight MW dwarf satellites. The metallicity and alpha-to-iron ratio distributions obey the following trends: (1) The more luminous galaxies are more metal-rich, indicating that they retained gas more efficiently than the less luminous galaxies. (2) The shapes of the metallicity distributions of the more luminous galaxies require gas infall during their SF lifetimes. (3) At [Fe/H] < -1.5, [alpha/Fe] falls monotonically with increasing [Fe/H] in all MW satellites. One interpretation of these trends is that the SF timescale in any MW satellite is long enough that Type Ia supernovae exploded for nearly the entire SF lifetime.

  13. The evolution of C and O abundances in stellar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul E.; Schuster, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen abundances in F and G main-sequence stars ranging in metallicity from [Fe/H] = -1.6 to +0.5 are determined from a non-LTE analysis of C i and O i atomic lines in high-resolution spectra. Both C and O are good tracers of stellar populations; distinct trends of [C/Fe] and [O....../Fe] as a function of [Fe/H] are found for high- and low-alpha halo stars and for thick- and thin-disk stars. These trends and that of [C/O] provide new information on the nucleosynthesis sites of carbon and the time-scale for the chemical enrichment of the various Galactic components....

  14. Constraining stellar population models - I. Age, metallicity, and abundance pattern compilation for Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, Joel C; Graves, Genevieve; Schiavon, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We present an extenstive literature compilation of age, metallicity, and chemical abundance pattern information for the 41 Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) studied by Schiavon et al. (2005). Our compilation constitutes a notable improvement over previous similar work, particularly in terms of chemical abundances. Its primary purpose is to enable detailed evaluations of and refinements to stellar population synthesis models designed to recover the above information for unresolved stellar systems based on their integrated spectra. However, since the Schiavon sample spans a wide range of the known GGC parameter space, our compilation may also benefit investigations related to a variety of astrophysical endeavours, such as the early formation of the Milky Way, the chemical evolution of GGCs, and stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. For instance, we confirm with our compiled data that the GGC system has a bimodal metallicity distribution and is uniformly enhanced in the alpha-elements. When paired with the ages...

  15. Predicted Abundances of Carbon Compounds in Volcanic Gases on Io

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, L; Schaefer, Laura

    2004-01-01

    We use chemical equilibrium calculations to model the speciation of carbon in volcanic gases on Io. The calculations cover wide temperature (500-2000 K), pressure (10^-8 to 10^+2 bars), and composition ranges (bulk O/S atomic ratios \\~0 to 3), which overlap the nominal conditions at Pele (1760 K, 0.01 bar, O/S ~ 1.5). Bulk C/S atomic ratios ranging from 10^-6 to 10^-1 in volcanic gases are used with a nominal value of 10^-3 based upon upper limits from Voyager for carbon in the Loki plume on Io. Carbon monoxide and CO2 are the two major carbon gases under all conditions studied. Carbonyl sulfide and CS2 are orders of magnitude less abundant. Consideration of different loss processes (photolysis, condensation, kinetic reactions in the plume) indicates that photolysis is probably the major loss process for all gases. Both CO and CO2 should be observable in volcanic plumes and in Io's atmosphere at abundances of several hundred parts per million by volume for a bulk C/S ratio of 10^-3.

  16. CHAOS III: Gas-Phase Abundances in NGC5457

    CERN Document Server

    Croxall, Kevin; Berg, Danielle A; Skillman, Evan D; Moustakas, John

    2016-01-01

    The CHemical Abundances of Spirals (CHAOS) project leverages the combined power of the Large Binocular Telescope with the broad spectral range and sensitivity of the Multi Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) to measure direct abundances in large samples of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We present LBT MODS observations of 109 Hii regions in NGC5457, of which 74 have robust measurements of key auroral lines, a factor of 3 larger than all previous published detections of auroral lines in the HII regions of NGC5457. Comparing the temperatures derived from the different ionic species we find: (1) strong correlations of T[NII] with T[SIII] and T[OIII], consistent with little or no intrinsic scatter; (2) a correlation of T[SIII] with T[OIII], but with significant intrinsic dispersion; (3) overall agreement between T[NII], T[SII], and T[OII], as expected, but with significant outliers; (4) the correlations of T[NII] with T[SIII] and T[OIII] match the predictions of photoionization modeling while the correlation of T[...

  17. Abundances of Planetary Nebula M1-42

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R; Roellig, T L

    2007-01-01

    The spectra of the planetary nebula M1-42 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of ISO, IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the mid- and far-infrared lines, which are insensitive to electron temperature, are used as the basis for the determination of the composition, which are found to substantially differ from earlier results. High values of neon, argon and sulfur are found. They are higher than in other PN, with the exception of NGC6153, a nebula of very similar abundances. The high values of helium and nitrogen found indicate that the second dredge-up and hot bottom burning has occurred in the course of evolution and that the central star was originally more massive than 4Msun. The present temperature and luminosity of the central star is determined and at first sight may be inconsistent with such a high mass.

  18. CNO and F abundances in the barium star HD 123396

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Yong, David; Meléndez, Jorge; Vásquez, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] Barium stars are moderately rare chemically peculiar objects which are believed to be the result of the pollution of an otherwise normal star by material from an evolved companion on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). We aim to derive carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine abundances for the first time from infrared spectra of the barium red giant star HD 123396 to quantitatively test AGB nucleosynthesis models for producing barium stars via mass accretion. High-resolution and high S/N infrared spectra were obtained using the Phoenix spectrograph mounted at the Gemini South telescope. The abundances were obtained through spectrum synthesis of individual atomic and molecular lines, using the MOOG stellar line analysis program together with Kurucz's stellar atmosphere models. The analysis was classical, using 1D stellar models and spectral synthesis under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. We confirm that HD 123396 is a metal-deficient barium star ([Fe/H] = -1.05), with A(C) = 7.88, A...

  19. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes, We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on tile other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibits almost no latitudinal variation, whilst the Cassini era shows a marked decrease polewards in both hemispheres. At the present time, these experimental findings are in advance of interpretation, as there are no published models of 2-D Jovian seasonal chemical variation available for comparison.

  20. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes, We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on tile other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibits almost no latitudinal variation, whilst the Cassini era shows a marked decrease polewards in both hemispheres. At the present time, these experimental findings are in advance of interpretation, as there are no published models of 2-D Jovian seasonal chemical variation available for comparison.

  1. CO Abundance Variations in the Orion Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ripple, F; Gutermuth, R; Snell, R L; Brunt, C M

    2013-01-01

    Infrared stellar photometry from 2MASS and spectral line imaging observations of 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 line emission from the FCRAO 14m telescope are analysed to assess the variation of the CO abundance with physical conditions throughout the Orion A and Orion B molecular clouds. Three distinct Av regimes are identified in which the ratio between the 13CO column density and visual extinction changes corresponding to the photon dominated envelope, the strongly self-shielded interior, and the cold, dense volumes of the clouds. Within the strongly self-shielded interior of the Orion A cloud, the 13CO abundance varies by 100% with a peak value located near regions of enhanced star formation activity. The effect of CO depletion onto the ice mantles of dust grains is limited to regions with AV > 10 mag and gas temperatures less than 20 K as predicted by chemical models that consider thermal-evaporation to desorb molecules from grain surfaces. Values of the molecular mass of each cloud are independently derived from...

  2. The helium abundance of Uranus from Voyager measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, B.; Hanel, R.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Lindal, G.

    1987-12-01

    Voyager radio-occultation and IR spectroscopy measurements are combined to infer an He mole fraction in the upper troposphere of Uranus of 0.152 + or - 0.033; the corresponding mass fraction is Y = 0.262 + or - 0.048. This value is in agreement with recent estimates of the solar He abundance, suggesting that He differentiation has not occurred on Uranus. Comparisons with values previously obtained for Jupiter and Saturn imply that migration of He toward the core began long ago on Saturn and may also have recently begun on Jupiter. The protosolar He abundance inferred from the Uranus measurements and from recent solar evolutionary models is used along with an assumed primordial He mass fraction of 0.23-0.24 to estimate a 3-4-percent enrichment of He in the interstellar medium between the big bang and the origin of the solar system. The result is in agreement with galactic chemical evolution models which include a substantial decrease in D during the evolutionary process.

  3. Statistical analysis of Fe abundances gradients in the Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔辰州; 赵刚; 赵永恒; 施建荣

    2001-01-01

    Using the high precision data of the proper motions and parallaxes from Hipparcos catalogue, we obtained the orbital parameters of 1302 stars in the Galaxy based on the mass distribution model provided by Allen and Santillán. Fe abundances of 1295 stars among our samples were analyzed. With the correlation analyses between [Fe/H] and orbital parameters, we obtained that the Fe gradient is -0.057±0.007 dex/kpc along the direction of the maximum galactocentric distance (hereafter DGmax) in the range of 8.5 kpc<DGmax<17 kpc. We also got the result that the vertical gradient is steeper than the radial gradient. Furthermore, we divided the samples into two subgroups: giants and dwarfs; F, G and K stars; and then analyzed them respectively. Our results show that the gradient becomes flatter and flatter from giants to dwarfs, from F type to G and K type stars. We also divided the samples into disk and halo stars using maximum vertical distance Zmax=1 kpc as the criterion and got the result that the abundances of the disk stars are much higher than that of the halo stars. Our work suggests the existence of the galactic gradient and supports those chemical evolution medels which show that the halo was formed before the disk at the early stage of the Galaxy.

  4. On the relation amongst limnological factors and fish abundance in reservoirs at semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo César Gurgel-Lourenço

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim:To evaluate possible nycthemeral and seasonal temporal patterns in fish assemblage associated with limnological aspects and biotic factors in two reservoirs in semarid Northeastern Brazil.MethodsFish were sampled with gillnets in nycthemeral cycles throughout the dry and rainy season in two reservoirs (Paulo Sarasate/PS and Edson Queiroz/EQ. The stomach contents of the predator species were surveyed. The limnological variables were submitted to principal components analysis, while their relation to fish abundance was determined by canonical correspondence analysis. Temporal patterns in relative fish species abundance were detected with nMDS.ResultsTemperature and dissolved oxygen levels segregated the reservoirs physico-chemically. Turbidity and chlorophyll-a levels differed between seasons, and the relative abundance of species differed between the reservoirs. Predators were more abundant in PS, while detritivores were more abundant in EQ. Triportheus signatusand Plagioscion squamosissimus were the most abundant species in both reservoirs. In general, predator abundance was positively associated with high temperature and dissolved oxygen (PS>EQ and negatively associated with turbidity. The activity patterns of P. squamosissimus could not be explained by fluctuations in environmental variables. Non-predators tended to cluster around the vectors chlorophyll-a, pH and turbidity. Predators had a more diversified diet in PS in accordance with food availability, while predators in EQ ate only fish and shrimp. Nycthemeral patterns varied for the same species depending on the reservoir. Generally, in PS predators were more active during daylight hours while non-predators were more active after dark. However, in EQ predators and non-predators displayed similar nycthemeral activity patterns. Regardless of the reservoir, predators were more abundant in the rainy season. No seasonal trend was observed for non

  5. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  6. Abundance trend with condensation temperature for stars with different Galactic birth places

    CERN Document Server

    Adibekyan, V; Figueira, P; Sousa, S G; Santos, N C; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez; Minchev, I; Faria, J P; Israelian, G; Harutyunyan, G; Suarez-Andres, L; Hakobyan, A A

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, several studies reported a correlation between chemical abundances of stars and condensation temperature (also known as Tc trend). However, the real astrophysical nature of this correlation is still debated. The main goal of this work is to explore the possible dependence of the Tc trend on stellar Galactocentric distances, Rmean. We used high-quality spectra of about 40 stars observed with the HARPS and UVES spectrographs to derive precise stellar parameters, chemical abundances, and stellar ages. A differential line-by-line analysis was applied to achieve the highest possible precision in the chemical abundances. We confirm previous results that [X/Fe] abundance ratios depend on stellar age and that for a given age, some elements also show a dependence on Rmean. When using the whole sample of stars, we observe a weak hint that the Tc trend depends on Rmean. The observed dependence is very complex and disappears when only stars with similar ages are considered. To conclude on the poss...

  7. GIANO Y-band spectroscopy of dwarf stars: Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Strontium abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Korotin, S; Origlia, L; Oliva, E; Sanna, N; Ludwig, H -G; Bonifacio, P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a number of poorly studied chemical elements, such as phosphorus, sulphur, and strontium, have received special attention as important tracers of the Galactic chemical evolution. By exploiting the capabilities of the infrared echelle spectrograph GIANO mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we acquired high resolution spectra of four Galactic dwarf stars spanning the metallicity range between about one-third and twice the solar value. We performed a detailed feasibility study about the effectiveness of the P, S, and Sr line diagnostics in the Y band between 1.03 and 1.10 microm. Accurate chemical abundances have been derived using one-dimensional model atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We computed the line formation assuming LTE for P, while we performed non-LTE analysis to derive S and Sr abundances. We were able to derive phosphorus abundance for three stars and an upper limit for one star, while we obtained the abundance of sulphur and strontium for all of...

  8. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    CERN Document Server

    Aver, Erik; Porter, R L; Skillman, Evan D

    2013-01-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y_p. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, & Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, & Stasinska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y_p. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increase...

  9. Earth Abundant Element Type I Clathrate Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Earth abundant element clathrate phases are of interest for a number of applications ranging from photovoltaics to thermoelectrics. Silicon-containing type I clathrate is a framework structure with the stoichiometry A8-xSi46 (A = guest atom such as alkali metal that can be tuned by alloying and doping with other elements. The type I clathrate framework can be described as being composed of two types of polyhedral cages made up of tetrahedrally coordinated Si: pentagonal dodecahedra with 20 atoms and tetrakaidecahedra with 24 atoms in the ratio of 2:6. The cation sites, A, are found in the center of each polyhedral cage. This review focuses on the newest discoveries in the group 13-silicon type I clathrate family: A8E8Si38 (A = alkali metal; E = Al, Ga and their properties. Possible approaches to new phases based on earth abundant elements and their potential applications will be discussed.

  10. The primordial deuterium abundance problems and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Kegel, W H; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Takahara, Fumio; Kegel, Wilhelm H.

    1997-01-01

    The current status of extragalactic deuterium abundance is discussed using two examples of `low' and `high' D/H measurements. We show that the discordance of these two types of D abundances may be a consequence of the spatial correlations in the stochastic velocity field. Within the framework of the generalized procedure (accounting for such effects) one finds good agreement between different observations and the theoretical predictions for standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN). In particular, we show that the deuterium absorption seen at z = 2.504 toward Q1009+2956 and the H+D Ly-alpha profile observed at z = 0.701 toward Q1718+4807 are compatible with D/H $\\sim 4.1 - 4.6\\times10^{-5}$. This result supports SBBN and, thus, no inhomogeneity is needed. The problem of precise D/H measurements is discussed.

  11. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias ($f$). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is $...

  12. A biogeographical perspective on species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that multiple processes can generate similar shapes of species abundance distributions (SADs), with the result that the fit of a given SAD model cannot unambiguously provide evidence in support of a given theory or model. An alternative approach to comparing...... the fit of different SAD models to data from a single site is to collect abundance data from a variety of sites, and then build models to analyse how different SAD properties (e.g. form, skewness) vary with different predictor variables. Such a biogeographical approach to SAD research is potentially very...... revealing, yet there has been a general lack of interest in SADs in the biogeographical literature. In this Perspective, we address this issue by highlighting findings of recent analyses of SADs that we consider to be of intrinsic biogeographical interest. We use arthropod data drawn from the Azorean...

  13. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  14. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie E Stewart

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates networks as sites of scholarship. Its purpose is to situate networked practices within Boyer’s (1990 four components of scholarship – discovery, integration, application, and teaching – and to explore them as a techno-cultural system of scholarship suited to an era of knowledge abundance. Not only does the paper find that networked engagement both aligns with and exceeds Boyer’s model for scholarship, it suggests that networked scholarship may enact Boyer’s initial aim of broadening scholarship itself through fostering extensive cross-disciplinary, public ties and rewarding connection, collaboration, and curation between individuals rather than roles or institutions.

  15. Experimental Limit to Interstellar 244Pu Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, M; Ahmad, I; Berkovits, D; Bordeanu, C; Ghelberg, S; Hashimoto, Y; Hershcovitch, A I; Jiang, S; Nakanishi, T; Sakamoto, K

    2001-01-01

    Short-lived nuclides, now extinct in the solar system, are expected to be present in the interstellar medium (ISM). Grains of ISM origin were recently discovered in the inner solar system and at Earth orbit and may accrete onto Earth after ablation in the atmosphere. A favorable matrix for detection of such extraterrestrial material is presented by deep open-sea sediments with very low sedimentation rates (0.8-3 mm/kyr). We report here on the measurement of Pu isotopic abundances in a 1-kg deep-sea dry sediment collected in 1992 in the North Pacific. Our measured value of (3+-3)x10^5 244Pu atoms in the Pu-separated fraction of the sample shows no excess over the expected stratospheric nuclear fallout content and under reasonable assumptions we derive a limit of 2x10^-11 g-244Pu/g-ISM for the abundance of 244Pu in ISM.

  16. Estimating the relationship between abundance and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    provide unbiased estimates of the relationship when estimated from count data. The indices investigated include the proportion of empty samples, the proportion of structurally empty samples, Lloyds index of patchiness, measures derived from Lorenz curves (such as D95 and the Gini index), and measures......Numerous studies investigate the relationship between abundance and distribution using indices reflecting one of the three aspects of distribution: proportion of area occupied, aggregation, and geographical range. Using simulations and analytical derivations, we examine whether these indices...... based on Euclidean distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution. Only the proportion of structurally empty areas, Lloyds index, and indices of the distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution are unbiased at all levels of abundance. The remaining indices generate...

  17. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. WIMP abundance and lepton (flavour) asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik; Schwarz, Dominik J. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Starkman, Glenn, E-mail: mstuke@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: glenn.starkman@case.edu [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7079 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We investigate how large lepton asymmetries affect the evolution of the early universe at times before big bang nucleosynthesis and in particular how they influence the relic density of WIMP dark matter. In comparison to the standard calculation of the relic WIMP abundance we find a decrease, depending on the lepton flavour asymmetry. We find an effect of up to 20 per cent for lepton flavour asymmetries l{sub f} = O(0.1)

  19. CO abundance variations in the Orion Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, F.; Heyer, M. H.; Gutermuth, R.; Snell, R. L.; Brunt, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    Infrared stellar photometry from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and spectral line imaging observations of 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 line emission from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) 14-m telescope are analysed to assess the variation of the CO abundance with physical conditions throughout the Orion A and Orion B molecular clouds. Three distinct Av regimes are identified in which the ratio between the 13CO column density and visual extinction changes corresponding to the photon-dominated envelope, the strongly self-shielded interior, and the cold, dense volumes of the clouds. Within the strongly self-shielded interior of the Orion A cloud, the 13CO abundance varies by 100 per cent with a peak value located near regions of enhanced star formation activity. The effect of CO depletion on to the ice mantles of dust grains is limited to regions with Av > 10 mag and gas temperatures less than ˜20 K as predicted by chemical models that consider thermal evaporation to desorb molecules from grain surfaces. Values of the molecular mass of each cloud are independently derived from the distributions of Av and 13CO column densities with a constant 13CO-to-H2 abundance over various extinction ranges. Within the strongly self-shielded interior of the cloud (Av> 3 mag), 13CO provides a reliable tracer of H2 mass with the exception of the cold, dense volumes where depletion is important. However, owing to its reduced abundance, 13CO does not trace the H2 mass that resides in the extended cloud envelope, which comprises 40-50 per cent of the molecular mass of each cloud. The implied CO luminosity to mass ratios, M/LCO, are 3.2 and 2.9 for Orion A and Orion B, respectively, which are comparable to the value (2.9), derived from γ-ray observations of the Orion region. Our results emphasize the need to consider local conditions when applying CO observations to derive H2 column densities.

  20. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  1. A global database of ant species abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  2. Abundances In Very Metal Poor Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; McWilliam, A; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Wasserburg, G J; Ivans, I I; Dehn, M; Karlsson, T; Melendez, J; Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; William, Andrew Mc; Shectman, Steve; Thompson, Ian; Ivans, Inese; Dehn, Matthias; Karlsson, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the detailed composition of 28 extremely metal-poor dwarfs, 22 of which are from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, based on Keck Echelle spectra. Our sample has a median [Fe/H] of -2.7 dex, extends to -3.5 dex, and is somewhat less metal-poor than was expected from [Fe/H](HK,HES) determined from low resolution spectra. Our analysis supports the existence of a sharp decline in the distribution of halo stars with metallicity below [Fe/H] = -3.0 dex. So far no additional turnoff stars with [Fe/H]}<-3.5 have been identified in our follow up efforts. For the best observed elements between Mg and Ni, we find that the abundance ratios appear to have reached a plateau, i.e. [X/Fe] is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H], except for Cr, Mn and Co, which show trends of abundance ratios varying with [Fe/H]. These abundance ratios at low metallicity correspond approximately to the yield expected from Type II SN with a narrow range in mass and explosion parameters; high mass Type II SN progenitors are requir...

  3. Abundances and Depletions of Interstellar Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. G.; Rachford, B. L.; Snow, T. P.

    2003-12-01

    We extend previous work on interstellar oxygen abundances with the addition of data from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). We report on the abundance of interstellar neutral oxygen (OI) for several sightlines, using data from FUSE, the International Spectroscopic Explorer (IUE), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). OI column densities are derived by measuring the equivalent widths of several ultraviolet absorption lines, and subsequently fitting those to a curve of growth. The column densities of our best-constrained sightlines show a ratio of O/H that agrees with the current best solar value if dust is considered. We do not see evidence of enhanced depletion of gas-phase oxygen that is systematically variable with respect to the physical parameters of different environments (e.g., reddening or molecular fraction). The column densities of our less well-constrained sightlines show some scatter in O/H, but many agree with the solar value to within errors. We discuss these results in the context of deriving the best methods for determining interstellar abundances, the unresolved question of the best value for O/H in the interstellar medium (ISM), the O/H ratio observed in Galactic stars, and the depletion of gas-phase oxygen onto dust grains. Financial support for this research has been provided by the National Science Foundation GK-12 Program and NASA contract NAS 5-32985.

  4. Water Abundance in Molecular Cloud Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, R L; Ashby, M L N; Bergin, E A; Chin, G; Erickson, N R; Goldsmith, P F; Harwit, M; Kleiner, S C; Koch, D G; Neufeld, D A; Patten, B M; Plume, R; Schieder, R; Stauffer, J R; Tolls, V; Wang, Z; Winnewisser, G; Zhang, Y F; Melnick, G J

    2000-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) observations of the 1_{10}-1_{01} transition of ortho-water at 557 GHz toward 12 molecular cloud cores. The water emission was detected in NGC 7538, Rho Oph A, NGC 2024, CRL 2591, W3, W3(OH), Mon R2, and W33, and was not detected in TMC-1, L134N, and B335. We also present a small map of the water emission in S140. Observations of the H_2^{18}O line were obtained toward S140 and NGC 7538, but no emission was detected. The abundance of ortho-water relative to H_2 in the giant molecular cloud cores was found to vary between 6x10^{-10} and 1x10^{-8}. Five of the cloud cores in our sample have previous water detections; however, in all cases the emission is thought to arise from hot cores with small angular extents. The water abundance estimated for the hot core gas is at least 100 times larger than in the gas probed by SWAS. The most stringent upper limit on the ortho-water abundance in dark clouds is provided in TMC-1, where the 3-sigma upper limit on the ...

  5. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood-related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the "double geometric." Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly.

  6. Relative Abundance Measurements in Plumes and Interplumes

    CERN Document Server

    Guennou, Chloé; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) 10 eV). We have used EIS spectroscopic observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over an ~24 hour period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we have used a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We have used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we have estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These res...

  7. TRACING THE EVOLUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING STELLAR ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: crosby.bd@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  8. Properties of the outer regions of spiral disks: abundances, colors and ages

    CERN Document Server

    Mollá, Mercedes; Gibson, Brad K; Cavichia, Oscar; López-Sánchez, Ángel-R

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the results obtained from our suite of chemical evolution models for spiral disks, computed for different total masses and star formation efficiencies. Once the gas, stars and star formation radial distributions are reproduced, we analyze the Oxygen abundances radial profiles for gas and stars, in addition to stellar averaged ages and global metallicity. We examine scenarios for the potential origin of the apparent flattening of abundance gradients in the outskirts of disk galaxies, in particular the role of molecular gas formation prescriptions.

  9. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-α field halo stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishlock, C. K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Alves-Brito, A.; Meléndez, J.; Nissen, P. E.; Kobayashi, C.; Casey, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    We determine relative abundance ratios for the neutron-capture elements Zr, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu for a sample of 27 Galactic dwarf stars with -1.5 < [Fe/H] <-0.8. We also measure the iron-peak element Sc. These stars separate into three populations (low- and high-α halo and thick-disc stars) based on the [α/Fe] abundance ratio and their kinematics as discovered by Nissen & Schuster. We find differences between the low- and high-α groups in the abundance ratios of [Sc/Fe], [Zr/Fe], [La/Zr], [Y/Eu], and [Ba/Eu] when including Y and Ba from Nissen & Schuster. For all ratios except [La/Zr], the low-α stars have a lower abundance compared to the high-α stars. The low-α stars display the same abundance patterns of high [Ba/Y] and low [Y/Eu] as observed in present-day dwarf spheroidal galaxies, although with smaller abundance differences, when compared to the high-α stars. These distinct chemical patterns have been attributed to differences in the star formation rate between the two populations and the contribution of low-metallicity, low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the low-α population. By comparing the low-α population with AGB stellar models, we place constraints on the mass range of the AGB stars.

  10. Revisited fluorine abundances in the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656)

    CERN Document Server

    de Laverny, P

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine is a fairly good tracer of formation histories of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters as already revealed by several studies. Large variations in fluorine abundance in red giant stars of the globular cluster M22 have been recently reported by two different groups. Futhermore, one of these studies claims that the abundance of fluorine is anti-correlated with sodium abundances in this cluster, leading to strong conclusions on the chemical history of M22. To validate this important finding, we re-examine the F abundance determinations of some of the previously studied stars. We have thus reanalysed some high-resolution VLT/CRIRES spectra of RGB stars found in M22 in order to re-estimate their fluorine abundance from the spectral synthesis of the HF line at 2.336microns. Unlike what has been previously estimated, we show that only upper limits or doubtful fluorine abundances with large uncertainties in M22 RGB stars can be derived. This is probably caused by an incorrect identification of c...

  11. The Abundance of Fluorine in Normal G and K Stars of the Galactic Thin Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Pilachowski, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of fluorine is determined from the (2-0) R9 2.3358 micron feature of the molecule HF for several dozen normal G and K stars in the Galactic thin disk from spectra obtained with the Phoenix IR spectrometer on the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak. The abundances are analyzed in the context of Galactic chemical evolution to explore the contributions of supernovae and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the abundance of fluorine in the thin disk. The average abundance of fluorine in the thin disk is found to be [F/Fe] = +0.23 +/- 0.03, and the [F/Fe] ratio is flat or declines slowly with metallicity in the range from -0.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, within the limits of our estimated uncertainty. The measured abundance of fluorine and lack of variation with metallicity in Galactic thin disk stars suggest neutrino spallation in Type II supernovae contributes significantly to the Galactic fluorine abundance, although contributions from AGB stars may also be important.

  12. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  13. Geographic and Temporal Variation in Moth Chemical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike acoustic and visual communication, chemical communication cues have not been viewed in the background of a chemically noisy habitat. Species with similar chemical cues may not only directly interfere with each other's communication channels, but the presence and abundance of other species may...

  14. Normal A0--A1 stars with low rotational velocities. I. Abundance determination and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Royer, F; Monier, R; Adelman, S; Smalley, B; Pintado, O; Reiners, A; Hill, G; Gulliver, A

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of rotational velocity distributions for normal stars requires an accurate spectral characterization of the objects in order to avoid polluting the results with undetected binary or peculiar stars. This piece of information is a key issue in the understanding of the link between rotation and the presence of chemical peculiarities. Aims. A sample of 47 low v sin i A0-A1 stars (v sin i < 65km/s), initially selected as main-sequence normal stars, are investigated with high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data. The aim is to detect spectroscopic binaries and chemically peculiar stars, and eventually establish a list of confirmed normal stars. Methods. A detailed abundance analysis and spectral synthesis is performed to derive abundances for 14 chemical species. A hierarchical classification, taking measurement errors into account, is applied to the abundance space and splits the sample into two different groups, identified as the chemically peculiar stars and the normal sta...

  15. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  16. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris L van der Ham

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF. Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1 exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2 fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  17. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  18. Can occupancy-abundance models be used to monitor wolf abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecilia Latham

    Full Text Available Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy-abundance curves derived from "virtual" surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy-abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2 were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2. However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2. Virtually-derived occupancy-abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  19. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Lisa; Cottrell, Matthew T.; Kirchman, David L.; Borrego, Carles M.; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex. PMID:25927833

  20. Chemically Tunable 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    or fumed silica, or chemically modified , precipitated silica and used as fillers in the rubber industry, carriers in agrochemicals, paints...tiles, wall board, and reinforcement for concrete . 144 In contrast to these sheet-like and fibrous silicates, pure Si02 is an abundant mineral that...occurs as crystalline silica or cx-quartz or as amorphous silica.14s Crystalline silica is used in concrete , mortar, porcelain, paints, and abrasives

  1. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aver, Erik [Department of Physics, Gonzaga University, 502 E Boone Ave, Spokane, WA, 99258 (United States); Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Porter, R.L., E-mail: aver@gonzaga.edu, E-mail: olive@umn.edu, E-mail: ryanlporter@gmail.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  2. The Chemical Evolution of Dynamically Hot Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Richer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the chemical properties of M32, the bulges of M31 and the Milky Way, and the dwarf spheroidal galaxies NGC 205, NGC 185, Sagittarius, and Fornax using oxygen abundances for their planetary nebulae. Our principal result is that the mean stellar oxygen abundances correlate very well with thei r mean velocity dispersions, implying that the balance between energy input from type II supernovae and the gravitational potential controls chemical evolution in bulges, ellipticals, and dwarf spheroidals. It appears that chemical evolution ceases once supernovae have injected sufficient energy that a galacti c wind develops. All of the galaxies follow a single relation between oxygen abundance and luminosity, but the dwarf spheroidals have systematically higher [O/Fe] ratios than the other galaxies. Consequently, dynamically hot galaxies do not share a common star formation history nor need to a common chemical evolution, despite attaining similar mean stellar oxygen abundances when formin g similar masses. The oxygen abundances support previous indications that stars in higher luminosity ellipticals and bulges were formed on a shorter time scale than their counterparts in less luminous systems.

  3. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  4. Interstellar Abundances in the Magellanic Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Welty, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    We summarize recent studies of the predominantly neutral gas in the Magellanic Clouds (MC), based on combinations of high-resolution optical spectra and UV spectra obtained with IUE, HST, and FUSE. Similarities in relative gas-phase abundances for Galactic and MC sightlines with relatively low N(H) had suggested that the depletion patterns might be similar in the three galaxies -- at least where the depletions are relatively mild. New STIS spectra of one higher N(H) SMC sightline, however, ha...

  5. Non-additive effects of genotypic diversity increase floral abundance and abundance of floral visitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Genung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1 plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2 plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  6. VLT\\/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies I. Nucleosynthesis and Abundance Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Shetrone, M; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, V; Kaufer, A

    2003-01-01

    We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We measure the abundances of alpha, iron peak, s and r-process elements. No dSph giants in our sample show the deep mixing abundance pattern seen in nearly all globular clusters. At a given metallicity, the dSph giants exhibit lower [el/Fe] abundance ratios for the alpha elements than stars in the Galactic halo. This can be caused by a slow star formation rate and contribution from Type Ia SN, and/or a small star formation event (low total mass) and mass dependent Type II SN yields. Differences in the even-Z [el/Fe] ratios between these galaxies, as well as differences in the evolution of the s&r-process elements are interpreted in terms of their star formation histories. Comparison of the dSph abundances with those of the Galactic halo reveals some consistencies. In particular, we find stars that mimic the abundance pattern found by Nissen & Shuster (1997) for metal-rich,...

  7. Metal Abundances of KISS Galaxies. V. Nebular Abundances of Fifteen Intermediate Luminosity Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschauer, Alec S; Bresolin, Fabio; Saviane, Ivo; Yegorova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    We present high S/N spectroscopy of 15 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) cataloged in the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS), selected for their possession of high equivalent width [O III] lines. The primary goal of this study was to attempt to derive direct-method ($T_e$) abundances for use in constraining the upper-metallicity branch of the $R_{23}$ relation. The spectra cover the full optical region from [O II]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}3726,3729 to [S III]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}9069,9531 and include the measurement of [O III]{\\lambda}4363 in 13 objects. From these spectra, we determine abundance ratios of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon. We find these galaxies to predominantly possess oxygen abundances in the range of 8.0 $\\lesssim$ 12+log(O/H) $\\lesssim$ 8.3. We present a comparison of direct-method abundances with empirical SEL techniques, revealing several discrepancies. We also present a comparison of direct-method oxygen abundance calculations using electron temperatures determined from e...

  8. Metal Abundances of KISS Galaxies. V. Nebular Abundances of 15 Intermediate Luminosity Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Bresolin, Fabio; Saviane, Ivo; Yegorova, Irina

    2015-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy of 15 emission-line galaxies cataloged in the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey, selected for their possession of high equivalent width [O iii] lines. The primary goal of this study was to attempt to derive direct-method (Te) abundances for use in constraining the upper-metallicity branch of the {R}23 relation. The spectra cover the full optical region from [O ii]λλ3726,3729 to [S iii]λλ9069,9531 and include the measurement of [O iii]λ4363 in 13 objects. From these spectra, we determine abundance ratios of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, and argon. We find these galaxies to predominantly possess oxygen abundances in the range of 8.0 ≲ 12+log(O/H) ≲ 8.3. We present a comparison of direct-method abundances with empirical strong-emission-line techniques, revealing several discrepancies. We also present a comparison of direct-method oxygen abundance calculations using electron temperatures determined from emission lines of O++ and S++, finding a small systematic shift to lower Te (∼1184 K) and higher metallicity (∼0.14 dex) for sulfur-derived Te compared to oxygen-derived Te. Finally, we explore in some detail the different spectral activity types of targets in our sample, including regular star-forming galaxies, those with suspected AGN contamination, and a local pair of low-metallicity, high-luminosity compact objects.

  9. Abundances in planetary nebulae: NGC 1535, NGC 6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products are brought to the surface, it is important to compare the abundances predicted by the models with the abundances actually observed in PNe. Aims: The aim of the paper is to determine the abundances in a group of PNe with uniform morphological and kinematic properties. The PNe we discuss are circular with rather low-temperature central stars and are rather far from the galactic plane. We discuss the effect these abundances have on determining the evolution of the central stars of these PNe. Methods: The mid-infrared spectra of the planetary nebulae NGC 1535, NGC 6629, He2-108, and Tc1 (IC 1266) taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. These spectra were combined with the ultraviolet IUE spectra and with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain complete, extinction-corrected spectra. The chemical composition of these nebulae is then found by directly calculating and adding individual ion abundances. For two of these PNe, we attempted to reproduce the observed spectrum by making a model nebula. This proved impossible for one of the nebulae and the reason for this is discussed. The resulting abundances are more accurate than earlier studies for several reasons, the most important is that inclusion of the far infrared spectra increases the number of observed ions and makes it possible to include the nebular temperature gradient in the abundance calculations. Results: The abundances of the above four PNe have been determined and compared to the abundances found in five other PNe with similar properties studied earlier. These abundances are further compared with values predicted by the models of Karakas (2003). From this comparison we conclude that the

  10. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  11. Abundance Anomalies In Tidal Disruption Events

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanek, C S

    2015-01-01

    The ~10% of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than the Sun should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ~25% on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of 2-3 for debris at a common orbital period. These helium abundance variations may be a contributor to the observed diversity of hydrogen and helium line strengths in TDEs. A still more striking anomaly is the rapid enhancement of nitrogen and the depletion of carbon due to the CNO cycle -- stars more massive than the Sun quickly show an increase in their average N/C ratio by factors of 3-10. Because low mass stars evolve slowly and high mass stars are rare, TDEs showing high N/C will almost all be due to 1-2Msun stars disr...

  12. Automatic abundance analysis of high resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2003-01-01

    We describe an automatic procedure for determining abundances from high resolution spectra. Such procedures are becoming increasingly important as large amounts of data are delivered from 8m telescopes and their high-multiplexing fiber facilities, such as FLAMES on ESO-VLT. The present procedure is specifically targeted for the analysis of spectra of giants in the Sgr dSph; however, the procedure may be, in principle, tailored to analyse stars of any type. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms and on the stability of the method; the external accuracy rests, ultimately, on the reliability of the theoretical models (model-atmospheres, synthetic spectra) used to interpret the data. Comparison of the results of the procedure with the results of a traditional analysis for 12 Sgr giants shows that abundances accurate at the level of 0.2 dex, comparable with that of traditional analysis of the same spectra, may be derived in a fast and efficient way. Such automatic procedures are not meant to replace the traditional ...

  13. Occupancy as a surrogate for abundance estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie, D. I.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In many monitoring programmes it may be prohibitively expensive to estimate the actual abundance of a bird species in a defined area, particularly at large spatial scales, or where birds occur at very low densities. Often it may be appropriate to consider the proportion of area occupied by the species as an alternative state variable. However, as with abundance estimation, issues of detectability must be taken into account in order to make accurate inferences: the non-detection of the species does not imply the species is genuinely absent. Here we review some recent modelling developments that permit unbiased estimation of the proportion of area occupied, colonization and local extinction probabilities. These methods allow for unequal sampling effort and enable covariate information on sampling locations to be incorporated. We also describe how these models could be extended to incorporate information from marked individuals, which would enable finer questions of population dynamics (such as turnover rate of nest sites by specific breeding pairs to be addressed. We believe these models may be applicable to a wide range of bird species and may be useful for investigating various questions of ecological interest. For example, with respect to habitat quality, we might predict that a species is more likely to have higher local extinction probabilities, or higher turnover rates of specific breeding pairs, in poor quality habitats.

  14. Oxygen Abundance Measurements of SHIELD Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cannon, John M; Marshall, Melissa V

    2015-01-01

    We have derived oxygen abundances for 8 galaxies from the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD). The SHIELD survey is an ongoing study of very low-mass galaxies, with M$_{\\rm HI}$ between 10$^{6.5}$ and 10$^{7.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$, that were detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. H$\\alpha$ images from the WIYN 3.5m telescope show that these 8 SHIELD galaxies each possess one or two active star-forming regions which were targeted with long-slit spectral observations using the Mayall 4m telescope at KPNO. We obtained a direct measurement of the electron temperature by detection of the weak [O III] $\\lambda$4363 line in 2 of the HII regions. Oxygen abundances for the other HII regions were estimated using a strong-line method. When the SHIELD galaxies are plotted on a B-band luminosity-metallicity diagram they appear to suggest a slightly shallower slope to the relationship than normally seen. However, that offset is systematically reduced when the near-infrared luminosity is used ins...

  15. Absolute Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe emission lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.

  16. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  17. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. LiHe$^+$ in the early Universe: a full assessment of its reaction network and final abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, Stefano; Galli, Daniele; Tacconi, Mario; Gianturco, Francesco A

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of quantum calculations based on entirely ab initio methods for a variety of molecular processes and chemical reactions involving the LiHe$^+$ ionic polar molecule. With the aid of these calculations we derive accurate reaction rates and fitting expressions valid over a range of gas temperatures representative of the typical conditions of the pregalactic gas. With the help of a full chemical network, we then compute the evolution of the abundance of LiHe$^+$ as function of redshift in the early Universe. Finally, we compare the relative abundance of LiHe$^+$ with that of other polar cations formed in the same redshift interval.

  19. Open Cluster Neutron Capture Element Abundances and Milky Way Disk Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Friel, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    Open clusters, whose ages and distances can be precisely determined, are useful probes of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk. The sample sizes of clusters subject to homogeneous analysis of high resolution spectra have grown in recent years, and increased attention has turned to measuring the abundances of neutron capture elements. The relative abundances of r-process elements (e.g., europium) to s-process elements (e.g., barium, lanthanum and zirconium) in cluster stars reveal the relative contributions of Type II supernovae and low-mass AGB stars to the chemical evolution of the galactic disk. A recent study of cluster s-process element abundances has revealed a surprising trend of increasing s-process element abundance ([s/Fe]) with decreasing cluster age, at odds with current s-process yield predictions (D'Orazi et al. 2009, Maiorca et al. 2011). We have undertaken an analysis of Zr, Ba, La, and Eu abundances in 17 open clusters based on high resolution optical spectra. The sample spans 700 Myr to 10 Gyr in age and Rgc 7-22 kpc in galactocentric distance, allowing for the exploration of neutron capture [x/Fe] ratios as a function of age and location in the disk. Preliminary results confirm the trend of enhanced [s/Fe] with decreasing cluster age found by other studies, though with a weaker correlation. Here we present the latest results of this analysis, including newly-determined abundances for the r-process element Eu for an expanded cluster sample that includes outer disk objects. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to HRJ under award AST-0901919.

  20. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  1. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  2. Abundances from disentangled component spectra: the eclipsing binary V578 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovski, K

    2005-01-01

    Chemical abundances of the early-B type components of the binary V578 Mon are derived from disentangled component spectra. This is a pilot study showing that, even with moderately high line-broadening, metal abundances can be derived from disentangled spectra with a precision 0.1 dex, relative to sharp-lined single stars of the same spectral type. This binary is well-suited for such an assessment because of its youth as a member of the Rosette Nebula cluster NGC 2244, strengthening the expectation of an unevolved ZAMS chemical composition. The method is of interest to study rotational driven mixing in main-sequence stars, with fundamental stellar parameters known with higher accuracy in (eclipsing) binaries. The paper also includes an evaluation of the bias that might be present in disentangled spectra.

  3. Abundances in photoionized nebulae of the Local Group and nucleosynthesis of intermediate mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Cavichia, O.

    2017-04-01

    Photoionized nebulae, comprising HII regions and planetary nebulae, are excellent laboratories to investigate the nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of several elements in the Galaxy and other galaxies of the Local Group. Our purpose in this investigation is threefold: (i) compare the abundances of HII regions and planetary nebulae in each system in order to investigate the differences derived from the age and origin of these objects, (ii) compare the chemical evolution in different systems, such as the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, and other galaxies of the Local Group, and (iii) investigate to what extent the nucleosynthesis contributions from the progenitor stars affect the observed abundances in planetary nebulae, which constrains the nucleosynthesis of intermediate mass stars. We show that all objects in the samples present similar trends concerning distance-independent correlations, and some constraints can be defined on the production of He and N by the PN progenitor stars.

  4. Investigation of the Puzzling Abundance Pattern in the Stars of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongjie; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Many works have found unusual characteristics of elemental abundances in nearby dwarf galaxies. This implies that there is a key factor of galactic evolution that is different from that of the Milky Way (MW). The chemical abundances of the stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Fornax dSph) provide excellent information for setting constraints on the models of the galactic chemical evolution. In this work, adopting the five-component approach, we fit the abundances of the Fornax dSph stars, including $\\alpha$ elements, iron group elements and neutron-capture elements. For most sample stars, the relative contributions from the various processes to the elemental abundances are not usually in the MW proportions. We find that the contributions from massive stars to the primary $\\alpha$ elements and iron group elements increase monotonously with increasing [Fe/H]. This means that the effect of the galactic wind is not strong enough to halt star formation and the contributions from massive stars to $\\alpha$ e...

  5. The Cocoon Nebula and its ionizing star: do stellar and nebular abundances agree?

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Esteban, C

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Main sequence massive stars embedded in an HII region should have the same chemical abundances as the surrounding nebular gas+dust. The Cocoon nebula, a close-by Galactic HII region ionized by a narrow line B0.5 V single star (BD+46 3474), is an ideal target to perform a detailed comparison of nebular and stellar abundances in the same Galactic HII region. We investigate the chemical content of O, N and S in the Cocoon nebula from two different points of view: an empirical analysis of the nebular spectrum and a detailed spectroscopic analysis of its ionizing B-type star using state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere modeling. By comparing the stellar and nebular abundances, we aim to indirectly address the long-standing problem of the discrepancy found between abundances obtained from collisionally excited lines (CELs) and optical recombination lines in photoionized nebulae. We collect spatially resolved spectroscopy of the Cocoon nebula and a high resolution optical spectrum of its ionizing star. Stand...

  6. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: opening the black box of stellar element abundance determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Worley, C. C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Masseron, T.; Hawkins, K.; Adibekyan, V.; Buder, S.; Casamiquela, L.; Gilmore, G.; Hourihane, A.; Tabernero, H.

    2017-05-01

    Gaia and its complementary spectroscopic surveys combined will yield the most comprehensive database of kinematic and chemical information of stars in the Milky Way. The Gaia FGK benchmark stars play a central role in this matter as they are calibration pillars for the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for various surveys. The spectroscopic analyses of the benchmark stars are done by combining different methods, and the results will be affected by the systematic uncertainties inherent in each method. In this paper, we explore some of these systematic uncertainties. We determined line abundances of Ca, Cr, Mn and Co for four benchmark stars using six different methods. We changed the default input parameters of the different codes in a systematic way and found, in some cases, significant differences between the results. Since there is no consensus on the correct values for many of these default parameters, we urge the community to raise discussions towards standard input parameters that could alleviate the difference in abundances obtained by different methods. In this work, we provide quantitative estimates of uncertainties in elemental abundances due to the effect of differing technical assumptions in spectrum modelling.

  7. Abundances of Refractory Elements for G-type Stars with Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Wonseok; Kim, Kang-Min

    2011-01-01

    We confirm the difference of chemical abundance between stars with and without exoplanet, as well as present the relation between chemical abundances and the physical properties of exoplanets such as planetary mass and semi-major axis of planetary orbit. We have obtained the spectra of 52 G-type stars with BOES (BOAO Echelle Spectrograph) and carried out the abundance analysis for 12 elements of Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni. We first have found that the [Mn/Fe] ratios of planet-host stars are higher than those of comparisons in the whole metallicity range, and in metal-poor stars of [Fe/H] $<$ -0.4, the abundance difference have been larger than in metal-rich samples, especially for the elements of Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, and Co. When examined the relation between planet properties and metallicities of planet-host stars, we have observed that planet-host stars with low-metallicity tend to bear several low-mass planets ($< M_J$) instead of a massive gas-giant planet.

  8. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the amount of soil organic matter and total nitrogen content was. T DIFFERENT HOURS ... burning such as improvement in soil physical ... chemical properties. The aim is to find .... Humid Tropics with particular reference to. Nigeria.

  9. An MCMC determination of the primordial helium abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: aver@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: olive@umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chemical abundances in metal-poor H II regions provide an independent method for estimating the primordial helium abundance. H II regions are described by several physical parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, and reddening, in addition to y, the ratio of helium to hydrogen. It had been customary to estimate or determine self-consistently these parameters to calculate y. Frequentist analyses of the parameter space have been shown to be successful in these parameter determinations, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have proven to be very efficient in sampling this parameter space. Nevertheless, accurate determination of the primordial helium abundance from observations of H II regions is constrained by both systematic and statistical uncertainties. In an attempt to better reduce the latter, and continue to better characterize the former, we apply MCMC methods to the large dataset recently compiled by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasińska (2007). To improve the reliability of the determination, a high quality dataset is needed. In pursuit of this, a variety of cuts are explored. The efficacy of the He I λ4026 emission line as a constraint on the solutions is first examined, revealing the introduction of systematic bias through its absence. As a clear measure of the quality of the physical solution, a χ{sup 2} analysis proves instrumental in the selection of data compatible with the theoretical model. Nearly two-thirds of the observations fall outside a standard 95% confidence level cut, which highlights the care necessary in selecting systems and warrants further investigation into potential deficiencies of the model or data. In addition, the method also allows us to exclude systems for which parameter estimations are statistical outliers. As a result, the final selected dataset gains in reliability and exhibits improved consistency. Regression to zero metallicity yields Y{sub p} = 0.2534 ± 0.0083, in

  10. An MCMC determination of the primordial helium abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2012-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chemical abundances in metal-poor H II regions provide an independent method for estimating the primordial helium abundance. H II regions are described by several physical parameters such as electron density, electron temperature, and reddening, in addition to y, the ratio of helium to hydrogen. It had been customary to estimate or determine self-consistently these parameters to calculate y. Frequentist analyses of the parameter space have been shown to be successful in these parameter determinations, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have proven to be very efficient in sampling this parameter space. Nevertheless, accurate determination of the primordial helium abundance from observations of H II regions is constrained by both systematic and statistical uncertainties. In an attempt to better reduce the latter, and continue to better characterize the former, we apply MCMC methods to the large dataset recently compiled by Izotov, Thuan, & Stasińska (2007). To improve the reliability of the determination, a high quality dataset is needed. In pursuit of this, a variety of cuts are explored. The efficacy of the He I λ4026 emission line as a constraint on the solutions is first examined, revealing the introduction of systematic bias through its absence. As a clear measure of the quality of the physical solution, a χ2 analysis proves instrumental in the selection of data compatible with the theoretical model. Nearly two-thirds of the observations fall outside a standard 95% confidence level cut, which highlights the care necessary in selecting systems and warrants further investigation into potential deficiencies of the model or data. In addition, the method also allows us to exclude systems for which parameter estimations are statistical outliers. As a result, the final selected dataset gains in reliability and exhibits improved consistency. Regression to zero metallicity yields Yp = 0.2534 ± 0.0083, in broad agreement

  11. The Effects of Magnetic Field Morphology on the Determination of Oxygen and Iron Abundances in the Solar Photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Uitenbroek, Han; Rempel, Matthias; Criscuoli, Serena; Rast, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The solar chemical abundance (or a scaled version of it) is implemented in numerous astrophysical analyses. Thus, an accurate and precise estimation of the solar elemental abundance is crucial in astrophysics.We have explored the impact of magnetic fields on the determination of the solar photospheric oxygen andiron abundances using 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of convection. Specifically, weexamined differences in abundance deduced from three classes of atmospheres simulated with the MURaM code: apure hydrodynamic (HD) simulation, an MHD simulation with a local dynamo magnetic field that has saturated withan unsigned vertical field strength of 80 G at the optical depth unity surface, and an MHD simulation with an initially imposed vertical mean field of 80 G. We use differential equivalent width analysis for diagnosing abundances derived from five oxygen and four iron spectral lines of differing wavelength, oscillator strength, excitation potential, and Lande g-factor, and find that the morphology of the magnetic field is important to the outcome of abundance determinations. The largest deduced abundance differences are found in the vertical mean field simulations and small scale unresolved field resulting from the local dynamo has a smaller impact on abundance determinations.

  12. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Hansen, T T; Kennedy, C R; Placco, V M; Beers, T C; Andersen, J; Cescutti, G; Chiappini, C

    2015-01-01

    An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] = -2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). CNO abundance determinations offer clues to their formation sites. C, N, Sr, and Ba abundances (or limits) and 12C/13C ratios where possible are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-shooter spectra have sufficient S/N ratios. These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP sub-classes (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances,...

  13. Abundance Profiling of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars and Supernova Properties in the Early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The first metal enrichment in the universe was made by a supernova (SN) explosion of a population (Pop) III star and chemical evolution of the universe is recorded in abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Increasing number of the EMP stars are now being discovered. This allows us to statistically constrain properties of SNe of Pop III stars (Pop III SNe). We investigate the properties of Pop III SNe by comparing their nucleosynthetic yields with the abundance patterns of the EMP stars. We focus on the most metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] $\\lsim-3.5$ and present Pop III SN models that reproduce well their individual abundance patterns. From these models we derive relations between abundance ratios and properties of Pop III SNe: [(C+N)/Fe] vs. an ejected Fe mass, and [(C+N)/Mg] vs. a remnant mass. Using fitting formulae, distribution of the abundance ratios of EMP stars is converted to those of the properties of Pop III SNe, which can be compared with SNe in the present day. Large samples of EMP ...

  14. Complete element abundances of nine stars in the r-process galaxy Reticulum II

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Alexander P; Simon, Joshua D; Chiti, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundances derived from high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the nine brightest known red giant members of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II. These stars span the full metallicity range of Ret II (-3.5 < [Fe/H] < -2). Seven of the nine stars have extremely high levels of r-process material ([Eu/Fe]~1.7), in contrast to the extremely low neutron-capture element abundances found in every other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy studied to date. The other two stars are the most metal-poor stars in the system ([Fe/H] < -3), and they have neutron-capture element abundance limits similar to those in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We confirm that the relative abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in these stars are similar to those found in r-process halo stars but ~0.5 dex lower than the solar r-process pattern. If the universal r-process pattern extends to those elements, the stars in Ret II display the least contaminated known r-process pattern. The abundances of lighter elements up to the...

  15. Phytoplankton abundance and community structure in the Antarctic polar frontal region during austral summer of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHRAMIK Patil; RAHUL Mohan; SUHAS Shetye; SAHINA Gazi

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic polar front region in the Southern Ocean is known to be most productive.We studied the phytoplankton community structure in the Indian sector at this frontal location during late austral summer (February,2009) onboard R/V Akademic Boris Petrov.We used the phytoplankton and microheterotrophs abundance,as also the associated physico-chemical parameters to explain the low phytoplankton abundance in the study region.This study emphasizes the shift of phytoplankton,from large (>10 μm) to small (<10 μm) size.The phytoplankton abundance appears to be controlled by physical parameters and by nutrient concentrations and also by the microheterotrophs (ciliates and dinoflagellates) which exert a strong grazing pressure.This probably reduces small (<10 μm) and large (>10 μm)phytoplankton abundance during the late austral summer.This study highlights the highly productive polar front nevertheless becomes a region of low phytoplankton abundance,due to community shifts towards pico-phytoplankton (<10 μm) during late austral summer.

  16. An Update of the Primordial Helium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimbert, Antonio; Peimbert, Manuel; Luridiana, Valentina

    2015-08-01

    Three of the best determinations of the primordial helium abundance (Yp) are those obtained from low metallicity HII regions by Aver, Olive, Porter, & Skillman (2013); Izotov, Thuan, & Guseva (2014); and Peimbert, Peimbert, & Luridiana (2007). In this poster we update the Yp determination by Peimbert et al. taking into account, among other aspects, recent advances in the determination of the He atomic physical parameters, the temperature structure, the collisional effects of high temperatures on the Balmer lines, as well as the effect of H and He bound-bound absorption.We compare our results with those of Aver et al. and Izotov et al. and point out possible explanations for the differences among the three determinations. We also compare our results with those obtained with the Plank satellite considering recent measurements of the neutron mean life; this comparison has implications on the determination of the number of light neutrino families.

  17. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    Detritivorous macrofauna species co-ingest large quantities of microorganisms some of which survive the gut passage. Denitrifying bacteria, in particular, become metabolically induced by anoxic conditions, nitrate, and labile organic compounds in the gut of invertebrates. A striking consequence...... of the short-term metabolic induction of gut denitrification is the preferential production of nitrous oxide rather than dinitrogen. On a large scale, gut denitrification in, for instance, Chironomus plumosus larvae can increase the overall nitrous oxide emission of lake sediment by a factor of eight. We...... that do not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. Ephemera danica, a very abundant mayfly larva, was monitored monthly in a nitrate-polluted stream. Nitrous oxide production by this filter-feeder was highly dependent on nitrate availability...

  18. New Elemental Abundances for V1974 Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Vanlandingham, K M; Shore, S N; Starrfield, S; Wagner, R M

    2005-01-01

    We present a new analysis of existing optical and ultraviolet spectra of the ONeMg nova V1974 Cygni 1992. Using these data and the photoionization code Cloudy, we have determined the physical parameters and elemental abundances for this nova. Many of the previous studies of this nova have made use of incorrect analyses and hence a new study was required. Our results show that the ejecta are enhanced, relative to solar, in helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium and iron. Carbon was found to be subsolar. We find an ejected mass of ~2x10e-4 solar masses. Our model results fit well with observations taken at IR, radio, sub-millimeter and X-ray wavelengths.

  19. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  20. Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni abundance for a sample of solar analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdivia, Ricardo; Bertone, Emanuele; Chávez, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on the determination of chemical abundances of 38 solar analogues, including 11 objects previously identified as super metal-rich stars. We have measured the equivalent widths for 34 lines of 7 different chemical elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni) in high-resolution (R ˜ 80 000) spectroscopic images, obtained at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (Sonora, Mexico), with the Cananea High-resolution Spectrograph. We derived chemical abundances using ATLAS12 model atmospheres and the Fortran code MOOG. We confirmed the super metallicity status of 6 solar analogues. Within our sample, BD+60 600 is the most metal-rich star ([Fe/H]=+0.35 dex), while for HD 166991 we obtained the lowest iron abundance ([Fe/H]=-0.53 dex). We also computed the so-called [Ref] index for 25 of our solar analogues, and we found, that BD+60 600 ([Ref]=+0.42) and BD+28 3198 ([Ref]=+0.34) are good targets for exoplanet search.

  1. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. I. Nucleosynthesis and abundance ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetrone, M; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A

    2003-01-01

    We have used the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's). We measure the abundances of alpha-, iron peak, first s-process, second s-pr

  2. Patrones de forrajeo en dos especies de peces intermareales herbívoros de las costas de Chile: Efecto de la abundancia y composición química del alimento Foraging patterns of two species of intertidal herbivorous fishes: Effect of food abundance and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN W. CACERES

    2000-06-01

    in relation to fish herbivory are: i which are the factors that determine the selection or rejection of a given algal item? and ii are herbivorous fishes capable of extracting the nutrients and energy of a macroalgal diet? In this work, we studied in two species of herbivorous intertidal fishes, Scartichthys viridis and Girella laevifrons, the patterns of food selectivity in the field and in laboratory experiments, the assimilation efficiency for different dietary algal items, and the relationship between the observed patterns and the chemical composition of the algae. The results showed that more than 90% of the diet of these organisms consisted of benthic macroalgae. In the field both species present a non-selective trophic behavior in summer and selective one in winter, characterized by the consumption of green algae in the later season. Furthermore, in the experiments of food selection both species showed a similar pattern characterized by the preference of green and red algae. The results of the assimilation experiments, indicate that Girella laevifrons presents higher values of this parameter than Scartichthys viridis, being in the former the green algae Ulva and Enteromorpha, the items that present a higher efficiency of assimilation. Finally, the results obtained suggest in this herbivorous species a strong relationship among the patterns of food selection and the relationship between food composition and digestive characteristics

  3. Introduction to Galactic Chemical Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    In this lecture I will introduce the concept of galactic chemical evolution, namely the study of how and where the chemical elements formed and how they were distributed in the stars and gas in galaxies. The main ingredients to build models of galactic chemical evolution will be described. They include: initial conditions, star formation history, stellar nucleosynthesis and gas flows in and out of galaxies. Then some simple analytical models and their solutions will be discussed together with the main criticisms associated to them. The yield per stellar generation will be defined and the hypothesis of instantaneous recycling approximation will be critically discussed. Detailed numerical models of chemical evolution of galaxies of different morphological type, able to follow the time evolution of the abundances of single elements, will be discussed and their predictions will be compared to observational data. The comparisons will include stellar abundances as well as interstellar medium ones, measured in galaxies. I will show how, from these comparisons, one can derive important constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis and galaxy formation mechanisms. Most of the concepts described in this lecture can be found in the monograph by Matteucci (2012).

  4. Solar-system abundances of the elements - A new table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevesse, Nicolas; Anders, Edward

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an abridged version of a new abundance compilation (Anders and Grevesse, 1988), representing an update of Anders and Ebihara (1982) and Grevesse (1984). It includes revised meteoritic abundances as well as photospheric and coronal abundances, based on literature through mid-1988.

  5. Industrial perspectives on earth abundant, multinary thin film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Richard; Gershon, Talia; Gunawan, Oki; Antunez, Priscilla; Bishop, Douglas; Seog Lee, Yun; Gokmen, Tayfun; Sardashti, Kasra; Chagarov, Evgueni; Kummel, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The most efficient earth abundant, non-toxic thin film multelemental PV devices are fabricated from Cu, Zn, Sn, S and Se, with the chemical formula of Cu2ZnSn(S x Se1-x )4 (CZTS,Se). This material has enjoyed relatively rapid increases in efficiency from its inception to its present-day power conversion efficiency of 12.6%. But further increases in efficiency have been hampered by the inability to substantially increase Voc, the open circuit voltage. In this review article we will discuss the fundamentals of this important kesterite material including methods of film growth, post growth processing and device fabrication. Detailed studies of the properties of CZTS,Se including chemical, structural and electronic as well as full device electrical characterization have been performed in an effort to coax out the critical issues that limit performance. These experimental studies, enhanced by density functional theory calculations have pointed to fundamental bulk point defects, such as Cu-Zn antisites, and clusters of defects, as the primary culprits in limiting Voc increases. Improvements in device performance through grain boundary passivation and interface modifications are described. Exfoliation of functioning solar cells to expose the back surface along with engineering of new back contacts designed to impose electrostatic fields that drive electron-hole separation and increase Voc are discussed. A parallel route to increasing device performance by alloying Ag with CZTS,Se in order to inhibit Cu-Zn antisite defect formation has shown significant improvement in material properties. Finally, applications of high S (and hence higher Voc) CZTS,Se based devices to energy harvesting for ‘Internet-of-Things’ devices is discussed.

  6. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IX. Differential abundances in the XO-2 planet hosting binary

    CERN Document Server

    Biazzo, K; Desidera, S; Lucatello, S; Sozzetti, A; Bonomo, A S; Damasso, M; Gandolfi, D; Affer, L; Boccato, C; Borsa, F; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Covino, E; Knapic, C; Lanza, A F; Maldonado, J; Marzari, F; Micela, G; Molaro, P; Pagano, I; Pedani, M; Pillitteri, I; Piotto, G; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Santos, N C; Scandariato, G; Sanchez, R Zanmar

    2015-01-01

    Binary stars hosting exoplanets are a unique laboratory where chemical tagging can be performed to measure with high accuracy the elemental abundances of both stellar components, with the aim to investigate the formation of planets and their subsequent evolution. Here, we present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of the XO-2 wide stellar binary based on high resolution HARPS-N@TNG spectra. Both components are very similar K-dwarfs and host planets. Since they formed presumably within the same molecular cloud, we expect they should possess the same initial elemental abundances. We investigate if the presence of planets can cause some chemical imprints in the stellar atmospheric abundances. We measure abundances of 25 elements for both stars with a range of condensation temperature $T_{\\rm C}=40-1741$ K, achieving typical precisions of $\\sim 0.07$ dex. The North component shows abundances in all elements higher by $+0.067 \\pm 0.032$ dex on average, with a mean difference of +0.078 dex for element...

  7. Chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book, suitable as an introductory text for undergraduates, presents temperature, internal energy, and entropy with a minimum of mathematics. The basic mathematical models of classical chemical thermodynamics are developed later in the text. Includes numerous problems at the end of each chapter, an appendix giving thermodynamic data for common substances, a short list of references, answers to selected problems, and a subject index. Contents, abridged: Energy and the first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic functions. The third law of thermodynamics and absolute entropies. Thermodynamics of chemical reactions. Phase equilibria: the activity function. Thermodynamics of ions in solution. Statistical thermodynamics. Appendices. Index.

  8. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  9. The CH+ Abundance in Turbulent, Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Andrew; Li, Pak Shing

    2015-01-01

    The intermittent dissipation of interstellar turbulence is an important energy source in the diffuse ISM. Though on average smaller than the heating rates due to cosmic rays and the photoelectric effect on dust grains, the turbulent cascade can channel large amounts of energy into a relatively small fraction of the gas that consequently undergoes significant heating and chemical enrichment. In particular, this mechanism has been proposed as a solution to the long-standing problem of the high abundance of CH+ along diffuse molecular sight lines, which steady-state, low temperature models under-produce by over an order of magnitude. While much work has been done on the structure and chemistry of these small-scale dissipation zones, comparatively little attention has been paid to relating these zones to the properties of the large-scale turbulence. In this paper, we attempt to bridge this gap by estimating the temperature and CH+ column density along diffuse molecular sight-lines by post-processing 3-dimensional...

  10. Molecular abundances in the inner layers of IRC +10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, M.; Fonfría, J. P.; Cernicharo, J.; Kahane, C.; Daniel, F.; Guélin, M.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The inner layers of circumstellar envelopes around asymptotic giant branch stars are sites where a variety of processes such as thermochemical equilibrium, shocks induced by the stellar pulsation, and condensation of dust grains determine the chemical composition of the material that is expelled into the outer envelope layers and, ultimately, into interstellar space. Aims: We aim at studying the abundances, throughout the whole circumstellar envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216, of several molecules formed in the inner layers in order to constrain the different processes at work in such regions. Methods: Observations towards IRC +10216 of CS, SiO, SiS, NaCl, KCl, AlCl, AlF, and NaCN have been carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope in the 80-357.5 GHz frequency range. A large number of rotational transitions covering a wide range of energy levels, including highly excited vibrational states, are detected in emission and serve to trace different regions of the envelope. Radiative transfer calculations based on the LVG formalism have been performed to derive molecular abundances from the innermost out to the outer layers. The excitation calculations include infrared pumping to excited vibrational states and inelastic collisions, for which up-to-date rate coefficients for rotational and, in some cases, ro-vibrational transitions are used. Results: We find that in the inner layers CS, SiO, and SiS have abundances relative to H2 of 4 × 10-6, 1.8 × 10-7, and 3 × 10-6, respectively, and that CS and SiS have significant lower abundances in the outer envelope, which implies that they actively contribute to the formation of dust. Moreover, in the inner layers, the amount of sulfur and silicon in gas phase molecules is only 27% for S and 5.6% for Si, implying that these elements have already condensed onto grains, most likely in the form of MgS and SiC. Metal-bearing molecules lock up a relatively small fraction of metals, although our results indicate that Na

  11. Prospecting for chemical tags among open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, David L

    2016-01-01

    Determinations of the chemical composition of red giants in a large sample of open clusters show that the abundances of the heavy elements La, Ce, Nd and Sm but not so obviously Y and Eu vary from one cluster to another across a sample all having about the solar metallicity. For La, Ce, Nd and Sm the amplitudes of the variations at solar metallicity scale approximately with the main s-process contribution to solar system material. Consideration of published abundances of field stars suggest that such a spread in heavy element abundances is present for the thin and thick disk stars of different metallicity. This new result provides an opportunity to chemically tag stars by their heavy elements and to reconstruct dissolved open clusters from the field star population.

  12. Chemical complexity in galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Pintado, Jesus

    2007-12-01

    In recent years our knowledge of the chemical complexity in the nuclei of galaxies has dramatically changed. Recent observations of the nucleus of the Milky Way, of the starburst galaxy NGC253 and of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp220 have shown large abundance of complex organic molecules believed to be formed on grains. The Galactic center appears to be the largest repository of complex organic molecule like aldehydes and alcohols in the galaxy. We also measure large abundance of methanol in starburst galaxies and in ULIRGs suggesting that complex organic molecules are also efficiently produced in the central region of galaxies with strong star formation activity. From the systematic observational studies of molecular abundance in regions dominated by different heating processes like shocks, UV radiation, X-rays and cosmic rays in the center of the Milky Way, we are opening the possibility of using chemistry as a diagnostic tool to study the highly obscured regions of galactic centers. The templates found in the nucleus of the Milky Way will be used to establish the main mechanisms driving the heating and the chemistry of the molecular clouds in galaxies with different type of activity. The role of grain chemistry in the chemical complexity observed in the center of galaxies will be also briefly discussed.

  13. Impact of climate variation on mosquito abundance in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, William K; Cayan, Daniel; Tyree, Mary; Barker, Christopher M; Eldridge, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Temporal variation in the abundance of the encephalitis virus vector mosquito, Culex tarsalis Coquillet, was linked significantly with coincident and antecedent measures of regional climate, including temperature, precipitation, snow pack, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation anomaly. Although variable among traps, historical records that spanned two to five decades revealed climate influences on spring and summer mosquito abundance as early as the previous fall through early summer. Correlations between winter and spring precipitation and snow pack and spring Cx. tarsalis abundance were stronger than correlations with summer abundance. Spring abundance was also correlated positively with winter and spring temperature, whereas summer abundance correlated negatively with spring temperature and not significantly with summer temperature. Correlations with antecedent climate provide the opportunity to forecast vector abundance and therefore encephalitis virus risk, a capability useful in intervention decision support systems at local and state levels.

  14. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihama, Y.; Schmidt, T.; Rappsilber, J.

    2008-01-01

    PAI approach which takes into account the number of sequenced peptides per protein. The values of abundance are within a broad range and accurately reflect independently measured copy numbers per cell. As expected, the most abundant proteins were those involved in protein synthesis, most notably ribosomal...... sample. Using a combination of LC-MS/MS approaches with protein and peptide fractionation steps we identified 1103 proteins from the cytosolic fraction of the Escherichia coli strain MC4100. A measure of abundance is presented for each of the identified proteins, based on the recently developed em...... protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion: Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work represent the most complete study of protein abundance in a bacterial cell so far. We show significant associations between the abundance of a protein and its...

  15. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Main, K.M.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid dis...

  16. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fauteux

    Full Text Available There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing <1 to 37% of total bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively. AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC, whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla. As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex.

  17. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Lisa; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L; Borrego, Carles M; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively). AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla). As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex.

  18. New Atomic Data for Trans-Iron Elements and Their Application to Abundance Determinations in Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Esteves, D A; Bilodeau, R C; Kilcoyne, A L D; Red, E C; Phaneuf, R A; Alna'Washi, G; Aguilar, A

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] Investigations of neutron(n)-capture element nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution have largely been based on stellar spectroscopy. However, the recent detection of these elements in several planetary nebulae (PNe) indicates that nebular spectroscopy is a promising new tool for such studies. In PNe, n-capture element abundance determinations reveal details of s-process nucleosynthesis and convective mixing in evolved low-mass stars, as well as the chemical evolution of elements that cannot be detected in stellar spectra. Only one or two ions of a given trans-iron element can typically be detected in individual nebulae. Elemental abundance determinations thus require corrections for the abundances of unobserved ions. Such corrections rely on the availability of atomic data for processes that control the ionization equilibrium of nebulae. Until recently, these data were unknown for virtually all n-capture element ions. For the first five ions of Se, Kr, and Xe -- the three most widely detected n-cap...

  19. Equilibrium and Sudden Events in Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, David H; Freudenburg, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    We present new analytic solutions for one-zone (fully mixed) chemical evolution models and explore their implications. In contrast to existing analytic models, we incorporate a realistic delay time distribution for Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and can therefore track the separate evolution of $\\alpha$-elements produced by core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and iron peak elements synthesized in both CCSNe and SNIa. In generic cases, $\\alpha$ and iron abundances evolve to an equilibrium at which element production is balanced by metal consumption and gas dilution, instead of continuing to increase over time. The equilibrium absolute abundances depend principally on supernova yields and the outflow mass loading parameter $\\eta$, while the equilibrium abundance ratio [$\\alpha$/Fe] depends mainly on yields and secondarily on star formation history. A stellar population can be metal-poor either because it has not yet evolved to equilibrium or because high outflow efficiency makes the equilibrium abundance itself low. Sy...

  20. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…