Syed Serajul Islam
Full Text Available Abstract: This study analyses the prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib in the light of Islamic and International laws. Using documentary sources, the paper argues that Islamic law is far superior than the International law as enshrined in the Geneva Conventions and the United Nations Charter on the treatment of prisoners of war. It found the abuse of the prisoners at Abu Ghraib a routine operation carried out in obedience to orders issued by the higher authorities. The photographs portraying images of dehumanization in Abu Ghraib is unacceptable either in Islamic or international law.
Gibbons, Patrick M
.... Specifically, the handling and treatment of prisoners within the Abu Ghraib facility from October 2003-January 2004 provided bizarre visions of sadistic abuse at the hands of U.S. military personnel...
reserved for the mentally ill, women and children, disciplinary problems, and those being held for interrogation. The abuses that were prosecuted...trumpeted by support- ers of the perpetrators at Abu Ghraib as vindication of this narrative.17 Calls for presidential pardons for some of the soldiers...the administration may have blinded some to the fact that the Abu Ghraib prosecutions were simply not the right test case to expose the pernicious
.... Allegations of physical and emotional abuses by U.S. military personnel against Iraqi detainees in the Abu Ghraib prison shocked the world and led to calls for investigations, punishments, resignations, and war policy adjustments...
Smeulers, A.L.; Niekerk, S.
The pictures of the inhuman and abusive treatment of Iraqi prisoners at the Abu Ghraib prison shocked the world. The authors of this contribution will take a criminological approach to the crimes committed and will show-by using an analytical framework used by organizational criminologists-that the
Rowling, C.M.; Jones, T.M.; Sheets, P.
This study draws upon research on "indexing" and "cascading activation" to explore U.S. political and news discourse surrounding the Abu Ghraib prison scandal. Specifically, we systematically analyze White House, military, congressional, and news messages. In so doing, we incorporate scholarship on
Sturgeon, Elizabeth M.
Abu Ghraib. The name conjures horrifying images of abuse, torture, and man's inhumanity to man. In one photograph, a pyramid of naked detainees huddles outside a jail cell; in another, a soldier holds the end of a dog leash which is attached at the neck to a prostrate prisoner; in another, a soldier gives the thumbs-up sign in front of a line of…
Full Text Available A clumsy pyramid of kneeling men, naked apart from the hoods over their heads, with a smiling, fair-headed woman and a grinning man with a moustache, wearing green cleaning gloves; a slight woman with a blank expression and a man on the floor, on a limp leash; a hooded, robed figure, standing on a box with his arms outstretched and a pose similar to the crucifixion, with sinister wires behind him, and otherwise blank surroundings. A row of more hooded, naked men, forced to do sexual acts as a female prison guard (Lynndie England, tanned and wearing various shades of khaki, grins and does a thumbs up sign, pointing at him, her cigarette tilted and her expression not altogether different from Bonnie in 'Bonnie and Clyde. 'A man in uniform and a black beanie hat, sitting on an Iraqi prisoner. Another pyramid of naked detainees, with a man and women behind them, smiling arm in arm, as if they are standing by a caught wild boar or large fish, or a well-organised barbeque. The moustached man (Charles Graner, again smiling and giving a thumbs up sign, this time over a corpse, whose bloody eyes have been bandaged. A naked prisoner covering his ears, as several dogs bark at him, and soldiers watch on. Another prisoner chained to a bed-frame, with some underpants covering his face. These infamous scenes, shown in the Abu Ghraib photographs, shocked many people, and the perpetrators of the torture depicted were condemned by the relevant authorities. They transformed from clandestine mementos of hidden violence to records of an international scandal and evidence of serious crime. Their meaning changed depending on who saw them, how they were interpreted, what reactions they provoked, and the rulings of the courts regarding the people involved. They went from being private victory shots, to an international public relations disaster, to evidence of breaking of the Geneva Convention.
Henry A. Giroux
Full Text Available How might education be used to question the common sense of the war on terrorism or to rouse citizens to challenge the social, political, and cultural conditions that led to the horrible events of Abu Ghraib? Just as crucially, we must ponder the limits of education. Is there a point where extreme conditions shortcircuit our moral instincts and ability to think and act rationally? If this is the case, what responsibility do we have to challenge the reckless violence-as-fi rst-resort ethos of the Bush administration? Such questions extend beyond the events of Abu Ghraib, but, at the same time, Abu Ghraib provides an opportunity to connect the sadistic treatment of Iraqi prisoners to the task of redefi ning pedagogy as an ethical practice, the sites in which pedagogy takes place, and the consequences of pedagogy to rethinking the meaning of politics in the twenty-fi rst century. In order to confront the pedagogical and political challenges arising from the reality of Abu Ghraib, I want to revisit a classic essay by Theodor Adorno in which he tries to grapple with the relationship between education and morality in light of the horrors of Auschwitz. Keywords: Education. Adorno. Auschwitz. Abu Ghraib. Como pode a educação ser usada para questionar o senso comum da guerra ao terrorismo ou para insuflar os cidadãos a desafi ar as condições sociais, políticas e culturais que conduziram aos eventos horríveis de abusos contra prisioneiros iraquianos na prisão americana de Abu Ghraib? Só assim, de modo crucial, podemos ponderar os limites da educação. Até que ponto as condições extremas causam curto-circuito em nossos instintos morais e em nossa capacidade de pensar e agir racionalmente? Se for esse o caso, qual nossa responsabilidade em desafi ar o etos imprudente da “violência como primeiro recurso” da administração de Bush? Tais questões estendem-se além dos eventos de Abu Ghraib, mas, ao mesmo tempo, Abu Ghraib fornece uma
Full Text Available This paper deals with the scandal of Abu Ghraib. The diffusion of the torture photographs is analyzed as a peculiar form of mediatized ritual, which has cristallized them in the public memory and performatively activated a number of practices of creative re-contextualization and symbolic re-articulation. In particular, the paper problematizes a wide range of forms of artistic representations of the torture photographs, according to three main analytical dimensions: inter-iconic translation, authorial intentions, degree of institutionalization.
Mestrovic, Stjepan G; Romero, Rachel
The authors draw upon the experiences of one of the co-authors as an expert witness in sociology for mitigation at three of the courts-martial pertaining to the abuse at Abu Ghraib that were held at Ft. Hood, Texas in the year 2005 (for Javal Davis, Sabrina Harman, and Lynndie England). In addition, this paper is based upon the thousands of pages of affidavits, testimony, and U.S. Government reports concerning Abu Ghraib. These internal government reports, as well as the Levin-McCain report, point to collective responsibility and the responsibility of individuals high in the chain of command for establishing unlawful techniques. We review the shortcomings of a purely psychological approach for understanding the abuse, and turn to Durkheim's original understanding of anomie as a state of social derangement or rule by lack of rule to introduce the ideas of the social origins of and social responsibility for the abuse. We conclude with sociological suggestions for reforming some of the legal, medical, psychiatric, and other professional complicity in the abuse at Abu Ghraib. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In his discussion of Dante’s Inferno, Edward Said writes that “Maometto” or Mohammed occupies the eighth circle in the nine circles of Hell, belonging to “a rigid hierarchy of evils.” According to Said, “Maometto” is “endlessly being cleft in two from his chin to his anus,” a punishment in Dante’s belief is well deserved because of Maometto’s sensuality and “pretensions to theological eminence.” Such graphic description of torment evokes scenes of torture we have of late witnessed in Abu Ghreib and Guantanamo. Prisoners, not only, were subjected to physical abuse but were also subjected to acts of sexual perversion as was revealed by the photos. Furthermore, the latter showed those who partook in these actions seemed to be enjoying the power that the exercise of torture gave them. Robert J.C. Young states that Colonialism “was not only a machine of war … but also a desiring machine.” This poses the question as to whether torture does allow for the enactment of repressed desire by allowing it to surface by providing it with a venue in which it becomes acceptable. Moreover, does Colonialism in its previous or in its current form, only sustain itself fundamentally through constant violence, of which perversion is a vital component as these practices are playing into the repertoire of the evil East, or is the perversion an extension of a suppressed Oedipus complex?
tops or surround raised above ground level to prevent ground water entering into the sewer. 8 may eliminate harmful pathogens ; however, some level...bolts. The concrete-coated bolts require cleaning, and if the underlying threads are damaged, they may require re- threading to accept a nut to
among prisoners. The reeducation program had broader goals, albeit contested. Some, arguing that “ global warfare requires global thinking,” wanted...8 Reeducation Programs...quences for U.S. military and diplomatic efforts. The Abu Ghraib scan- dal put the United States in a defensive posture , causing the focus of its
Agra Romeo, María Xosé
Assuming that gender relationships are essential to any analysis of terrorism and political violence, I shall examine how the sex-gender stereotypes work, as well as their transgressions. The female military protagonists in the Abu Ghraib media scandal and the women prisoners of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the dirty protest in Armagh (1980) are used as a framework in which issues of visibility/invisibility, independence/ dependence, invulnerability/ vulnerability of women will be a...
volunteer’s participation ultimately benefits this ideology.121 116 This is known as the Lucifer Effect ...i.e., the metamorphosis of God’s favorite angel, Lucifer , into Satan, captured by psychologist Zimbardo in his book The Lucifer Effect ...Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. Zimbardo’s reference to the Lucifer Effect , which is analogous to his model of how ordinary people do “evil” things, is
Carnahan, Thomas; McFarland, Sam
The authors investigated whether students who selectively volunteer for a study of prison life possess dispositions associated with behaving abusively. Students were recruited for a psychological study of prison life using a virtually identical newspaper ad as used in the Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE; Haney, Banks & Zimbardo, 1973) or for a psychological study, an identical ad minus the words of prison life. Volunteers for the prison study scored significantly higher on measures of the abuse-related dispositions of aggressiveness, authoritarianism, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and social dominance and lower on empathy and altruism, two qualities inversely related to aggressive abuse. Although implications for the SPE remain a matter of conjecture, an interpretation in terms of person-situation interactionism rather than a strict situationist account is indicated by these findings. Implications for interpreting the abusiveness of American military guards at Abu Ghraib Prison also are discussed.
Appendix 2, Interrogation Techniques; Annex E, Appendix 4, CID Report) (18) (S//REL TO USA and MCFI) (6) (U) Other Regulatory Procedural Guidance (a) (U...Appendix 1, Electrical Message, DTG: 181854Z Aug 03, FM JOINT STAFF WASHINGTON DC // J3). The team was directed to assist with advice on facilities and...October 2003, DETAINEE-03, was allegedly stripped and physically abused for sharpening a toothbrush to make a shank (knife-like weapon). SECRET//NOFORN
PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Colonel Steve Donaldson Peace ...operations. Endnotes 1 Catharine MacKinnon, ― Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law,‖ 1987, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Abu Rafay. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 81-87 General Article. Cancer on the Cross-Wires - A Possible Scheme for Cancer Cure · Raghava Sharma Mohd Fahad Ullah Abu Rafay.
Elsea, Jennifer K
Allegations of abuse of Iraqi prisoners by U.S. soldiers at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq have raised questions about the applicability of the law of war to interrogations for military intelligence purposes...
Full Text Available In the wake of September 11, 2001, much has been written about religious groups commonly called ‘terrorist’, building on an older literature whose equally tendentious buzzwords were ‘cult’ and ‘fundamentalism’. In general, the conclusions advanced within such works tilt sometimes in the direction of alarm, and sometimes in that of reassurance. The amount of academic attention devoted to a given threat ought reflect its seriousness, based on calculations of the likelihood that threat will be realized and the destruction it can unleash. Among the most dangerous of situations is that in which an extremely powerful state bent on conquest finds and deploys religious arguments that encourage its aggressive tendencies and imperial ambitions. Believing that it may be useful to consider data sufficiently removed from the present to afford some critical distance, I have devoted much of my research in recent years to the role played by religion in Achaemenid Persia (550–330 bce, the largest, wealthiest, most powerful empire of antiquity before the emergence of Rome. As a convenient summary of that research, I propose to discuss two Achaemenian data, each of which can assume emblematic status. Only after that exercise will I return to contemporary materials and issues.
Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Mohammed Abu-Bajeh. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 114 Issue 6 December 2002 pp 675-686. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen atoms after UV laser excitation of SO2 at 222.4 nm · Mohammed Abu-Bajeh Melanie ...
This article introduces international icons to the field of International Relations. International icons are freestanding images that are widely circulated, recognised, and emotionally responded to. International icons come in the form of foreign policy icons familiar to a specific domestic...... of the hooded prisoner widely claimed to be emblematic of the Abu Ghraib prison scandal....
Nisted, Nina; Myssen, Martin; Falk, Nicklas; Zmylon, Nanna Nielsen; Pedersen, Aryono Daniel Ingemann
This project wishes to explain why people perform acts which would normally go against their own morals. The project will examine the “Bad Barrel” theory by Dr. Philip Zimbardo in relation to the Abu Ghraib Prison scandal. The theory will be extracted from Dr. Zimbardo’s own book called “The Lucifer Effect” and there will be an account of the 6 days of the “Stanford Prison Experiment”, on which the theory is based. To relate it to Abu Ghraib and the abuses, there will be a profile of the most...
Full Text Available Abu Hamza is serving a life sentence in an American prison, having been convicted of terrorist offences in 2014. He was previously imprisoned in the United Kingdom. Two central questions arise from his case; whether the UK and US acted lawfully under international law in applying their criminal law against Hamza, and whether that application of law was appropriate. The answers to these questions are that Hamza’s subjection to legal process was of dubious legality and not completely proper. The links between the UK and the US and Hamza, be they territory, nationality or otherwise, were in some instances insufficient per se and lacking relative to third states. His case is a story of justice imperfectly done. Keywords: Legality; Proper Law; Extraterritorial Jurisdiction; Extradition; Abu Hamza
The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of ...
This podcast discusses 'prison health' and explains the reason why the health of the prison population is far poorer than the general population. The podcast explains how importation and deprivation theories potentially explain these health inequalities.
In this article, the author examines another dimension of human rights--the problem of torture. He looks at U.S. commitments to international conventions prohibiting torture in light of the abuses at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. He shows how a position adopted by the Bush administration that these international conventions did not apply to the war…
Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.
Kjær Minke, Linda
It is well documented that imprisonment implies socialization to prison culture. This particular kind of socialization to prison culture is defined as prisonization. This article shed lights on how this process of prisonization occur and in which way does it affect the prisoner and if anything...... could be done to avoid prisonization....
Department of Homeland Security — The prisons polygon dataset is composed of selected facilities that fall under the following NAICS descriptions* Jails (Except Private Operation of) * Correctional...
"What is prison architecture and how can it be studied? How are concepts such as humanism, dignity and solidarity translated into prison architecture? What kind of ideologies and ideas are expressed in various prison buildings from different eras and locations? What is the outside and the inside of a prison, and what is the significance of movement within the prison space? What does a lunch table have to do with prison architecture? How do prisoners experience materiality in serving a prison ...
infection in Chichiri Prison, Blantyre. Introduction. It is believed that about a third of the people living in developing countries is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.1 Important factors that facilitate the spread and development of active tuberculosis include poverty, overcrowding, poor healthcare facilities and co- ...
Vogel, Brenda; And Others
Issues related to prison libraries are discussed in six articles. Topics covered include the history of American penitentiary ideology; standards for prison libraries; the controversy as to whether prison libraries should serve prisoners or be used as penological tools; and the lack of knowledge about prison libraries within the general library…
opponents were the stringent militants in the Khaldan camp and its Institute of the Faith Brigades (Ma`had Kata`ib al-Iman), where the virulent ...local fighter remembered that al-Libi used to live together with Hamza al- Rabi `a, the former head of al-Qa`ida’s external operations, and Abu Khabbab
Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze
Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...
Hacin, Rok; Meško, Gorazd
The purpose of this article is to explore prisoners' perception of legitimacy of prison staff and examine the compliance of prisoners with the authority of prison staff to highlight the differences between instrumental and normative compliance of prisoners. This study draws on data collected from a random sample of 193 prisoners in all Slovene prisons. Using a qualitative approach based on structured interviews, our findings suggest that distributive justice, procedural justice, the quality of relations with prison staff, and the effectiveness of prison staff influence prisoners' perception of legitimacy in a prison environment. Several prisoners comply with prison rules because they fear sanctions, which indicates their instrumental compliance, while normative compliance was reported by prisoners who perceived the legitimacy of prison staff in a more positive manner. Overall findings indicate that both instrumental and normative compliance of prisoners can be observed in Slovene prisons.
Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.
Dixey, Rachael; Woodall, James
This paper aims to discuss some of the obstacles to implementing policy and strategy related to health promoting prisons. It focuses on the role of prison officers and raises issues concerning their conditions of service, training and organisational culture in a situation where the prison system faces security issues, overcrowding and high levels of ill health among prisoners. This paper emerged as a result of significant overlapping themes between two separate studies conducted by the authors. The paper draws on the authors' qualitative data from these studies. The findings demonstrate the ambiguities and tensions in changing organisational cultures and among prison staff. Alongside the qualitative data, the paper draws on theory regarding policy implementation at the micro-level to show how staff can block or speed up that implementation. Prison officers are an essential part of health promoting prisons, but have been relatively ignored in the discussion of how to create healthier prisons. The contribution that prison staff make to creating health promoting prisons has been under-explored, yet pertinent theory can show how they can be more effectively involved in making changes in organisational culture.
Johnsen, Berit; Granheim, Per Kristian; Helgesen, Janne
This paper discusses the quality of prison life and prison size in relation to the notion of ‘Scandinavian exceptionalism’. Using the questionnaires ‘Measuring the Quality of Prison Life’ (MQPL) for prisoners and ‘Staff Measuring the Quality of Prison Life’ (SQL) for staff, data were collected from all 32 closed prisons in Norway. Based on the assumption that prison officers’ working lives, their perspectives and their values influence prisoners’ quality of life, the main focus in the paper i...
Larkin, E P
The prevalence of mental disorder amongst prisoners refusing food was studied by examining the prison records of a remand prison and a dispersal prison. Food refusal occurred predominantly in the remand prison. Less than one per cent of the annual remand population engaged in this behaviour. The results indicate that prisoners refusing food do so as a form of protest and that the prevalence of mental disorder among such prisoners is high. The majority respond to observation and counselling. Important indicators of psychosis are: (i) the inability of the prisoner to divulge reasons for his behaviour; and (ii) the refusal by the prisoner of both food and fluids. In such cases transfer to hospital for treatment may be urgently required.
Beijersbergen, K. A.; Dirkzwager, A. J. E.; van der Laan, P. H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.
Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners' well-being. Research on factors influencing staff-prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association
El Amrousi Mohamed
Full Text Available Abu Dhabi is in the process of urbanizing a group of Islands that surround its northern and eastern coastlines. Al-Lulu, Al-Saadiyat, Al- Maryah, Al-Reem and Yas Islands are all new urban enclaves that were desert islands and marshlands yet, have been developed over the past decade to urban islands that include epic and entertainment centres such as the Abu Dhabi Louvre, Guggenheim Museum, Ferrari World, NYU Abu Dhabi, the Paris Sorbonne Abu Dhabi in addition to iconic and exclusive waterfront residential units. These new islands re-brand the image of the main archipelago of Abu Dhabi that for decades retained a grid street pattern and pragmatic concrete blocks created in the late 1970s. The new urban islands transform Abu Dhabi’s image into a multinational modern Arab city seeking to become part of the global city network. Abu Dhabi’s new urban islands also act as breakwaters that protect the main archipelago’s coastline from erosion resulting from tidal change, because they are designed to include concrete and stone breakwater barriers. This paper represents a cross-disciplinary research between Civil Engineering and Architecture Departments in an attempt to explore the emerging infrastructure and urban expansion of Abu Dhabi from a multi-disciplinary perspective. We also highlight through simulating the effect of breakwaters on wave heights two scenarios for Al-Lulu Island the importance of these new barrier Islands on the urban expansion of Abu Dhabi.
Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente
Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In...
Shaw, David M; Elger, Bernice S
For a wider project on aging in prison, the authors interviewed 35 older prisoners and 24 stakeholders (prison staff, prison healthcare professionals, and policy makers) about healthcare for prisoners. In all, 6 prisoners and 3 stakeholders spontaneously expressed their attitudes concerning assisted suicide. Some prisoners seek assisted suicide for medical reasons and others because they regard spending the rest of their lives in prison as undignified. However, stakeholders identified several ethical and practical challenges in providing assisted suicide to prisoners. This article presents these perspectives on assisted suicide in prison and provides an ethical analysis of the issues raised.
Teh, Yik Koon
This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…
Fovet, T; Geoffroy, P A; Vaiva, G; Adins, C; Thomas, P; Amad, A
The high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in prison and the aging of inmates should lead to the consideration of gerontopsychiatry in the prison environment. This review aims to emphasize the clinical characteristics and associated comorbidities of elderly prisoners with psychiatric disorders. We examined the international literature in September 2013 and performed the literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following Mesh headings: "prisons", "prisoners", "geriatric psychiatry", "geriatric assessment", "geriatric nursing". Fourteen studies were retained by the literature search strategy and were included in the qualitative analysis. More than one out of two elderly prisoners (>60 year-old) suffer from a psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the first psychiatric disorder diagnosed among elderly prisoners, affecting 30 to 50% of them. Personality disorders are also very common demonstrating a prevalence of about 30%. Psychotic disorders concern 5% of the elderly prisoners and thus largely exceed the prevalence in the general population. Furthermore, stress events are frequent in prison and might precipitate or worsen psychiatric disorders. This review highlights the difficulties and complexities of care plans and management for the elderly in prison. The situation of elderly prisoners with psychiatric disorders is extremely worrying. In addition, both the aging of the population and the lengthening of incarcerations increase the number of elderly prisoners, widely exposed to psychiatric disorders, and thus will probably worsen these issues in the future. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Beijersbergen, Karin A.; Dirkzwager, Anja J.E.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners’ well-being. Research on factors influencing staff–prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association
This paper unravels the presence of humour in prison as an institutionalized aspect of prison life. The analysis shows how officers use humour to manage their relationships with prisoners and other staff, and how they make use of humour to establish a collective understanding of the officer job......, crafting themselves as a group. The humorous exchanges between officers, prisoners and other staff facilitate social spaces where officers briefly meet prisoners as equals, and where staff articulate hostility towards one another. These social spaces exist as briefly as the humorous exchanges......, but the implications are real. The officer–prisoner joking relationship fosters conflict avoidance, smooth daily interactions, service provision for prisoners and transgression of officer norms for camaraderie. In contrast, the staff–staff joking relationship grants officers a sense of power vis-à-vis other staff...
Full Text Available Ikan tongkol abu-abu (Thunnus tonggol merupakan salah satu jenis ikan pelagis yang bersifat oseanodromous, bernilai ekonomis tinggi dan hidup pada perairan neritik. Sampai saat ini belum banyak diperoleh hasil penelitian ikan tongkol abu-abu di Selat Malaka, khususnya di Perairan Langsa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aspek biologi dan parameter populasi tongkol abu-abu di perairan Langsa. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada bulan Maret-September 2014. Analisis parameter populasi menggunakan program FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT. Hasil penelitian parameter biologi ikan tongkol abu-abu di perairan Langsa menunjukkan analisis hubungan panjang-beratnya diperoleh pola pertumbuhan yang bersifat alometrik negatif dengan nilai b = 2,710. Nisbah kelamin jantan terhadap betina sebagai 1,18 :1,0. Dengan uji Chi-square diperoleh rasio tersebut dalam kondisi seimbang. Musim pemijahan ikan betina berlangsung antara bulan Mei-Juni. Pengamatan isi lambung dengan metode index of preponderan diperoleh makanan utama ikan tongkol adalah ikan teri (Stolephorus spp., diikuti oleh potongan ikan campur dan potongan udang. Panjang pertama kali ikan tongkol yang tertangkap dengan pukat cincin lebih besar dari panjang pertama kali matang gonada (Lc=40,34 cm,FL; > Lm=38,9 cmFL. Analisis parameter populasi ikan tongkol abu-abu diperoleh panjang asimtotik (L sebesar 55,65cmFL, laju pertumbuhan (K sebesar 1,5/tahun. Laju kematian total (Z sebesar 4,06/tahun, kematian alami (M sebesar 1,99/tahun dan kematian karena penangkapan (F sebesar 2,07/per tahun. Laju eksploitasi (E pada saat ini sebesar 0,51 atau berada dalam tingkat optimal.
This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.
Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente
Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.
Al Zaabi, Ashraf; Asad, Faisal; Abdou, Jassem; Al Musaabi, Hussain; Al Saiari, Mohammad Badar; Buhussien, Ali Saeed Mohammed; Nagelkerke, Nikolaas; Soriano, Joan B
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of individuals 40-80 years old in Abu Dhabi, with a particular interest to explore local risk factors other than cigarette smoking. Airflow limitation compatible with COPD was defined as a post-bronchodilator ratio FEV(1)/FVC Abu Dhabi was 3.7%, and associations with cigarette smoking or with other local inhaled exposures were not observed. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper examines the history and current framework of prison food law. Whereas food law generally is the result of a complex maze of national, state, and local statutory and regulatory law, prison food is primarily regulated by the courts through adjudication of the Eighth Amendment prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment. This discrepancy is explained by the very different political realities faced by prison reform. At the same time, the result is both ineffective and counterproductiv...
Aujard, Ségolène; de Brisoult, Béatrice; Broussard, Daniel; Petitclerc-Roche, Solenne; Lefort, Hugues
In France, nurses practising in the prison environment work in a health care unit, for somatic care, or in a regional medical-psychological unit for large facilities and psychological care. These units belong to the regional hospitals. Located at the heart of the prison, they cater for prisoner-patients. On the frontline, the nurse has specific autonomy and responsibility in this unique context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Knudsen, Hanne; Mathiassen, Charlotte
In the paper we analyze a learning and culture development project in Danish prisons. The ambition of the project is to create change in a complex world. The prison officers are invited to make experiments in order to create a more ‘human’ prison. We see the project as an intervention...... in the professionalism of the officers with the implicit goal of making them responsible for the continuous questioning of their own role and the prison as an organization. The course continually opens and postpones a fixed picture of the organization. We discuss whether this course is an extreme example of general...
Ayirolimeethal, Anithakumari; Ragesh, G.; Ramanujam, Jayanthi M.; George, Biju
Background: There is a considerable lack of scientific estimate of psychiatric morbidity among Indian prisoners. Objective: The objective of the following study is to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among prisoners. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study at District Jail, Kozhikode, Kerala. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 prisoners who were inmates during the period from mid-April to mid-July 2011 participated in the study. The study subjects included both male and female remand or convict prisoners. Socio-demographic data, clinical history and criminological history were collected from each individual. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using MINI-Plus. Statistical Analysis: Done by using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). Results: A total of 175 subjects (68.6%) had a current mental illness. Substance use disorder was the most common diagnosis (47.1%). Antisocial personality disorder was diagnosed in 19.2%, adjustment disorder in 13.7%, mood disorder in 4.3% and psychosis in another 6.3% of prisoners. A high rate of a current psychiatric disorder was seen in male (69.7%) prisoners. A significant association was noticed for the different nature of crimes with psychiatric diagnoses and previous imprisonment. Nearly 4% of prisoners reported a moderate to high suicide risk. Conclusion: Mental health problems among prisoners were quite high. Mentally ill prisoners are at high risk for repeated incarceration. The increased rate of psychiatric disorders should be a concern for mental health professionals and the policy makers. PMID:24891702
Full Text Available In the history of interpretation of the Qur’an we find that the study ofQur’anic interpretation started from the time of the Messenger of Allah untilthe present time. From the period in which the commentary is learned andstudied through the riwayat (narration and talqin (indoctrination from a teacherto his student until the time when every person ‘feel’ to have the authority tointerpret the verses of the Qur’an. The study of Qur’anic intepretation hasundergone the tremendous growth in the fourth phase of the compilationperiod (tadwin. That was the phase in which the interpretation of the Qur’anwass controlled by the interpretation based on reason and the opinion of theinterpreter (mufassir; interpretations coloured by various sects and schools ofthought. The development of this kind of interpretation, although believed tobe a logical consequence of the development history of science, but then notnecessarily be accepted by the ulamas and received positive appreciation of them.Like Muhammad Husein adh Dhahabi, Muhammad Abu Zahrah, and so forth.For Imam Muhammad Abu Zahrah (1898-1974/1315-1394 theinterpretation of the Quran which is based on a variety of goals and interestsas well as a variety of comprehension and thinking like that, in fact was oftenaway from the substance of Al-Quran; obscure its miracle power, destroyingthe real meaning and even provide commentary on the sometimes contradictorywith the fundamentals of Islamic teaching. This is awakening his awareness andencourage him to try to straighten out and provide an alternative of moreactual interpretation. So he finally wrote a book of tafsir named “Zahratu alTafasir”. This interpretation is different from the books of the previous tafsirbooks. At least, he did not want to simply follow the tradition (taqlid, themethod or the way used by previous mufassir.
Full Text Available The ancient oasis-city of Al Ain in Abu Dhabi Emirate still retains the most important and outstanding cultural heritage of United Arab Emirates (UAE. The larger area of Abu Dhabi Emirate comprised of archaeological sites, cultural landscapes and historic buildings dating back to 3rd millennium to the recent pre-oil era. Traditional materials like stone, earth and palm wood were used in combination with local construction methods. For the last seven years the newly formed Abu Dhabi Tourism & Culture Authority (TCA Abu Dhabi1 has been actively involved in conservation of built heritage in Abu Dhabi Emirate with the help of its Conservation Section. Documentation prior to any conservation and restoration works is considered as a basic pre-requisite for understanding an historic building or site. It is a process which continues during the conservation of any monument and is the only accurate tool for recording information in order to understand the structure, ultimately leading to the management of cultural heritage. Application and use of tools, ranging from basic manual techniques to 3D laser scanning, based on the best practices and international guidelines the exercise will help in establishing a documentation lab with standard procedures, specifications and tools for the documentation and monitoring the built heritage of Abu Dhabi Emirate. This paper will discuss a range of case studies and will demonstrate how documentation and monitoring of the built heritage has augmented the various conservation initiatives on a variety of building types.
The ancient oasis-city of Al Ain in Abu Dhabi Emirate still retains the most important and outstanding cultural heritage of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The larger area of Abu Dhabi Emirate comprised of archaeological sites, cultural landscapes and historic buildings dating back to 3rd millennium to the recent pre-oil era. Traditional materials like stone, earth and palm wood were used in combination with local construction methods. For the last seven years the newly formed Abu Dhabi Tourism & Culture Authority (TCA Abu Dhabi)1 has been actively involved in conservation of built heritage in Abu Dhabi Emirate with the help of its Conservation Section. Documentation prior to any conservation and restoration works is considered as a basic pre-requisite for understanding an historic building or site. It is a process which continues during the conservation of any monument and is the only accurate tool for recording information in order to understand the structure, ultimately leading to the management of cultural heritage. Application and use of tools, ranging from basic manual techniques to 3D laser scanning, based on the best practices and international guidelines the exercise will help in establishing a documentation lab with standard procedures, specifications and tools for the documentation and monitoring the built heritage of Abu Dhabi Emirate. This paper will discuss a range of case studies and will demonstrate how documentation and monitoring of the built heritage has augmented the various conservation initiatives on a variety of building types.
Hamidi, Samer; Akinci, Fevzi
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current health care payment reforms in Abu Dhabi and discuss the potential impact of these reforms on health care consumers and providers as we all as long-term sustainability of the mandatory health care insurance system. A focused literature review was conducted to systematically identify and summarize relevant literature published on the recent payments reforms in Abu Dhabi along with a secondary review and analysis of existing related government documents, technical reports, and press releases by the Health Authority-Abu Dhabi (HAAD) and other relevant research groups. The implementation of the mandatory health insurance system allowed all UAE nationals and foreign workings in Abu Dhabi to have access to medical care insurance and access to care. Prospective payment reforms represent critical sustainability interventions for health care funding in Abu Dhabi. The full impact of payment reforms on affordability, system efficiency, and patient outcomes is yet to be documented. Given the Government of Abu Dhabi has identified the sustainability of healthcare funding as a key governmental policy, more research is needed to systematically examine the impact of the current payment reforms on multiple stakeholders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Earl Smith; Angela Hattery
Incarceration has become a multi-billion dollar industry that relies on more than 2 million citizens on any give day in the United States. African American males, who in the 1970s were only 9% of the prison population, after harsher sentencing largely fueled by the drug trade, are now 62% of the prison population. This is viewed as a national tragedy.
Kjær Minke, Linda
Involuntary inter prison transfer are for most prisoners very intrusive. In Denmark official record shows in average 669 incidences of involuntary inter prison transfers for disciplinary reasons in the period 2006-2013. Involuntary transfers because of prison capacity are not registered statistic....... A rule in Danish administrative law states that prisoners can be involuntary transferred from one prison to the other without prior notice, statement of reasons or hearing. In a legal protective perspective it is problematic that prisoners can be transferred without apparent reasons....
Peer van der Helm PhD; P.H. van der Laan; G.J.J.M. Stams
The present study examines the construct validity and reliability of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) in a sample of 77 adolescents placed in a Dutch youth prison and 49 adult prisoners living in a Dutch psychiatric prison with a therapeutic living group structure. Confirmatory factor
Entorf, Horst; Sattarova, Liliya
The study investigates whether and how strong prison conditions contribute to the perceived propensity to recidivate after controlling for personal characteristics and criminal background. In order to combine different sources of information on personal characteristics of prison inmates and administrative prison data in an efficient way, we propose the use of matched prison-prisoner data and application of cluster-sample methods such as GEE (generalized estimating equations). Estimated averag...
Meijers, J.; Harte, J.M.; Jonker, F.A.; Meynen, G.
A better understanding of the functioning of the brain, particularly executive functions, of the prison population could aid in reducing crime rates through the reduction of recidivism rates. Indeed, reoffending appears to be related to executive dysfunction and it is known that executive functions
Catherine Patricia Byrne
Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.
J. W. Cosman
Full Text Available Most convicted criminals in prisons are youngish adults, under-educated and illiterate, but most are able and willing to learn. Yet educational programs in prison when and if they exist - are not and cannot be of good quality. Punishment is the infliction of suffering, and produces hatred and violence: education is the nurture of growth and fulfillment, the development of the human person. Thus, all that education can do in prisons is to develop some basic skills in prisoners, aimed at productive work. What are actually needed are real educational programmes. Therefore, it seems necessary to obey the higher order of » the inherent dignity and value of all me mbers of the human family.«
Social Security Administration — UPS is an internal SSA system used by the Office of Earnings Operations (OEO) to track and resolve unverified prisoner and deportee records in an effort to find a...
The mathematical wrks of Abu Kamil (floruit circa 880) were produced two generations after the works of Al-Khwarizmi, the founder of algebra. They opened up fields of research that proved fertile up until the seventeenth century, and were soon to become both a reference and a model. Their influence was decisive on the development of algebra in Arabic no less than in Latin and Hebrew. There will be found in the present publication the first rigorously critical edition of Abu Kamil s works, as well as the first ever translation into a modern language.Text and translation are preceded by an exhau
Meijers, Jesse; Harte, Joke M.; Jonker, Frank A.; Meynen, Gerben
A better understanding of the functioning of the brain, particularly executive functions, of the prison population could aid in reducing crime rates through the reduction of recidivism rates. Indeed, reoffending appears to be related to executive dysfunction and it is known that executive functions are crucial for self-regulation. In the current paper, studies to executive functions in regular adult prisoners compared to non-offender controls were reviewed. Seven studies were found. Specific executive functions were found to be impaired in the general prison population, i.e., attention and set-shifting, as well as in separate subgroups of violent (i.e., set-shifting and working memory) and non-violent offenders (i.e., inhibition, working memory and problem solving). We conclude that the limited number of studies is remarkable, considering the high impact of this population on society and elaborate on the implications of these specific impairments that were found. Further empirical research is suggested, measuring executive functioning within subjects over time for a group of detainees as well as a control group. PMID:25688221
De Viggiani, N.
This thesis explores the interconnections between masculinity, health and prison. It contests reductionist, individualist and biomedical approaches to health care management in prisons and challenges gender-blindness within criminology and social science where masculinities have been overlooked as key factors of prison culture and organisation. The research set out to explore how masculinities manifest at institutional, social and cultural levels in prison as key determinants of health.\\ud \\u...
In the mid-19th century, Norwegian public services were expanded, among them asylums and prisons. The physician Frederik Holst (1791-1871) was instrumental in the development of both fields. He travelled extensively abroad studying public institutions and had considerable influence on the planning of a new modern penitentiary in Oslo, Botsfengselet, which opened in 1851. The article is based on Holst's printed lectures and reports. Holst was obviously influenced by the Enlightenment ideas of the 18th century and the contemporary international debate on prisons. He promoted panoptic asylums and prisons with good hygienic standards and the necessary degree of confinement. In the case of asylums, the panoptic principles were discarded before they were implemented, but the new Oslo prison was built as a panoptic institution and according to the Philadelphia system of one cell for each inmate. Holst's writing indicates a commitment to health issues, though he maintained that serving time in a prison was an intended punishment with social rehabilitation as the desired outcome.
Full Text Available Abstract As a country, the United Arab Emirates has developed very rapidly from a developing country with a largely nomadic population, to a modern and wealthy country with a Western lifestyle. This economic progress has brought undoubted social benefits and opportunities for UAE citizens, including a high and increasing life expectancy. However, rapid modernization and urbanization have contributed to a significant problem with chronic diseases, particularly obesity-related cardiovascular risk. In response the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi has significantly strengthened its data systems to better assess the baseline and measure the impact of targeted interventions. The unique population-level Weqaya Programme for UAE Nationals living in Abu Dhabi has recruited more than 94% of adults into a screening programme for the rapid identification of those at risk and the deployment of targeted interventions to control that risk. This article describes the burden of non-communicable disease in Abu Dhabi, and the efforts made by the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi to tackle this burden including the development of a whole population cardiovascular screening programme changes to health policy, particularly in terms of lifestyle and behaviour change, and empowerment of the community to enable individuals to make healthier choices. In addition, recommendations have been made for global responsibility for tackling chronic disease.
...), a group previously known for its brutal, though hardly political, kidnappings. Though "Abu Sayyaf" is usually proceeded with the words the "al Qaeda-linked," there was little tangible evidence of such a link from the mid-1990s to 2002...
I Nyoman Darma Putra
Full Text Available Abstract A Western-style of theatre has developed in Bali since the turnof the twentieth century, but it has rarely attracted scholarly attention. Studies on the performing arts in Bali have mainly focused on Balinese (traditional dance and drama. This should come as no surprise given that Balinese dance and drama have developed as a broad and inseparable part of Balinese custom and religious practice. Against this phenomena, this article traces the development of Western-style theatre in Bali through the artistic activities of the prominent playwright, performer and director, Abu Bakar. From the 1960s until the present, Abu Bakar has been an active promoter of Westernsty letheatre in Bali as well as in the main cities of Java andeven in Singapore. He has also has helped students and theatre groups around Bali to study and perform theatre. Initially, Abu Bakar established his own theatre group, Poliklinik, which hascontinued to stage performances as well as collaborating with young people or student theatre study clubs. His extensiverecord of artistic activity has been recorded in newspaper reports and reviews and these form the main source of documentation in this article. By examining qualitative data collected from newspaper archives and interviews, including with Abu Bakar, this article proposes a contemporary historyof theatre or modern drama in Bali.
The availability of reliable estimates of dog populations is crucial in developing a control strategy for canine rabies in developing countries. The frequent roaming of dogs around Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) campus coinciding with reported cases of rabies outbreaks informed this study. The aim was to determine dog ...
Hajat, Cother; Harrison, Oliver; Shather, Zainab
As a country, the United Arab Emirates has developed very rapidly from a developing country with a largely nomadic population, to a modern and wealthy country with a Western lifestyle. This economic progress has brought undoubted social benefits and opportunities for UAE citizens, including a high and increasing life expectancy. However, rapid modernization and urbanization have contributed to a significant problem with chronic diseases, particularly obesity-related cardiovascular risk. In response the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi has significantly strengthened its data systems to better assess the baseline and measure the impact of targeted interventions. The unique population-level Weqaya Programme for UAE Nationals living in Abu Dhabi has recruited more than 94% of adults into a screening programme for the rapid identification of those at risk and the deployment of targeted interventions to control that risk. This article describes the burden of non-communicable disease in Abu Dhabi, and the efforts made by the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi to tackle this burden including the development of a whole population cardiovascular screening programme changes to health policy, particularly in terms of lifestyle and behaviour change, and empowerment of the community to enable individuals to make healthier choices. In addition, recommendations have been made for global responsibility for tackling chronic disease.
Qafisheh, Hamdi A.
This volume, developed for an introductory course in Gulf Arabic, utilizes the dialect of Abu Dhabi, a leading member of the Federation of Arab Emirates on the Persian Gulf. Although specifically developed for the University of Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory personnel, it can be used as a beginning textbook for college students and…
Al Marzooqi, H.
Abu Dhabi is ranked in the industry journals in the top 5 in the world tables of both oil and gas reserves. Gas is produced both Onshore and Offshore from associated and non-associated fields. Production has tripped during the last ten years and will increase further in the next few years as a result of current and planned investment. Development of Abu Dhabi's gas resources is aimed at enhancing oil production and recovery, meeting local and export demand and eliminating waste. Companies in Abu Dhabi are involved in all the main sectors of gas industry including production, processing, transportation and sales. The first large LNG export project by sea in Arabian Gulf was established in 1977 from Abu to Japan. Development continues and the gas is exported as LNG and is also processed into LPG and Pentane Plus for export. Japan remains the main market. The volume of Condensate available for export and processing will increase significantly in the next few years. In order to ensure a continuing and increasing supply of gas to world markets, in future years, prices will need to provide an adequate return on investment and should also reflect the environmental advantages of gas. 9 tabs
Full Text Available This article examines the principal international human rights standards that exist for the treatment of prisoners. Given the increase in the use of imprisonment in many countries, the administration of prisons poses certain challenges. The author addresses this issue by first examining the purposes of imprisonment, which is the only way to evaluate if the penitentiary system is achieving the goals that have been set for it. The author then analyzes five elements that must be taken into account when complying with international standards regarding the treatment of prisoners: living conditions for prisoners; the contact that prisoners have with their families and other persons; special conditions that apply to incarcerated persons according to specific situations (gender, nationality, age, illness, etc.; prison personnel and independent oversight of prisons. In the end, what all of these standards have in common is the importance of upholding human dignity when dealing with incarcerated persons.
Leach, Bethan; Goodwin, Sarah
Vulnerable patient groups are at increased risk of malnutrition. This article focuses on the importance of ensuring that the nutritional needs of those in institutional settings, in particular prisons, are met. Offenders often present with a number of health and social factors which can lead to a high risk of malnutrition. The consequences of malnutrition are significant, ranging from delayed recovery to increased mortality. The treatment of malnutrition is discussed in this article from detection through to management and monitoring. Adequate nutrition is a basic human right and those in prison should be provided with healthy food choices to optimise health.
Catherine Patricia Byrne
I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a ...
Byrne, Catherine; Carr, Michael
I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a p...
Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V
In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.
Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.
Morin, Lucien, Ed.
This book, consisting of 19 essays, deals with the meaning and objectives of prison education. Included in the volume are the following works: "Inmate Right to Education," by Lucien Morin; "Penitentiary Education in Canada," by J. W. Cosman; "Rehabilitation through Education: A Canadian Model," by Stephen Duguid;…
Van Hecke, Tanja
This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…
At the close of almost 25 years of winding through New York state's prisons, former Black Panther Eddie Ellis walked away in 1994 with four college degrees he earned while incarcerated and kept treading his singular path as an activist on the issues of police, courts, crime and punishment. He then established the Center for NuLeadership on Urban…
Hajat, Cother; Harrison, Oliver
Sixty years on from its first publication, the Framingham study has made an historic impact in risk identification and prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden globally. The challenge for the 21st century is in finding practical and scalable methods for effective implementation of population-level interventions that are adaptable to low-, middle-, and high-income settings. Within its first 2 years, the Abu Dhabi Cardiovascular Program, "Weqaya," has delivered a Framingham Risk Score for almost every adult Emirati. This is complemented by a clear and progressive program including the health sector and societal approach to the delivery of interventions for CVD. The health sector response includes the use of clear, evidence-based standards of clinical care, customer-focused service innovation such as the use of mobile and wellness clinics, and attention to the patient experience, and improving compliance using a mixture of encourage, enable, and enforce mechanics. Components of the Abu Dhabi societal approach include "top-down" measures to align the civil sector response including use of policies and regulation, for example, for trade and urban planning. The "bottom-up" measures aim to empower individuals, groups, and populations. Key to the success of this approach lies in central coordination and routine monitoring and evaluation, incorporating the use of simple, shared metrics. The Abu Dhabi approach has created a solid platform for scalable intervention, and for "learning by doing," with impact being monitored at the level of individuals, groups and the whole population. The unique data architecture in Abu Dhabi will enable the first cardiovascular risk score to be developed for the region and the incorporation of novel, modifiable risk factors into the model. The last 2 years have seen huge progress in Abu Dhabi for CVD, but the coming 5 to 10 years promise to unearth real, large-scale solutions, building on the original Framingham model. Furthermore
1990. A Dick. Abstract. Political prisoners undermined censorship in apartheid jails. The jail diaries, authorised biographies, autobiographies, prison memoirs, interviews and prison letters of more than fifty political prisoners and two prison ...
The role of natural gas is growing not just in the global energy consumption mix but also in the investment plans of major oil producers. One leading oil exporter to which gas has long been important recently adjusted its strategy to capitalize even more on the potential of light hydrocarbons. Abu Dhabi, which has liquefied and exported natural gas from offshore fields since 1977, has placed onshore gas reserves at the center of its strategies for production, processing, and domestic energy use. A picture of the emirate's evolving gas industry emerged during the Middle East Petroleum and Gas Conference earlier this year in Abu Dhabi. The paper discusses supply and demand patterns, condensate expansion, refinery upgrades, and petrochemical plans
Abu Dhabi has experienced an unprecedented development during the last half century, growing rapidly from a remote desert settlement to a thriving metropolitan. Today, the Emirate ranks among the countries with the highest GDP per capita in the world, and this impressive development is anticipated to continue in the decades to come.However, there are several challenges to the sustainability of the current economic prosperity, and the environmental degradation that was caused by the rapid deve...
Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric
The vertical profiles of ozone are measured coincidently with non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi international airport (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E) during the years 2012 - 2014. Some of the profiles show elevated surface ozone >95 ppbv during the winter months (December, January and February). The ground-level NMVOCs obtained from the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system also show elevated values of acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. NMVOCs and ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than the values in winter season. NMVOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption, and serve as precursor of ozone. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the NMVOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. Abu Dhabi is located at the edge of the Arabian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in the neighboring Gulf region. The preliminary results indicate that wintertime enhancement in ozone is associated with large values of NMVOCs at Abu Dhabi. The domestic production of surface ozone is estimated from the combination of oxygen recombination and NMVOCs and compared with the data. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in Abu Dhabi is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries. We will present ozone sounding and NMVOCs data and our model estimates of surface ozone, including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.
Chen, L.K.; Ang, Huiling; Kiang, D.; Kwek, L.C.; Lo, C.F.
It has recently been established that quantum strategies are superior to classical ones for games such as the prisoner's dilemma. However, quantum states are subject to decoherence. In this Letter, we investigate the effects of decoherence on a quantum game, namely the prisoner dilemma, through three prototype decoherence channels. We show that in the case of prisoner dilemma, the Nash equilibria are not changed by the effects of decoherence for maximally entangled states
To date, the debate over private prisons has focused largely on the relative efficiency of private prisons as compared to their publicly run counterparts, and has assumed that, if private contractors can run the prisons for less money than the state without a drop in quality, then states should be willing to privatize. This comparative efficiency approach, however, has two significant problems. First, it is concerned exclusively with efficiency, despite the fact that the privatization of pris...
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine the level of security deprivation in convicted persons in different types of correctional institutions, and to determine the relation between deprivation and demographic, socio-psychological, criminal and penal characteristics. Another goal of this research was to obtain scientific information about the quality and intensity of security deprivation, as one of the consequences of imprisonment and perception differences of different categories of convicted persons. The sample consisted of 183 male convicts serving their sentence in Correctional institution for juvenile delinquents and young adults in Valjevo, Correctional institution Padinska Skela, Correctional Institution Požarevac, and County prison in Pančevo. The examinees were questioned by means of a general questionnaire for collecting data on the variables related to basic criminal, penal, and socio-psychological information, and by the Scale for testing security deprivation - SIG (Radovanović, 1992, consisting of 34 questions following the principle of the Likert scale (Cronbach's α=0,952. Research results indicate that about 15% of the examinees express low level of deprivation, about 56% increased level, and about 28% high level of deprivation. Security deprivation is significantly related to age (r=0,163; p=0,028, in a way that the level of deprivation increases with age. There is no correlation with other tested independent variables. Such situation raises questions about respecting the rules related to categorization of prisons, placing convicts in prisons, special protection of old people in prison, separating aggressive and dangerous convicts, monitoring their behavior, controlling informal groups of convicts, and similar problems related to imprisonment.
Dores, António Pedro; Loureiro, Ricardo; Pontes, Nuno
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PORTUGUESE PENITENTIARY SYSTEM Portugal has 51 prisons of different types: 15 penitentiaries (“central prisons”, normally larger ones) for inmates condemned to serve more than 6 months; 31 penitentiaries (“regional prisons”) for inmates condemned to serve less than 6 months; and five penitentiaries (“special prisons”) for inmates who need special attention, such as women, youths, policeman, and the sick (hospital). The first type of penitentiary has security...
Mental conditions usually affect cognitive, emotional and volitional aspects and functions of the personality, which are also functions of interest in law, as they are essential at the time of adjudicating guilt, labeling the accused a criminal, and proffering a sentence. A relationship between mental illness and criminality has, thus, been described and given as one of the reasons for the large number of mental patients in prisons. Whether this relationship is one of causality or one that fl...
van der Helm, P.; Stams, G.J.; van der Laan, P.
The present study examines the construct validity and reliability of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) in a sample of 77 adolescents placed in a Dutch youth prison and 49 adult prisoners living in a Dutch psychiatric prison with a therapeutic living group structure. Confirmatory factor analysis of a four-factor model—with “repression,” “support,” “growth,” and “group atmosphere” as first-order factors—and “overall group climate” as a second-order factor shows an adequate fit to the d...
The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Brandt, Eva
This paper report on a project in a maximum-security prison in Denmark, where a group of officers and inmates engaged in a participatory design project aimed at improving the quality of everyday life. A series of participatory design workshops had two overall objectives: 1) to increase levels...... of trust and confidence in the prison, and 2) to learn how to engage inmates better in their everyday life inside prison, e.g. through engaging them in collective matters. The process of co-inquiry and co-creation provided a new social infrastructure, which allowed inmates and prison officers to access new...
This article briefly compares the prison system in the United States with progressive correctional systems in the world, before pivoting to discuss the lessons learned from the author's development of the Prison Education Project (PEP). PEP has expanded educational opportunities for inmates in 12 Californian correctional facilities. With the assistance of 800 university student and faculty volunteers, PEP has serviced approximately 5,000 inmates in these facilities since 2011. By providing academic, life skills and career development programming, PEP aims to educate, empower and transform the lives of incarcerated individuals. This article is a summary of the development of PEP, examining programme outcomes and highlighting implementation, fundraising and branding strategies. The robust spirit of volunteerism is also a central component of the discussion, with the phenomenon of "reciprocal reflex" at the heart of the PEP volunteer experience. This reflex ignites the passion and gratitude of both volunteers and inmates. The volunteers learn just as much as they teach, and the inmates teach just as much as they learn. The fact that each group shows deep gratitude to the other for the learning experience creates an exciting symbiotic loop and an esprit de corps which inspires and empowers all involved. The "reciprocal reflex" leads to lifelong learning. This article captures the intricate dynamics of how PEP has evolved into the largest volunteer-based prison education programme of its kind in the United States.
Full Text Available First prison in cities was established in 1555 and quickly, became widespread in the European continent. The prisons that were first setup in Europe then in America in 1773, have developed new forms in limiting freedoms. Before the modern prisons, Ottomans have imposed fines to mild to moderate crimes while, heavy offences were punished by rowing in the empire’s galleys or by being confined to a fortress. During the Ottoman period, the other form of punishment was shackling. This was defined in the documents of the Ottoman Archives with a phrase “confinement to iron” and it has been noted that this punishment was also imposed in the late Ottoman period. In general, the research informs about the prison establishment as one of the the Westernization attempts of the Empire. Karesi Prison was singled out as an example to illuminate the escapes, bribery and corruption that prevailed under the light of the documents of the archives.
Prisoners from the California Department of Corrections (CDoC) system have complained that they are unable to adhere to their anti-HIV treatments because medical personnel are not helping them receive the necessary medications. The prison system appears to be ignoring the need for continuous treatment, which has public health officials concerned that the prison system is breeding a virus that may be too potent for current anti-HIV drugs. In addition to lawsuits filed by inmates, a resolution by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors urges the City Attorney to investigate the CDoC for unacceptable care in managing HIV-infected inmates. Also, inmates that are released from prison are not given any guidance on how to obtain medical treatment or follow-up care outside of prison.
Gorinas, Cedric; Damm, Anna Piil
We investigate peer effects on crime-specific recidivism using register data for the entire Danish prison population. We find that inmates strengthen criminal capital in prison due to exposure to offenders with the same field of specialisation (reinforcing peer effects). Our results accord...... are especially strong due to exposure to more experienced criminals and dropouts....
Today, the United States incarcerates more people per capita and imposes longer sentences than any other country in the world. In 1966, there were less than 1,000 people in Arizona's only prison. Now, the state operates eight prison complexes housing 15,000 inmates annually. Given that the majority of imprisoned people are going to be released,…
Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia
Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through a period of transformation and reform. The Abu Dhabi Education Council commenced a professional development plan for principals to enhance their capabilities to manage and initiate change in light of the reforms. This study was conducted to explore principals' perspectives on professional development…
The article describes the complexity of researching staff—prisoner relationships ethnographically, and scrutinizes how the complexity linked to the research process may inform an analysis of relationships in prison. I argue that ethnographic research comes with uncertainty and insecurity, because...... and resembles the insecurity and uncertainty that accompanies prison relationships that I characterize as relative. I explain why it is therefore difficult to distinguish between insider and outsider, front and back, public and private, trustful and cautious and friend and enemy, and how this results...... in a constant guarding and disguising of information and positioning among officers and prisoners. Finally, I argue that while social relativity provides uncertainty and multiple loyalties that contribute to the low trust environment of the prison, it also makes possible the compromises, discretion...
Molleman, Toon; van Ginneken, Esther F J C
Prisons worldwide operate under crowded conditions, in which prisoners are forced to share a cell. Few studies have looked at the relationship between cell sharing and the quality of prison life in Europe. This study aims to fill this gap with a multilevel analysis on the link between cell sharing and quality of prison life, using results from a Dutch prisoner survey. Findings show that cell sharing is associated with lower perceived prison quality, which is partially mediated by reduced quality of staff-prisoner relationships. Cell sharing thus undermines the Dutch penological philosophy, which considers staff-prisoner relationships to be at the heart of prisoner treatment and rehabilitation. It is recommended that prisoners are held in single rather than double cells. © The Author(s) 2014.
Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul
Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.
In October of 2000 an Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-6869, was drafted to define objectives, document requirements, and define organizational responsibilities for the purpose of design installation and turnover of the 241-AW-104 Pump Replacement Project The ETP included an Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) checklist, which delineated all tasks necessary to turn the 241-AW-104 Replaced Transfer Pump over to Operations, Maintenance, and Plant Engineering Signature approval of the respective Engineering Data Transmittal (EDT 630501) signified agreement that the ABU checklist was all-inclusive. In January 2001 an additional EDT (EDT 624153) was drafted to define completed ABU items, provide corresponding supporting documentation, and status open items in need of completion. This supporting document is to serve two purposes: (1) update ABU checklist items completed since January 2001, and (2) define remaining ABU checklist items in need of completion
Of the 2.3 million people currently behind bars in the United States, only 41,000 - a mere 1.7% - are doing LWOP. Based on these numbers, one might well regard LWOP as the anomaly, and certainly not emblematic of the system as a whole. In this essay, I argue that it is LWOP that most effectively captures the central motivating aim of the contemporary American carceral system: the permanent exclusion from the shared social space of the people marked as prisoners. This exclusionist system has n...
Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.
This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…
powers.9 The Nigerian Court of Appeal held per Uwaifo, JCA in the case of Peter Nemi v Attorney ... lawfully committed to custody.15 By this definition, it means any person who is lawfully confined to prison is a ..... sentenced to prison with hard labour, gives a prisoner a measure of relief in case such a prisoner is not fit to ...
Osses-Paredes, C; Riquelme-Pereira, N
There are population groups nowadays that are regarded as vulnerable, one of which is the prison population, considered to have major health needs. Nonetheless, people deprived of liberty maintain inherent human rights such as that of health care, which in some situations may take second place. Cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out at El Manzano Prison compliance centre, Concepción, from October 2011 to February 2012 with the implementation of a preventive health exam and a socio-demographic and health questionnaire, for 18+, female and male prisoners in a closed system, on reception of written informed consent. in the study, the population was 85% men, the average age was 34 years, 91.2% receive visits, average term of imprisonment 38 months. At least 45% have a diagnosed disease, prioritizing mental disorders, and respiratory and circulatory system diseases. 56% of prisoners have requested health care infrequently, 33% of which were very satisfied and 32% satisfied with prison health services. The health of the prison population is more impaired than that of the general population, with a larger number of needs that are also different, but there is a positive perception of health by prisoners and a high degree of satisfaction with health services.
Ninis Hadi Haryanti
Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Berbagai penelitian mengenai pemanfaatan abu terbang batubara sedang dilakukan untuk meningkatkan nilai ekonomisnya serta mengurangi dampak buruknya terhadap lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfatkan limbah pembakaran batubara pada PLTU yaitu Abu Terbang (Fly Ash untuk pembuatan beton bata ringan nonstruktur. Telah dilakukan uji terhadap abu terbang dari limbah batubara yang digunakan pada PLTU Asam asam dengan hasil kandungan silika relatif tinggi (74,2% SiO2 sedangkan alumina tidak terlalu tinggi (5,7% Al2O3, dan Fe2O3 sekitar 14,4%. Kandungan logam alkali (2,4% CaO dan 2,03% MgO mendukung pembentukan ikatan material aluminosilikat. Karena kandungan CaO sekitar 2,4%, maka abu ini termasuk abu terbang kualitas ASTM kelas F. Abu terbang kelas F ini kadar kapurnya rendah (CaO < 10%, cocok berfungsi sebagai bahan low/ultra-low cement castable refractory yang tahan suhu tinggi. Komposisi kimia limbah abu terbang PLTU Asam asam Kalimantan Selatan menunjukkan bahwa kadar Al2O3 yaitu Al2O3 : SiO2 = 5,7% : 74,2% atau nilai Al2O3/SiO2 = 0,076819, yang berarti kadar alumina sangat kecil dibandingkan dengan silikanya. Dari hasil tersebut terlihat bahwa fly ash yang digunakan termasuk dalam kategori fly ash tipe F (ACI Manual of Concrete Practice 1993 Part 1 226.3R-3, dengan kadar SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 lebih dari 70% dan sesuai dengan syarat SNI 03-2460-1991. Fly ash kelas F disebut juga low-calcium fly ash, yang tidak mempunyai sifat cementitious dan hanya bersifat pozolanic. Oleh karena itu, limbah abu terbang PLTU Asam asam dapat digunakan sebagai bahan campuran (sebagai agregat pembuatan bata ringan. Kata kunci: abu terbang, bata ringan, komposisi kimia abu terbang
Full Text Available Poetic Stories in Ilia Abu Mazi’s Poetic Works Sadeq Fathi Dehkordi * Shlyr Fathi ** Abstract Poetic story is a kind of art firmly connected to poetry and story and is a sign of restoration in Arabic poetry furthermore, it is an artistic field for presenting poets' ability in putting poetry and tale together. This genre has included many current poetic works. Abu-Mazi as a poet with sublime human tendencies and like many other Mahjar (migration poets has poetic stories with humanistic motifs, but the span of his art is wider, so it contains many themes like history, legend, teaching and preaching, society, sentiment, conscience, fatherland and nation. Since he is a social poet, in his poetic stories he finally gets to human and his noble life. Among themes of preaching he goes through human borders and sings the anthem of sublime life. We can see vividly the honesty of his soul which tries to transfer a collection of social thoughts to the audience, some of which are his personal experience but some are not. These thoughts have dominated his work and are inserted into social subjects. Teaching as well as preaching is another theme with which the poet is discovering an instrument to bring him near the love of all creatures. Meanwhile, he is not inattentive toward themes regarding nation and fatherland and narrates some tales which are impressed with homelessness and separation from Lebanon. Explicitly he ends most of his themes with stories and wise sayings which are concerned with human and his society and teach human patience, cooperation, correlation, and help and encourage him to continue his life. Key words : Ilia Abu-Mazi, Poetical Story, Poetical Work * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Tehran University . E-mai l: Fathi. Sadeq.D @gmail.com. ** MA Student in Arabic Language and Literature, Kordestan University.
The use of drugs in society raises important considerations for health and social policy. Critical health and social care issues arise when drugs are used inside prisons. This paper argues that there is an urgent need for prison drug policies to adopt the principles of harm reduction. However, current policy orthodoxy emphasises the control of drugs and punishment for drug taking. Key components of harm reduction are operationalised in this article by exploring the potential for harm reduction in prison within the context of English drug policy. Whilst the focus is on English policy debates, the discussion will have wider international resonance. Copyright 2003 The Haworth Press, Inc.
Full Text Available Sumber daya ikan layang (Decapterus macrosoma dan Decapterus macarellus di perairan Pantai Kendari tertangkap dengan pukat cincin mini. Sampai saat ini kajian stok belum pernah dilakukan sehingga belum diperoleh data dan informasi tingkat pemanfaatannya. Dalam upaya pelestarian pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan layang, dilakukan pengkajian stok untuk memperoleh nilai dugaan parameter populasi dan tingkat pemanfaatan. Hasil yang diperoleh dapat dijadikan sebagai alternatif kebijakan dalam perkembangan dan pengelolaan. Data frekuensi panjang kedua spesies dikumpulkan tiap bulan dari bulan Maret 2009 sampai dengan Pebruari 2010. Kemudian data dianalisis menggunakan paket program FiSAT. Hasil kajian menunjukkan, nilai tingkat pemanfaatan (E ikan layang abu-abu (Decapterus macrosoma di perairan Kendari sudah tinggi (0,56 melewati nilai Emax (0,47, sedangkan nilai E ikan layang biru (Decapterus macarellus rendah (0,50 belum mencapai nilai E dengan keuntungan yang maksimal (E0,10=0,56 dan nilai E yang maksimal (0,64. Dalam rangka pengembangan pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan layang biru, alternatif perluasan daerah penangkapan dapat dilakukan ke perairan Banggai kepulauan. Untuk sumber daya ikan layang abu-abu, pengembangan dapat dilakukan di sepanjang perairan pantai dekat pulau-pulau kecil dari sebelah barat Laut Kendari sampai ke perbatasan dengan wilayah Sulawesi Tengah. Scads resource in the coastal waters of Kendari general caught by small purse seiner. So far, the assessment of scads stock has not been conducted that data and information of the exploitation rate was not available yet. In order to sustain the resource, assessment was carried out to obtain the population parameters and exploitation rate. The result might be used as a basic for the fisheries development or management policy. A set of length frequency data of the 2 species was collected every month from March to June 2009. These data were analyzed using the FiSAT Package Program. Results
Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A.
This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 deg. N, 54.45 deg. E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m 2 , respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m 2 . Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m 2 /day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture
Mezher, Toufic; Dawelbait, Gihan; Abbas, Zeina
Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a sharp increase of energy demand. Two key related factors highlight the need to establish a RE sector: first the UAE has one of the highest carbon footprint in the world and second, the rate of depletion of its main energy generation resource – fossil fuel. In this study, we present a review of overall policies in sixty-one countries, focusing on their efforts to adopt RE resources in the power sector, and on their implementation of fundamental policies implemented. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability to Abu Dhabi UAE of the main RE policies implemented worldwide. As a result of our analysis, we recommend the implementation of a mixed policy of Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) and the Quota system for RE electricity generation in order for the UAE to meet its 7% target by 2020. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive review of renewable energy policy mechanisms. ► Summarizes the renewable energy policy adoptions, targets, and installed capacity in many countries. ► Gives recommendations on renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi, an oil rich country.
Alzaabi, Ashraf; Alseiari, Mohammed; Mahboub, Bassam
This study evaluates the direct costs of treating asthma in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Data was compiled for 2011 from health insurance claims covering all medical interventions or treatments coded as asthma. Costs were calculated from a health care perspective. The total direct cost of treating 139,092 asthma patients was estimated to be United Arab Emirates Dirhams (AED) 105 million (US$29 million), corresponding to around AED 750 per patient per annum. The total cost is principally generated by outpatient visits (>AED 85 million; 81% of the total cost). Ten point four percent of patients had made an emergency room visit. The cost per visit seems to be higher during hospital admissions (AED 7,123) compared to outpatient visits and emergency room visits. The direct cost of asthma medications was around AED 33 million (31% of the total cost). The economic burden of asthma in Abu Dhabi is high and the number of emergency visits suggests that the disease is not optimally controlled.
Frieska Ariesta Syafnijal
Full Text Available Telah dibuat ekosemen dari bahan abu sampah organik dan abu cangkang kerang. Sampah organik dibakar dengan insinerator pada suhu 1000oC. Abu cangkang kerang dipanaskan dengan furnace pada suhu 700oC. Hasil pengujian komposisi awal XRD (X-Ray Diffraction, Abu sampah organik mengandung 69,7% CaCO3; 12,1% KCl; 4% Cd0.15Gd0.85; 3% SiO2; 8,1% Fe ( Se0.5Te0.5 dan 3% Al2ErGe2, Abu cangkang kerang mengandung 100% CaCO3. Ditentukan tiga variasi jumlah komposisi Abu sampah:Abu cangkang kerang yaitu Ekosemen A (58,2%:40%; Ekosemen B (49,1%:49,1% dan Ekosemen C (54,01%:44,09%. Sebagai variabel kontrol digunakan Semen Portland jenis OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement merek ‘Semen Gresik’. Dilakukan pengujian fisika yaitu kuat tekan mortar dan densitas serbuk. Pengujian XRD dilakukan untuk mengetahui komposisi kimia dari ekosemen. Dari hasil pengujian fisika didapat ekosemen B paling mendekati nilai ‘Semen Gresik’ OPC yaitu kuat tekan 3 hari (7,2 kg/cm2 dan densitas serbuk (2,535 gr/ml.
Full Text Available Proses pelorodan (pelepas lilin Iilin pada kain batik sutera umumnya dapat menggunakan kanji dan waterglas. Penggunaan kanji biasanya digunakan pada kain katun. Jika digunakan pada kain sutera hasilnya kurang sempurna dan menyebabkan kain sutera berkerut. Sedangkan penggunaan waterglass dapat memberikan hasil yang diketahui dapat menurunkan kekuatan tarik kain sutera tersebut.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji pelorodan Iilin dengan zat kimia yang lain yaitu soda abu (Na2CO3 sekaligus terhadap kekuatan tarlk kain batik hasil pelorodan tersebut. Pada penelitian proses pelorodan ini digunakan berbagai konsentrasi soda abu. Sedangkan kain sutera yang dipakai sebagai sampel yang diuji adalah jenis T 54 dengan pewarnaan menggunakan zat warna lndigosol Green IB.Penelitian memberikan hasil bahwa nilai rata-rata konsentrasi soda abu yang meningkat memberikan kekuatan arah lusi yang meningkat diikuti pula meningkatnya arah pakan. Selanjutnya hasil yang diperoleh adalah prosentasi berat Iilin yang terlorod menunjukan hasil similar, yaitu meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi soda abu yang digunakan. Ternyata dari hasil analisa dinyatakan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan terhadap uji kekuatan tarik terhadap penggunaan konsentrasi soda abu pada proses pelorodan. Akan tetapi diperoleh hasil bahwa soda abu dengan konsentrasi 1 g/l dapat digunakan untuk pelorodan batik dan nilai yang lebih ekonomis. Kata kunci: kain batik sutera; kekuatan tarik; lilin batik; pelorodan; soda abu
This chapter calls for educators to specifically engage the needs of African-American men, who often comprise the largest demographic in prison, in what the author calls the Humiliation-to-Humility Perspective.
Kjær Minke, Linda
The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners.......The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners....
This document formally demonstrates that the ABU process for the 241-SY-101 risers 17B and 17C Multi-functional Instrument Trees (MIT's) has been properly completed in accordance with the approved ABU checklists. For each item required on the ABU Checklist, a bibliography of the documentation prepared and released to satisfy the requirements is provided. Release of this documentation signifies that the tank farm Operations, Engineering, and Maintenance organizations have accepted responsibility for the MIT'S in 241-SY-101 Risers 17B and 17C
A Rahman Tang Abdullah
Full Text Available Abstract: The transformation of Johor under Abu Bakar has been variously described as modernisation or westernisation. Westernisation argument is flawed because during the period under consideration, Johor was not yet fully under the control of the West. The archival records show that Johor’s transformation was self-initiated to promote the welfare of the people. The reforms Abu Bakar brought about in Johor affected more the Malay culture than Islamic rules and practices. Even then these reforms not simply modernised but elevated the position of certain aspects of Malay culture. It is, therefore, appropriate to describe Abu Bakar as the father of modern Johor.
Watson, Roger; Stimpson, Anne; Hostick, Tony
The prison population is increasing and the health problems of prisoners are considerable. Prison is designed with punishment, correction and rehabilitation to the community in mind and these goals may conflict with the aims of health care. A literature review showed that the main issues in prison health care are mental health, substance abuse and communicable diseases. Women prisoners and older prisoners have needs which are distinct from other prisoners. Health promotion and the health of the community outside prisons are desirable aims of prison health care. The delivery of effective health care to prisoners is dependent upon partnership between health and prison services and telemedicine is one possible mode of delivery.
Islamic philosopher and scientist, born in Kharmaithen, near Bukhara (now Uzbekistan). Avicenna's life was marked by swings of fortune, from physician and favored scholar of a Samanid prince, to peripatetic country doctor when the Samanid regime fell. He became court physician in Hamadan (Iran), where he was for a time imprisoned as a political prisoner. He ended his life in a peaceful, contem...
A series of situations and decisions involving medical ethics in a prison medical service are discussed. The doctor's independence is considered in relation to his contract with administrative authorities. In contrast with most private doctor-patient relationships, there is usually no possibility for prisoners to choose their doctor and vice-versa. Freedom of consent on the part of the patient may also imply a right to no-treatment. Medical care in prison is not easy to delineate, also because patients often try to involve the doctor in non-medical demands. A prison doctor should avoid taking part in decisions which ought to be made by the judiciary or by administrative authorities. Programmes involving preventive medicine and sociotherapy imply collaboration between therapeutic and security staff. The continuous interplay and readjustment between powers based on public authority, on the rights of each individual prisoner and on the medical programmes makes it possible for some sort of therapeutic freedom to exist in the prison.
Wangmo, Tenzin; Meyer, Andrea H; Bretschneider, Wiebke; Handtke, Violet; Kressig, Reto W; Gravier, Bruno; Büla, Christophe; Elger, Bernice S
The number of older prisoners entering and ageing in prison has increased in the last few decades. Ageing prisoners pose unique challenges to the prison administration as they have differentiated social, custodial and healthcare needs than prisoners who are younger and relatively healthier. The goal of this study was to explore and compare the somatic disease burden of old and young prisoners, and to examine whether it can be explained by age group and/or time served in prison. Access to prisoner medical records was granted to extract disease and demographic information of older (>50 years) and younger (≤ 49 years) prisoners in different Swiss prisons. Predictor variables included the age group and the time spent in prison. The dependent variable was the total number of somatic diseases as reported in the medical records. RESULTS were analysed using descriptive statistics and a negative binomial model. Data of 380 male prisoners from 13 different prisons in Switzerland reveal that the mean ages of older and younger prisoners were 58.78 and 34.26 years, respectively. On average, older prisoners have lived in prison for 5.17 years and younger prisoners for 2.49 years. The average total number of somatic diseases reported by older prisoners was 2.26 times higher than that of prisoners below 50 years of age (95% CI 1.77-2.87, p prisoners with a goal of comparing the disease burden of older and younger prisoners. Study findings indicate that older inmates suffer from more somatic diseases and that the number of diseases increases with age group. RESULTS clearly illustrate the poorer health conditions of those who are older, their higher healthcare burden, and raises questions related to the provision of healthcare for inmates growing old in prison. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Norton, Christine; Wells, Amanda
There is no evidence on the prevalence of urinary and faecal incontinence symptoms in women prisoners. To explore the extent and management of bladder and bowel symptoms to inform prison health services and prison nursing practice. An anonymous self-report questionnaire tailored to low levels of English literacy, and administered in one women's prison. Women prisons have a higher reported prevalence of urinary and faecal incontinence, constipation and nocturnal enuresis than community populations; this is an unrecognised health problem. Prison primary care nurses should consider introducing sensitive but direct questions on bladder and bowel symptoms into admission assessment processes.
Hewaidy, Abdel Galil; Elshahat, O. R.; Kamal, Samy
Abu Roach "E" member is of an important hydrocarbon reservoir-producing horizon in the Abu Gharadig Field (north Western Desert, Egypt). This study is used to build facies analysis and depositional environments model for the Upper Unit of the Abu Roash "E" member in Abu Gharadig Field. This target has been achieved throughout the sedimentological, wire line logs, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of more than 528 feet cores. The high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provides a calibration for the paleo-bathymetry and depositional environmental interpretations. Biozonation and lithostratigraphic markers are used to constrain stratigraphic correlation. Integration between the core description and petorographic microfacies analysis by microscope examination provide an excellent indication for the rock types and depositional environments. Five depositional facies types are detected including carbonate inner ramp, tidal flats, tidal channels, supra-tidal and tide dominated delta facies. This model helps in the understanding of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member reservoir distribution as well as lateral and vertical facies changes that contribute to the development strategy for the remaining hydrocarbon reserves for this important oil reservoir.
Howerton, Amanda; Burnett, Ros; Byng, Richard; Campbell, John
Thirty-five in-depth, face-to-face interviews were carried out with sentenced male prisoners shortly before their release from prison. All but two of them had been incarcerated on at least one prior occasion, and had served an average of five previous prison sentences. A quarter of them had been flagged by the prison staff as being at risk for…
... Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the United States and District of Columbia...) organized crime offender; (3) national or unusual interest in the prisoner; and (4) long-term sentence. The prisoner could appeal a parole denial to the three national Board members in Washington, DC and some...
This document provides the Acceptance for Beneficial Use (ABU) for the Type 4 in-situ vapor sampler (ISVS) system. This document is generated to support the completion of equipment modifications and engineering documentation for the ISVS system that is used for sampling gaseous vapors in the Hanford single shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This ABU documents items for transferring the ISVS system to operations for field use. This document is generated following Characterization Engineering Desk Instruction DI-CE-004-001.
Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس
The Jabal Abu Safiyah is a layered intrusion, which was emplaced within volcanosedimentary rocks. It extends in an arc for about 15 km and displays clear layering. The lower zone plagioclases were studied by electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques to investigate their chemistry and structural state. Cumulus plagioclase forms the dominant phase in all thin sections studied, except in the amphibolized clinopyroxenite. Cumulus plagioclases from the lower zone of the Jabal Abu Saf...
A Rahman Tang Abdullah
Abstract: The transformation of Johor under Abu Bakar has been variously described as modernisation or westernisation. Westernisation argument is flawed because during the period under consideration, Johor was not yet fully under the control of the West. The archival records show that Johor’s transformation was self-initiated to promote the welfare of the people. The reforms Abu Bakar brought about in Johor affected more the Malay culture than Islamic rules and practices. Even then these refo...
Les habitants du village oasien d'Abu Minqar, au centre du désert occidental, ont démontré que les populations peuvent prendre en mains leurs ressources et en assurer une gestion des plus efficaces et équitables. Comme tous les habitants de l'oasis de Farafra, les agriculteurs d'Abu. Minqar font face à nombreux défis ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...
George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie
A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues "on the inside". Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get "on the outside", this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison.
Full Text Available The petrophysical evaluation of the Late Miocene Abu Madi Formation were accomplished based on the open hole logs of eighteen wells in Abu Madi–El Qar’a gas fields, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt. The lithological contents of this rock unit were analyzed using the cross plots of petrophysical parameters including shale volume, porosity and hydrocarbon saturation. The neutron /density cross-plots, M-N and RHOMAA–DTMAA and litho-saturation cross plots of the studied wells show that the main lithology of the lower part of Abu Madi Formation is calcareous sandstones with shale intercalations in most of the studied wells while its lithology is mainly shale with sand intercalations in wells AM-13, AM-21 and AM-7. The lithology of the upper part of Abu Madi Formation in most wells is composed mainly of shale while its lithology in AM-13, AM-21 and AM-7 wells is composed of sandstone with shale intercalations. The thorium-potassium cross plots indicate that, Abu Madi Formation was deposited mostly in fluvial to shallow marine environments according to the presence of mica and illite in the southern area and montmorillonite at the northern area as dominant clay minerals. Contour maps of several petrophysical parameters such as effective thickness, average shale volume, average porosity and hydrocarbon saturation showed that both lower and upper parts of Abu Madi Formation in the study area have promising reservoirs characteristics; in which the prospective area for gas accumulation located toward the central part.
Full Text Available Penalty, including imprisonment comprises one of the basic forms of reaction to crime. It differs from other possible penalties in the degree of discomfort and in the legal consequences. There are also different goals in case of criminal penalty as a legal and social consequence of a crime or misconduct. Imprisonment aims at taking different actions which consequently, should lead to the situation where the criminal does not return to committing crimes. It is so called penitentiary rehabilitation which is a multidimensional phenomenon and it should be considered from the modern society point of view. Its range includes correction of inadequate individual’s behavior and his or her adaptation of norms and values shared by the general public, as well as taking and being persistent in the process of designing oneself, own personality and consistent implementation of the self- vision in the future, organized hierarchically for the given time periods. Therefore, different means and action are taken under the implementation of imprisonment. Moreover, convicted prisoners are divided into different groups in penitentiaries. One of the groups is the group of young convicts. The goal of this article is to examine and describe the opinion of the young convicts on the penitentiary as a penal and rehabilitation institution. To perform the study, sixty young convicts were selected. In the test method, the diagnostic survey was applied. The original authoring questionnaire was used in the study. The study was performed in the Penitentiary in Radom, in December 2012.
This research presents the first empirical study of music provision in Scottish prisons and explores the potential benefits of music engagement for prisoners, with a focus on young offenders’ experience. The scope of the study begins with an investigation into music provision in prisons throughout Scotland by means of a small-scale survey. This survey showed that despite a lack of documentation, music is currently present in Scottish prisons and has been previously, albeit inte...
Olesen, Annette; Storgaard, Anette
In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support the paro......In 2010 a cross-sectorial reentry framework was launched as the ‘Schedule of the Good Release’. The ambition was to implement the actions outlined in the Schedule to all prisons and municipalities in Denmark to strengthen the cross-sectorial collaboration concerning parole and to support...... the parolees. The primary purpose of the Schedule was to prevent crime and secure parolees’ rights to social security and support. This chapter focuses on parolees in Denmark; their experiences of transitioning from prison back into society and life after prison; and whether the Danish state’s reentry...... ambitions can be mirrored in the parolees’ first-hand experiences. Our findings suggest that parolees experienced their reentry as chaotic; that their supervision lacked vision; and ‘informal’ punishment was severe and permeated their lives post-prison....
Goomany, A; Dickinson, T
Little is known about how the prison environment may impact upon the mental health of adult prisoners. This paper highlights that prisoners perceive that the prison environment has a negative influence upon their mental health. However, a small number regarded prison as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is a need for more research in this area specifically relating to the impact the prison climate may have upon those from black and minority ethic groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Little is known regarding how the prison environment may affect the mental health of adult prisoners. Consequently, there is a need to investigate how this setting may exacerbate mental distress among this community. This literature review explores how the prison climate influences the mental health of adult prisoners. A thematic synthesis approach was used to elicit data relating to the aspects of the prison climate, which influence the mental health of prisoners. Four primary themes emerged from the synthesis: social, emotional, organizational and physical aspects. Prisoners perceive the prison climate to have a negative influence upon their mental health. However, perceived positively, prison was regarded as a place of respite, which afforded structure and an opportunity to access health services. There is limited research available specifically exploring the potential impact of the prison climate upon those from black and ethnic minorities groups. Nurses must recognize the aspects of the prison environment that may impact upon the mental health of prisoners and demonstrate innovation and imagination in their application of interventions. Additionally nurses need to take an active role in influencing and structuring the political agenda, which governs the
Miller, Katrina R.; Vernon, McCay; Capella, Michele E.
Previous research suggested an unexplained difference in the patterns of offending behaviors among deaf people when compared to hearing people. This study, conducted in Texas, compares the incidence and types of violent offenses of a deaf prison population in comparison to the hearing prison population. Sixty-four percent of deaf prisoners were…
Different perspectives on nursing practice in prisons. The prison population accumulates health risk factors with, in most cases, low access to care before entering prison and a background of social deprivation. The loss of freedom increases the potential for manifestations of anxiety, violence, addictive behaviour and other illnesses. This article contains some caregivers' personal accounts of their practice.
Going inside the prison to teach is similar to traveling to a foreign country and encountering a new culture. When educators enter the prison, they experience a physical and social distance from other groups such as teachers on the outside, prison system employees, community members, and even family. Although educators who teach college in prison…
Surveyed 348 prison inmates about their needs or interests in rehabilitation programs, reasons for their needs, whether they deserved treatment, and why. Results suggest that prisoners view rehabilitation and reform as the major purpose of punishment or prison sentence. Need was endorsed most often as fairest criterion for program participation.…
Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec
We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…
Tompkins, C N E; Wright, N M J; Waterman, M G; Sheard, L
The United Kingdom Ministry of Justice recently highlighted the extent of buprenorphine (Subutex) misuse in English andWelsh prisons, naming it the third most misused drug overall. Yet little is known regarding how illicit buprenorphine is obtained in prison and what influences prisoners to use it. Qualitative research was used to explore prison drug using practices. Thirty men who were former prisoners with a history of injecting drug use were interviewed in depth about their illicit prison drug use, including buprenorphine. Interviews were conducted over 18 months, from August 2006 to January 2008 and were analysed using Framework. The misuse of Subutex by snorting emerged as a significant theme. Accounts suggested that the diversion of prison prescribed Subutex was widespread and prisoners used various tactics to obtain the medication. Various complex and interlinked reasons were given to explain why Subutex was snorted in prison. The main motivation for snorting was to experience a prolonged euphoric opiate effect, believed to help to combat the boredom of being in prison. The price of illicit Subutex in prison was linked to its availability, but it was generally cheaper than heroin, thus contributing to its use. Participants'narratives identified the belief that snorting Subutex in prison was not risk free, but risks were lower than continuing to use other drugs, particularly injecting illicit opiates. The implications of prison Subutex misuse for prisoners, prison medical services, commissioners, and prescribing policy and practice are discussed.
Richter, Marina; Hostettler, Ueli
What a good end of life means is a particularly relevant question in the context of confinement and prison. Most of the questions and issues raised by end of life for those living in liberty also apply to the correctional setting. However, the institutional particularities and logics of the prison create unique barriers and make it difficult in practice to reconcile concerns in regard to end of life-like care and comfort-with the mandate of corrections-confinement and punishment. At present, the literature on end of life in prison is dominated by U.S. contributions. We have therefore invited researchers from various disciplines in various countries to analyze the topic from their disciplinary perspectives and within the respective institutional frames of their national contexts.
Chen, Xi Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Xu, Kevin
study aims to investigate the effectiveness of group music therapy to reduce anxiety and depression, and raise self-esteem in prisoners. One hundred and ninety two inmates from a Chinese prison will be allocated to two groups through randomisation. The experimental group will participate in biweekly...... group music therapy for 10 weeks (20 sessions) while the control group will be placed on a waitlist. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem will be measured by self-report scales three times: before, at the middle, and at the end of the intervention. Logs by the participants and their daily routine...
Full Text Available In the near future, imprisonment may no longer be the ultimate sanction. Imprisonment may be part of sanctions combined in an offender’s trajectory. These trajectories will become more and more personalized and tailor-made. A trajectory consists of different options: pre-trial options; front-door options; options during stay in prison; pre-release options; and aftercare options. With regard to future prisons, five basic principles can be recognized: human dignity; the avoidance of further damage or harm; the right to develop the self; the right to be important to other people; and a stable and professional organization.
Galipeau, Douglas A
...., torture, in our effort to defeat the enemy? This paper begins with a brief review of the events leading up to the scandal at Abu Ghraib to include the potential influence of policy discussions at the highest levels of government...
Ryberg, Anne Egelund
Sexual relations between men in prisons occur all over the world, also in African prisons. Sex between men is considered deviant in Zambian society, yet for some prisoners it is a way to cope with the stress of incarceration. Prisoners have to cope with extreme challenges in terms of insufficient...... food, overcrowding and health challenges. For some entering into sexual relationships becomes a strategy of survival. With an emphasis on the link between deprivation and psychological, social and physical death, this article explores prison governance with the aim of documenting how sex becomes...
Muro, Pilar; Enjuanes, Jordi; Morata, Txus; Palasí, Eva
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse experiences of a health promotion intervention implemented by the Therapeutic and Educational Unit at Villabona prison in Spain, which aimed to create drug-free spaces as part of a model of social rehabilitation. Design: As part of a larger participatory evaluation study concerning the efficacy of…
Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice Simone
Health care in prison and particularly the health care of older prisoners are increasingly important topics due to the growth of the ageing prisoner population. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the approaches used in the provision of equivalent health care to ageing prisoners and to confront the intuitive definition of equivalent care and the practical and ethical challenges that have been experienced by individuals working in this field. Forty interviews took place with experts working in the prison setting from three Western European countries to discover their views on prison health care. Experts indicated that the provision of equivalent care in prison is difficult mostly due to four factors: variability of care in different prisons, gatekeeper systems, lack of personnel, and delays in providing access. This lack of equivalence can be fixed by allocating adequate budgets and developing standards for health care in prison.
Banda, R. P.; Gausi, F.; Salaniponi, F. M.; Harries, A. D.; Mpunga, J.; Banda, H. M.; Munthali, C.; Ndindi, H.
Setting: The Malawi National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) has collaborated with the Prison Health Services (PHS) on tuberculosis (TB) control in prisons since 1996. Information on case finding and treatment outcomes is routinely collected, but there has not been any recent countrywide review of these prison data. Objectives: To determine 1) the number of prisoners registered for TB in 2007, 2) TB treatment outcomes in 2006 and 3) training of prison health care staff in all Malawian prisons. Design: Descriptive study involving a review of 2006 and 2007 data collected by the NTP during surveillance in 2008. Results: In 2007, 278 TB patients were registered in Malawian prisons, representing a TB case notification rate of 835 per 100 000 (higher than that in the general population, at 346/100 000). The treatment success rate for new smear-positive TB cases for 2006 was 73%, lower than the national average of 78%. In all, 52 prison health care staff had received 1 week of training in TB management, usually just after starting work in the prison. Conclusions: TB case notifications in Malawian prisons were higher than in the general population and treatment outcomes less favourable. The NTP and PHS need better collaboration to improve TB control in Malawian prisons. PMID:26392938
Butler, Tony; Richters, Juliet; Yap, Lorraine; Donovan, Basil
To determine if the provision of condoms to prisoners in two Australian state prison systems with different policies affects sexual behaviour. In New South Wales' (NSW) prisons, condoms are freely distributed, while in Queensland prisons none are distributed. We used a computer-assisted telephone interview to survey randomly selected prisoners in both states about their sexual behaviour in prison. Two thousand and eighteen male prisoners participated. The proportion of prisoners reporting anal sex in prison was equally low in NSW (3.3%) and Queensland (3.6%; p=0.8). A much higher proportion of prisoners who engaged in anal sex in NSW (56.8%) than Queensland (3.1%; pprison. Sexual coercion was equally rare in both prison systems. We found no evidence that condom provision to prisoners increased consensual or non-consensual sexual activity in prison. If available, condoms were much more likely to be used during anal sex. Condoms should be made available to prisoners as a basic human right.
Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy
Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...
Wood, W.W.; Sanford, W.E.; Al Habshi, A.R.S.
An ascending-brine model is proposed to address the observed isotope geochemistry, solute composition, and solute and water fluxes in the coastal sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Mass-balance measurements document that >95% of the solutes are derived from ascending continental brines; minor amounts are derived from rainfall and from groundwater entering from upgradient areas. Nearly 100% of the annual water loss is from evaporation and not lateral discharge. Direct rainfall on the sabkha and subsequent recharge to the underlying aquifer account for ~ 90% of the annual water input to the system; the remaining 10% comes from both lateral and ascending groundwater flow. Thus, the water and solutes in this system are from different sources. Solute concentrations of conservative (i.e., nonreactive) elements in the coastal, sabkha-covered aquifer are consistent with the fluid pore volumes of ascending brine calculated from hydrologic properties. Calcium to sulfate ratios and sulfur isotopes are consistent with this source of solute from the underlying Tertiary formations. Recharging rainwater dissolves halite and other soluble minerals on the surface, causing the solution to become more dense and sink to the bottom of the aquifer where it vertically mixes with less dense ascending brines. Solutes are returned to the surface by capillary forces and recycled or lost from the system by eolian or fluvial processes. Thus, the system becomes vertically mixed, consistent with the presence of tritium throughout the aquifer; but there is essentially no horizontal mixing of seawater with groundwater. The observed seawater solutes in the supratidal zone come from interstitial seawater trapped by the rapid progradation of the sediments into the Arabian Gulf and are not refluxed or laterally mixed. The ascending-brine model contrasts significantly with both the seawater-flooding and evaporative-pumping models previously proposed as a source of solutes to the coastal sabkha of the
Penitentiary . Due to a lawsuit challenging the financing system, in addition to state budget problems, the institution may not open as planned. The...to prevent, jam, or interfere with wireless communications within the geographic boundaries of a specific prison, penitentiary , or correctional
And Others; Kaufman, Arthur
The University of New Mexico Health Science Center offers an elective, weekly clinical experience for preclinical medical students, senior nursing students, and senior pharmacy students at a prison facility in need of medical services. Student reaction has been strongly positive and inmates have rated the student service highly. (Author/JMD)
Sánchez-Roig, M; Coll-Cámara, A
The main task of nurses is to take care of sick and healthy people and evaluate changes in their health conditions. The goal is to take the appropriate measures to help their recovery or guarantee a dignified death, and if possible, help them regain autonomy and independence. Nursing is present in different areas: primary health, mental health, accident and emergencies, intensive and coronary care, surgical care, paediatrics, geriatrics, public health, occupational health, teaching, etc. In our case, prison nursing, one of the least known branches of the profession, we wanted to investigate more deeply the work of nurses in prisons, which aspect of health care they are responsible for and to what type of population they are geared towards, as well as the necessary training to be able to work in such a particular environment. To conclude, we have seen that university degrees in general nursing do not include knowledge in this area, and that authors from different countries support the specialization of prison nursing and the need for nurses to be trained according to the health conditions of inmates and the characteristics of prisons.
Full Text Available The main task of nurses is to take care of sick and healthy people and evaluate changes in their health conditions. The goal is to take the appropriate measures to help their recovery or guarantee a dignified death, and if possible, help them regain autonomy and independence. Nursing is present in different areas: primary health, mental health, accident and emergencies, intensive and coronary care, surgical care, paediatrics, geriatrics, public health, occupational health, teaching, etc. In our case, prison nursing, one of the least known branches of the profession, we wanted to investigate more deeply the work of nurses in prisons, which aspect of health care they are responsible for and to what type of population they are geared towards, as well as the necessary training to be able to work in such a particular environment. To conclude, we have seen that university degrees in general nursing do not include knowledge in this area, and that authors from different countries support the specialization of prison nursing and the need for nurses to be trained according to the health conditions of inmates and the characteristics of prisons.
However, the position of the South African government on the issue of prisoner transfer ...... CCPR/C/100/D/1818/2008 (2010) in which the South African government ignored repeated calls from the Human Rights ..... forms of exploitation and degradation of man particularly slavery, slave trade, torture, cruel, inhuman and ...
Boyd, Elizabeth; Grant, Tim
The introduction of women officers into HM Prison Service raised questions regarding women's ability to perform what had traditionally been a male role. Existing research is inconclusive as to whether female prison officers are as competent as male prison officers, and whether there are gender differences in job performance. This study examined prisoners' perceptions of male and female prison officers' performance. The hypotheses were that overall competence and professionalism ratings would not differ for men and women officers, but that there would be differences in how men and women were perceived to perform their roles. Women were expected to be rated as more communicative, more empathic and less disciplining. The Prison Officer Competency Rating Scale (PORS) was designed for this study. Ratings on the PORS for male and female officers were given by 57 adult male prisoners. There was no significant difference in prisoners' ratings of overall competence of men and women officers. Of the PORS subscales, there were no gender differences in Discipline and Control, Communication or Empathy, but there was a significant difference in Professionalism, where prisoners rated women as more professional. The failure to find any differences between men and women in overall job competence, or on communication, empathy and discipline, as perceived by prisoners, suggests that men and women may be performing their jobs similarly in many respects. Women were rated as more professional, and items contributing to this scale related to respecting privacy and keeping calm in difficult situations, where there may be inherent gender biases.
Cowden, Scott; Witherspoon, Jay; Orakzai, Shahzad; Krause, T
The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has experienced tremendous growth since the mid-1970s resulting in significant overloading of its existing sewerage system. Master planning determined that the best long-term wastewater collection and conveyance solution was construction of a deep tunnel sewer system. Implementation of this massive project faced numerous challenges, including the goal of no odours and limited odour control facilities. To accomplish this, the consultant team examined a unique approach of a single odour control system installed at the proposed downstream tunnel pumping station. Rigorous analysis utilising computer-based models confirmed the viability of this approach. However, other approaches including multiple satellite (localised or regional) odour extraction systems were considered. To better understand entrained air forces at vortex drops, and to confirm the preferred odour extraction approach, physical modelling of drop structures and overall tunnel system was implemented. Results and findings concluded that a regional odour extraction system approach was preferred over a single (centralised) extraction approach. This paper focuses on the process of selecting the preferred odour extraction approach and preliminary capacity sizing of regional systems.
Allwright Shane PA
Full Text Available Abstract Background An industrial dispute between prison doctors and the Irish Prison Service (IPS took place in 2004. Part of the resolution of that dispute was that an independent review of prison medical and support services be carried out by a University Department of Primary Care. The review took place in 2008 and we report here on the principal findings of that review. Methods This study utilised a mixed methods approach. An independent expert medical evaluator (one of the authors, DT inspected the medical facilities, equipment and relevant custodial areas in eleven of the fourteen prisons within the IPS. Semistructured interviews took place with personnel who had operational responsibility for delivery of prison medical care. Prison doctors completed a questionnaire to elicit issues such as allocation of clinician's time, nurse and administrative support and resources available. Results There was wide variation in the standard of medical facilities and infrastructure provided across the IPS. The range of medical equipment available was generally below that of the equivalent general practice scheme in the community. There is inequality within the system with regard to the ratio of doctor-contracted time relative to the size of the prison population. There is limited administrative support, with the majority of prisons not having a medical secretary. There are few psychiatric or counselling sessions available. Conclusions People in prison have a wide range of medical care needs and there is evidence to suggest that these needs are being met inconsistently in Irish prisons.
Stewart, Warren; Lovely, Rachel
To undertake a service evaluation to assess the effect of peer social support training using two separate learning programmes, which were designed to assist prisoners to support older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities. The service evaluation used an action research approach to support planning, delivery and data collection. Eleven interviews with nine prisoners who had undertaken the peer social support training programmes and two members of prison staff (one nurse manager and one prison officer) were recorded and transcribed by the researchers. This data was coded and thematically analysed to evaluate the findings. Recommendations were made regarding the format and content of the training. The training was well received by the peer social support worker trainees and had several positive outcomes, including increased peer social support, improved relationships between peer social support workers and older prisoners and prisoners with disabilities, increased self-esteem, measured as 'social capital', among peer social support workers, and effective teamworking. The peer social support training programmes were considered to be a positive intervention and were effective in supporting peer social support roles. Recommendations for future training of prisoner peer support workers include involving existing peer social support workers in training and recruitment, and enhancing the role of peer social support workers in prisons by providing them with job descriptions. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Yang, Guang; Badri, Masood; Al-Mazroui, Karima; Al-Rashedi, Asma; Nai, Peng
Understanding high school students' engagement in science is important for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Drawing on data from the ROSE Survey conducted in Abu Dhabi schools in 2013, this paper used a multi-dimensional framework to explore associations between high school students' engagement in science and a range of student psychosocial and…
Badri, Masood; Al Khaili, Mugheer
Key system challenges identified by the Abu Dhabi Education Council provided the impetus for an aggressive strategic plan as necessary guidance and support for the development of the P-12 education system to contribute to advancing its positioning in the global knowledge economy. For the Abu Dhabi Education Council, the analysis served as a tool…
New York University Abu Dhabi Library has developed new strategies to increase efficiency in technical services processing between units based in New York and Abu Dhabi. This case study discusses the challenges specific to the international context and the methods used to overcome them, increase speed processing, and ultimately improve patron…
Yang, Guang; Badri, Masood; Al-Mazroui, Karima; Al-Rashedi, Asma; Nai, Peng
Understanding high school students' engagement in science is important for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Drawing on data from the ROSE Survey conducted in Abu Dhabi schools in 2013, this paper used a multi-dimensional framework to explore associations between high school students' engagement in science and a range of student psychosocial and…
Al-Zyoud, Mohammad Sayel
This study examines the prospective responsiveness of school leaders to the drastic educational changes currently being instituted in Abu Dhabi. The study utilizes a qualitative research approach by using a focused group interview with twenty-five teachers selected by purposive sampling from Abu Dhabi Emirate schools. The study revealed that…
Baker, Fiona S.
This article discusses a teacher educator's reflections on her participation in an international study group and visits to the infant-toddler and pre-schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, as inspiration for early childhood teacher education in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The following five themes are reflected on, for teacher education in the context of Abu Dhabi:…
Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio
Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Smith, James A., III; Faubert, Marie
Reviews literature concerning men in prisons. Describes specific program at a prison mental health center which prepares men for reentry into society. Closes with reflections on one man's struggle to grow and prepare for the outside. (CM)
Discusses the history of health care services in prisons and the difficulties in providing prison medical services today. Indicates that prison nurses require more than just traditional nursing skills. (JOW)
Full Text Available Prisons are institutions where power and control are complex issues which have a significant affect on nursing. This paper focuses on the development of a framework to illuminate an understanding of the way in which power, discourse and knowledge connect within the prison setting, and thus impact on both the emotional labour and professional practice of the prison nurse. Central to developing this framework is reference to a study which explored the emotional labour of prison nurses. In affecting the complex knowledge/power relationships within the prison health care setting, regular high quality clinical supervision is suggested as one way in which prison nurses can be supported in challenging the regimes of truth that underpin the dominant discourses affecting their practice, and hence their levels of emotional labour.
Prison privatization is being increasingly discussed as an alternative that might help drive down the cost of corrections in Canada. An Australian conference recently addressed prison privatization. Australia has a long history with privatizing corrections and historically being the site of private penal colonies. Private and State-owned corporations own and manage Australian prisons and the balance of private and public sector activity within the prisons is discussed. HIV/AIDS care and prevention programs provide bleach distribution, education programs for staff and inmates, and safety training. Moral issues debating how much time and money is allocated to HIV/AIDS are addressed. Private operators of prisons have no financial incentive to educate, rehabilitate, or release prisoners.
Full Text Available Kebutuhan tekstil di Indonesia terus meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk. Selama ini pemenuhan tekstil sebagian besar diimpor dari beberapa negara, antara lain: India, China, dan Jepang. Di sisi lain, Indonesia merupakan negara agraris, dengan limbah pertanian yang melimpah. Juga tanaman bambu tumbuh subur dan banyak terdapat di negeri ini. Keunggulan serat tekstil bambu adalah bersifat antiseptik, tahan terhadap mikroba. Penelitian ini merupakan salah satu langkah dalam pembuatan serat tekstil alami dari bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper dan limbah pertanian yaitu abu jerami padi dan kayu, yaitu tahap delignifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini mencari waktu perendaman bambu dalam ekstrak abu yang memberikan hasil terbaik. Bambu dipotong dan dibelah tipis, berukuran panjang 15 cm, setebal 0,5 mm. Mula-mula sampel bambu ditimbang (antara 12 sampai 57 gram, lalu direndam dalam ekstrak abu (jerami padi dan kayu sebanyak 500 ml dalam sebuah botol berkapasitas 600 ml dan ditutup. Perendaman dilakukan pada suhu kamar. Waktu perendaman bervariasi dari 4 jam hingga 80 jam. Setelah perendaman selesai, hasil disaring. Sampel filtrat dititrasi untuk diketahui konsentrasi alkali aktifnya. Bambu yang telah direndam lalu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 110ºC sampai berat tetap. Selisih berat antara bambu awal dan akhir (kering dihitung, dan dianggap sebagai lignin yang terdegradasi. Dari penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dari pada ekstrak abu kayu, karena pengurangan berat padatan lebih besar. Hasil yang tertinggi pada perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi selama 76 jam, dengan selisih berat (basis kering mencapai 44,5%.
Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Schwartz, Robert P; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vocci, Frank J
Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3-9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (pPrison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The union representing federal prison guards is lobbying the government to amend the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) to permit prison staff to apply for orders to test prisoners for HIV and the hepatitis B and C viruses. This article summarizes the union's proposal and the Legal Network's response.
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Parole Commission 28 CFR Part 2 Paroling, Recommitting, and Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the United States and District of Columbia Codes... Administrative practice and procedure, Prisoners, Probation and parole. The Proposed Rule Accordingly, the U.S...
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 28 CFR Part 2 Paroling, Recommitting, and Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the United States and District of Columbia Codes AGENCY: United States... apply. List of Subjects in 28 CFR Part 2 Administrative practice and procedure, Prisoners, Probation and...
Handtke, Violet; Wangmo, Tenzin
Rising numbers of ageing prisoners and goals on implementing equivalent health care in prison raise issues surrounding end-of-life care for prisoners. The paucity of research on this topic in Europe means that the needs of older prisoners contemplating death in prison have not been established. To investigate elderly prisoners' attitudes towards death and dying, 35 qualitative interviews with inmates aged 51 to 71 years were conducted in 12 Swiss prisons. About half of the prisoners reported having thought about dying in prison, with some mentioning it in relation with suicidal thoughts and others to disease and old age. Themes identified during data analysis included general thoughts about death and dying, accounts of other prisoners' deaths, availability of end-of-life services, contact with social relations, and wishes to die outside of prison. Study findings are discussed using Allmark's concept of "death without indignities," bringing forth two ethical issues: fostering autonomy and removing barriers. Attributing the identified themes to these two ethical actions clarifies the current needs of ageing prisoners in Switzerland and could be a first step towards the implementation of end-of-life services in correctional systems.
V. Tort; R. Dueñas; E. Vicens; C. Zabala; M. Martínez; D.M. Romero
Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1) To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2) Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1) A TONI I...
Spann, W; Liebhardt, E; Seifert, S
The rate of suicides of prisoners in Bavaria from 1945-1974 was investigated. It was shown that only for prisoners awaiting trial was the rate higher than in the normal population or of soldiers of the Bundeswehr. A much higher risk of suicide was found for the first day of imprisonment. The most common method was by hanging in solitary confinement. A sure prevention by confinement with more prisoners is not possible.
Salem, Ibrahim; Ghazala, Hosni; El Diasty, Waleed
The occurrence of hydrocarbons is closely linked to the elements of petroleum system history of the BED 3 and Sitra 8 oilfields, which has created multiple reservoir and seal combinations. BED 3 Field and Sitra concessions occupy the northwestern part of the Abu Gharadig Basin and extends between latitudes 29°45‧ and 30°05‧N and longitudes 27°30‧ and 28°10‧E. The comprehensive integration of the geo-related data and the interpretation of the well logging, geochemical, seismic data in time domain and depth and sealing mechanisms explain the occurrence of hydrocarbons in some certain reservoirs during cretaceous age and other reservoirs in the same fields don't have any hydrocarbon accumulation. Detailed seismic data interpretation was performed for the target units of BED 3 and Sitra 8 oilfields in time domain and converted to depth domain. Sitra 8 Field is a three-way dip closure bounded by NW-SE faults while BED 3 field is represented by a WNW-ESE trending horst dipping to the east. The Albian-Cenomanian Kharita Formation has a high energy shallow marine shelf environment and considered as the main pay zone in the BED 3 oilfield. On the other hand, Kharita sands are dry in the Sitra 8 Field. Also, the shallow marine shale, sandstone, limestone and dolomite interbeds of the Abu Roash G Member are another hydrocarbon bearing reservoir in the Sitra 8 Field. Sealing mechanisms were applied to explain why certain reservoirs have hydrocarbon and others don't. Allan's juxtaposition diagram for the main faults in the study area shows that Kharita sands in BED 3 area have excellent juxtaposition as Kharita juxtapose to upper Bahariya and intra Bahariya, which consist of shale and limestone. Abu Roash G sands in BED 3 area have bad juxtaposition as the Abu Roash G juxtapose to Abu Roash C sand (sand juxtaposed sand). Allan's diagram shows that the Abu Roash G reservoir (main target) in Sitra 8 is juxtaposing Abu Roash D which is composed of limestone and shale
Al Rashdi, Saeed; Arabi, Alya A; Howari, Fares M; Siad, Abdi
Fifty-seven sediment samples were collected from Abu Dhabi coastal area, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The concentrations of heavy metals including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, molybdenum, nickel and zinc were obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence. Heavy metal contaminations in Abu Dhabi had increased since 2004. Nevertheless, the enrichment factors, geoaccumulation indices and the pollution load index of 0.3 showed no pollution with any of the measured metals except arsenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gahlan, Hisham A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Khalil, Ahmed E. S.
The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, is one of the best preserved and least dismembered ophiolite successions in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It contains a Penrose-type ophiolite sequence from mantle section below mafic crust upward to oceanic sedimentary cover overlying mafic volcanics, although the original magmatic (stratigraphic) contact between the mantle and crustal sections is disrupted by tectonism. The Abu Dahr ophiolite is metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, and low-temperature alteration is widespread. Petrography reveals that: (i) the mantle is homogenous, serpentinized, and dominated by harzburgite and less abundant dunite; (ii) the cumulate ultramafics are represented by wehrlite and pyroxenite; and (iii) the crustal section is represented by metagabbros, meta-anorthosites and metabasalts. The Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites show high Mg# (0.92-0.93), with enrichment of Ni, Cr and Co, and depletion of Al2O3 and CaO, and nearly flat and unfractionated REE chondrite-normalized pattern. Major and trace element characteristics of the Abu Dahr metagabbro and metabasalt (crustal section) indicate a tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity. Units of the crustal section have low-Nb and Zr concentrations, low Dy/Yb and relatively elevated La/Yb ratios, high U/Yb and Th/Yb ratios, and LREE enriched chondrite-normalized pattern. All of the Abu Dahr ophiolite units have trace-element signatures characterized by enrichment of LILE over HFSE. Rare and trace element patterns indicate a genetic link between the Abu Dahr mantle, cumulate ultramafics, and crust. Chromian spinel has survived metamorphism and is used as a petrogenetic indicator in the Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites. The spinel is homogeneous with a limited composition, and shows high-Cr# (>0.6) combined with low-TiO2 character (mostly <0.1 wt.%). The Abu Dahr ophiolite is interpreted as a fragment of depleted oceanic lithosphere that experienced high degrees
Full Text Available Las demandas presentadas por el Jeque Shakhbout en 1959 para obtener la plena soberanía jurídica sobre el emirato de Abu Dhabi generaron una crisis diplomática plasmada en la correspondencia interna del gobierno Británico. Con sus demandas, el Jeque Shakhbout forzaba a la burocracia a cargo de los Estados de la Tregua – La Oficina de Asuntos Extranjeros en Londres, el representante del gobierno Británico en Bahreín, y los agente administrativos y políticos en Dubai y Abu Dhabi a reexaminar las bases legales de la presencia Británica en la zona y los límites éticos del sistema judicial impuesto sobre sus habitantes. La crisis va mas allá de una discusión sobre los poderes jurisdiccionales. La crisis nos ofrece una ventana a las contradicciones inherentes a la presencia Británica en la zona, en el marco del movimiento nacionalista árabe y del desarrollo de la industria petrolera y la futura redefinición de la relación entre Abu Dhabi y la Gran Bretaña.Palabras clave: Abu Dhabi, Gran Bretaña, colonialismo___________________________Abstract:Demands to the British government for supreme jurisdiction over his territory presented by the ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1959 created a diplomatic crisis captured in the internal correspondence of the British government. Sheikh Shakhbout forced the entire bureaucracy that was dealing with the Trucial States – the Foreign Office in London, the British Resident in Bahrain, and the Political and Administrative Agents in Abu Dhabi and Dubai – to reexamine the legality of their presence in the region and the ethical limits of the judicial system imposed on this land.The crisis went beyond the mere discussion over jurisdictional powers. It is also a window into the contradictions linked to the British presence in the region, within the framework of the nascent Arab Nationalist movement and the development of the oil industry . All of which will soon change the nature of the relationship between
Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SILICA AEROGEL FROM BAGASSE ASH. Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid (SA. Silicic acid solution was then added with TMCS and HMDS as surface modifier agent. In order to form gel pH must be adjusted to final pH of 8-9 by addition of NH4OH solution. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. Characterization of products was done by measuring its pore volume, surface area, and hydrophobisity (contact angle. TMCS serves as water expeller from the pores and subsequently surface was modified by HMDS and TMCS. HMDS content will linearly increase surface area, pore volume, and the contact angle of the resulting silica aerogel. Characteristics of silica aerogel was generated by varying the composition of the SA:TMCS:HMDS resulting has a surface area of 50-488 m2/g, pore volume from 0.2 to 0.9 m3 /g, the contact angle of 48-119 and pore diameter ranging from 5.7-22.56 nm. Based on the resulting pore diameter, the synthesized of silica aerogel categorized as mesoporous. Abstrak Sintesis silika aerogel dari bahan dasar abu bagasse dilakukan dengan ekstraksi basa dan diikuti dengan sol-gel. Abu bagasse diekstrak dengan NaOH pada suhu didihnya sambil diaduk selama satu jam, menghasilkan sodium silikat. Selanjutnya, sodium silikat dilewatkan resin penukar ion, menghasilkan asam silicic (SA. Larutan asam silicic kemudian ditambahkan trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS dan hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS sebagai agen pemodifikasi permukaan. Untuk terjadinya gel pH diatur hingga mencapai 8-9 dengan penambahan larutan NH4OH. Gel yang dihasilkan kemudian di-aging dan dikeringkan pada tekanan ambien pada suhu dan
Ghedira, H.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Beegum S, N.
Air quality, the measure of the concentrations of gaseous pollutants and size or number of particulate matter, is one of the most important problems worldwide and has strong implications on human health, ecosystems, as well as regional and global climate. The levels of air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), etc. show an alarming increase in urban cities across the world and in many cases, the concentrations have grown well above the World Health Organization's guidelines for ambient air-quality standards. Here, we present the periodic fluctuations observed in the concentrations of air pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO, H2S, NMHC (Non methane Hydro Carbon) and VOC (volatile organic compounds) based on the measurements collected during the period 2008-2010 at Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (24.42oN, 54.61oE, 7m MSL). The measurements were carried out using an Air Quality Monitoring System (AQM60). All these pollutant species showed statistical periodic: diurnal, monthly, seasonal and annual variations. Diurnally, all the species, except ozone, depicted an afternoon low and nighttime/early morning high, attributed to the dynamics of the local atmospheric boundary layer. Whereas, an opposite pattern with daytime high and nighttime low was observed for O3, as the species is formed in the troposphere by catalytic photochemical reactions of NOx with CO, CH4 and other VOCs. Seasonally, the pollutants depicted higher values during summer and relatively lower values during winter, associated with changes in synoptic airmass types and/or removal processes. Concentrations of all the gaseous pollutants are within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) throughout the year, whereas the PM10 often exceeded the limits, especially during dust storm episodes.
Lokier, Stephen; Paul, Andreas; Bixiao, Xin
For more than half a century, the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi have been the focus of intensive research focusing on deposition, early diagenesis and the role of microbial communities. Given all of this activity, it is somewhat surprising that their continental counterparts have been largely neglected with only a brief mention in larger-scale regional studies. This study redresses this imbalance by documenting the sedimentological, mineralogical and early diagenetic characteristics of continental sabkhas that are hosted in the Rub al Khali desert of the United Arab Emirates. During reconnaissance surveys it has been established that organic-rich microbial mats and evaporite minerals, both similar to those observed in the coastal sabkha, also occur in these continental sabkha settings. Satellite imagery was utilised to identify potential field locations for surface and shallow sub surface investigation; subsequent field reconnaissance established the validity of sites in terms of anthropogenic disruption and accessibility. At each site, surface features were described in detail, particularly with reference to any microbial communities or evaporite crusts; sample pits were dug in order to document sub-surface facies geometries and to recover both sediment and pore water samples for subsequent analysis. In each pit, a range of environmental parameters was measured over a prolonged period, including surface and sub-surface temperatures, ground water salinity and dissolved oxygen. Sediment samples were subjected to a range of analyses in order to establish and quantify primary sediment composition and any early diagenetic mineral phases. The results of this study are used to build an atlas of sedimentary structures and textures that are associated with continental sabkha settings. These observations allow us to establish the defining sedimentological and early diagenetic characteristics that can be employed to identify similar depositional environments in ancient
Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569
Tort, V; Dueñas, R; Vicens, E; Zabala, C; Martínez, M; Romero, D M
The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. 1) To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2) Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. 1) A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398) of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2) We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3) Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.
van Ditmarsch, Hans
A group of 100 prisoners, all together in the prison dining area, are told that they will be all put in isolation cells and then will be interrogated one by one in a room containing a light with an on/off switch. The prisoners may communicate with one another by toggling the light switch (and that is the only way in which they can communicate). The light is initially switched off. There is no fixed order of interrogation, or interval between interrogations, and the same prisoner may be interrogated again at any stage. When interrogated, a prisoner can either do nothing, or toggle the light switch, or announce that all prisoners have been interrogated. If that announcement is true, the prisoners will (all) be set free, but if it is false, they will all be executed. While still in the dining room, and before the prisoners go to their isolation cells (forever), can the prisoners agree on a protocol that will set them free? At first glance, this riddle may seem impossible to solve: how can all of the necessary in...
Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Brandt, Eva
This paper report on a project in a maximum-security prison in Denmark, where a group of officers and inmates engaged in a participatory design project aimed at improving the quality of everyday life. A series of participatory design workshops had two overall objectives: 1) to increase levels...... of trust and confidence in the prison, and 2) to learn how to engage inmates better in their everyday life inside prison, e.g. through engaging them in collective matters. The process of co-inquiry and co-creation provided a new social infrastructure, which allowed inmates and prison officers to access new...
Harding, David J; Wyse, Jessica J B; Dobson, Cheyney; Morenoff, Jeffrey D
Former prisoners are at high risk of economic insecurity due to the challenges they face in finding employment and to the difficulties of securing and maintaining public assistance while incarcerated. This study examines the processes through which former prisoners attain economic security, examining how they meet basic material needs and achieve upward mobility over time. It draws on unique qualitative data from in-depth, unstructured interviews with a sample of former prisoners followed over a two to three year period to assess how subjects draw upon a combination of employment, social supports, and public benefits to make ends meet. Findings reveal considerable struggle among our subjects to meet even minimal needs for shelter and food, although economic security and stability could be attained when employment or public benefits were coupled with familial social support. Sustained economic security was rarely achieved absent either strong social support or access to long-term public benefits. However, a select few were able to leverage material support and social networks into trajectories of upward mobility and economic independence. Policy implications are discussed.
Santora, Lidia; Arild Espnes, Geir; Lillefjell, Monica
The purpose of this paper is to examine the contribution of modern correctional service in health promotion exemplified by the case study of Norwegian health promotion policies in prison settings. This paper applies a two-fold methodology. First a narrative systematic literature review based on the Norwegian policy documents relevant for correctional settings is conducted. This is followed by a general review of the literature on the principles of humane service delivery in offender rehabilitation. Alongside the contribution of the Risk-Need-Responsivity Model in corrections and prevention of reoffending, the findings demonstrate an evident involvement of Norway in health promotion through authentic health promoting actions applied in prison settings. The actions are anchored in health policy's overarching goals of equity and "health in all public policy" aiming to reduce social inequalities in population health. In order to achieve a potential success of promoting health in correctional settings, policy makers have much to gain from endorsing a dialogue that respects the unique contributions of correctional research and health promotion. Focussing on inter-agency partnership and interdisciplinary collaboration between humane services may result in promising outcomes for individual, community and public health gain. The organizational factors and community involvement may be a significant aspect in prisoner rehabilitation, reentry and reintegration.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to critically engage with the idea that Therapeutic Communities (TCs can be promoted in England and Wales as a radical alternative to prison for substance users who have broken the law. After grounding the discussion within the normative framework of an ‘abolitionist real utopia’ (Scott 2013, the article explores the historical and theoretical underpinnings of TCs. Existing literature advocating TCs as a radical alternative both before and instead of prison is then reviewed, followed by a critical reflection of the TCs compatibility with the broader values and principles of an abolitionist real utopia. To conclude, the article suggests that, although TCs could be a plausible and historically immanent non-penal real utopia for certain people in certain circumstances, we must not lose focus of wider social inequalities.
Rocha, Nuno B F; Fonseca, Duarte A; Marques, Alina B; Rocha, Susana A; Hoaken, Peter N S
There is considerable evidence that aspects of cognitive function, especially executive function, are associated with antisocial behaviour and violence, but most research to date has measured current cognition and previous criminal behaviour. Furthermore, this research has been conducted almost exclusively with male offenders. The aim of this study is to examine relationships between a wide range of cognitive functions and behaviours among women in prison. Our hypotheses were that cognitive functioning would be associated with both more-or-less contemporaneously observed behaviour problems and self-rated adjustment to the environment. Forty-five drug-free imprisoned female offenders were individually assessed on a battery of cognitive measures. Prison staff rated their behaviour on the Prison Behaviour Rating Scale and the women rated their own sense of adjustment to the environment on the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire. Stepwise hierarchical regressions indicated that attention was independently associated with behaviours reflecting tension, depression, isolation, fear, victimisation and worry, whereas processing speed was independently associated with behaviours reflecting lack of energy, mental slowness and lack of awareness of the surrounding environment and total Prison Adjustment Questionnaire score. There was no relationship between cognitive functioning and subjective perception of adjustment to prison. Results indicate that cognition contributes to some of the behavioural problems displayed by inmates in the prison context. Future studies should evaluate the role of programmes to improve cognitive processes in also improving prison behaviour and also test for continuities and discontinuities with post-release integrative success. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Latif, Asad; Kelly, Bernadette; Edrees, Hanan; Kent, Paula S; Weaver, Sallie J; Jovanovic, Branislava; Attallah, Hadeel; de Grouchy, Kristin K; Al-Obaidli, Ali; Goeschel, Christine A; Berenholtz, Sean M
OBJECTIVE To determine whether implementation of a multifaceted intervention would significantly reduce the incidence of central line-associated bloodstream infections. DESIGN Prospective cohort collaborative. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Intensive care units of the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company hospitals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. INTERVENTIONS A bundled intervention consisting of 3 components was implemented as part of the program. It consisted of a multifaceted approach that targeted clinician use of evidence-based infection prevention recommendations, tools that supported the identification of local barriers to these practices, and implementation ideas to help ensure patients received the practices. Comprehensive unit-based safety teams were created to improve safety culture and teamwork. Finally, the measurement and feedback of monthly infection rate data to safety teams, senior leaders, and staff in participating intensive care units was encouraged. The main outcome measure was the quarterly rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections. RESULTS Eighteen intensive care units from 7 hospitals in Abu Dhabi implemented the program and achieved an overall 38% reduction in their central line-associated bloodstream infection rate, adjusted at the hospital and unit level. The number of units with a quarterly central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of less than 1 infection per 1,000 catheter-days increased by almost 40% between the baseline and postintervention periods. CONCLUSION A significant reduction in the global morbidity and mortality associated with central line-associated bloodstream infections is possible across intensive care units in disparate settings using a multifaceted intervention.
Luallen, Jeremy; Kling, Ryan
For the past several decades, the U.S. prison system has witnessed a steady and persistent increase in the ages of prison populations. Given the additional costs and burdens placed on prisons as they house older inmates, this aging trend has generated intense interest among policy makers and academics who seek to understand why prison populations are getting older. This article presents a method for evaluating drivers influencing the change in age distributions among prisoners. We define a methodological approach and demonstrate its application using prison data from four states reporting to the Bureau of Justice Statistics' National Corrections Reporting Program. We find that since 2000, the primary driver of overall growth in the elderly populations in prison (defined as inmates over 50) is the increasing admission age of offenders entering prison. Moreover, changes in offense mix and sentence length/time served over the last decade have had significantly less influence on the age composition of prison populations. We also find that the impact of explanatory factors varies across states and offense types. For example, prison admission and exit rates explain much of the change in elderly drug offenders in New York, but not elderly violent offenders, where admission age plays a much stronger explanatory role. Our analysis offers an effective demonstration that supports the use of this method as an important and informative first step toward understanding components of change that affect the problem of prison aging. © The Author(s) 2014.
Prisons are seen as a (temporary) home and community for offenders, yet they also have a dual role as a workplace for prison staff. This article explores how the "healthy settings" philosophy, commonly used in schools, applies in the prison environment. The article explores the concept of the health-promoting prison from the perspective of prison staff using semistructured interviews in three English prisons. Data were analyzed using Attride-Stirling's thematic network approach. The findings indicate that working in a prison can be highly stressful and can have a negative impact on physical and mental health. Staff perceived that the focus of health promotion efforts was in many cases exclusively focused on prisoners, and many suggested that prison staff needs were being overlooked. The article argues that the theory and practice of a health-promoting prison have developed rapidly in recent years but still lag behind developments in other organizations. The article suggests that health promotion policy and practice in prison settings may need to be reconfigured to ensure that the needs of all those who live and work there are recognized.
Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Fitzgerald, Terrence; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Vocci, Frank J.
Background Buprenorphine is a promising treatment for heroin addiction. However, little is known regarding its provision to pre-release prisoners with heroin dependence histories who were not opioid-tolerant, the relative effectiveness of the post-release setting in which it is provided, and gender differences in treatment outcome in this population. Methods This is the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine provided to male and female inmates in the US who were previously heroin-dependent prior to incarceration. A total of 211 participants with 3–9 months remaining in prison were randomized to one of four conditions formed by crossing In-Prison Treatment Condition (received buprenorphine vs. counseling only) and Post-release Service Setting (at an opioid treatment center vs. a community health center). Outcome measures were: entered prison treatment; completed prison treatment; and entered community treatment 10 days post-release. Results There was a significant main effect (p=.006) for entering prison treatment favoring the In-Prison buprenorphine Treatment Condition (99.0% vs. 80.4%). Regarding completing prison treatment, the only significant effect was Gender, with women significantly (pbuprenorphine Treatment Condition (47.5% vs. 33.7%). Conclusions Buprenorphine appears feasible and acceptable to prisoners who were not opioid-tolerant and can facilitate community treatment entry. However, concerns remain with in-prison treatment termination due to attempted diversion of medication. PMID:24962326
Heidari, E; Dickinson, C; Dickson, C; Newton, T
This article is the first in a series of four, which explore the oral and dental health of male prisoners in the United Kingdom. The series comprises: an overview of the general and oral health status of male prisoners, a discussion on how multi-disciplinary team working can be used to benefit the care of patients in prison environments and a description of the future planning of dental services for male prisoners. The oral health of prisoners is linked to their general health status, due in part to the presence of common risk factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol and in some cases use of recreational drugs, poor dietary and poor oral hygiene habits. Barriers to healthcare services can all have an effect on oral disease in this group. This paper highlights some of the common medical problems that oral healthcare providers face when treating prisoners in male UK prison establishments.
Gogot Setyo Budi
Full Text Available Stabilization is one of several methods to reduce swelling potential of expansive soils. In this experiment, a mix of lime (Ca and rice husk ash (RHA was used to stabilize the expansive soil. Sixty to eighty percent of lime content used to stabilize soil was replaced with rice husk ash. The result shows that the addition of 24% lime increases the strength of the soil up to 400%, if 60% of lime content is replaced with rice husk ash, the increase dropped to 300%. In general, a mix of 40% lime and 60% rice husk ash could reduce swelling potential, up to below 1%, and increase the strength of expansive soil. Optimum curing needed to achieve maximum strength of the mix is 14 days. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Stabilisasi adalah salah satu langkah untuk mengantisipasi sifat kembang susut pada tanah ekspansif. Pada penelitian ini digunakan campuran kapur (Ca dan abu sekam padi (RHA untuk menstabilisasi tanah expansif. Antara 60% sampai dengan 80% kandungan kapur untuk stabilisasi diganti dengan abu sekam padi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan 24% kapur dapat meningkatkan kekuatan tanah sampai 400%, sedangkan bila 60% dari kapur tersebut diganti dengan abu sekam, kekuatannya turun menjadi 300%. Secara umum, campuran 60% abu sekam padi dan 40% kapur sangat efektif untuk menurunkan potensi pengembangan (swelling, sampai di bawah 1%, dan meningkatkan kekuatan tanah (strength. Curing optimum yang diperlukan tanah campuran untuk mencapai kekuatan maksimum adalah 14 hari.
Full Text Available Gaya bahasamerupakan cara yang digunakan pengarang dalam memapar- kan gagasan sesuai dengan tujuan dan efek yang ingin dicapainya. Dalam kreasi penulisan sastra, efek tersebut dilakukan untuk pemerkayaan makna, peng- gambaran obyek dan peristiwa secara imajinatif, maupun pemberian efek emotif tertentu bagi pembacanya. Wahana yang digunakan untuk memaparkan gagasan dengan berbagai efek yang diinginkan tersebut bukan hanya mengacu pada lambang kebahasaan melainkan juga pada berbagai macam bentuk sistem tanda yang potensial dapat digunakan untuk menggambarkan gagasan dengan berbagai macam kemungkinan efek estetis yang ditimbulkannya. Kaitan gaya bahasa dengan bahasa, genre maupun budaya itu berarti gaya sangat erat kaitannya dengan pengarang, sebab pengarang itulah yang menciptakannya. Oleh karena itu, sangat wajar kalau di katakan le style c’est de l’homme meme (gaya bahasa me- rupakan cerminan sang penutur bahasa.Diantara karya sastra Arab yang monumental di Indonesia adalah puisi Abu Nuwas khususnya karyanya yag berjudul “al-I’tiraf ”. Syair “I’tiraf ” ini adalah sajak-sajak yang diyakini dicipta oleh Abu Nuwas sebelum ia wafat. Jenis puisi ini dipilih karena cukup terkenal di kalangan pesantren di Indonesia karena maknanya yang begitu berkesan dikalangan mereka. Namun benarkah puisi ini hasil karya Abu Nuwas?, untuk itu perlu kiranya pembahasan tentang gaya bahasa puisi Abu Nuwas ini dikaji lebih dalam.
Mohammad Abdelfattah Sarhan
Regarding the hydrocarbon aspects of the Abu Madi Formation, the present work recommends to direct the drilling efforts into the stratigraphic traps in the sandy intervals of the LST, TST and HST within the 4th order interpreted depositional sequences in both level-II and/or level-III.
Badri, Masood; Mazroui, Karima Al; Al Rashedi, Asma; Yang, Guang
Abu Dhabi high school students' interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international project, The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE). The sample consisted of 2248 students in public and private schools. Means of most items that belong to the school physics context for both girls…
As the oil reserves in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are forecast to become depleted over the next 50 to 150 years, the emirate of Abu Dhabi has set a vision to develop a knowledge economy in order to develop alternative sources of revenue in areas such as tourism, alternative energy and innovative business enterprises. Reformation of its…
Khan, Gulfaraz; Al-Mutawa, Jamal; Hashim, Muhammad Jawad
To ascertain characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection, we reviewed medical records for all suspected or confirmed cases reported in Abu Dhabi during May 2009-March 2010. Overall case-fatality rate was 1.4/100,000 population. Most patients who died had ≥1 risk factor, and female decedents were considerably younger than male decedents.
Baker, Fiona S.
This article reports on three salient socio-cultural and systemic factors that are influential in play in Abu Dhabi Education Council's (ADEC's) kindergarten (KG) framework from the teacher perspective. Anecdotal evidence suggests that during ADEC's progressive educational reform, emphasis has reverted to academic performance outcomes rather than…
Government schools in Abu Dhabi, as part of wide-scale educational reforms undertaken in the whole of the United Arab Emirates, have undergone massive school improvement developments over the past seven years. Over the course of these years, the reality of student life for those in government schools has been widely altered. This research explores…
Blaik Hourani, Rida; Litz, David
The Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated educational change and school improvements. As part of the school reform agenda, ADEC has introduced school self-evaluation-Irtiqaa (SSE-Irtiqaa). This research probes the effectiveness of school administrators (SAs), including principals, vice principals, academic principals, and heads of…
Koornneef, Erik J; Robben, Paul B M; Al Seiari, Mohammed B; Al Siksek, Zaid
The desire to achieve the best outcomes in the provision of healthcare has driven health system reforms in many countries across the globe, including the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. As a young state (the United Arab Emirates was founded as an independent state in 1971) with a diverse (with 78% expatriates) and young population (40.23% of the national Emirati population is under 15 years of age), the government of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi has embarked on a journey to reform their healthcare system. This reform focuses on the redesign, financing, regulation and provision of healthcare with the aim of delivering accessible, affordable and high quality health care. We will describe and review the health system reform in Abu Dhabi to date: its background, history and characteristics. The review looks at whether the main components of the reform (mandatory health insurance; enhanced competition and a centralized regulatory system) have had the desired effects in terms of improving quality, enhancing access and ensuring affordability. Looking toward the future for the health system in Abu Dhabi we conclude that it is too early to tell whether the reform programme is having the desired effects in terms of achieving its goals of quality, access and affordability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 8. Optical and radiative properties of aerosols over Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. S Naseema Beegum Haifa Ben Romdhane Mohammed Tauha Ali Peter Armstrong Hosni Ghedira. Volume 125 Issue 8 December 2016 pp 1579-1602 ...
Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. S Naseema Beegum1,∗. , Haifa Ben Romdhane1, Mohammed ..... of monthly wind vectors from the National Cen- ters for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Natio- nal Center for ...... report published by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia concluded.
Hetland, Hilde; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Manger, Terje; Diseth, Age; Asbjornsen, Arve
The aim of the present study was to explore the educational background of the total population of inmates in Norwegian prisons. The sample consisted of all 3 289 inmates over 18 years of age in Norwegian prisons. The response rate was 71.1 percent. Ninety four percent of the participants were men and mean age was 35 years. A questionnaire…
Abstract. This paper examines the concept of human right as well as the universality in the application of the concept to the prisoners' welfare in most countries of the world. To determine the level of conformity of this concept in Nigeria, the paper discusses the post-conviction problems prisoners face in Nigeria as against ...
Shaw, Doug J.; Miller, Catherine M.
Since 1950, the Prisoner's Dilemma has intrigued economists and amused fans of mathematics. It presents a situation in which two players acting to their own advantage do not do as well together as two players whose actions oppose their individual interests--hence, the dilemma. Variations of the Prisoner's Dilemma have appeared in diverse…
Fontes, Honore Culleton
The nursing faculty at Mercy College (New York) affiliated with several prison facilities to provide clinical experiences for senior nursing students. An ideal setting for the clinical group leadership course, the prison affiliations also helped students develop social awareness and advocacy strategies for this at-risk population. (SK)
Boodle, Anna; Ellem, Kathy; Chenoweth, Lesley
People with an intellectual disability in prison can be at increased risk of victimisation, segregation and isolation (Mullen ). Prison systems usually have very few resources to cater to this group's particular needs, and many people may re-enter the community with little or no rehabilitation, poor social connections, poor mental health and…
The purpose of this article is to examine the history and state of current research in the field of music education in prisons. Music education in prisons has existed since the mid-nineteenth century, but research in the field has been sparse. However, in the past twenty years, there has been a surge of activity in this field, marking a noticeable…
Wright, Kevin A.
Private prisons are here to stay irrespective of empirical findings for or against their existence in the corrections industry. It is necessary, therefore, to step back and consider them on a broader level to assess how they can benefit current penological practice. It will be argued that prison privatization creates an opportunity to reassess the…
Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.
Tomlin, Angela; Pickholtz, Naomi; Green, Allison; Rumble, Patricia
The United States has more people in prison than any other country, and more than half of those incarcerated are parents. This article reviews the challenges to parenting while in prison and considers how parental attachment experiences and difficult life trajectories have an impact on parent-child relationships. The authors provide examples of…
Costelloe, Anne; Warner, Kevin
The nature of the education offered in prisons varies greatly. Provision can be focused narrowly on limited objectives, such as training for employment or seeking to "address offending behaviour." On the other hand, where prison education follows the policies of the Council of Europe or the European Union, which are drawn from the…
The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.
Owens, Emily G.
The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…
Policies that encourage police presence at schools, harsh tactics including physical restraint, and automatic punishments that result in suspensions and out-of-class time are huge contributors to the school-to-prison pipeline, but the problem is more complex than that. The school-to-prison pipeline starts (or is best avoided) in the classroom.…
Hurlen, B; Siebke, J C; Stensland, A
The present survey reveals high frequencies of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in criminals committed to prison in Norway compared to the general population. The high rate of antigen carriers and the intramural supply of illicit drugs constitute a threat to fellow prisoners regarding viral hepatitis as well as drug addiction.
Donahue, John D.
This paper examines several aspects of the private prison debate: (1) How much scope is there for improving the technical and economic efficiency of incarceration through contracting-out to private prison entrepreneurs? (2) Will a fully developed corrections industry be sufficiently competitive to ensure that any efficiency gains are passed on to…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indigent prisoners. 0.127 Section 0.127 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.127 Indigent prisoners. The U.S. Parole Commission is authorized to exercise the...
de Castro, L D
A proposal to allow prisoners to save their lives or to be eligible for commutation of sentence by donating kidneys for transplantation has been a subject of controversy in the Philippines. Notwithstanding the vulnerabilities associated with imprisonment, there are good reasons for allowing organ donations by prisoners. Under certain conditions, such donations can be very beneficial not only to the recipients but to the prisoners themselves. While protection needs to be given to avoid coercion and exploitation, overprotection has to be avoided. The prohibition on the involvement of prisoners in organ transplantation constitutes unjustified overprotection. Under certain conditions, prisoners can make genuinely independent decisions. When it can be reasonably ascertained that they are able to decide freely, society should recognise an obligation to help them implement their decisions, such as when they intend to donate an organ as a way of asserting their religious faith and performing a sacrifice in atonement for their sins.
Nigeria prison system was modeled by colonial prison administration with emphasis on punishment and deterrence. This contradicts the fundamental objective of prison establishment as a corrective institution, for reformation, rehabilitation and re-integration of inmates. The position of prison in criminal justice administration ...
The purpose of this two-part article is to examine in detail the public discourse surrounding the Barberton Prison Complex during the early 1980s, at the height of the apartheid era. The prisons within the Barberton Prison Complex were notorious as being among the most punitive of the many prisons within apartheid South ...
Some rights are denied the prisoners by the prison administrators and, by extension, the State by lack of will to promote enabling environment and treatment to the prisoners. It is against this backdrop that this article appraises prisoners' rights that are to be respected, protected and fulfilled under the law, at national, regional ...
Official and unofficial reports indicate that the South African government is in the process of entering into prisoner transfer agreements or making prisoner transfer arrangements. This comes after many years of reluctance on the part of the government to sign a prisoner transfer agreement or enter into any prisoner transfer ...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of prisoners. 0.96b Section 0.96b Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons § 0.96b Exchange of prisoners. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons and officers of the Bureau of...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation to Federal prisoners. 0.99 Section 0.99 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons § 0.99 Compensation to Federal prisoners. The Board of Directors of Federal Prison...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permitted research involving prisoners. 46.306... Prisoners as Subjects § 46.306 Permitted research involving prisoners. (a) Biomedical or behavioral research conducted or supported by DHHS may involve prisoners as subjects only if: (1) The institution responsible...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prisoners transferred pursuant to treaty... RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS Transfer Treaty Prisoners and Parolees § 2.68 Prisoners transferred pursuant to treaty. (a) Applicability, jurisdiction and statutory...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of tuberculosis (TB in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF% to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8 and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1, respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF% of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9% and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2% in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
... chain systems and strategies; energy products and services; smart grid technologies; mass transportation... expansion of the Dubai metro and the construction of the Abu Dhabi metro and light rail. The need to develop...
Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.
Nesset, Merete Berg; Rustad, ?se-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Almvik, Roger; Bj?rngaard, Johan H?kon
Background: Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results: Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep ...
Bjørngaard, Johan; Rustad, Åse-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen
Background: There is evidence for higher morbidity among prison inmates than in the general population. Despite this, patient satisfaction with the prison health services is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate patient satisfaction with prison health services in Norway and to analyze possible patient and service effects. Methods: The survey took part in 29 prisons in the southern and central part of Norway, representing 62% of the total prison capac...
Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J
Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Reid, Stewart E; Topp, Stephanie M; Turnbull, Eleanor R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Maggard, Katie R; Roberts, Sarah T; Krüüner, Annika; Morse, Jill C; Kapata, Nathan; Chisela, Chileshe; Henostroza, German
Tuberculosis is one of the fastest-growing epidemics in prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a threat to both inmates and the wider community. Various factors have contributed to the breakdown of tuberculosis control in prison facilities in SSA, including slow and insensitive diagnostics, failing prison infrastructure, inadequate funding, and weak prevention and treatment interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this article, we describe the challenges inherent in current approaches to tuberculosis control in prisons and consider the alternatives. We argue that although improved implementation of conventional tuberculosis control activities is necessary, considerable investment in a broader range of public health interventions, including infrastructure and staffing upgrades, cutting-edge tuberculosis diagnostics, and combination prevention for HIV, will be equally critical. This combination response to tuberculosis in prisons will be essential for tackling existing and nascent prison tuberculosis epidemics and will require high-level political support and financing.
Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.
Farhoudi, Behnam; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Tabarsi, Payam; Mohraz, Minoo; Golrokhy, Raheleh; Farnia, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Alasvand, Ramin; Ebrahimi, Bahman; Esfehani, Jafar; Tashakoriyan, Mehrzad
To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on prison health. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised. The Great Tehran Prison contains three separate units; all prisoners are taken first to "reception and identification unit (quarantine)" and then send to two housing units according to their legal status. An HIV ACF strategy was employed in the quarantine, and two units through a voluntary provider-initiated HIV testing. Three staff of the triangular clinic trained the prisoners about common routes of HIV transmission and the symptoms of TB in the units. In the quarantine, all prisoners were examined for all HIV-risk factors, HIV testing and symptoms of TB. In unit one, healthcare staff continued the ACF process, while in unit two, the peers of prisoners were assigned as the healthcare communicators to proceed with the strategy. At this caring process, when the test result was positive, then the process of care, treatment and follow ups was initiated. Moreover, the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and TB was applied to the sick prisoners. There was also a follow-up caring for released prisoner to refer them to care and treatment services outside the prison. The guideline was implemented in the prison successfully. Regarding feasibility of the guideline, the investigators of this study suggest that the guideline should be implemented in other prisons across the country. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J
Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sec...
Apa, Zoltán L; Bai, RuoYu; Mukherejee, Dhritiman V; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Koenigsmann, Carl; Lowy, Franklin D; Larson, Elaine L
In this article, we discuss some of the challenges encountered while conducting research in two maximum security prisons and approaches we found helpful to facilitate the research process through the development of collaborative relationships, the establishment of prison contacts, and the implementation of rigorous research methods. As a result of our experiences, we have been successful at maintaining a high rate of inmate participation (>80%) and a well-functioning multidisciplinary team. The approaches described may be useful to other investigators planning to conduct research in a challenging setting such as prisons. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bird, A G; Gore, S M; Jolliffe, D W; Burns, S M
To estimate the prevalence of HIV by anonymous saliva testing in Her Majesty's Prison, Saughton (Saughton Prison), Edinburgh, UK. To elicit linked anonymous risk factor information from which to estimate risk scores for those who had taken an HIV blood test and, among drug injectors, for those who were HIV-1-antibody-positive on saliva testing. Saughton Prison on 15 and 16 August 1991; HIV Immunology and Regional Virus Laboratories, Edinburgh, and the Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK. Male inmates (378 out of a total of 499) of Saughton Prison. Answers to a brief questionnaire about age, usual residence, present and past custodial sentences, drug injecting and sexual behaviour prior to and in prison, HIV testing and history of acute hepatitis. HIV-1-antibody status was established by saliva testing. Eighteen per cent of participants were injecting drug users (IDU), of whom approximately one-half (47%) had injected while inside prison. Ninety men (26%), including 40 (14%) of 278 participants who had never injected drugs and 77% of IDU participants, had taken an HIV blood test. Nine per cent of all participants and 35% of IDU participants had had an acute attack of hepatitis. Forty-one (62%) of 66 IDU had been imprisoned five or more times before their current prison sentence. After taking account of region of residence, injecting drug history and acute hepatitis, aspects of sentencing and sexual behaviour were not determinants of those who had been tested for HIV. On the study days, 18 out of 499 (3.6%) participants were known to prison medical officers to be HIV-infected. Following saliva testing, HIV prevalence was 17 out of 375 (4.5%) inmates tested. All 17 had at some time 'taken the blood test for HIV' and all had injected non-medically prescribed drugs. Edinburgh residence, age 26-30 years, have injected in prison and having first injected before 1983 all contributed to the risk score for whether an IDU was HIV-1-antibody-positive on
Gilles, Marisa; Swingler, Elysia; Craven, Corryn; Larson, Ann
To describe the health of inmates in a Western Australian regional prison and evaluate the coverage of public health interventions. Cross-sectional audit of all paper-based and electronic medical notes of inmates at one regional prison in Western Australia. A mixed medium-security prison in regional Western Australia. 185 prisoners, 170 men and 15 women. The prisoners were mainly young (70% prisoners had at least one chronic health condition. There was a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes to that found in the general Indigenous population (15% vs 6% p=0.001), and a significantly lower prevalence hepatitis C (4.5%) compared with both national (29-61%) and State (20%) data. Screening for sexually transmitted infections and blood borne viruses within the first month of incarceration was achieved for 43% of inmates. Vaccination coverage for influenza (36%) and pneumococcal disease (12%) was low. This study makes visible the burden of disease and reach of public health interventions within a largely Indigenous regional prisoner population. Our study demonstrates that the additional risks associated with being Indigenous remain in a regional Australian prison but also shows that interventions can be delivered equitably to Indigenous and non-Indigenous inmates. Ongoing monitoring of prisoner health is critical to take advantage of opportunities to improve public health interventions with timely STI and BBV screening and increased vaccinations rates.
Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse
Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
It is very likely that the degree of HIV-seropositive prevalence in prisons reflects the HIV epidemic among drug users outside prisons. A thorough epidemiologic survey among prisoners is therefore important. 23% of all known HIV-positive male drug users in Norway have been diagnosed at Oslo Kretsfengsel. The minimum seroprevalence of HIV among the drug users in this prison is 10%. Of the persons detained in Oslo Kretsfengsel who were tested two times or more during their term of imprisonment in 1987 and 1988, none seroconverted.
Kenning, Cassandra; Cooper, Jayne; Short, Vicky; Shaw, Jenny; Abel, Kathryn; Chew-Graham, Carolyn
Rates of self-harm are high among women in prison in the UK. This is the first study to compare the views and attitudes of prison staff and women prisoners and to look at the effects of these attitudes on prisoner/staff relationships. To explore understanding of self-harm among women prisoners, prison officers and health-care staff and how their perceptions might influence service provision and development. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women prisoners who self-harm and with staff at a women's prison. Data were analysed thematically. Prison officers often attributed motives to self-harm such as 'manipulation' and 'attention-seeking', whereas descriptions by women prisoners, prison governors and health-care staff suggested explanations in affect regulation or self-punishment. Differences between prison officers and other staff working in the prison in their understanding of self-harm by women prisoners may lie in training differences, but there may be other explanations such as self-protection/coping strategies. More training and support for officers may result in improved staff-prisoner relationships and thus, safer service provision. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pope, Kenneth S
After the 9-11 terrorist attacks, U.S. psychologists faced hard choices about what roles, if any, were appropriate for psychologists in the detainee interrogations conducted in settings such as the Bagram Airbase, the Abu Ghraib Prison, and the Guantanamo Bay Detention Camps. The American Psychological Association (APA) sparked intense controversy with its policies and public statements. This article reviews APA decisions, documents, and public statements in this area, in the context of major criticisms and responses to those criticisms. The review focuses on key issues: how the APA created and reported policies in the areas of ethics and national security; transparency; psychologists' professional identities; psychologists' qualifications; ethical-legal conflicts; policies opposing torture; interpretations of avoiding harm; and effective interrogations. It suggests lessons learned, missed opportunities, and questions in need of a fresh approach. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Klonoff, Harry; And Others
Examines the profiles of Canadian prisoners of war who were interned in Japanese and German camps during World War II in order to determine whether the MMPI yielded a profile characteristic of internees. (Author)
Grymzin K. A.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the law provision study of prisoners of war; here is considered the legal aspect of the issue, and the author quotes some facts and events which took place during the imperialist war
Laursen, Julie; Laws, Ben
Using empirical data from prison-based cognitive-behavioural programmes, this article considers how prisoners’ subcultural capital shapes their responses to demands for ‘cognitive self-change’. We argue that accounts of ‘respect’ in the prior literature fail to capture how prisoners react...... to these programmes, and that a discussion of honour (and what we term ‘respect plus’) needs to be incorporated. The empirical material derives from four different cognitive-behavioural programme setups in three Danish prisons and semi-structured interviews with participants and course instructors. By attempting...... to create accountable and rational actors, who ‘self-manage’, the therapeutic ethos neglects participants’ life experiences and subcultural capital. Open expressions of moral values by prisoners (such as displays of honour and respect) are considered to be cognitive distortions which are dismissed...
Coffin, Jr., McKinley D
As a nation with the largest prison population in the world, the United States has all the ingredients for criminals, extremists, and religious radicals to collaborate in producing a new breed of homegrown terrorist...
Dr. Charlotte Wheeler discusses Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates in California. Created: 2/26/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/26/2015.
Badri, Masood; Mazroui, Karima Al; Al Rashedi, Asma; Yang, Guang
Abu Dhabi high school students' interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international project, The Relevance of Science Education (ROSE). The sample consisted of 2248 students in public and private schools. Means of most items that belong to the school physics context for both girls and boys were below the score of (3.0). The most interesting topics for both genders were connected with fantasy items. The least interesting items (particularly for girls) were connected with artifacts and technological processes. Girls assigned the highest scores for "why we dream" and "life and death." Boys assigned the highest scores for "inventions and discoveries" and "life outside of earth." The main message of the study is that new curricular approaches and textbooks can be developed through combining technological and human contexts. The implications for curriculum development, teacher professional development programs, and other education strategies in Abu Dhabi are discussed in light of the ROSE survey.
Alkheder, Sharaf A
Large numbers of traffic accidents were experienced on the road networks of Arab Gulf Countries including United Arab Emirates (UAE). This had resulted in enormous loss of lives and economy. This article through using Abu Dhabi city, UAE capital as a case study is aiming to understand the reasons behind such safety problem through analysing a large accidents data-set extending over the period from 2008 to 2013. The traffic accidents data-set was obtained from Abu Dhabi traffic police department records and covers wide range of accident's attributes. A wide spectrum of accident attributes was analysed in the paper including but not limited to the time of accident, accident location, type of accident, reasons behind the accident, driver characteristics, road conditions, and many other accident attributes. A specific reasoning for each of these attributes was given by authors. Furthermore, recommendations to enhance the safety levels were introduced.
Hunter, Jennifer C; Nguyen, Duc; Aden, Bashir; Al Bandar, Zyad; Al Dhaheri, Wafa; Abu Elkheir, Kheir; Khudair, Ahmed; Al Mulla, Mariam; El Saleh, Feda; Imambaccus, Hala; Al Kaabi, Nawal; Sheikh, Farrukh Amin; Sasse, Jurgen; Turner, Andrew; Abdel Wareth, Laila; Weber, Stefan; Al Ameri, Asma; Abu Amer, Wesal; Alami, Negar N; Bunga, Sudhir; Haynes, Lia M; Hall, Aron J; Kallen, Alexander J; Kuhar, David; Pham, Huong; Pringle, Kimberly; Tong, Suxiang; Whitaker, Brett L; Gerber, Susan I; Al Hosani, Farida Ismail
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections sharply increased in the Arabian Peninsula during spring 2014. In Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, these infections occurred primarily among healthcare workers and patients. To identify and describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of persons with healthcare-associated infection, we reviewed laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases reported to the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi during January 1, 2013-May 9, 2014. Of 65 case-patients identified with MERS-CoV infection, 27 (42%) had healthcare-associated cases. Epidemiologic and genetic sequencing findings suggest that 3 healthcare clusters of MERS-CoV infection occurred, including 1 that resulted in 20 infected persons in 1 hospital. MERS-CoV in healthcare settings spread predominantly before MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed, underscoring the importance of increasing awareness and infection control measures at first points of entry to healthcare facilities.
El-Hazek, N.M.T.; Hussein, E.M.
Current industrial recovery of uranium from 30% phosphoric acid-produced by the dihydrate process-is based on solvent extraction method. Uranium recovery from concentrated phosphoric acid (45-52% P 2 O 5 ) produced by evaporation of the 30% acid or directly produced by the hemihydrate process, by solvent extraction is difficult to apply in practice. In addition to possible contamination of the acid by the organic solvents and/or their deterioration. This paper investigates the possibility of applying a precipitation method (Weterings and Janssen, 1985) for uranium recovery from both low (28% P 2 O 2 ) and high (48% P 2 O 5 ) concentration phosphoric acids produced by abu-Zaabal phosphoric acid plant (abu-Zaabal fertilizers and chemicals Co., Egypt). The 28% acid produced by H 2 SO 4 dihydrate method and the 48% acid produced by evaporation of the 28% acid
Timothy Earl Behrend
Full Text Available Abu Bakar Ba 'asyir, menurut media di luar Indonesia, dituduh sebagai penganjur terorisme dan revolusi melalui organisasi yang disebut Jamaah Islamiyah. Namanya sering dikaitkan dengan Al Qaidah, dan sejumlah peristiwa terorisme. Ia ditangkap karena desakan sejumlah negara atas Indonesia, melalui tuduhan sebagai aktor terorisme. Abu Bakar Ba'asyir sendiri merupakan seorang muslim taat, disiplin, tetapi juga absolutis dan simplistis. Ia memang, melalui pengajarannya, tampak berobsesi menegakkan syari'at Islam di negara Indonesia, untuk mengganti sistem kafir. Dalam hal ini, ia seorang radikalis. Tetapi, sesungguhnya ia bukan penganjur terorisme dan kekerasan dalam mencapai tujuannya, sebagaimana dituduhkan media. Sikap radikalnya, sesungguhnya, tak beda dengan sikap radikal kaum Kristen fundamentalis yang pernah terjadi di barat, terutama Amerika Serikat. Selain itu, ia juga sangat menentang Amerika yang dipandangnya telah melakukan hegemoni dan terorisme budaya.
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, Wm. Dustin
By some estimates more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on o...
This environmental report assesses the potential impact of developing a geothermal resource for space heating at the Utah State Prison. Wells will be drilled on prison property for production and for injection to minimize reservoir depletion and provide for convenient disposal of cooled fluid. The most significant environmental concerns are the proper handling of drilling muds during well drilling and the disposal of produced water during well testing. These problems will be handled by following currently accepted practices to reduce the potential risks.
Favril, L; Vander Laenen, F; Audenaert, K
Internationally, the prevalence of suicidal behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicide plan and attempted suicide) is significantly elevated among prisoners compared to the community at large. To estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviour among prisoners in the Flanders region of Belgium, to identify differences according to gender and custodial status, and to examine the association of recent suicidal ideation and suicide plan with psychological distress. We performed a cross-sectional survey using a representative sample of 1,326 prisoners, randomly selected from 15 Flemish prisons. During their lifetime, an estimated 44.4% of prisoners in Flanders reported suicidal ideation, 30.2% made a suicide plan, and one-fifth (21.8%) attempted suicide at least once. Past-year suicidal ideation in prison was endorsed by one-fourth (24.9%) of all prisoners, and 14.3% made a recent suicidal plan during their current incarceration. Approximately one in ten prisoners (9.5%) attempted suicide while in prison. Recent suicidal ideation and suicide plan were significantly associated with high levels of psychological distress. Generally, female prisoners reported significant higher levels of suicidal behaviour than men, while differences according to custodial status were less unequivocal. Corroborating international research findings, high rates of suicidal behaviour were identified among prisoners in Flanders, compared to the general population. Not only is suicidal behaviour a significant risk factor for suicide, it is also important in its own right as an indicator of profound psychological distress. Suicidal behaviour should therefore be an important target for prevention and intervention in this at-risk population.
Ali, Afia; Ghosh, Sanjib; Strydom, Andre; Hassiotis, Angela
The purpose of this study was to compare social and environmental historical and contextual risk factors between prisoners with intellectual disabilities and those without intellectual disabilities, and to investigate whether prisoners with intellectual disabilities were more likely to be placed on remand in prison (awaiting trial or sentencing) compared to those without intellectual disabilities, after controlling for socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, accommodation status and nature of offences. In this study, we carried out a secondary analysis of data from the 1997 Prison survey, which included 131 prisons in England and Wales. A fixed sampling fraction was used to obtain a representative sample of prisoners. A total of 3563 prisoners were approached and 3142 (88%) prisoners gave informed consent to be interviewed. Of these, 170 were identified as having intellectual disabilities using the Quick Test. Prisoners with intellectual disabilities were more likely to have lived in institutions or taken into local authority care and more likely to live in temporary accommodation. They were less likely to have had a paid job or any educational qualifications and more likely to perceive a lack of social support. Prisoners with intellectual disabilities were more likely to be placed on remand and were less likely to be sentenced, even after controlling for socio-demographic factors and nature of offence. This study suggests that prisons should be more pro-active at identifying people with intellectual disabilities and ensuring that their needs are met, including appropriate access to bail and court diversion schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bouchaala, Fateh; Ali, Mohammed Y.; Farid, Asam
The subsurface geology of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates is primarily composed of carbonate rocks. Such media are known to be highly heterogeneous. Very few studies have attempted to estimate attenuation in carbonate rocks. In Abu Dhabi no attenuation profile has been published. This study provides the first seismic wave attenuation profiles in Abu Dhabi using dense array of VSP data. We estimated three attenuation profiles: the apparent, the scattering, and the intrinsic attenuations. The apparent attenuation profile was computed using amplitude decay and spectral-ratio methods. The scattering attenuation profile was estimated using a generalized reflection-transmission matrix forward model. It is usually estimated from the sonic log, but to be more consistent with the apparent attenuation, we succeeded in this paper to estimate it from the VSP data. We subtracted the scattering attenuation from the apparent attenuation to deduce the intrinsic attenuation. The results of the study indicate that the scattering attenuation is significant compared to the published studies that are mainly based on clastic rocks. The high scattering attenuation can reach up to 0.02. It can be explained by the strong heterogeneity of the carbonate rocks. This study demonstrates that the Simsima and Rus Formations have considerable scattering and intrinsic attenuations. These formations are considered aquifers in Abu Dhabi; we therefore interpreted this high intrinsic attenuation zones to be due to the heterogeneity and to the fluids contained in these formations. The Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation is a more homogenous formation with limited aquifer potential. Hence, scattering and intrinsic attenuations of the Umm-Er-Radhuma Formation are low.
Alshaiba, Omar; Amparo Núñez-Andrés, M.; Lantada, Nieves
Mobile LiDAR system provides a new technology which can be used to update geospatial information by direct and rapid data collection. This technology is faster than the traditional survey ways and has lower cost. Abu Dhabi Municipal System aims to update its geospatial system frequently as the government entities have invested heavily in GIS technology and geospatial data to meet the repaid growth in the infrastructure and construction projects in recent years. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has witnessed a huge growth in infrastructure and construction projects in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and update its basemap system frequently to meet their own organizational needs. Currently, the traditional ways are used to update basemap system such as human surveyors, GPS receivers and controller (GPS assigned computer). Then the surveyed data are downloaded, edited and reviewed manually before it is merged to the basemap system. Traditional surveying ways may not be applicable in some conditions such as; bad weather, difficult topographic area and boundary area. This paper presents a proposed methodology which uses the Mobile LiDAR system to update basemap in Abu Dhabi by using daily transactions services. It aims to use and integrate the mobile LiDAR technology into the municipality's daily workflow such that it becomes the new standard cost efficiency operating procedure for updating the base-map in Abu Dhabi Municipal System. On another note, the paper will demonstrate the results of the innovated workflow for the base-map update using the mobile LiDAR point cloud and few processing algorithms.
Full Text Available Introduction: Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. Objective: To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Methodology: Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Results: Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management. Conclusion: The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.
Penitentiary Nursing has experienced during the last decades a deep transformation similar to that experienced by the rest of the Nursing. However, there is a great distance from the protective legislation. To analyze the main legal documents which regulate the functions of Penitentiary Nursing and to compare it with the health care reality of nurses in Spanish prisons. Narrative bibliographic review based on various sources such as Medline, Cuiden, Scielo, Dialnet, etc. Is selected 43 documents, due to its relevance with the theme object of study. Is rejected 4 articles for lack of the same. Analyzed documents regarding legal framework and functions of nursing in prisons in its different sections (health care, teaching, research and management). The functions currently carried out in prisons are the ones provided for by health care legislation outside the prison context, along with the internal administrative regulations established by prisons. The possibility should be reconsidered of integrating Prison Healthcare into the Public Healthcare System so as to guarantee equality of healthcare for persons deprived of liberty and to provide the same rights and obligations to health professionals working in this sector.
Full Text Available Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.
Harrison, Oliver; Al Siksek, Zaid
Objectives. We sought to determine cardiovascular risk factor prevalence rates among adults in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Methods. We used self-reported indicators, anthropometric measures, and blood tests to screen 50 138 adults aged 18 years or older taking part in a population-wide cardiovascular screening program. Results. Participants’ mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 14.3); 43% were men. Risk factor prevalence rates were as follows: obesity, 35%; overweight, 32%; central obesity, 55%; diabetes, 18%; prediabetes, 27%; dyslipidemia, 44%; and hypertension, 23.1%. In addition, 26% of men were smokers, compared with 0.8% of women. Age-standardized diabetes and prediabetes rates were 25% and 30%, respectively, and age-standardized rates of obesity and overweight were 41% and 34%. Conclusions. This population-wide cardiovascular screening program demonstrated a high cardiovascular burden for our small sample in Abu Dhabi. The data form a baseline against which interventions can be implemented and progress monitored as part of the population-wide Abu Dhabi Cardiovascular Disease Program. PMID:21940918
Sherin A. Sherif
Full Text Available This study examined the fishing industry in Abu Dhabi, the main fish-producing Emirate in the UAE, from the fishermen’s point of view. Marginal analysis was used to identify the most prominent fishing-revenue determinants along with assessing the allocative (price efficiency of inputs used. A log-log total value product (TVP function was estimated for a representative cross-section random sample of 131 Abu-Dhabi fishermen. This revealed that (1 labor, fishing effort, boat capacity, boat boarding expenses, and expenditures on oil and lubricants are the five main determinants of total revenue for the individual fishermen in Abu Dhabi; (2 boat-purchase price constituted a huge investment cost to fishermen distributed over the lifetime of the boat; although only one-third of fishermen acquire loans for this purpose; (3 the only type of records fishermen keep were those pertinent to monthly revenues; and (4 price efficiency is found not to be achieved for any of the five prominent inputs that have great impact on total fishermen’s revenues, as three inputs were found to be under-utilized in varying degrees, whereas two were found to be significantly over-utilized.
Hajat, Cother; Harrison, Oliver; Al Siksek, Zaid
We sought to determine cardiovascular risk factor prevalence rates among adults in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. We used self-reported indicators, anthropometric measures, and blood tests to screen 50 ,138 adults aged 18 years or older taking part in a population-wide cardiovascular screening program. Participants' mean age was 36.82 years (SD = 14.3); 43% were men. Risk factor prevalence rates were as follows: obesity, 35%; overweight, 32%; central obesity, 55%; diabetes, 18%; prediabetes, 27%; dyslipidemia, 44%; and hypertension, 23.1%. In addition, 26% of men were smokers, compared with 0.8% of women. Age-standardized diabetes and prediabetes rates were 25% and 30%, respectively, and age-standardized rates of obesity and overweight were 41% and 34%. This population-wide cardiovascular screening program demonstrated a high cardiovascular burden for our small sample in Abu Dhabi. The data form a baseline against which interventions can be implemented and progress monitored as part of the population-wide Abu Dhabi Cardiovascular Disease Program.
Al Mazrouei, Shereena K; Moore, Jennifer; Ahmed, Faiza; Mikula, Elizabeth Bradshaw; Martin, Gerard R
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect and affects approximately 8 out of every 1,000 infants born each year. Despite antenatal screening and at least one examination before discharge infants with critical CHD (CCHD) are routinely not detected before discharge from the newborn nursery. Newborn screening for CCHD using pulse oximetry is widely endorsed however until recent efforts, CCHD screening programs had only been implemented at the individual hospital level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of CCHD screening across the entire Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The Health Authority-Abu Dhabi (HAAD), in collaboration with Children's National Medical Center (Children's National), successfully implemented CCHD screening at the emirate level using a "train-the-trainer," two-tiered approach, starting with two pilot hospitals then rolling the program out to all birthing facilities. In the first year, CCHD screening was added as a mandatory test to the HAAD Newborn Screening Standard, has been implemented in most birthing facilities, and occurs for the majority of infants (86 %) in Abu Dhabi. This led to the identification of ten newborns with CCHD. Based on the successful identification and mitigation of barriers to implementation, the approach may be adapted for similar programs in other populations.
Al Shehhi, Nawal; Aziz, Faisal; Al Hosani, Farida; Aden, Bashir; Blair, Iain
Worldwide, human brucellosis remains an important and widespread infection. In the past, there were limited data on the occurrence of human brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates and the reported incidence appeared to be low compared with similar areas. In 2009, a new web-based infectious disease surveillance system was introduced in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. This paper reports data from this new system on human brucellosis for the 6 years 2010 to 2015. A dataset was extracted for each case of human brucellosis reported to the notification system for the 6 year period January 2010 to December 2015. Annual brucellosis rates by age-group, gender, nationality and, geographical region were calculated and compared. A total of 480 cases of brucellosis were reported. The overall crude notification rate was 3 · 3 per 100,000 population but higher rates were seen in certain population subgroups notably expatriate males of working age in the Eastern Region (approximately 10 per 100,000) and UAE nationals of all ages and both genders in Abu Dhabi (between 4 -- 24 per 100,000). These findings reflect environmental and behavioral factors linked to occupation and leisure time activities associated with the large number of small non-commercial livestock farms in Abu Dhabi. Controlling human brucellosis in these circumstances will be challenging.
Rouxel, P.; Duijster, D.; Tsakos, G.; Watt, R.G.
Objectives This study describes the oral health status and associated risk factors in a sample of female prisoners and compares their oral health to that of the female population from the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Method A random sample of prisoners was selected from HMP Holloway, London.
Farley, Helen; Hopkins, Susan
Space, time and movement have particular meanings and significance for Australian prisoners attempting higher education while incarcerated. In a sense, the prison is another "world" or "country" with its own spatial and temporal arrangements and constraints for incarcerated university students. The contemporary digital…
... require supervised release after serving their prison terms. We impose conditions of release for parolees... prison through the revocation process. Given the serious consequences that may follow from a violation of... tribal governments, or the private sector, to spend $100,000,000 or more in any one year, and it will not...
Cloyes, Kristin Gates
Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process.
Carcedo, Rodrigo J; López, Félix; Begoña Orgaz, M; Toth, Katalin; Fernández-Rouco, Noelia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences in the state of interpersonal needs and psychological health of male and female prison inmates who live in the same prison. The authors conducted in-person interviews with 118 male and 70 female inmates. The results show that women present a better interpersonal state and psychological health than do men. For both genders, the consequences of fulfilling or not fulfilling interpersonal needs-specifically, social loneliness and sexual satisfaction-are associated with psychological health. These findings suggest the importance of the state of prison inmates' interpersonal needs in promoting psychological health in the context of the prison, where these needs are generally difficult to be met. Making contacts possible between male and female inmates who are in the same prison might help them to better fulfill some of their interpersonal needs, especially those related to their sexual lives.
Kjaer Minke, Linda
The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the principle and practice of self-catering system in a Danish prison. Self-catering is a reflection of the Danish correctional principle of normalisation between prison and community life. Unlike some other jurisdiction, issues of control in meal preparation are subordinate to prisoners' right to choose and prepare their own food. Findings are derived from 13 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish maximum security prison for men, including in-depth interviews with 68 prisoners. Overall findings showed that thinking about meals and their preparation is time consuming for prisoners who tend to be positive about the system making connections with their ability to exercise responsibility for making healthily choices. The research concludes that prisoners' possibility for developing cooking competences during incarceration could support prisoners change in social identity from crook to cook. Food is a fundamental need and the ability to choose what to eat and to prepare one's own food should be a right for all people, including prisoners. This research shows that Danish prisoners are very pleased about the system of self-catering. Most prisoners are concerned about preparing their own meals according to their taste and cultural diversity. If the prison offers the opportunity to train as a chef during imprisonment it could support the prisoner's change in social identity from crook to cook on the outside.
Schwitters, A; Kaggwa, M; Omiel, P; Nagadya, G; Kisa, N; Dalal, S
The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners.
A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun
The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and χ2 statistics. The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling.
Schwitters, A.; Kaggwa, M.; Omiel, P.; Nagadya, G.; Kisa, N.; Dalal, S.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND The Uganda Prisons Service (UPS) is responsible for the health of approximately 32 500 inmates in 233 prisons. In 2008 a rapid UPS assessment estimated TB prevalence at 654/100 000, three times that of the general population (183/100 000). Although treatment programs exist, little is known about treatment completion in sub-Saharan African prisons. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of Ugandan prisoners diagnosed with TB from June 2011 to November 2012. We analyzed TB diagnosis, TB-HIV comorbidity and treatment completion from national registers and tracked prison transfers and releases. RESULTS A total of 469 prisoners were diagnosed with TB over the 1.5-year period (incidence 955/100 000 person-years). Of 466 prisoners starting treatment, 48% completed treatment, 43% defaulted, 5% died and 4% were currently on treatment. During treatment, 12% of prisoners remaining in the same prison defaulted, 53% of transfers defaulted and 81% of those released were lost to follow-up. The odds of defaulting were 8.36 times greater among prisoners who were transferred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS TB incidence and treatment default are high among Ugandan prisoners. Strategies to improve treatment completion and prevent multidrug resistance could include avoiding transfer of TB patients, improving communications between prisons to ensure treatment follow-up after transfer and facilitating transfer to community clinics for released prisoners. PMID:24902552
Full Text Available Sintesis geopolimer telah dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan abu vulkanik Gunung Merapi. Geopolimer merupakan suatu polimer anorganik aluminosilikat dengan rantai Si-O-Al yang disintesis dari material yang kaya akan silika dan alumina dengan larutan pengaktif natrium hidroksida. Analisis kandungan kimia abu vulkanik Merapi menunjukkan bahwa material ini termasuk material pozzolan dengan kandungan silika dan alumina yang tinggi, yakni 45,7% berat SiO2; 14,00% berat Al2O3; 16,1% berat CaO; 18,2% berat Fe2O3 dan 3,86% berat K2O. Perbandingan mol SiO2/Al2O3 dalam abu vulkanik Merapi tergolong tinggi yakni 5,55. Abu vulkanik Merapi dapat disintesis menjadi geopolimer meskipun mempunyai rasio mol SiO2/Al2O3 yang tinggi dengan menggunakan larutan pengaktif NaOH 66,67% serta menambah waktu curing selama 3 hari pada suhu 70Â°C untuk membantu proses kondensasi (lepasnya molekul air pada proses geopolimerisasinya. Geopolimerisasi abu vulkanik Merapi pada suhu kamar tidak dapat terjadi, ditandai dengan kekuatannya yang sangat rendah. Karakterisasi pada geopolimer berbahan dasar abu vulkanik menunjukkan bahwa kuat tekan optimum dicapai pada komposisi dengan perbandingan abu vulkanik/Na silikat/NaOH/H2O sebesar 50/10/4/6 dengan kekuatan 61,16 MPa. Analisis kualitatif berupa fasa mineral dengan XRD dan ikatan kimia dengan FTIR menunjukkan bahwa telah terbentuk fasa amorf aluminosilikat geopolimer dengan ikatan Siâ€“Oâ€“Si atau Siâ€“Oâ€“Al.Â Synthesis of geopolymer has been done by using Merapi volcanic ash. Geopolymer is an aluminosilicate inorganic polymer with Si-O-Al chain that has been synthesized from silica-and alumina-rich materials by using activator solution natrium hydroxide. The analysis of Merapi volcanic ash content showed that it was a pozzolan material containing high-silica alumina, with 45,7% of SiO2; 14,00% of Al2O3; 16,1% of Â CaO; 18,2% of Fe2O3 and 3,86% of K2O. Mol ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 was high, it is 5,55. Although it
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
George, Sanju; Clayton, Steve; Namboodiri, Vasudevan; Boulay, Sylvie
A significant proportion of patients who are heroin-dependant and receiving treatment in the community serve prison sentences at some point in their lives, meaning their treatment continues “on the inside”. Although prison inmates are promised the same quality of care as they would get “on the outside”, this is not always the case. Some drawbacks of the drug treatments offered in prisons can lead to people smuggling drugs into prisons. The present work describes how a patient, who is heroin dependant and attending a community drug and alcohol team for methadone maintenance treatment, smuggled methadone and heroin into prison, his reasons for doing that, his personal description of the extent of drug use in prisons and finally what can be done to stop it from treatment and policy perspectives. Drug misuse is common in prisons. Much more can be done at treatment and policy levels to prevent people smuggling drugs into prison. PMID:21954402
The link between prisons and disease has existed as long as prisons have been used for punishment. The prisons of the world still have high rates of infection with hepatitis, HIV, mental illness, and tuberculosis. TB is a major cause of death in prisons, mainly as a result of overcrowding, poor physical conditions, and lack of adequate treatment. The priorities of prisoners and of public health officials are often at odds with the priorities of prison administrators and prosecutors. Prison health care should be independent of prison administration and should be answerable only to the national public health program. Efforts should be made in those countries with the highest inprisonment rates to find other solutions to maintaining order in the interests of improving public health.
Nesset, Merete Berg; Rustad, Ase-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Almvik, Roger; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon
Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.
Rosen, David L.; Dumont, Dora M.; Cislo, Andrew M.; Brockmann, Bradley W.; Traver, Amy; Rich, Josiah D.
Medicaid is an important source of health care coverage for prison-involved populations. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed state prison system (SPS) policies affecting Medicaid enrollment during incarceration and upon release; 42 of 50 SPSs participated.
Zarroug, Isam M A; Elaagip, Arwa H; Abuelmaali, Sara A; Mohamed, Hanan A; ElMubarak, Wigdan A; Hashim, Kamal; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B
Abu Hamed, the northernmost onchocerciasis focus in the world, is located along the River Nile banks in the Nubian Desert. Hydroelectric dams can alter activity of black flies and may provide breeding sites for black fly. Merowe Dam, the largest hydropower project in Africa, was built west of Abu Hamed focus in 2009. The impact of the Dam on onchocerciasis and its black fly vectors in Abu Hamed focus was measured in this study. Entomological surveys for aquatic stages and adult Simulium hamedense were conducted before and after the inception of Merowe Dam in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011. There was no black fly breeding or adult activity in the previously known breeding sites upstream of the Merowe Dam with the western most breeding site found in AlSarsaf village near the center of the focus. No adult or aquatic stages of black flies were found downstream of the Dam. The artificial lake of the Dam flooded all the breeding sites in the western region of the focus and no aquatic stages and/or adult black fly activity were established in the study area upstream of the Dam. The Dam seems to have positive impact on onchocerciasis and its black fly vectors in Abu Hamed focus. These outcomes of the Merowe Dam might have contributed to the recently declared interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in Abu Hamed focus. Continuous entomological surveys are needed to monitor presence of black fly vectors and its impact on the disease.
Wollin, Judy A; Fairweather, Carrie T
The aim of the present study was to report the process and outcomes of a collaborative venture to offer a Bachelor of Science Nursing programme in Abu Dhabi. An international educational collaboration between the Abu Dhabi government in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Griffith University (GU) Australia, successfully established a College of Health Sciences offering a Bachelor of Science Nursing (pre- and post-registration). The report was written to reflect the chronological order of events as the Bachelor of Science Nursing programme was rolled out in Abu Dhabi commencing in 2007. The results of this initiative included the successful delivery of the programme and the gaining of initial accreditation in Abu Dhabi. The paper presents important insights into the collaborative nature of the agreement and the unique outcomes; dual awards from UAE and Australia. The success of this initiative required ongoing commitment from the collaborating partners. The programme required ongoing support from the School of Nursing and Midwifery in Australia. Griffith University provided the Head of School and Deputy Head of School for Abu Dhabi and the curriculum. The academic and administrative support from Australia was significant and must be incorporated into any business plan when planning such a venture. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Duggan, John M.
The purpose of this study is to explore ex-prisoners’ perspectives on prison drug treatment in Ireland. Prison drug treatment has increased across Europe over the last 20 years both in availability and modality. However, the delivery of drug treatment services in a prison setting is not without its challenges. The prison population is a multiply disadvantaged group, which experiences a disproportionate level of health inequality and social exclusion. Substance misuse is prevalent for a high p...
Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino
Many studies have demonstrated that the risk of suicide in prison is higher than in the general population. This study has two aims. First, to explore the risk of suicide in men sentenced in Andalusian prisons. And second, to study the sociodemographic, criminal and, especially, psychopathological factors associated with this risk. An assessment was made of 472 sentenced inmates in two Andalusian prisons, and included a sociodemographic interview, the IPDE personality disorders questionnaire, the SCID-I diagnostic interview (DSMIV), and the Plutchick suicide risk questionnaire. The interviewers were experienced clinical psychologists with training in prison environments. Adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression. A risk of committing suicide was detected in 33.5% of the sample. The diagnoses (lifetime prevalence) of affective disorder (adjusted OR 3329), substance dependence disorders (adjusted OR 2733), personality disorders (adjusted OR 3115) and anxiety disorder (adjusted OR 1650), as well as a family psychiatric history (adjusted OR 1650), were the predictors that remained as risk factors after the regression analysis. No socio-demographic risk factor was significant in the regression analysis. The psychopathological variables are essential and the most powerful factors to explain suicide risk in prisons. A correct and systematic diagnosis, and an appropriate treatment by mental health professionals during the imprisonment are essential to prevent the risk of suicide. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Babić, Dragan; Sinanović, Osman
To analyze the kind and the representation of psychic disorders in former prisoners of war and war veterans who were not detained in camps. The analyzed sample consisted of 160 respondents divided into two groups. A group of 100 former prisoners of war and a group of 60 war veterans who had not been detained in camps. All the respondents are males and were psychically in healthy condition prior to the war. The modified Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to diagnose traumatic experience, and a questionnaire according to the DSM IV criteria was used to diagnose posttraumatic stress disorder. The Depressiveness Scale D-92 was used to diagnose depressiveness; the questionnaire STAI was used to diagnose anxiety; CAGE Questionnaire was used to diagnose alcoholism. The former prisoners of war had traumatic experience at a higher level as compared to the war veterans who had not been detained in camps (P war veterans (P war veterans (P prisoners of war were living through a severer stage and had a more sundry traumatic experience. Severer stage of traumatic experience conditioned statistically higher representation of psychic disorders (PTSD and depressiveness) in the former prisoners of war as compared to the war veterans.
Gamman, T; Linaker, O M
Prison inmates have high frequencies of psychiatric disorders. Most prisons have little health-personnel resources, and methods to help focus resources towards those with serious health-care needs would be useful. The Global Symptom Index (GSI) of the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) has performed well in other populations. Prisoners at Kristiansand County Prison, Norway were asked to participate in the study, and 187 of 206 (91%) consented. All filled in the SCL-90 during the first four days of incarceration, and were examined clinically by a psychiatrist. Clinical examination revealed 40 persons with psychiatric disorder. Of these, 37 had a GSI score > or = 1. There were three false negatives and two false positives. Based on various cut-off levels for the GSI, we found a GSI cut-off value at 1.5 to perform best with sensitivity = 0.78, specificity = 0.87, and Number Needed to Diagnose = 1.55. SCL-90 performs well as a screening instrument for psychiatric disorders among prison inmates.
Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather
Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.
Full Text Available The main driver for this special issue was a profound concern about prison research and its future. The development of penal policy these days seems to be driven by levers such as increasing ‘law and order’ discourse which claims that the use of imprisonment is legitimate and that ‘prison works’; neo-liberal punitiveness in the implementation of imprisonment; and a managerial focus on ‘what works’ in prisons. This situation carries the risks that statutory agencies and academic researchers are drifting apart, which might jeopardise both the future of prison research and the evidence base of penal policy.The focus of this special issue is not on the ‘findings’ of prison research but, more importantly, on ‘how’ we do it and ‘why’ we do it certain ways, including the many legitimate concerns around access, choice of method, managing field work and communicating results, as well as ethical dilemmas that arise in all of these situations. We provide space for this very important discussion, reflecting not only the practical challenges of researching a total institution but also the politics which permeates every stage of such research. We invite you, the reader, to join us in this conversation.Download the PDF file from this page to find out more about this special edition.
Mathenge, Wanjiku; Kuper, Hannah; Myatt, Mark; Foster, Allen; Gilbert, Clare
To estimate the prevalence and causes of vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) in adult male prisoners in Nakuru, Kenya. A total of 1048 male prisoners aged > or =16 years in Nakuru Government of Kenya prison in Nakuru, Kenya were examined by an ophthalmologist for signs of xerophthalmia. Two hundred and forty-one cases with xerophthalmia and 448 controls randomly selected from the remaining prison population were interviewed about risk factors for xerophthalmia and blood samples were taken to measure serum retinol and haemoglobin. 23.6% (95% CI = 21.1-26.3%) of examined inmates showed at least one sign of xerophthalmia, mostly night blindness (98.8% of cases). In the case-control study, the age-adjusted analyses showed that xerophthalmia was associated with age, length of imprisonment and previous imprisonment. Men with xerophthalmia were significantly more likely be in poor health characterised by significant illness, recent hospital admission, persistent cough, diarrhoea, fever or chronic illness. After multivariate adjustment, duration of imprisonment remained strongly associated with xerophthalmia (OR comparing >4 years with <6 months = 20.1, 95% CI = 8.3-48.8). Previous imprisonment, fever, diarrhoea, hospital admission and chronic illness were also significant predictors. Serum retinol levels were significantly lower in cases than controls, while there was no difference in haemoglobin levels. Vitamin A deficiency was a significant public health problem among these Kenyan male prisoners, indicating that it may be important in vulnerable groups other than young children and pregnant or lactating women.
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7933] In the Matter of the Designation of Abubakar Adam Kambar, Also Known as Abu Yasir, Also Known as Abubakar Kambar, Also Known as Abu Yasir Kambar, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended Acting under the authority of and in accordance with...
Tânia Cristina Falquetto
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare hepatitis C prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors between prisoners and non-prisoners in the city of Colatina, Espírito Santo, Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved approximately 1,600 residents and 730 prisoners, all of whom were living in Colatina. The percentage of individuals who tested positive for anti-HCV was 0.1% (2/1,600 in the non-prisoner group and 1.0% (7/730 in the prisoner group, confirming a higher risk of hepatitis C in the latter group. The percentage of subjects who progressed to HCV-RNA negative was 11.1% (1/9, confirming the high probability of evolution to chronicity. Genotype 1 was the most predominant genotype found. Factors associated with increased risk of hepatitis C were being male, being institutionalized, having an income of less than three minimum wages, having low educational attainment, and using injected drugs. Alcohol use, pain in the liver, migraine, and reported history of hepatitis were markedly associated with hepatitis C. The prison population tested positive for anti-HCV at a higher rate than the non-prison population.
Hales, Heidi; Freeman, Mona; Edmondson, Amanda; Taylor, Pamela
Rates of suicide and suicide-related behavior (SRB) are high in prison. Those witnessing such behavior may develop psychological morbidity. Most previous studies have been quantitative. Little has been written about the witnesses' qualitative experience. The aim of the study was to explore, through interview and then thematic analysis, the core concerns of those witnessing another's SRB in prison. We interviewed 70 detained young men about their experience of another's SRB in prison. Three main themes were identified: their experience of another's SRB; their thoughts of why the victim died by/attempted suicide; and the physical, emotional, and cognitive effects of another's SRB on them. Responses to questions about the witnesses' experience of support from others, unmet needs, and peers' responses are also described. Two categories within the theme "thoughts of why the victim died by/attempted suicide" were associated with being in prison, all others could be experienced in the community. Over half of the sample reported negative reactions to witnessing another's SRB. Most themes were unrelated to prison. Though many reported negative reactions to their experience, suggesting a need for support, many denied that need. The implication of this study is that prison discipline and health-care staff need to consider how to provide needed support and care in an acceptable form to young men in prison.
Alpert, Geoffrey P.
Compliance theory applied to prisons is tested via longitudinal analysis of prisoners' attitudes from the time of admittance to a diagnostic and classification center through subsequent transfer to a penitentiary, reformatory, etc. Findings indicate the nonrandom procedure by which prisoners are assigned to institutions is more important than…
Reed, Monika B.; Glamser, Francis D.
Interviews with older prisoners at a major state penitentiary were conducted to better understand the impact of social arrangements on aging. Normal aging does not take place in the prison setting. Chronological age does not possess much salience for prisoners, and some effects of environmental stress on appearance are mitigated. (Author)
An increase in the incidence of tuberculosis has been observed in prison populations. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge of tuberculosis among sick prisoners. Patients were interviewed using a questionnaire. Sixty per cent of those interviewed had been in prison for periods ranging ...
Christensen, P B; Krarup, H B; Niesters, H G; Norder, H; Georgsen, J
In order to determine the prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among prisoners, we conducted a prospective study in a Danish medium security prison for males. The prisoners were offered an interview and blood test for hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus HIV at inclusion as
Alexandra Monteiro Guerra, Liliana; Façanha da Cruz Fresco, Paula
The primary purpose of this paper is to collect reliable information to characterize the pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons. The secondary purpose is to develop a set of suggestions for improving these services and, therefore, improve the health services provided to the inmate population. A three pages survey was developed that included questions covering the characterization of prison health teams, pharmacy services and pharmacy activities. This survey was sent to all Portuguese prisons, with capacity higher than 50 prisoners. The response rate was of 87.5 per cent. It was found that only 6.1 per cent of prisons had pharmacists and that in 63 per cent the guards still participated in pharmacy activities. There were not Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees in 94 per cent of prisons and 94.4 per cent did not present adequate storage conditions for drugs. Only 51.7 per cent of prisons had computers in the pharmacy and only 3.4 per cent had access to the internet. This study found that there is a gap between public and prison pharmacy services, since most prison pharmacies in Portugal are solely locals of storage and distribution of drugs, with no effective management nor promotion of drug rational use. This paper is the first study about pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons. The information collected could be very useful to improve the Portuguese prison pharmacy services provided to prisoners.
The study was a descriptive survey that investigated the counselling needs of prisoners, specifically, at Anakaful and Kumasi Central prisons in Ghana. The sample size for the study was two hundred and three, including one hundred and seventy-nine inmates, two sectional heads at the prisons, two regional heads of the ...
Hunter, Edna J., Ed.
This collection of articles was produced by the Center for Prisoner of War Studies, whose purpose is fourfold: (1) to provide information useful for planning the long-term health care of prisoners of war (POW's); (2) to evaluate the prison experience so that military survival training programs may be effectively planned; (3) to enumerate the…
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa, one of the largest prisons in the Southern hemisphere. Method: 193 prisoners were interviewed using the Mini Neuro-psychiatric Interview, a screening questionnaire and a ...
...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual violence, against any victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison...
Prison inmates tend to be side -lined in information provision in Nigeria. Library services to prisoners are critical to their rehabilitation into the larger society on release. The paper is an assessment of Provision of Library services to prison inmates in South East Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The questionnaire method was ...
Being deaf and in prison is a horror. The main fear of prison inmates, whether Deaf or hearing, is that they will be raped, killed, or subjected to other forms of violence. Such fears are based in reality. The recent overcrowding of jails and prisons has increased these problems significantly. A major reason for this situation is the blatant…
Background. Prisons are recognised internationally as institutions with very high tuberculosis (TB) burdens where transmission is predominantly determined by contact between infectious and susceptible prisoners. A recent South African court case described the conditions under which prisoners awaiting trial were kept.
Develay, Aude-Emmanuelle; Verdot, Charlotte; Grémy, Isabelle
This article presents the results of two studies designed to define the feasibility and framework of the future prison health monitoring system in France. The objective of the first study was to obtain the points of view of professionals involved in prison health and the second study was designed to assess the feasibility of using prisoner's medical files for epidemiological purposes. The point of view of various professionals was collected by questionnaire sent to 43 randomly selected prison physicians and by 22 semi-directive interviews. The feasibility study was based on analysis of the medical files of 330 randomly selected prisoners in eleven prisons chosen in order to reflect the diversity of correctional settings and prison populations. Additional interviews were conducted with the medical staff of these prison facilities. There is a consensus on the need to monitor prison health, but there are contrasting views on data collection methods (surveys or routinely collected data]. The feasibility study also showed that the implementation of a prison health monitoring system based on routinely collected data from prisoner's medical records was not feasible at the present time in France. In the light of these findings, it is recommended to initially develop a monitoring system based on regular nationwide surveys, while pursuing computerization and standardization of health data in prison.
Abstract. Incarceration of offenders has increased dramatically over the years. Nonetheless, more ex-prisoners still go back to the prison. The failure of correctional institutions to reduce crime needs to be addressed. Rehabilitation of prisoners via qualitative and vocational education is necessary. This study investigated the ...
Yates, Mark T.
The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any country. The causes for the large number of prisoners can be traced, in part, to a politicized war on crime that resulted in harsh sentencing and high recidivism rates. Prisoner education provides the potential for slowing the revolving door of prison by helping to create engaged…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guard-to-prisoner ratio. 97.14 Section 97.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR PRIVATE ENTITIES PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.14 Guard-to-prisoner ratio. Companies covered under this part must...
Introduction: Prisons worldwide have been cited as reservoirs for tuberculosis and also an ideal setting for interventions but little is known about the epidemiology and control of tuberculosis in Nigerian Prisons. Objective: To determine the prevalence of tuberculosis, role of prison in its control and the mortality from ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpayment of benefits to prisoners. 404.468... benefits to prisoners. (a) General. No monthly benefits will be paid to any individual for any month any... beginning on or after May 1, 1983. However, it applies only to the prisoner; benefit payments to any other...
El-Gilany, A; Khater, M; Gomaa, Z; Hussein, E; Hamdy, I
To estimate the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders among prisoners and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of different mental and personality disorders. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 16 randomly selected prisons in Egypt. A stratified proportional random sample of 1350 adult prisoners was included in the study. Data were collected by a psychiatrist by direct interview with prisoners. The study questionnaire obtained information about socio-demographics, prisoner circumstances, medical history, psychological factors, legal history of the prisoner as well as the Arabic version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the significant factors associated with presence of psychiatric disorder. The overall point prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 22%, excluding substance abuse and alcohol intake. The independent predictors for psychiatric disorders were work in prison (adjusted odds ratio = 0.6), family visits (0.5), substance abuse outside prison (2.7), history of psychiatric disorders outside prison (2.0), and repeated admission to the prison (2.5). The prevalence of mood disorders and psychosis was 3.3% and 1.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of personality disorders was 13.6%. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among prisoners; the most common being personality and antisocial disorders. There is a need for psychiatric assessment of prisoners when first imprisoned and for subsequent regular monitoring and treatment.
Vaccarino, Franco; Comrie, Margie
There has been a long, though often little explored, relationship between prisons and libraries. In the 19th century, in-prison libraries were introduced for evangelical purpose. Now they are seen as a key element in raising literacy levels and supporting prisoner education programmes which are ultimately aimed at rehabilitation and reintegration.…
Durczyński, Adam; Pietrzak, Małgorzata; Strzelczyk, Janusz
Opinions on letting prisoners donate organs appear increasingly. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate attitudes toward transplantation among inmates from a single prison in Poland. We administered a questionnaire consisting of 14 open queries about the knowledge, attitude, and personal views on organ donation to 100 male prisoners from the Second Penitentiary in Lodz, Poland. Completion of the form was anonymous and self-directed under supervision of the interviewer. Transplantation as a treatment option was understood by 90% of inmates. Prisoners' main sources of information on transplantology were newspapers and television (54%). The majority of prisoners (92%) were positive about transplantation; a smaller number of inmates (72%) knew about transplantation-related legal regulations in Poland. The terms "Central Register of Refusals" and "presumed consent" were understood by 63% and 61%, respectively, of the surveyed group. Most (77%) respondents knew that brain death is irreversible and 68% accepted these circumstances for donation of organs. The majority of inmates (74%) were fairly positive about donating their own organs and 60% said they would agree to donate an organ from a deceased family member. Prisoners rarely discussed transplantation issues (37%) with family members. The vast majority of prisoners (82%) said they trusted the medical and transplant communities. We conclude that surveyed prisoners have a basic understanding about transplantation. The majority of respondents were in favor of organ donation and willing to donate their own organs. However, further studies to evaluate opinions on organ transplantation with larger groups of inmates are needed to help set new boundaries for prisoner organ donations.
van Dooren, Kate; Kinner, Stuart A; Forsyth, Simon
In the community, all-cause mortality rates among those younger than 25 years are considerably lower than those of older adults and are largely attributable to risk-taking behaviours. However, given the unique health profiles of prisoners, this pattern may not be replicated among those leaving prison. We compared rates and patterns of mortality among young and older ex-prisoners in Queensland, Australia. We linked the identities of 42,015 persons (n=14,920 aged prisons in Queensland, Australia with the Australian National Death Index. Observations were censored at death or 365 days from release. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to explore associations between mortality and demographic and criminographic characteristics. We used indirect standardisation to compare rates of all-cause mortality for both age groups with those for the general population. We calculated proportion of deaths across specific causes for each age group and relative risks for each cause for young versus older ex-prisoners. Being young was protective against death from all causes (AHR=0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.8); however, the elevation in risk of all-cause death relative to the general population was greater for those aged less than 25 years (SMR=6.5, 95% CI 5.3-8.1) than for older ex-prisoners (SMR=4.0, 95% CI 3.5-4.5). Almost all deaths in young ex-prisoners and the majority of those in older ex-prisoners were caused by injury or poisoning. Young people are at markedly increased risk of death after release from prison and the majority of deaths are preventable. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.
Maria do Carmo Silva Fochi
Full Text Available The aim was to understand the experiences of pregnant women in prison situation. We conducted a qualitative and descriptive study in a female prison in the State of São Paulo/Brazil, with 14 pregnant women and we used the content analysis technique grounded on psycho-emotional approaches. We identified the categories: Search for Self-Protection, Guilt Feeling, Building the New Identity. The experience in jail meant solitude, fear, impotence, and resignation. There are restrictions on family relationships, social conviviality, food supplement, privacy and on the right to sleep/rest, besides the impediment to exercise motherhood. Women demonstrated guilt and pain due to the privation to experience maternity and breastfeeding, besides the fear to lose their child’s custody. The women had to adjust themselves to the new reality to live in prison. We conclude that pregnant inmates try self-protection to survive the losses and the affection and social disruptions.
Full Text Available Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations. Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees. Results: Job stress was highest among employees of “correction and rehabilitation center” of Ilam province followed by “Dalab vocational training center.” There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity. Conclusion: Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.
Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M
Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, Wm. Dustin
By some estimates more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach - mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that in order to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the “helper” and the “helped,” and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. PMID:25941214
Lyons, Thomas; Cantrell, W Dustin
By some estimates, more than half of inmates held in jails and prisons in the United States have a substance use disorder. Treatments involving the teaching of meditation and other contemplative practices have been developed for a variety of physical and mental disorders, including drug and alcohol addiction. At the same time, an expanding volunteer movement across the country has been bringing meditation and yoga into jails and prisons. This review first examines the experimental research on one such approach-mindfulness meditation as a treatment for drug and alcohol addiction, as well as the research on mindfulness in incarcerated settings. We argue that to make a substantial impact on recidivism, such programs must mirror volunteer programs which emphasize interdependency and non-duality between the "helper" and the "helped," and the building of meditation communities both inside and outside of prison. © The Author(s) 2015.
This article explores the importance of social bonds in facilitating an investment in prosocial behavior amongst female prisoners working as HIV peer educators. Female prisoners can lack strong prosocial attachments to both individuals and institutions prior to incarceration. Absent this bond, little prevents the female prisoner from recidivating.…
Rolison, Jonathan J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Gummerum, Michaela
Risk-taking tendencies and environmental opportunities to commit crime are two key features in understanding criminal behavior. Upon release from prison, ex-prisoners have a much greater opportunity to engage in risky activity and to commit criminal acts. We hypothesized that ex-prisoners would exhibit greater risk-taking tendencies compared to prisoners who have fewer opportunities to engage in risky activity and who are monitored constantly by prison authorities. Using cumulative prospect theory to compare the risky choices of prisoners and ex-prisoners our study revealed that ex-prisoners who were within 16 weeks of their prison release made riskier choices than prisoners. Our data indicate that previous studies comparing prisoners behind bars with nonoffenders may have underestimated the risk-taking tendencies of offenders. The present findings emphasize the central role played by risk-taking attitudes in criminal offending and highlight a need to examine offenders after release from prison. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
Paulo, Marília Silva; Loney, Tom; Lapão, Luís Velez
Abu Dhabi is the capital of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the largest of the seven emirates in terms of land mass and population. Abu Dhabi emirate has three different geographical regions: the Central Capital District, the Eastern Region, and the Western Region. The health system has been regulated by the Health Authority - Abu Dhabi (HAAD), and has been provided by the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company (SEHA), since 2007. The UAE has a high population-burden of morbidity and mortality related to chronic diseases. This paper aims to characterize the Primary Health Care (PHC) public services in Abu Dhabi using the Chronic Care Model (CCM) as a framework. Officially published data from HAAD, SEHA and the UAE Ministry of Health and Prevention was reviewed and abstracted. The Preferred Reporting Items Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement was used as a baseline to review the PHC services through the CCM approach and to identify potential opportunities for improvement. There are 38 SEHA Ambulatory Healthcare Centers (AHS) that provide PHC, from which 20 are located in the Eastern Region and the other 18 in the Central Capital District. The AHS adopted the principles of the patient-centered medical home model, aiming at providing structured, proactive and coordinated care. Implementation of the CCM elements aligns with those standards and is positively associated with the use of interventions targeting high-risk behaviors. The UAE has a strong foundation in place for addressing the growing problem of chronic diseases. The CCM has been shown to have beneficial effects on clinical outcomes reinforcing the PHC procedures and processes of care and should continue to inform systematic efforts to improve the care that lead to better lives for the Abu Dhabi community.
The aim of this thesis is to examine and analyse the images of graffiti contained within the portfolio of ‘Pudu Jail’s Graffiti (PJG)’, documented work from the abandoned prison facility in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2002 and 2003. The objective has been to discover whether the ‘Pudu Jail’s Graffiti’, has a distinct visual narrative(s) compared with other prison graffiti research, concluding that its qualities lies in the complexity of visual cultures brought within the space of the pris...
Luciana Ioana GRUIA
Full Text Available The article presents a short cost analysis related to the prisoners of Romania in comparison with other countries. The purpose of the article is to present the current situation of the costs and expenditures, the state is taking when imprisoning a delinquent and to draw future lines for the improvement of the prison system and Criminal Code. Data is used from online available governmental sources worldwide and is statistically worked and interpreted. The analysis is corroborated with the laws from the old and new Romanian Criminal Code and conclusions are drawn. The article presents partial results of the author’s yet not published work.
Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard
Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.
Gill, G V; Bell, D R
Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369
Libardo José Ariza
Full Text Available This article discusses how the aims and the social functions of prisons are reflected in their architectural designs. These are not simply economic organizations of space that host relevant activities; they also communicate important political, social, and cultural meanings about crime and punishment. The article also analyzes the roles that prison plays and can play in terms of the constructions of meaning and spaces that can promote or obstruct the social reconciliation that should supposedly be part of post-conflict.
I.F. Abu El-Nader
Full Text Available Abu Dabbab area is considered as one of the most active earthquake sources in Egypt. It is defined by its swarm type activity, and complicated stress pattern. This study was conducted to evaluate the two and three dimensional spatial distribution of b-value at Abu Dabbab area (Margin of the northern Red Sea Rift, Egypt. The gridding technique of Wiemer and Wyss (1997 was used to compute b-value using ZMAP software. The b-value is calculated from a catalog consisting of 850 well-located earthquakes, which were recorded from 1st June to August 2004, using the maximum likelihood method. These earthquakes were recorded by temporary digital seismic network, with magnitudes ranging from −1 to 3.4 ML. It is important to mention that the variations of b-value with time cannot be easily detected for a short period. Hence, this study has been carried out to examine the variations of b-value in space. The computed b-value in the Abu Dabbab area does not follow a uniform distribution. A small volume of anomalously high b-value (b > 1.8 exists in the central part of the area at a depth between 6 and 9 km. This seems to agree with the reported low velocity value derived from previous P-wave travel time tomography studies (Hosny et al., 2009 and the low Q value (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2008. The existence of an anomalously high b-value region may be attributed to the presence of a magma reservoir or dyke zone beneath the northern Red Sea Rift that causes an intensively heterogeneous fractured crust or unusually high pore pressure.
Full Text Available According to estimates, the dialysis prevalence in Abu Dhabi is around 370 per million population. The annual growth is 12-15% and the dialysis population is likely to double in the next five years. Most patients present to dialysis as an emergency and only 2.7% have an arteriovenous fistula at the first dialysis. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the Emirate is undefined. A study of the epidemiology of CKD and referral patterns was undertaken. SEHA, the Abu Dhabi Health Service delivery company, has a unified computer system containing all measurements made in its laboratories. This study considered all serum creatinine measurements performed between 1 September 2011 and 31 October 2012 from outpatient departments or emergency rooms. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (the Schwartz formula was used for children. We identified 331,360 samples from 212,314 individuals. The mean serum creatinine was 61 ± 48 μmol/L in females (59 ± 43 μmol/L in Emiratis, 63 ± 54 μmol/L in expatriates and 87 ± 69 μmol/L in males (80 ± 59 μmol/L in Emiratis, 92 ± 74 μmol/L in expatriates. Among Emiratis, 4.6% of males and 2.8% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. Among expatriates, 4.2% of males and 3.2% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. On average, eight months elapsed before a patient with CKD 3, and three months for a patient in CKD 5, to attend the nephrology clinic. This study has defined the prevalence of CKD within Abu Dhabi and demonstrated the need to improve identification and referral of CKD patients. Possible solutions include campaigns to increase public and physician awareness of CKD.
Al Shemeili, Saeed; Klein, Susan; Strath, Alison; Fares, Saleh; Stewart, Derek
Given the multiplicity of issues relating to medicines in the elderly, the structures and processes of medicines management should be clearly defined and described to optimise patient outcomes. There is a paucity of research which provides an in-depth exploration of these elements of medicines management for elderly patients. This study explored health professionals’ experiences of medicines management for elderly, hospitalised patients in Abu Dhabi. Setting The research was conducted in five major hospitals in Abu Dhabi, the United Arab Emirates. Responses to an online sampling questionnaire were used to purposively select nurses, pharmacists and physicians for interview. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to normalization process theory (NPT) and the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to explore issues of medicines management structures, processes and outcomes. Face-to-face interviews of 20–30 min were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the Framework Approach. Health professionals’ in-depth experiences of structures, processes and outcomes relating to medicines management. Results Saturation of themes was deemed to occur at interview 27 (7 nurses, 13 pharmacists, 7 physicians). Six key themes and several subthemes emerged from the qualitative analysis, which pertained to the need for: appropriate polypharmacy; a systematic approach to medicines history taking; improved communication and documentation; improved patients’ adherence to medicines; guidelines and policies to support medicines selection, and an educated and trained multidisciplinary team. The most dominant TDF behavioural determinants were issues around: professional role and identity; beliefs about capabilities; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; knowledge, and goals. NPT construct identified little evidence of coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring. The key themes
Al Zaabi, Muna; Al Muqbali, Shaikha; Al Sayadi, Thekra; Al Ameeri, Suhaila; Coetsee, Karin; Balayah, Zuhur; Ortashi, Osman
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, with about 500,000 new cases and 270,000 deaths each year. Globally, it is estimated that over one million women currently have cervical cancer, most of whom have not been diagnosed, or have no access to treatment that could cure them or prolong their lives. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective survey of cervical smear abnormalities was conducted in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE, from January 2013 to December 2013 by collecting consecutive liquid-based cytology samples from the Department of Pathology at the SKMC Hospital in Abu Dhabi city. The total number of women screened for cervical cancer for the year 2013 at SKMC was 4,593, with 225 (4.89%) abnormal smears. The majority of the abnormal smear results were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) 114 (2.48%). This study showed 60% increase in the rate of abnormal cervical smears in the UAE over the last 10 years. In this study the highest incidence of high grade abnormalities were seen in women above the age of 61 years (1.73%), this might be due to the fact that this group of women missed the chance of screening of cervical cancer earlier in their lives or could be explained by the well-known second peak of HPV infection seen in many prevalence studies. We conclude that the rate of abnormal cervical smear in the screened Abu Dhabi women is not different from the rate in developed countries. A notable increase in both low and high grade abnormalities has occurred within the last decade.
Dameh, Majd; Green, James; Norris, Pauline
The aim of this study is to investigate over-the-counter sale of antibiotics from community pharmacies in Abu Dhabi city, focusing on the extent, demographic and socioeconomic determinants of this practice. The study was conducted in the capital of the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi, and involved 17 randomly selected private pharmacies. A cross-sectional design using structured observations of 30 clients purchasing antibiotics from a pharmacy staff (either a pharmacist or pharmacy assistant) at each selected pharmacy. A total of 510 interactions were observed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. The extent and types of antibiotics sold over-the-counter in Abu Dhabi city as observed in the selected sample of community pharmacies, and the demographic and socioeconomic factors that contributed to this practice. Sixty eight percent (68.4%) of the observed antibiotic sales were sold over-the-counter without prescriptions. Injection antibiotics constituted 2.2% of the antibiotics sold, 45.5% of which were sold over-the-counter. Combination of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (34.0%), penicillins with extended spectrum (22.3%) and second generation cephalosporins (11.2%) were the mostly commonly sold antibiotic groups. Respiratory conditions (63.1%) were the most frequent reason for purchasing antibiotics. Over-the-counter sales of antibiotics were related to client ethnicity and age, gender of pharmacy staff and health complaint. Our study revealed high sales of over-the-counter antibiotics, despite this being illegal. The ineffectiveness of antibiotics in treating respiratory conditions of viral origin and effects of such practice on the emergence of bacterial resistance necessitates prompt action.
Richards, Nick; Hassan, Mohamed; Saleh, Abdul Karim; Dastoor, Hormazdiar; Bernieh, Bassam; Abouchacra, Samra; Al Jabri, Omar; Fleischmann, Alan; Richards, Marie; Marcelli, Daniele
According to estimates, the dialysis prevalence in Abu Dhabi is around 370 per million population. The annual growth is 12-15% and the dialysis population is likely to double in the next five years. Most patients present to dialysis as an emergency and only 2.7% have an arteriovenous fistula at the first dialysis. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Emirate is undefined. A study of the epidemiology of CKD and referral patterns was undertaken. SEHA, the Abu Dhabi Health Service delivery company, has a unified computer system containing all measurements made in its laboratories. This study considered all serum creatinine measurements performed between 1 September 2011 and 31 October 2012 from outpatient departments or emergency rooms. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (the Schwartz formula was used for children). We identified 331,360 samples from 212,314 individuals. The mean serum creatinine was 61 ± 48 μmol/L in females (59 ± 43 μmol/L in Emiratis, 63 ± 54 μmol/L in expatriates) and 87 ± 69 μmol/L in males (80 ± 59 μmol/L in Emiratis, 92 ± 74 μmol/L in expatriates). Among Emiratis, 4.6% of males and 2.8% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. Among expatriates, 4.2% of males and 3.2% of females had an eGFR between CKD 3 and 5. On average, eight months elapsed before a patient with CKD 3, and three months for a patient in CKD 5, to attend the nephrology clinic. This study has defined the prevalence of CKD within Abu Dhabi and demonstrated the need to improve identification and referral of CKD patients. Possible solutions include campaigns to increase public and physician awareness of CKD.
Supermaxes are prisons designed to impose long-term solitary confinement. Supermax prisoners spend 23 h or more per day in windowless cells. Technology, like centrally controlled automated cell doors and fluorescent lights that are never turned off, allows prisoners to be under constant surveillance, while minimizing all human contact. California built two of the first and largest supermaxes in 1988 and 1989. Corcoran State Prison and Pelican Bay State Prison, which together house more than 3...
Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise
Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and
Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.; Matsushima, J.
Seismic wave attenuation is a promising attribute for the petroleum exploration, thanks to its high sensitivity to physical properties of subsurface. It can be used to enhance the seismic imaging and improve the geophysical interpretation which is crucial for reservoir characterization. However getting an accurate attenuation profile is not an easy task, this is due to complex mechanism of this parameter, although that many studies were carried out to understand it. The degree of difficulty increases for the media composed of carbonate rocks, known to be highly heterogeneous and with complex lithology. That is why few attenuation studies were done successfully in carbonate rocks. The main objectives of this study are, Getting an accurate and high resolution attenuation profiles from several oil fields. The resolution is very important target for us, because many reservoirs in Abu Dhabi oil fields are tight.Separation between different modes of wave attenuation (scattering and intrinsic attenuations).Correlation between the attenuation profiles and other logs (Porosity, resistivity, oil saturation…), in order to establish a relationship which can be used to detect the reservoir properties from the attenuation profiles.Comparison of attenuation estimated from VSP and sonic waveforms. Provide spatial distribution of attenuation in Abu Dhabi oil fields.To reach these objectives we implemented a robust processing flow and new methodology to estimate the attenuation from the downgoing waves of the compressional VSP data and waveforms acquired from several wells drilled in Abu Dhabi. The subsurface geology of this area is primarily composed of carbonate rocks and it is known to be highly fractured which complicates more the situation, then we separated successfully the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering. The results show that the scattering is significant and cannot be ignored. We found also a very interesting correlation between the attenuation profiles and the
Fitterman, D.V.; Menges, C.M.; Al Kamali, A.M.; Essa, Jama F.
Transient electromagnetic soundings and terrain conductivity meter measurements were used to map paleochannel geometry in the Al Jaww Plain of eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E. as part of an integrated hydrogeologic study of the Quaternary alluvial aquifer system. Initial interpretation of the data without benefit of well log information was able to map the depth to a conductive clay layer of Tertiary age that forms the base of the aquifer. Comparison of the results with induction logs reveals that a resistive zone exists that was incorporated into the interpretation and its lateral extent mapped with the transient electromagnetic sounding data. ?? 1991.
Hamidi, Samer; Abouallaban, Yousef; Alhamad, Sultan; Meirambayeva, Aizhan
Neuropsychiatric disorders are of high concern and burden of disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aim of this study is to describe patient cost-sharing patterns, insurance coverage of ambulatory neuropsychiatric disorders, and utilization of neuropsychiatric services in Abu Dhabi. The study utilized the data published by Health Authority-Abu Dhabi (HAAD) and the American Center for Psychiatry and Neurology (ACPN) records in Abu Dhabi. The data were collected from the ACPN to describe patterns of insurance coverage and patient cost-sharing. The data included information on patient visits to the ACPN from January 1, 2010 till May 16, 2013. The data also included insurance coverage, total cost of treatment for each patient and the amount of coinsurances and deductibles paid by each patient. Additionally, the study utilized data published by HAAD on health services utilization, and health insurance plans in 2014. The percentage of total costs paid by patients and insurance were calculated by insurance groups and health service. Insurance plans with different patient cost-sharing arrangements for mental health treatment benefits were divided into three groups. ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were performed to test for differences among three categories of neuropsychiatric services (neurology, psychiatry and psychotherapy) in terms of the total costs and patient cost-sharing. The data were analysed using STATA version 12. About 36 % of the total costs on ambulatory neuropsychiatric services was paid directly by patients; 1 % of total costs was covered by patients as co-insurances and deductibles, and 63 % of total costs was covered by insurance providers. The average cost per visit was about 485 AED ($132), including 304 AED ($83) paid by insurance and 181 AED ($49) paid by patient. About 44 % of total costs was related to psychiatry services, 28 % of total costs was related to neurology services, and 28 % of total costs was related to psychotherapy services
Shahrour, Tarek M; Mohan, Sona; Siddiq, Muez; Hammasi, Khadija El; Alsaadi, Taoufik
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between legal status and guardedness in patients who attempted suicide in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The consultation-liaison team assessed 355 patients admitted for suicidal/self-injurious behavior, recording their guardedness before knowing whether they were legally charged. Patients who were legally charged for the suicidal act (n = 139) were 1.6 times (p = .03) more guarded in volunteering information than patients who were not legally charged. Legally charging suicide attempters might have a negative impact on risk assessment and psychiatric care.
Full Text Available This article concerns physical activity (PA in penitentiary institutions, understood as non-rest energetic effort performed by prisoners in their free time. The aim of this study was to determine the personality correlates of PA men serving prison sentences. Questionnaire methods were applied in the studies. One group consisted of men incarcerated in penitentiary institutions (N = 121, who were physically active, and the comparison group were physically inactive prisoners (N = 128 aged from 22 to 55 years old. The study results showed that prisoners regularly participating in programs in the field of physical culture and sports are characterized by higher emotional stability (p < 0.05 and a higher level of extraversion (p < 0.05. However, they do not differ in the level of psychoticism (p = 0.80. This paper is a fragment of larger studies on the psychological correlates of physical activity in penitentiary institutions.
Sedikides, Constantine; Meek, Rosie; Alicke, Mark D; Taylor, Sarah
That people evaluate themselves more favourably than their average peer on desirable characteristics - the better-than-average effect (BTAE) - is one of the most frequently cited instances of motivated self-enhancement. It has been argued, however, that the BTAE can be rational when the distribution of characteristics is skewed such that most people lie above the mean. We addressed whether the BTAE is present even among people liable to be objectively below average on such characteristics. Prisoners compared their standing on pro-social characteristics - such as kindness, morality, law abidingness - with non-prisoners. Prisoners exhibited the BTAE on every characteristic except law abidingness, for which they viewed themselves as average. Given that prisoners are unlikely to be objectively above average on pro-social characteristics, the findings push for a motivational interpretation of the BTAE. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Tattooing exemplifies several important links between criminal justice systems, public health, custodial management, and the social organization and behavior of prisoners. This commentary examines the efficiency of setting up legal, prison-financed tattooing centers as a way of discouraging illicit tattooing and minimizing bloodborne disease transmission risks in prison settings. The author posits that the impact of legal prison tattooing centers is unlikely to be significant since less than 5 percent of bloodborne infectious diseases have been reliably attributable to tattooing, either in prison or in community settings. Behavioral studies indicate that prisoners at the highest risk of contracting bloodborne infections would probably not utilize legal prison tattooing services. Furthermore, such a service is likely to be very expensive relative to potential health benefits. Strategies focussed on reducing injecting drug use among prisoners will yield greater benefits for reducing bloodborne disease transmission per dollar spent compared with setting up legal prison tattooing parlors. Social marketing of temporary tattooing alternatives (eg, henna tattoos) to traditional illicit tattooing techniques in prison settings is potentially valuable, as temporary tattoos pose no infection risk and may also facilitate reduction in occupational and social stigma associated with many illicit prison tattoos.
Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J
To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. All state prisons in the United States. Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100,000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100,000 v 128.9/100,000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer
Full Text Available Working in prison is a stressful situation for a clinical psychologist, given the contextual constraints. The psychologist is supposed to build caring relationships with psychiatric patients restricted in a iatrogenic context as the prison is. The authoridentifiesthree clustersof constraints at work in the prison context: legislative, institutional and cultural. Within this framework, the prison is faced to a conflict between custody and rehabilitation. The clinical psychologist has to manage this conflict and must build clinical settings similar to those outside the prison. The paper is based on the authors experience with short-time groups, of which a short description is givenKeywords:Prison; Prison and mental health; Custody; Rehabilitation; Clinical practice
Full Text Available This qualitative article explores the impact of faith-based interventions through the lens of a self-identified practicing Christian: Joanna. For over a decade, Joanna has visited several prisons in the United Kingdom in a faith-based capacity: supporting prisoners, families, and prison chaplaincies. Joanna professes the role of faith and religiosity to be a positive and influential component in the lives of those imprisoned. This paper explores Joanna’s journey of supporting individuals within the prison walls, reflecting on the impact of labels, imprisonment, faith-based intervention, and religiosity. Much of the current research pertaining to faith-based interventions are limited; therefore, the experiences of those who volunteer within prisons in a faith-based capacity is often overlooked. Yet, faith-based intervention and religiosity within a criminal justice context provides several benefits which impact on those in prison, their families, and people working within a prison environment.
Background Drugs play an increasing role in contemporary prison life. Prisoners’ drug use, drug smuggling and drug selling have also had a growing impact on the work routines and practices of prison officers. This has led to critiques that prison staff have become ‘too lenient’ regarding drug use....... Methods Based on observational data, qualitative interviews and survey data, this study examines the role of drugs in the way Danish prison officers exercise power. Results Two forms of power are analysed: institutional power, by which the officers can sanction or reward inmates in everyday prison life......, and personal power, by which the officers’ personal authority and skills can reduce the more intrusive aspects of prison control. These forms of power are applied by officers’ use of discretion in order to maintain what they consider to be adequate levels of peace and order in the prison wings. It is shown...
Kjær Minke, Linda
The article describes the principle and practice of food systems in a Danish prison. Specifically, the self-catering system which allows prisoners to buy groceries in the prison shop and prepare their own meals is explicated and analyzed. Self-catering is a reflection of the Danish correctional...... principle of normalization that states individuals should have the same opportunity to organize their everyday lives while in prison as non-incarcerated people living in the surrounding community. The self-catering system also supports prisoners’ opportunity to develop responsibility during incarceration...... which may improve their ability to subsequently desist from crime. Findings are derived from 13 months (1090 hours) of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish maximum security prison for men, including in-depth interviews with 68 prisoners. This research finds that prisoners spent a great deal of time...
Unver, Yener; Yuce, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan
In Turkey, prison studies are rare and the mental health status of prisoners has not received proper attention. The purpose of this cross-sectional and descriptive study was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and anger among a group of Turkish prisoners. Two self-reporting instruments (the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 and Multidimensional Anger Scale) were filled out by 685 prisoners. Prisoners in the study group were found to be depressive, anxious, and stressed. Anger symptoms and aggressive behaviors were found to be at a moderate level. Prisoners with a history of being subjected to domestic violence in childhood had higher depression, anxiety, and stress scores than those without such a history. Young prisoners, those who had been previously imprisoned, with substance dependency and higher stress and anxiety levels reported more anger symptoms than others. Psychological support, together with stress and anger management programs, seems to be essential. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Wood, Ruth I.; Kim, Jessica Y.; Li, Grace R.
Humans and animals show cooperative behaviour, but our understanding of cooperation among unrelated laboratory animals is limited. A classic test of cooperation is the iterated Prisoner?s Dilemma (IPD) game, where two players receive varying payoffs for cooperation or defection in repeated trials. To determine whether unrelated rats cooperate in the IPD, we tested pairs of rats making operant responses to earn food reward in 25 trials/day. The operant chamber was bisected by a metal screen wi...
Dixey, R; Nyambe, S; Foster, S; Woodall, J; Baybutt, M
The health needs of women in sub-Saharan African prisons are both neglected and poorly understood. Outside South Africa, little research exists on African prison health; what is available tends to be gender-blind and concerned with disease prevention rather than with health promotion. While Vetten (2008) has raised this concern previously, a comprehensive overview of women’s health and health promotion in African jails is clearly absent. Available evidence shows that the conditions in African...
This thesis represents a sociological exploration of Her Majesty’s Prison Service, male prisoners’ mental health, and the provision of National Health Service mental healthcare in a prison setting. This qualitative social science study is conducted in one prison establishment. The work is characterised as a policy and practice orientated exploratory case study. The study implements an inductive approach to the datum–theory relationship, a constructionist ontological position, and an interpret...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We report the prevalence of penile implants among prisoners and determine the independent predictors for having penile implants. Questions on penile implants were included in the Sexual Health and Attitudes of Australian Prisoners (SHAAP survey following concerns raised by prison health staff that increasing numbers of prisoners reported having penile implants while in prison. METHODS: Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI of a random sample of prisoners was carried out in 41 prisons in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia. Men were asked, "Have you ever inserted or implanted an object under the skin of your penis?" If they responded Yes: "Have you ever done so while you were in prison?" Univariate logistic regression and logistic regression were used to determine the factors associated with penile implants. RESULTS: A total of 2,018 male prisoners were surveyed, aged between 18 and 65 years, and 118 (5.8% reported that they had inserted or implanted an object under the skin of their penis. Of these men, 87 (73% had this done while they were in prison. In the multivariate analysis, a younger age, birth in an Asian country, and prior incarceration were all significantly associated with penile implants (p<0.001. Men with penile implants were also more likely to report being paid for sex (p<0.001, to have had body piercings (p<0.001 or tattoos in prison (p<0.001, and to have taken non-prescription drugs while in prison (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Penile implants appear to be fairly common among prisoners and are associated with risky sexual and drug use practices. As most of these penile implants are inserted in prison, these men are at risk of blood borne viruses and wound infection. Harm reduction and infection control strategies need to be developed to address this potential risk.
Hannan-Jones, Mary; Capra, Sandra
There are limited studies on the adequacy of prisoner diet and food practices, yet understanding these are important to inform food provision and assure duty of care for this group. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intakes of prisoners to inform food and nutrition policy in this setting. This research used a cross-sectional design with convenience sampling in a 945-bed male high-secure prison. Multiple methods were used to assess food available at the group level, including verification of food portion, quality and practices. A pictorial tool supported the diet history method. Of 276 eligible prisoners, 120 dietary interviews were conducted and verified against prison records, with 106 deemed plausible. The results showed the planned food to be nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D for older males and long-chain fatty acids, with Na above upper limits. The Australian dietary targets for chronic disease risk were not achieved. High energy intakes were reported with median 13·8 (se 0·3) MJ. Probability estimates of inadequate intake varied with age groups: Mg 8 % (>30 years), 2·9 % (70 years), 1·5 % (food provision in the prison environment and also poses questions for population-level dietary guidance in delivering appropriate nutrients within energy limits.
Teasdale, Brent; Daigle, Leah E; Hawk, Shila R; Daquin, Jane C
Currently there are few published, multilevel studies of physical assault victimization of prisoners. This study builds on the extant research by utilizing a nationally representative sample of correctional facilities (n = 326) and inmates (n = 17,640) to examine the impacts of a large set of theoretically and empirically derived individual- and contextual-level variables on prison victimization, including how the gendered context of prison impacts victimization. Results support the lifestyles/routine activities approach. Inmates who were charged with a violent offense, were previously victimized, were smaller in size, were not married, were without a work assignment, misbehaved, did not participate in programs, used alcohol or drugs, and those who had a depression or personality disorder were more likely to be victimized. In addition, the data suggest that 8% of the variance in victimization is due to the prison context. Prisons with high proportions of violent offenders, males, inmates from multiracial backgrounds, and inmates with major infractions had increased odds of victimization. Moreover, the sex-composition of the prison has significant main and interactive effects predicting victimization. Specifically, we find that the effects of being convicted of a drug crime, drug use, military service, major infractions, and diagnosed personality disorders are all gendered in their impacts on victimization. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Studies on the impacts the type of prison's environment had on the psychosocial well-being of their inmates were few. To contribute more study on this, the current study explored the psychosocial health profiles of inmates and the type of prison environment by comparing inmates' psychosocial profiles of a medium security prison to a maximum security correctional facility located in north central Nigeria. Participants were male inmates of medium security prison located in Bida, Niger-State and Jos maximum security facility in Plateau-State. All the participants filled the study instruments (i.e., a sociodemographic questionnaire, the ten-item personality inventory, resilience scale, and Oslo Social Support Scale after obtaining informed consent from them. There was a significant positive association of prison types with resilience and social support which was reversed for spirituality. The multivariate analysis showed that inmates of medium security prison had significantly higher resilience and social support scores compared to those in maximum security correctional facilities. There was no difference in the five dimensions of personality among the inmates and in their experience of spirituality. The findings add to extant knowledge on the impact that the level of “indigenous” deprivations had on inmates psychosocial wellness factors. The study hence advocated to the department of correctional services to modify the indigenous measures that promote resilience and social support without compromising security.
Coid, Jeremy; Bebbington, Paul; Jenkins, Rachel; Brugha, Traolach; Lewis, Glyn; Farrell, Michael; Singleton, Nicola
It has long been known that psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among prisoners (Coid, 1984; Gunn et al., 1991; Maden et al., 1995; Joukamaa, 1995; Bland et al., 1998; Lamb and Weinberger, 1998). However, the Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity Among Prisoners in England and Wales (Singleton et al., 1998) represents a considerable advance on earlier surveys. By using the same standardized psychiatric assessment procedures, and similar questions on medication, service use and social functioning, its findings can be compared with previous national surveys of adults living in private households (Meltzer et al., 1995), residents in institutions (Meltzer et al., 1996), homeless persons (Gill et al., 1996), and with the forthcoming household survey in England, Wales and Scotland. It should also inform the future organisation of healthcare for prisoners, following recent recommendations from a joint Home Office/Department of Health Working Party that Health Authorities must work with prisons in their catchment areas to carry out joint health needs assessments, agree prison healthcare improvement strategies and jointly plan and commission services (HM Prison Service and NHS Executive 1999). The ultimate test of the survey will be whether it provides a benchmark to evaluate the future effectiveness of the new policy changes.
John L. Hagan
Full Text Available While scholars and journalists have focused important attention on the recent militarization of intensive policing and imprisonment policies in the United States, there is little reciprocal recognition of how militarized versions of these policies were also exported for use in the occupation of Iraq. Intensive policing and imprisonment enabled the American-led and Shia-dominated Iraq Ministries of Defense and Interior along with U.S. forces to play significant roles in the ethnic cleansing and displacement of Arab Sunnis from Baghdad neighborhoods, and in their disproportionate detention in military- and militia-operated facilities, of which the Abu Ghraib prison is only the best known. The failure of American authorities alone and working with Iraq’s government to intervene in stopping the use of police and prisons as places of torture is a violation of U.N.-invoked and U.S.-ratified treaties, and thereby subject to prosecution. Such prosecutions have imported into international law the concept of “joint criminal enterprise” anticipated by the criminologist Donald Cressey and incorporated in the American Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO statutes used to convict organized criminals. We elaborate how the concept of joint criminal enterprise can be used to understand and possibly prosecute a chain of command responsibility for the use of policing and prisons as sites of torture in Iraq. We analyze the previously neglected international consequences of U.S. policing, prison, and mass incapacitation strategies with links to American criminology.
Locey, Matthew L.; Safin, Vasiliy; Rachlin, Howard
Altruistic behavior has been defined in economic terms as “…costly acts that confer economic benefits on other individuals” (Fehr & Fischbacher, 2003). In a prisoner's dilemma game, cooperation benefits the group but is costly to the individual (relative to defection), yet a significant number of players choose to cooperate. We propose that…
This study presents an overview of experiences with alternative sanctions in other countries with a view to the future development of the Dutch sanctioning system. The principal objective of the study was to examine the use of alternatives to prison with respect to their effectiveness and
Jan 1, 2006 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 83 No. 1 January 2006. PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN THE CENTRAL PRISON OF DOUALA, CAMEROON. J. Noeske, MD, German Technical Cooperation, BP 4400 (gtz), Douala, Cameroon, C. Kuaban, Prof, Université de Yaoundé I, B. P. 1274, Yaounde, Cameroon,.
Miller, Katrina; Vernon, McCay
A study of 41 sex offenders who are deaf found the rate of sexual offending was 4 times the rate of sexual offending by hearing offenders, with 30% recidivism. Sixty-two percent of subjects were functionally illiterate. However, the performance IQs were comparable to those of the overall prison population. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Medrano, V; Mallada-Frechin, J; Delibes, C; Fernandez-Izquierdo, S; Piqueras-Rodriguez, L
Some of the users attended in a Neurology service consist of the inmate population in a prison. The aim of this study is to analyse all the proposals referred from the Alicante II Prison Centre to a Neurology service. We analyse and describe the clinical characteristics of patients referred from the Alicante II Prison Centre to the Neurology service at the Centro Sanitario Integrado in Villena between the years 2003 and 2006. This analysis involved the following variables: age, sex, personal history, reason for visiting and diagnosis. A total of 88 proposals were recorded. The mean age of the patients was 35 years (84 males/4 females). A total of 15 patients did not attend their appointment (17%). Positive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus was found in 18% of patients. The most frequent reason for visiting was headache (32%), followed by seizures (25%) and, thirdly, vascular pathologies (13%). In a group of 16 patients (18%) the main diagnosis was established as being some kind of psychiatric disorder (anxiety, depression, simulation). No studies have been published in the literature that analyse the clinical characteristics of patients from prisons referred to a Neurology service. The high percentage of patients who do not attend their appointment and the high percentage of psychiatric disorders that are diagnosed within this group of patients are especially noteworthy. However, and as can be observed in the general population, headache is still the most common reason for visiting. Nevertheless, the group of neurological diagnoses that are most frequently attended is epilepsy.
Dock, Lavinia L
Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives for more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times. This month's article, from the March 1910 issue, addresses the force-feeding of female political prisoners in Great Britain. It was written by nurse and social activist Lavinia Dock, a cofounder of the Nurses Associated Alumnae (which later became the American Nurses Association) and the International Council of Nurses and a contributing editor to AJN. Dock wrote, "Among the prisoners thus cruelly treated have been several nurses." She shared physicians' outrage that the Home Office ordered the force-feeding but tried to place responsibility for the practice entirely on prison physicians. More than a century later, the force-feeding of political prisoners continues to raise ethical and legal issues within the nursing and medical communities (see "Ethical Issues for Nurses in Force-Feeding Guantánamo Bay Detainees" in this issue).
This study presents an overview of experiences with alternative sanctions in other countries with a view to the future development of the Dutch sanctioning system. The principal objective of the study was to examine the use of alternatives to prison with respect to their effectiveness and efficiency.
Describes incidents involving mental health services in prison facilities that illustrate "Catch-22" situations, in many of which inmates perceive clinicians as people who "come to watch you drown instead of throwing you a rope." Proposes a supplementation of "administrative clinical" thinking with nonbureaucratic,…
Prison, tuberculosis, control, mortality. INTRODUCTION. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by mainly. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans1. .... LA, Santos DS. The resumption of consumption -- a review on tuberculosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo. Cruz. 2006; 101(7):697-714. 6. World Health Organization (WHO).
EVALUATING EXCESSES AND SHORTFALLS IN PRISON SERVICES. A. M. ALIYU. ABSTRACT. Using data envelopment analysis, an unbiased index was establish by evaluating the ability of states to maximize their objectives subject to minimizing some conditions (inputs). This approach, which rank state from the most ...
Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn
perspective on the influence of co-design approaches on employee-driven innovation. It reports the findings from an exploratory case study focusing on the role of co-design approaches for enhancing employee-driven innovation in a prison context. The analysis shows that including user perspectives creates...
Maschi, Tina; Kwak, Jung; Ko, Eunjeong; Morrissey, Mary B.
The number of older adults with dementia in U.S. prisons is rapidly rising. Yet, the vast majority of this marginalized subgroup of the aging population is left neglected behind bars without access to adequate medical and mental health care services. We assert that proactive, interdisciplinary collaborative efforts to improve practice, policy, and…
Reynolds, William Bradford
In this statement by William Bradford Reynolds, Assistant Attorney General under the Reagan Administration, the problem of prison overcrowding is discussed in relation to the definition of "cruel and unusual punishment." The Supreme Court's decision in the Chapman versus Rhodes case is presented as an example in which overcrowding as…
Full Text Available This paper explores the process by which instructors learn to teach in prison. First, research on the challenges correctional educators encounter is explored. Second, an instructor training and mentorship program developed in Alberta, Canada will be presented, followed by a discussion of the importance on ongoing professional development that is specific to correctional educators.
This essay urges artists who teach in jails and prisons to reflect on the ethics and responsibilities of working with incarcerated people, creating artwork, and engaging social justice issues. It draws on recent controversies surrounding artists who make artworks that address political issues but are perceived by some to be appropriating the…
Shinkfield, Alison J.; Graffam, J.; Meneilly, Sharn
Eighty seven adult prisoners (58 males, 29 females) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a questionnaire on current health in order to examine both the prevalence of co-morbid conditions and the relation of depression and anxiety to ill-health and prior substance use. High prevalence rates of…
De Claire, Karen; Dixon, Louise
The effect of family visits on prisoner well-being and future behavior is an important consideration in the development of prison policy. This review systematically examines current research findings that explore the impact of prison visits from family members on three specific offender outcomes: prisoners' well-being, rule breaking within the prison, and recidivism. The review focuses on visits by family and does not duplicate earlier reviews but rather extends them into current literature, through identification of empirical studies conducted post 1989, published since 1991. Ten studies met the stipulated inclusion criteria. All are case-control and cohort studies. The review of studies used a standardized quality assessment tool. Results show considerable variation in study quality, methods, and findings. However, studies consistently reported positive effects of prisoners receiving visits. Prison visits reduced depressive symptoms in women and adolescent prisoners. There was some evidence of reduction in rule-breaking behavior. One high-quality study suggested that visits reduced recidivism and increased survival in the community. Although there were positive outcomes associated with prison visits, it was not possible to draw strong conclusions for the outcomes of interest due to a lack of research, methodological discrepancies, and variability in outcome measures and results. The discussion considers the implications of the findings for policy, practice, and research. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Prison Industries. 0.98 Section 0.98 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons § 0.98 Functions of Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries. The Director of the Bureau of Prisons is authorized as ex officio Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries and...
Abasaeed, Abobakr; Vlcek, Jiri; Abuelkhair, Mohammed; Kubena, Ales
Self-medication with antibiotics may increase the risk of inappropriate use and the selection of resistant bacteria. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Abu Dhabi. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the chi-square test when applicable. One thousand subjects were invited to participate in the study. Eight hundred sixty questionnaires were completed, with a respondent rate of 86%, consisting of 66% males and 34% females. Among the 860 participants, 485 (56%) reported the use of antibiotics within the last year. Amoxicillin was the antibiotic most commonly used (46.3%). The survey showed a significant association between antibiotics used and age group (p self-medication without a medical consultation, a behavior that is significantly affected by educational levels (ppharmacies without prescriptions (pself-medication is a relatively frequent problem in Abu Dhabi. Interventions are required in order to reduce the frequency of antibiotic misuse.
Full Text Available Abstract : This paper informs Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd ideas on Humanistic Hermeneutics, where it tries to put the Qur’an as a discourse, in a way of describing its hermeneutical thought development context. Hermeneutical task formulation is an extension of the previous task that is still being in the spirit of reconstruction of a new reading of religious texts. Al-Qur’an as discourse claimed as an attempt upon an extension way of reading with the whole spirit of construction over again. This Heremeneutical task is potentially burden the establishment, and controversial but it is certain.Keywords : Al-Qur’an, discourse, ta’wīl, semiotica, historical criticism, phronesis, intellectual grasp, agreement, application, translation Abstrak : Makalah ini menginformasikan tawaran Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd tentang Hermeneutika Humanistik, yaitu menempatkan al-Qur’an sebagai wacana, dengan cara dijelaskan dalam konteks perkembangan pemikiran hermeneutikanya. Tugas hermeneutika yang dirumuskannya ini merupakan perluasan dari tugas sebelumnya yang masih banyak berada dalam semangat rekonstruksi dalam upaya konstruksi pembacaan baru teks-teks keagamaan. Al-Qur’an sebagai wacana diklaim sebagai upaya perluasannya untuk melakukan pembacaan baru dengan semangat konstruksi lebih utuh lagi. Tugas hermeneutika ini berpotensi menggugat kemapanan dan kontroversial tapi niscaya.Kata kunci : Al-Qur’an, wacana, takwil, semiotika, kritisisme sejarah, phronesis, pemahaman intelektual, persetujuan aplikasi, terjemahan
Kamel, A.F.; Mansour, S.E.I.
Abu Tartour phosphate deposits form a part of the scarp face which bounds the Dakhla-Kharga depression in the western desert and occur at about 60Km to the west of Kharge town. A thickness between 17m and 57m of the phosphate deposit is developed in the central part of the scarp face. A total of 35 lithostratigraphic sections in the phosphate deposits were examined of which, 12 sections to the east of Abu Tartour phosphate mine, 22 sections to the west and one section at the locality of the mine. The phosphate bearing sediments belong to Dewi Formation, unconformably underlain by variegated sandy clays of the upper member of the Nubia Formation and conformably overlain by rocks of Dakhla Formation. The phosphate rocks are mostly of yellowish brown colour. Measurements of radioactivity showed that radioactivity varies from one deposit to the other. It ranges between 120 cps and 250 cps. The gravelly phosphate layers are the most radioactive. They have thickness 40-60cm and occur in the upper part of the section. Uranium content reaches up to 104 ppm
Khater, A.E.; Higgy, R.H.; Pimpl, M.
Abu-Tartor phosphate mine. New Valley district, is one of the biggest phosphate mines in Egypt which will start full production soon. The planned ore rocks (24.8%P 2 O 5 ) annual production is 4 million tons. The aim of this study is to estimate the natural radioactivity levels in Abu-Tartor phosphate deposits and the surrounding region. The environmental radioactivity levels in the surrounding region will be considered as pre-operational levels which are essential to determine the radiological impacts of phosphate mining later on. Phosphate samples (ore rocks, wet rocks and beneficiation wastes) and environmental samples (soil, water and plant)were collected. The specific activities of Ra-226 (U-238) series, Th-232 series and K-40 were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry based on Hyper pure Germanium detectors. The specific activities of uranium isotopes (U-238, U-235 and U-234) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface barrier detectors after radiochemical separation. The specific activity of Pb-210 was measured using low background proportional gas counting system after radiochemical separation . The results were discussed and compared with national and international values
Rahman, M Hafizur; Allen, Katharine A; Hyder, Adnan A
Considering the high burden of injuries, the Health Authority-Abu Dhabi developed a draft electronic and paper-based injury and poisoning notification system (IPNS) to generate better data on the nature and severity of injuries. The pilot testing and evaluation of IPNS was conducted with the specific objectives to (1) identify the characteristics of injury cases, (2) explore potential risk factors, (3) illustrate the nature and type of data, and (4) the working mechanism of data collection. Data were collected from selected hospitals on patient demographics, injury information and clinical assessment. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Of 4226 injury cases, nearly three-fourths were male, majority were non-UAE nationals, and the mean age was 21.9. Multivariate findings suggested that compared to UAE nationals, non-UAE nationals were 27% more likely to experience fatal, severe or moderate injuries (p = 0.01). Individuals with health insurance were 31% less likely to suffer a fatal, severe or moderate injury compared to those having no health insurance (p Abu Dhabi, and provides initial information on characteristics and injury risk factors that will help identify the need for evidence-based intervention for injury prevention and control.
Arena, Salvatore; Patricolo, Mario
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and its associated factors in a major referral centre for nocturnal enuresis in the City of Abu Dhabi. Children referred to the Pediatric Continence Clinic of Department of Pediatric and Urology Surgery at Al Noor Hospital, Abu Dhabi (UAE), between January 2014 and January 2016 for the suspected diagnosis of NE were considered. The inclusion criteria of our study were: age 5-14 years; full medical history and physical examination; urine dipstick to exclude glycosuria and proteinuria; completion of diagnostic urological work-up; final diagnosis of PMNE. Parents were encouraged to follow a program on urotherapy. All children underwent renal and bladder ultrasound, abdominal X-ray and uroflowmetry with electromyography. Constipation was treated, if present. 39 patients had a diagnosis of PMNE. A constipation was present in 17 children (43.6%). Statistical analysis documented a higher incidence of PMNE in the male groups. 38 out of 39 children (97.4%) resolved PMNE, 14 following urotherapy and 24 required medical therapy with desmopressin. Our experience clearly confirms a higher prevalence rate of PMNE in boys than in girls. In the study population, the large intake of dry and reducedin- fibers foods, the excessive intake of carbonated drinks and the hot climatic condition might negatively influence the incidence of fecal retention and the subsequent PMNE. A multi-modal assessment seems to be effective in the management of PMNE, showing a very high rate of resolution.
Fares, Saleh; Femino, Meg; Sayah, Assaad; Weiner, Debra L; Yim, Eugene Sun; Douthwright, Sheila; Molloy, Michael Sean; Irfan, Furqan B; Karkoukli, Mohamed Ali; Lipton, Robert; Burstein, Jonathan L; Mazrouei, Mariam Al; Ciottone, Gregory
Hazard vulnerability analysis (HVA) is used to risk-stratify potential threats, measure the probability of those threats, and guide disaster preparedness. The primary objective of this project was to analyse the level of disaster preparedness in public hospitals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, utilising the HVA tool in collaboration with the Disaster Medicine Section at Harvard Medical School. The secondary objective was to review each facility's disaster plan and make recommendations based on the HVA findings. Based on the review, this article makes eight observations, including on the need for more accurate data; better hazard assessment capabilities; enhanced decontamination capacities; and the development of hospital-specific emergency management programmes, a hospital incident command system, and a centralised, dedicated regional disaster coordination centre. With this project, HVAs were conducted successfully for the first time in health care facilities in Abu Dhabi. This study thus serves as another successful example of multidisciplinary emergency preparedness processes. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Saleous, N.; Issa, S.; Mazrouei, J. Al
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government has declared the increased use of alternative energy a strategic goal and has invested in identifying and developing various sources of such energy. This study aimed at assessing the viability of establishing wind farms offshore the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE and to identify favourable sites for such farms using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) procedures and algorithms. Based on previous studies and on local requirements, a set of suitability criteria was developed including ocean currents, reserved areas, seabed topography, and wind speed. GIS layers were created and a weighted overlay GIS model based on the above mentioned criteria was built to identify suitable sites for hosting a new offshore wind energy farm. Results showed that most of Abu Dhabi offshore areas were unsuitable, largely due to the presence of restricted zones (marine protected areas, oil extraction platforms and oil pipelines in particular). However, some suitable sites could be identified, especially around Delma Island and North of Jabal Barakah in the Western Region. The environmental impact of potential wind farm locations and associated cables on the marine ecology was examined to ensure minimal disturbance to marine life. Further research is needed to specify wind mills characteristics that suit the study area especially with the presence of heavy traffic due to many oil production and shipping activities in the Arabian Gulf most of the year.
Immenhauser, Adrian; Lokier, Stephen W.; Kwiecien, Ola; Riechelmann, Sylvia; Buhl, Dieter
Marine carbonate firm- and hardgrounds have been described from the Precambrian to the recent sedimentary archive. In comparison to the numerous publications dealing with fossil case examples, well-constrained studies of shoalwater hardground formation from modern (sub)tropical seas are comparably scarce. This comes as a surprise as only modern depositional environments offer direct insight into the plethora of environmental, geochemical, kinetic, and biological parameters that affect these features at formation and during diagenetic pathways. Here, we present the first results of a combined field and laboratory study with focus on firm- to hardgrounds (also termed "discontinuity" in the sense of a catch-it-all term) forming both in the shallow inner lagoon and the outer lagoon ooid shoals of the Abu Dhabi barrier-island complex. Essentially, the discontinuities found represent sub-grounds in the sense that they form a few centimetres beneath the sediment surface. Sub-grounds in the outer lagoon ooid shoals are cemented by characteristic needle-shaped aragonite crystals and essentially represent lithified crab burrows. In contrast, sub-grounds in the inner lagoon of Abu Dhabi form brittle intervals, perhaps 5 cm in thickness, that are cemented by platy aragonitic crystals that show uncommon morphologies. Botryoids are abundant and generally seem to affect crystal morphologies. First evidence suggests that these features form below the uppermost oxic layer of pore fluids in the shallow sedimentary column. These findings are placed in context with temporally-resolved data on sea and porewater chemistry.
Joudrey, P J; Jasie, K A; Pykalo, L; Singer, S T; Woodin, M B; Sherman, S
We evaluated the customers, operations, products and advertising of these businesses to explore the unique policy challenges created by the suppliers of waterpipes. We completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of structured site observations and in-person interviews of businesses in New York City, Abu Dhabi and Dubai identified using Google, Yelp, Timeout Dubai and Timeout Abu Dhabi and neighbourhood visits in 2014. Regular customers made up 59% of customers. Franchises or chains were 28% of businesses. Waterpipes made up 39% of sales with 87% of businesses offering food within their menu. Flavoured tobacco made up 94% of sales. Discounts were offered by 47% of businesses and 94% of businesses used advertising, often through social media. The market consists of largely independent businesses, with a large regular customer base, frequently offering diversified services beyond waterpipes. These businesses advertise using both traditional and social media. The economics of waterpipe businesses is very different from the economics of cigarettes, and unique regulatory strategies are needed to control this epidemic.
Full Text Available Abu Dhabi and Doha have evolved rapidly in the twentieth century due to the investment of oil and gas revenues. The fast economic growth resulted in an extensive period of urbanization. The various urban dynamics had a great impact with regards to new housing typologies during the last few decades. Doha’s housing market is studied in comparison with Abu Dhabi’s market considering their population growth rates, real estate market conditions, socio-cultural characteristics, and political approaches. The study is focused on the period from 2004 to 2013 where rapid urban development took place in both cities. The comparative assessment is based on three key aspects: housing typologies, housing distribution, in addition to housing supply and demand. The paper highlights that the urban growth in both cities is initiated via government investments, especially in the real estate market. This is reflected in the case of very similar housing dynamics in both cities. A gradual replacement of low-rise residential villas by high-rise residential towers (apartments/ penthouses is currently observed in both cities.
Yi, Youngmin; Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher
Previous studies provide insight into the mental health of jail and prison inmates, but this research does not compare the two groups of inmates. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this article examines how the association between incarceration and self-reported mental health varies by facility type, net of an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Both jail and prison inmates report high rates of depression, life dissatisfaction, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. In adjusted logistic regression models, those incarcerated in jails, compared with those not incarcerated, have higher odds of depression (odds ratio [ OR] = 5.06, 90% confidence interval [CI; 1.96, 13.11]), life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.59, 90% CI [1.40, 9.24]), and recent illicit drug use ( OR = 4.03, 90% CI [1.49, 10.58]). Those incarcerated in prisons have higher odds of life dissatisfaction ( OR = 3.88, 90% CI [2.16, 6.94]) and lower odds of recent heavy drinking ( OR = 0.32, 90% CI [0.13, 0.81]) compared with those not incarcerated. Furthermore, jail inmates report significantly more depression, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use than prison inmates. These results suggest the association between incarceration and mental health may vary substantially across facilities and highlight the importance of expanding research in this area beyond studies of prisons. The results also indicate that public health professionals in the correctional system should be especially attuned to the disproportionately high levels of poor mental health outcomes among jail inmates.
Fayeulle, Stéphanie; Renou, Frédéric; Protais, Emmanuel; Hédouin, Valéry; Wartel, Guillaume; Yvin, Jean-Luc
Entering prison can feed pre-existent behavior of demands or generate them. Several means of expression are then used. Hunger strike is an average privileged act. It belongs to prison culture. Estimate how practitioners working in prison take care of the hunger strikers. The study, realised in 2008, was led with all the Units of Consultations and Ambulatory Care in France. It is a declarative investigation where a medical testimony by unit was asked. From 174 "maisons d'arrêt" and establishments for punishment in France, 95 answers were obtained. This situation was already seen by 98,8% of the doctors. The motives for hunger strike were mainly judicial for "maisons d'arrêt" (70,1%) and prison motives for detention centers (68,7%). Mainly, doctors opted for a neutral attitude (63% of the cases). The hunger strikes were mostly brief (less than a week in 85% of the cases). Only 5,5% of the doctors proposed written information concerning the risks incurred during a fast. A doctor in 4 approximately (23%) was already witness to complications due to fasting. The fact that a patient may refuse care makes the medical approach difficult. Faced with such a situation, 45% of the doctors privileged their duty of care, 28% respected the patient's wishes, and 27% did not pronounce. From a therapeutic point of view, the place of treatment using vitamins was rarely recognized (32,7%). Hunger strike is rarely severe, but it is rather frequent in prison so that every doctor working there will be confronted with it. The refeeding syndrome seems often ignored. The coverage of hunger strike is governed by the law, but ethical questions stay in the appreciation of every doctor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nahal, Ayoub; Batac, Crystal Mildred O; Slaw, Renee J; Bauer, Thomas W
- The production of whole slide images is the most advanced form of digital pathology, in which a high-resolution digital scanner is used to rapidly scan glass microscope slides and produce a computer-generated whole slide image that can be saved, stored in a network-attached storage device, and accessed through slide management software within the hospital domain and remotely by authorized users. Digital transformation of glass slides has revolutionized the practice of anatomic pathology by facilitating and expediting consultative services, improving clinical workflow, and becoming an indispensable tool in education and research. - To highlight the institutional need of Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) and the cultural background for obtaining the United Arab Emirates' first comprehensive digital pathology program; to describe a multiphase road map for achieving full implementation of this platform; and to describe the system's clinical applications and its future potential growth. - At Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, we prioritized our efforts to initiate digital consultations (eConsultations) and digital immunohistochemistry services (eIHC) with Cleveland Clinic Laboratories (Cleveland, Ohio). After this, we established an internal archiving system together with a subspecialty-based, organ-specific digital library of pathologic diseases. - We describe the strategic adoption and implementation of digital pathology into the clinical workflow of the pathology and laboratory medicine institute of Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, and we highlight its impact on clinical operations, educational activities, and patient care.
Stuijfzand, Pieter; Smidt, Ebel; Zuurbier, Koen; Hartog, Niels; Dawoud, Mohamed A.
To be able to overcome water shortages, Abu Dhabi Emirate started an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project with desalinated seawater (DSW) as source water near Liwa. It is the largest DSW-ASR project in the world (stored volume ~10 Mm3/year), and should recover potable water for
Full Text Available Un saggio in memoria di Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd (1943-2010, filosofo e teologo egiziano che ha contribuito in modo fondamentale alla diffusione dell’approccio letterario applicato al testo sacro dell’islam e al successivo sviluppo di un’ermeneutica di tipo umanistico in grado di affermare la portata rivoluzionaria e antidogmatica del concetto di Corano come insieme di discorsi. Nominato professore onorario all’Università di Leida, dove insegna a partire dal 2000, il professor Abu Zayd è costretto all’esilio nel 1995, dopo la condanna per apostasia che gli viene mossa in ambito giudiziario proprio a causa del suo interesse per un terreno di studio così delicato. An essay written in memory of Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd (1943-2010, Egyptian philosopher and theologian who substantially contributed to the spread of the literary approach to the sacred text of Islam and to the subsequent development of a humanistic hermeneutics being able to affirm the revolutionary and anti-dogmatic significance of the concept of the Qur’an asset of discourses. Appointed honorary professor at Leiden University, where he began teaching in 2000, the professor Abu Zayd is obliged to go into exile in 1995, after his judicial conviction for apostasy due to his interest in such a delicate field of study.
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kenig, F.; Kock-van Dalen, A.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Huc, A.Y.; Leeuw, J.W. de
n-Alkanes, highly branched isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes (MMAs), dimethylalkanes (DMAs), and trimethylalkanes (TMAs) are the most abundant components in the hydrocarbon fractions of extracts of four modern and two Holocene cyanobacterial mats (1500 and 5110 ± 170 y ) collected in Abu Dhabi (United
Baker, Fiona S.
Abu Dhabi Education Council's new school model recognizes the value of play, although anecdotal evidence suggests that there are challenges to play in the preschool context. This article reports on challenges from the English Medium teacher perspective. Findings show that challenges are related to: (a) children meeting teacher expectations for…
Camba, Pitzel; Krotov, Vlad
The main goals of this article are to (a) assist business schools in understanding the curriculum alignment process, and (b) uncover critical success factors in curriculum alignment. Based on a case study conducted at the College of Business at Abu Dhabi University, a detailed curriculum alignment process description is provided. The process…
Hendriks, F.; Schrank, E.
Combined investigations on the clay minerals and the microfloras of the backshore to shallow marine offshore strata of the Abu Ballas Formation (Aptian of southern Egypt), give evidence of warm and semi-arid climatic conditions. The sedimentary successions studied, predominantly consist of alternating pelitic and psammitic siliciclastic deposits. Their clay-mineral association with kaolinite, high-cristallinity illite, illite-dominated randomly interstratified illite-smectite and chlorite is inherited from continental areas under erosion. The Abu Ballas clay minerals reflect only subordinate pedogenetic chemical alteration which suggests a restricted humidity and the absence of a major vegetation. They were transported into the marine environment by periodic river systems. Aeolian processes played a minor role. The Abu Ballas microfloras are overwhelmingly dominated by terrestrial pollen and spores. Marine phytoplankton is extremely rare. Important changes in the local Jurassic to Early Cretaceous microfloras include a decline of ferns and Araucariaceae and, starting with Barremian-Aptian time, the appearance and rise in frequency of early angiosperms and of ephedroids. This seems to indicate a paleoclimatic trend towards less humidity and rising aridity which may be supported by other Abu Ballas fossils such as the lung-fish Ceratodus and the palm fruit Hyphaeneocarpon aegyptiaca Vaudois-Miéja and Lejal-Nicol, 1987.
... might have a constitutional presence in the United States would render ineffectual the blocking and... have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do so would render ineffectual the... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7931] The Designation of Abubakar Shekau, Also Known as Abu...
Dolan, K; Larney, S
HIV in prisons is a serious public health concern. People in prison are at risk of contracting HIV through injecting drug use, unprotected sex and tattooing. However, most countries have largely neglected HIV prevention and care in prisons. The aim of this study is to review HIV prevention and care in Nepal's prisons This was carried out by Systematic review of published and grey literature. Nepal's National HIV Strategy acknowledges the importance of prisons in broader HIV prevention efforts. However, prison conditions are poor and there is no accurate information regarding HIV prevalence or risk behaviours among prisoners. HIV prevention interventions have largely been limited to ad hoc training workshops. Antiretroviral treatment is not available to HIV infected prisoners. There is recognition in Government policy documents that prisons must be involved in efforts to stem the HIV epidemic. However, HIV prevention and care remains largely non-existent in Nepal's prisons. Efforts to obtain external funding to initiate and maintain programs such as drug dependency treatment and condom distribution are required. Attention could also be given to introducing alternatives to incarceration for less serious offenders and drug dependent offenders.
Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Bonner, Heidi Stone
This study investigated prison homicide perpetrators through the lens of the career criminal perspective. Prison homicide, while a rare event, has critical implications for the prison environment. Despite its importance as a form of institutional violence that must be addressed, only four studies in the past five decades have explored the characteristics of homicide perpetrators/victims, the motives, and circumstances of the crime. The goal of the current study was to develop a better understanding of prison homicide by examining 54 perpetrators who committed 37 inmate homicides over 40 years in a mid-Western state prison system. Results showed that prison homicides typically involved a younger male inmate perpetrator, acting independently, murdering an older inmate, in his cell, by stabbing or beating the victim during an altercation. Perpetrators, in comparison with victims and prisoners in general, had a record indicating more prior community homicides, elevated institutional risk scores, and higher rates of serious and assaultive prison misconduct, all indicative of prior community and prison maladjustment. Consistent with career criminal research, prison homicide perpetrators constitute a small but distinct subset of habitually deviant criminals that perpetrate high rates of criminal and violent behavior regardless of context.
Choudhry, Khurshid; Armstrong, David; Dregan, Alexandru
The aim of this study was to analyze how working within prison environments can influence the self-identity and professional identity of nurses. The prison environment can be a difficult environment for nurses to deliver care within, with nurses having to carry out activities that seem to go against their professional role, while at the same time providing care to prisoners who have greater health needs than the general population. There is a lack of theoretical consideration of how prison nurses carry out their role in the face of such challenges. This study used a review of literature published over the last 11 years exploring nurses' beliefs, thoughts, and feelings toward delivering care within prison environment. With time, nurses working within prison environments develop specific skills to be able to deliver appropriate care to their patients. These skills include adapting to both the prison environment and the prison culture. Ultimately, adaptations lead to a change in identity allowing nurses to work effectively within prison. Providers of prison healthcare should ensure that induction (orientation) processes for new nurses are designed to address specific challenges that nurses face including the potential for cognitive dissonance. They should ensure that nurses receive training to develop and acquire the skills highlighted in this review. Ensuring that this training is in place may increase nurse retention.
Reading, Lucy; Bowen, Erica
The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions, beliefs and abilities that support adult male prisoners in overcoming suicidality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight male life sentenced prisoners in a Category B prison. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and interpret how prisoners have overcome suicidality. Findings - Five overarching themes were identified; sense of self, presence of meaning, connectedness, shift of perspective and re-establishing control. The themes were closely interconnected and revealed novel insights into the variables that supported prisoners to overcome suicidality. The themes were drawn from a specific prisoner population, which may not be representative of the wider prison population. Additionally, the sole focus on suicidality may be an oversimplification of self-destructive behaviours and could have affected the factors identified. The results highlight the need to refine suicide prevention strategies in prisons; in the assessment of suicide risk, the improvement of supportive regimes and the development of psychological interventions. This research is the first to qualitatively examine the factors involved in overcoming suicide in adult male prisoners. The research is of value to researchers and practitioners alike, as it extends previous research in prison populations and suggests avenues for the development of suicide prevention strategies.
Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul
Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal relationship between prisoners' perceptions of procedural justice--including fairness, respect, humanity and relationships with officers--and their mental health and (2) the moderating role of coping style in this relationship. Data were obtained from the Prison Project, a longitudinal study of adult male prisoners in the Netherlands, interviewed both 3 weeks and 3 months after their reception into pre-trial detention (N = 824). A cross-lagged structural equation model was employed to investigate associations. Prisoners who reported experiencing a higher level of procedural justice 3 weeks after their arrival in custody reported fewer mental health problems after 3 months. No evidence was found that coping style moderated this relationship. These findings suggest a causal relationship between procedural justice and psychological well-being. Fair and respectful treatment of prisoners is a predictor not only of prison order and prisoners' compliance but also of prisoners' psychological well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Forrester, Andrew; Exworthy, Tim; Olumoroti, Olumuyiwa; Sessay, Mohammed; Parrott, Janet; Spencer, Sarah-Jane; Whyte, Sean
In responding to high levels of psychiatric morbidity amongst prisoners and recognising earlier poor quality prison mental health care, prison mental health in-reach teams have been established in England and Wales over the last decade. They are mostly provided by the National Health Service (NHS), which provides the majority of UK healthcare services. Over the same period, the prison population has grown to record levels, such that prisons in England and Wales now contain almost 90,000 of the world's overall prison population of over 10 million people (roughly the size of Paris or Istanbul). This study provides an overview of mental health in-reach services in prisons in England and Wales, including variations between them, through a telephone survey of senior staff in all prisons and young offender institutions in England and Wales. 73% of prisons took part; of them 13% had no in-reach team at all (usually low security establishments) and the majority of services were run by NHS teams, usually according to a generic community mental health team (CMHT) model rather than other specialist models. Team size was unrelated to prison size. Each nurse covered around 500 prisoners, each doctor over 3700. Many provided few or no healthcare cells and 24-h psychiatric cover (including on-call cover) was uncommon. Despite developments in recent years, mental health in-reach services still fall short of community equivalence and there is wide variation in service arrangements that cannot be explained by prison size or function. The aim of community equivalence has not yet been reached in prison healthcare and a more sophisticated measure of service improvement and standardisation would now be useful to drive and monitor future development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ouédraogo, Ousmane; Garanet, Franck; Sawadogo, Simeon; Mesenge, Christian; Guiard Schmid, Jean-Baptiste
To evaluate the vulnerability of male prisoners to HIV, risk behaviour and access to prevention. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in july and August 2012 in Ouagadougou Prison in Burkina Faso. Two trained investigators collected data by means of individual interviews in the prison visiting room using a questionnaire administered to male inmates 18 years and older, imprisoned for more than three months. Two focus groups were conducted with prison guards and healthcare personnel. A total of165 male prisoners were interviewed. The mean prison sentence was 19 months, the median age of the inmates was 28years and 45% of them were illiterate. About4% of male prisoners reported having had homosexual relations during their imprisonment. However, data indicate underreporting and denial of homosexual behaviour by prisoners. 49% of prisoners shared razors or razorblades in prison. None of the interviewees reported injected drug use or tattoos in prison. The majority (84%) of prisoners had a good knowledge of HIVjAIDS and 6% were aware of the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Only 5% of prisoners had had a screening test during their stay in prison. Prison conditions, homosexual behaviour and absence of condoms in prison accentuate the vulnerability of prisoners to HIV j AIDS. Implementation of a prevention programme and management HIV-positive prisoners would help to reduce significantly the risk of HIV transmission in prison.
Hamidi, Samer; Shaban, Sami; Mahate, Ashraf A; Younis, Mustafa Z
The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has taken concrete steps to reform health insurance by improving the access to health providers as well as freedom of choice. The growing cost of health care and the impact of the global financial crisis have meant that countries are no longer able to solely bear the cost. As a result many countries have sought to overhaul their health care system so as to share the burden of provision with the private sector whether it is health care plan providers or employers. This article explores and discusses how the policy issues inherent in private health care schemes have been dealt with by the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Data was collected in early 2013 on health care plans in Abu Dhabi from government sources. The Abu Dhabi model has private sector involvement but the government sets prices and benefits. The Abu Dhabi model adequately deals with the problem of adverse selection through making insurance coverage a mandatory requirement. There are issues with moral hazards, which are a combination of individual and medical practitioner behavior that might affect the efficiency of the system. Over time there is a general increase in the usage of medical services, which may be reflective of greater awareness of the policy and its benefits as well as lifestyle change. Although the current health care system level of usage is adequate for the current population, as the level of usage increases, the government may face a financial burden. Therefore, the government needs to place safeguards in order to limit its exposure. The market for medical treatment needs to be made more competitive to reduce monopolistic behavior. The government needs to make individuals aware of a healthier lifestyle and encourage precautionary actions.
John M. Eason
Full Text Available The nascent literature on prison proliferation in the United States typically reveals negative impacts for communities of color. Given that Southern rural communities were the most likely to build during the prison boom (1970–2010, however, a more nuanced understanding of prison impact is warranted. Using a dataset matching and geocoding all 1663 U.S. prisons with their Census-appointed place, this study explores the countervailing consequences of the prison boom on rural towns across multiple periods. For example, locales that adopted prisons at earlier stages of the prison boom era received a short-term boom compared to those that did not, but these effects were not lasting. Furthermore, later in the boom, prison-building protected towns against additional economic decline. Thus, neither entirely pariah nor panacea, the prison functions as a state-sponsored public works program for disadvantaged rural communities but also supports perverse economic incentives for prison proliferation. Methodological, substantive, theoretical, and policy implications regarding the intersection of race and punishment are explored.
Genter, Shaun; Hooks, Gregory; Mosher, Clayton
In this study of prison privatization we draw on the insights of a recent body of literature that challenges a widespread belief that prisons help to spur employment growth in local communities. We look to these studies to provide an empirically and theoretically grounded approach to addressing our research question: what are the benefits, if any, to employment growth in states that have privatized some of their prisons, compared to states with only public prisons? Our research makes use of a large, national, and comprehensive dataset. By examining the employment contributions of prisons, as recent research has done, we were able to corroborate the general findings of this research. To study prison privatization we distinguish between states in which privatization has grown rapidly and those states in which privatization has grown slowly (or not at all). Our findings lend support to recent research that finds prisons do not improve job prospects for those communities that host them. We contribute to this literature by demonstrating that new prisons in states in which privatization is surging impede employment growth in the host community. To explain this we highlight the significant reduction in prison staffing - in both private and public prisons - where privatization is growing quickly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.11 “Prisoner of war” defined. Prisoner of war means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted or...
Moore, Nathaniel B. D.
This chapter describes the author's experience teaching ethnic studies inside a unique California prison, and calls for college-in-prison educators to engage culturally appropriate curricula to realize the full transformative potential of the prison classroom.
Food in prison is an insufficiently researched topic. However, prisoners often highlight problems with and criticism of their prison meals. This article aims to further develop this topic by giving closer insight into the use and attitudes toward ready-made meals in the Tilburg prison. In this prison, prisoners receive ready-made meals. This is in contrast to Belgian prisons, from which they were transferred, where meals were made from scratch. This change in the food system led to commotion and complaints. To understand the situation, interviews with prisoners and staff were conducted and observations in the Tilburg prison were made. The results showed that a food system can have considerable influence on prison experiences. In addition, and contrary to what earlier reports have mentioned, the ready-made meals also have some advantages, especially for the organization of daily prison life. However, most prisoners had negative attitudes toward these meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Belenko, Steven; Houser, Kimberly A
Prisons inmates have high rates of substance abuse and associated social and health problems, and a concomitant high need for drug treatment while incarcerated. Female inmates have an even greater treatment need, yet most inmates do not participate in treatment while incarcerated. Using data from a nationally representative sample of prison inmates, this article examines the impact of gender on prison treatment participation and gender differences in the factors associated with clinical treatment participation. Females were significantly more likely to participate in prison drug treatment than males, controlling for other factors. For both males and females, severity of drug problems predicted participation in treatment. For males but not females, race was associated with prison treatment participation, and among those with drug abuse or dependence, females with co-occurring mental health problems were more likely to participate in treatment. Implications for prison assessment and treatment policies, and future research, are discussed.
Being Deaf and in prison is a horror. The main fear of prison inmates, whether Deaf or hearing, is that they will be raped, killed, or subjected to other forms of violence. Such fears are based in reality. The recent overcrowding of jails and prisons has increased these problems significantly. A major reason for this situation is the blatant violation of the Americans With Disabilities Act by most jails and prisons in the United States. This includes the failure to provide interpreting services for necessary activities and facilities such as religious services, educational programs, vocational training, faith-based prisons, and mental health treatment for addiction. The author discusses other problems faced by inmates who are Deaf and offers suggestions for correcting injustices faced by those who are Deaf in American jails and prisons.
Prison inmates constitute a vulnerable population, in which socially excluded, poor and marginalized individuals are overrepresented and infectious diseases are more prevalent than in the general population. The poor health of inmates and recently released inmates is a rarely studied public health problem. The health trajectories of inmates living with the hepatitis C virus is an interesting case study to discuss public health interventions in prison. It is presented here as part of a socio-anthropological study of inmates and healthcare professionals in France. These trajectories shed light on treatment and healthcare experiences, within their economic, social, material and institutional constraints. They are an integral part of the public debate on prison health in France, comprising two prominent positions : the "pathogenic prison" and the "healing prison". These extreme positions in the broader context of this debate provide a better understanding of the context and obstacles to public health initiatives in prison and suggest ways to make them more effective.
The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1986 provided the catalyst from which the Health Promoting Prison (HPP) movement emerged. Here, an extensive review of the available prison-related health literature provides the basis for critical discussion and recommendations for nursing services and prison-related health care. The findings suggest that current prison-based nursing services are seriously neglected and woefully lacking in structure and resources. This article recommends strategies for reform that includes nurses who practice in all settings, and not just prison-based nurses. If nurses wish to be at the forefront of future HPP strategies, they must first embrace the radical health promotion reforms that are emerging from the current literature. Building sustainable group capacity into prison-based health care, through developing social interaction, cohesion, participation and political action can only benefit the community at large and further emphasise the health promotion role of nursing.
Women form a minority (5%) in the UK prison system, which is predominantly designed for men. A high number of women prisoners bring experiences of trauma and abuse with them into the system. The incidence of mental health problems is inordinately high compared to the general population. Whilst...... an increasing number of UK music therapists work in forensic psychiatry providing treatment for mentally disordered offenders, there is a dearth of music therapists working in UK prisons. There is correspondingly little research into music therapy and women prisoners. This embedded QUAL(quan) mixed methods...... study investigates whether there is a change in the self-perception of women prisoners attending music therapy, and whether, if this is the case, they show an improved ability to engage with prison resettlement interventions. It also examines the impact of different treatment lengths on outcomes. 10...
Ronel, Natti; Frid, Noa; Timor, Uri
Positive criminology is a new term for a perspective associated with theories and models that relate to socially inclusive, positively experienced influences that assist individuals in desisting or refraining from criminal and deviant behavior. A qualitative phenomenological study of prisoners who were in recovery from substance dependency and who participated in a Vipassana course in a rehabilitative prison introduces features of positive criminology. A total of 22 male prisoners participated in a 10-day Vipassana course run by volunteers in prison. Deep interviews were conducted with participants before, immediately after, and 3 to 4 months after the course. The findings describe components of positive criminology that had meaningful impact on the prisoners in rehabilitation: perceived goodness, positive relationship with the prison staff, positive social atmosphere, and overcoming an ordeal. Implications for practice and further research are outlined.
Sliva, Shannon M; Samimi, Ceema
The prison industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States, fueled largely by prison privatization. UN guidelines and U.S. federal policy outline standards for prison workers, but evidence suggests that protections have been ignored or circumvented. The current prison labor system allows corporations to profit from punishment that is disproportionately allocated to people of color and the poor. This article provides a critical analysis of prison labor policies in the United States and proposes a position for social workers on the ethical and restorative use of inmate labor. This model uses the framework of restorative justice to explore how successful models of social enterprise can benefit inmates and their communities. Meaningful prison enterprises may offer the ability to return resources to communities depleted by crime and incarceration, and to restore inmates to full citizenship.
The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.
Full Text Available Background: Mental health of prisoners, as a high risk group, is of considerable importance. Unfortunately limited data is currently available about psychiatric morbidity of this group in Iran. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of axis I disorders in prisoners and their correlation with the type of offense. Methods: Using stratified random sampling 351 prisoners from five offense categories (54 from financial, 71 from violent, 74 from nonviolent, 72 from drug related and 80 from immoral acts subgroup were recruited into the study, and examined by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results: Eighty- eight percent of the prisoners had experienced at least one axis I disorder throughout their lives, and 46.9% met the criteria for current disorders. Substance related (78% and mood disorders (48.7% were the most prevalent of lifetime disorders. However, mood (30.7% and adjustment (12.6% disorders had the highest amounts in current diagnoses. The total number of disorders was lowest in the financial subgroup. The drug related subgroup had lower rate of anxiety and higher rate of substance related disorders. Conclusion: Compared to western studies, the prevalence of axis I disorders in this study is among the highest. The fact that about half of all prisoners at the time of study suffered from at least one axis I disorder shows the emergent need of this group for more mental health care and services.
Hajat, Cother; Harrison, Oliver; Al Siksek, Zaid
The validity of HbA(1c) as a population diagnostic tool was tested against oral glucose tolerance testing in Abu Dhabi nationals. The screening tool of HbA(1c) and random glucose was validated against the "gold standard" oral glucose tolerance test according to World Health Organization criteria. The HbA(1c) threshold of 6.4% provided the optimum balance between sensitivity (72.0%) and specificity (84.3%) with positive and negative predictive values of 47.9 and 93.7% and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.78. This threshold compares with a threshold of 6.5% recommended by the International Scientific Committee and American Diabetes Association and of 6.3% in a recent study in China. This study successfully validates the feasibility and threshold of HbA(1c) for diagnosis of diabetes at the population level in a Middle-Eastern population. This result is a major step in the fight to tackle the increasing burden of diabetes in the United Arab Emirates.
H. A. Harahsheh
Full Text Available Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy ‘A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS with Vertical polarization (VV to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like ”Zirku Island”, and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to
Harahsheh, H. A.
Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy `A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS) with Vertical polarization (VV) to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like "Zirku Island", and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to protect the coastline
Full Text Available Drugs are consumed in all prisons throughout the world in such a way that the matter has turned into a challenging issue for the governments. The current research seeks to determine the level of the spread of drug abuse among prison inmates in the country’s prisons. To name the other objectives pursued by this research one can refer to the distinction of demographic features of the abusers, determining the type of drugs distributed, the method of consumption in prisons, existence of high-risk behaviors and its level among prison inmates as well as taking into consideration the spread of mental disorders along with drug abuse. Such a research has been carried out in the form of a qualitative and quantitative study. The collection of the required data in the qualitative study was conducted by using detailed questionnaires and through interviews in four groups comprising male and female inmates who have committed drug-related crimes or other offences, prison wards as well as prison authorities. In the quantitative study that was conducted on male inmates questionnaires related to demographic and general specifications, the assessment of the situation of drug abuse and individuals’ view towards drug abuse as well as SCL-90-R were used. The group under study includes all prison inmates, prison wards and prison authorities in Iran. The individuals under study were selected from prisons in five different provinces using the cluster sample-taking and random methods. The number of individuals in the sample reached 1436 people. In order to clarify the outcome, frequency tables, mode, mediam, mean, standard deviation as well as X & Z tests were used. The result of the research implies that the comparison of drug abuse before and after entering the prison indicates a meaningful relationship.Meanwhile no meaningful difference was observed among age groups.
Rowell, Tawandra L; Wu, Elwin; Hart, Carl L; Haile, Rahwa; El-Bassel, Nabila
Black men currently comprise a substantial percentage of prisoners in the United States. Drug dependence is common among prison populations, and US prisons are high-risk environments for drug use. Prison drug use exacerbates health problems disproportionately prevalent among Black men and prisoners. The goal of this research was to examine predictors of prison drug use among incarcerated Black men. This study examined drug use within the prison environment in a random sample of 134 Black men incarcerated in maximum-security correctional institution. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used to measure illicit drug use history and the extent to which drug use occurred within the prison environment. Seventy-five percent of the participants reported a history of illicit drug use. Overall, 20% (n 25) of the participants, or 25% of those with a history of drug use, reported using drugs during a time frame consistent with incarceration. Participants with lengthier histories of drug use (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) and those who were incarcerated longer (OR: 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) were more likely to use drugs in prison. Drug use in prison was associated with history of injection drug use and with probation/parole status when arrested. Prisoners are engaging in illicit drug use while incarcerated, suggesting that they could benefit from harm reduction and drug treatment services offered during incarceration. Drug treatment programs that address long-standing addictions and coping mechanisms for lengthy prison stays, specifically, would be especially useful for this population.
Prison is a difficult and violent environment. Women prisoners are often in situations of frailty, social and emotional misery. Mothers who have a child under the age of 18 months are able to live with them in dedicated wings. However, although prison conditions have improved with time, discussion is needed around the development of alternatives to incarceration, such as electronic tagging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Stephen C. Richards
Full Text Available USP Marion is the first supermax federal penitentiary. Marionization refers to the experimental control program used at this prison. The prisoners speaking in this article suffered many years of solitary confinement. This research brief discusses some of what they experienced in their own words. These are the recollections of a few Marion prisoners that have summoned the courage to speak out and share their darkest memories.
Stephen C. Richards
USP Marion is the first supermax federal penitentiary. Marionization refers to the experimental control program used at this prison. The prisoners speaking in this article suffered many years of solitary confinement. This research brief discusses some of what they experienced in their own words. These are the recollections of a few Marion prisoners that have summoned the courage to speak out and share their darkest memories.
Gray, R; Fawcett, T
The aim of this study was to devise and test a triage protocol to prioritise patients' dental needs in a prison environment. Secondary aims were to include in the triage process oral health promotion and information about accessing prison dental services. Also to work collaboratively with the prison staff to improve referrals to the dental services. The triage system was devised to have three strands: (1) an oral health assessment conducted by the dental nurse during the induction process for each new prisoner; (2) a simple oral health examination conducted in monthly screening clinics; (3) the prioritisation of referrals from prison landing staff using the prisons computer system PRISM. The triage was evaluated by assessing the first 100 patients' records with regard to the prioritisation of the triage category at the time of the clinical dental examination. Of the 100 patients triaged 95% were prioritised into the correct triage category. Seventy-two percent of patients were seen in the appropriate timeframe. Referral patterns from prison landing staff were improved along with interdisciplinary working in the prison. All new prisoners were seen within 72 hours of committal and received oral health advice and information on accessing dental services. This is the first triage system to be introduced into Hydebank Wood Prison, facilitating a targeted approach to dental care. It has improved access to the prison dental services; introduced oral health advice and information into the regular prison healthcare structure; and improved the efficiency of the clinical dental sessions. It is hoped to strategically address problems with waiting times and inequity in service utilisation.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to demonstrate how the narrative interview can be used to collect qualitative data in the prison setting. The article discusses the methodology underpinning this technique and the challenges that arise when the researcher conducts narrative interviews with people in prisons. The challenges concern three aspects of the narrative interview: the personality and role of the researcher, the characteristics of the interviewees, and the prison as the setting for interviews.
Silva, Diego S; Matheson, Flora I; Lavery, James V
Despite the growing recognition for the need to improve the health of prisoners in Canada and the need for health research, there has been little discussion of the ethical issues with regards to health research with prisoners in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to encourage a national conversation about what it means to conduct ethically sound health research with prisoners given the current realities of the Canadian system. Lessons from the Canadian system could presumably apply in other jurisdictions. Any discussion regarding research ethics with Canadian prisoners must begin by first taking into account the disproportionate number of Indigenous prisoners (e.g., 22-25% of prisoners are Indigenous, while representing approximately 3% of the general Canadian population) and the high proportion of prisoners suffering from mental illnesses (e.g., 45% of males and 69% of female inmates required mental health interventions while in custody). The main ethical challenges that researchers must navigate are (a) the power imbalances between them, the correctional services staff, and the prisoners, and the effects this has on obtaining voluntary consent to research; and (b), the various challenges associated to protecting the privacy and confidentiality of study participants who are prisoners. In order to solve these challenges, a first step would be to develop clear and transparent processes for ethical health research, which ought to be informed by multiple stakeholders, including prisoners, the correctional services staff, and researchers themselves. Stakeholder and community engagement ought to occur in Canada with regards to ethical health research with prisoners that should also include consultation with various parties, including prisoners, correctional services staff, and researchers. It is important that national and provincial research ethics organizations examine the sufficiency of existing research ethics guidance and, where there are gaps, to develop
Aimar Ventsel; Baurzhan Zhanguttin
This article is the first publication of materials about Pakhta-Aral prison camp No. 29 for prisoners of war. The fate of prisoners of war (both Western and Eastern) remains largely unclear. One reason is because the camps for prisoners of war were subordinated to an extremely closed and classified structure – the GUPVI. To some extent, Pakhta-Aral was an untypical prison camp in the Soviet prison camp system. While most prison camps were established to support industry or resource extraction...
Claire W. Herbert
Full Text Available The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports.
HERBERT, CLAIRE W.; MORENOFF, JEFFREY D.; HARDING, DAVID J.
The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports. PMID:26913294
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Background and Objectives: Most conducted research about psychopathy has been done among Western countries' prisoners and it has remained unclear whether these findings are applicable in other contexts. The aim of this is to survey personality traits and demographic characteristics of prisoners with psychopathic personality disorder in comparison with ordinary prisoners in sample of Tehran prisoners.
Methods: This study was done based on descriptive method. 202 prisoners were selected among Ray City prisoners in Tehran and the applied method was sample available. All prisoners completed Hare (PCL-SV psychopathic personality disorder checklist and five personality traits Questionnaire, McCare and Costa (Neo-FFI. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation, Regression, and T student for independent groups.
Results: The prevalence of psychopathy disorder among prisoners of this group was reported 10.89. Statistical analysis by Pearson correlation test, regression analysis and T student independent groups, represent a significant positive relationship between Psychopaty and extraversion (p=1% and a significant negative relationship between openness and Psychopaty (p=5%, agreeableness and conscientiousness (p=1%, respectively. No relationship was found between psychopathy, and neurosis. Furthermore, results indicated that, in comparison with non-psychopathic prisoners, psychopathic prisoners were more neurosis and extraversion, however, they showed low level of openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness.
Conclusion: According to the findings, psychopathic disorder and five personality traits are related. Therefore, futher studies in the field of examined variables can provide more information.
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...
Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans
In the past, health management in Geneva's six post-trial prisons had been variable and inconsistent. In 2008, the unit of penitentiary medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals was mandated to re-organize and provide health care at all six prison facilities. The specific aim of this paper is to outline the example as a practical solution to some of the common challenges in unifying the structure and process of health services across multiple small facilities, while meeting European prison health and local quality standards. Geneva's post-trial prisons are small and close to one another in geographical proximity - ideal conditions for the construction of a health mobile team (HMT). This multidisciplinary mobile team operated like a community ambulatory care model; it was progressively launched in all prison facilities in Geneva. The authors incorporated an implementation strategy where health providers partnered with prison and community stakeholders in the health delivery model's development and adaption process. The model's strategic initiatives are described along the following areas, in light of other international prison health activity and prior care models: access to a health care professional, equivalence of care, patient consent, confidentiality, humanitarian interventions, and professional competence and independence. From the perspective of the HMT members, the authors provide the "lessons learned" through this experience, especially to providers who are working on prison health services reform and coordination improvement. The paper particularly stresses the importance of partnering with community health stakeholders and prison staff, a key component to the approach.
Full Text Available A systems approach to modeling demand which incorporates survival modeling is applied to the problem of prison population projection. The approach models the flow of inmates through the prison system and differs from earlier approaches by exploiting the differences in the incarceration hazard rates of individuals in the general population and those who have previously been incarcerated and explicitly considering the impact of constrained prison capacity on release policy and future admissions. The methodology capitalizes on the impact of recursion in the prison population and reduces the amount and complexity of data required for long-term forecasts.. First-time arrivals to prison are modeled as a Poisson process arising from the general population; recidivist arrivals are modeled using a failure model, where the reincarceration hazard rate is a function of age and race. The model is demonstrated for the state of North Carolina located in the Southeastern region of the United States. The effect of limited prison capacity on the mean of the time-served distribution is shown. The results demonstrate that an early release policy will generate an increase in prison admissions through the return to prison of former inmates. Further, the results show that a systems approach to modeling of prison demand which includes the non-linear effect of recidivism, i.e., survival modeling, has a significant impact on the accuracy of forecasts.
Heidari, Raheleh; Wangmo, Tenzin; Galli, Serena; Shaw, David M; Elger, Bernice S
Aging in custody and the rising population of elderly prisoners are creating compelling challenges for criminal justice, prison and public healthcare systems. Geriatric syndrome and higher prevalence of co-morbidities amongst older inmates result in heightened vulnerability in prison environments. Empirical research addressing older adults' access to medical care in detention is scarce; therefore, this study assessed access to medical care in prison from the perspective of older prisoners in Switzerland. We interviewed a sample of 35 older inmates (average age 61 years) on their experience of healthcare accessibility in prison; data were qualitatively analysed and major themes regarding evaluation of their access to medical services were extracted. Our findings identified three barriers to accessing health services in prison including psychological obstacles, negative consequences of healthcare utilization, and environmental hurdles. We advocate facilitating older inmates' access to medical care in order to relieve the psychological burden of seeking health services in detention and adequately informing them of their right to demand these services, thereby lessening the negative consequences of their requests. We suggest further training of prison and medical staff for better management of age-related issues in prison can ease the environmental obstacles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus
In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Powell, Jane; Harris, Francesca; Condon, Louise; Kemple, Terry
This paper is a report of a study of the views and experiences of nurses and other prison healthcare staff about their roles and the nursing care they provide to prisoners. Nurses have become the key providers of healthcare in prison settings in England, replacing the previous prison service-run system. However, there is very little evidence about the health services they provide to meet the health needs of prisoners. A ethnographic study was conducted. Participants were 80 healthcare staff working in 12 prisons of all security categories in England. Twelve individual interviews with general healthcare managers and 12 key informant focus group discussions with healthcare staff were undertaken in 2005 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Issues investigated included participants' thoughts and experiences of nursing roles and delivery of primary healthcare. The group discussions and interviews were analysed to identify emerging themes. Participants gave accounts of day-to-day processes and the healthcare routine. They saw their work as identifying and meeting the health needs of prisoners and maintaining their health, and identified major influences that shaped their daily work, including new ways of working in primary care. They identified how policy and organizational changes were affecting their roles, and acknowledged the conflict between the custody regime and healthcare delivery. The move towards a NHS-led primary healthcare service within prisons, predominantly delivered by nurses, has made positive changes to healthcare. Healthcare managers have benefited from the involvement of the local NHS in improving the health of prisoners.
Some individuals and groups, find it difficult to seek healthcare, including prisoners. This group is recognised as needing input but are often difficult to engage, yet failure to meet their needs can be devastating for the health of individuals and have wider implications on society. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of female prisoners who had not yet consulted the mental health team. I aimed to find out what support these women seek out while in prison, what difficulties they encountered in getting psychological help and whether they avoided statutory mental health services. Participants revealed during semistructured interviews that continuing to have a caring role for their families encouraged them to feel more positive and supported. Support from family members, specialist prison officers and the multi-faith centre staff team was also highly regarded. Some of the participants reported experiencing problems self-referring to prison mental health services, for example when transferred to a new prison. They identified the prison application system and inreach administrative failings as weaknesses, alongside other variables. I found that prisoners did not avoid mental health services and often once settled in the prison, they reconsidered their need for statutory support.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence for higher morbidity among prison inmates than in the general population. Despite this, patient satisfaction with the prison health services is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate patient satisfaction with prison health services in Norway and to analyze possible patient and service effects. Methods The survey took part in 29 prisons in the southern and central part of Norway, representing 62% of the total prison capacity in Norway. A total of 1,150 prison inmates with prison health services experiences completed a satisfaction questionnaire (90% response rate. The patients' satisfaction was measured on a 12-item index. Multilevel analyses were used to analyze both patient and service characteristics as predictors of satisfaction. Results The study revealed high levels of dissatisfaction with prison health services. There were substantial differences between services, with between-service-variance accounting for 9% of the total variance. Satisfaction was significantly associated with a senior staff member's evaluation of the health services possessing adequate resources and the quality of drug abuse treatment. At the patient level, satisfaction was significantly associated with older age, frequent consultations and better self-perceived health. Conclusion Prison inmates' satisfaction with the health services provided are low compared with patient satisfaction measured in other health areas. The substantial differences observed between services - even when adjusting for several known factors associated with patient satisfaction - indicate a potential for quality improvement.
Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rustad, Ase-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen
There is evidence for higher morbidity among prison inmates than in the general population. Despite this, patient satisfaction with the prison health services is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate patient satisfaction with prison health services in Norway and to analyze possible patient and service effects. The survey took part in 29 prisons in the southern and central part of Norway, representing 62% of the total prison capacity in Norway. A total of 1,150 prison inmates with prison health services experiences completed a satisfaction questionnaire (90% response rate). The patients' satisfaction was measured on a 12-item index. Multilevel analyses were used to analyze both patient and service characteristics as predictors of satisfaction. The study revealed high levels of dissatisfaction with prison health services. There were substantial differences between services, with between-service-variance accounting for 9% of the total variance. Satisfaction was significantly associated with a senior staff member's evaluation of the health services possessing adequate resources and the quality of drug abuse treatment. At the patient level, satisfaction was significantly associated with older age, frequent consultations and better self-perceived health. Prison inmates' satisfaction with the health services provided are low compared with patient satisfaction measured in other health areas. The substantial differences observed between services - even when adjusting for several known factors associated with patient satisfaction - indicate a potential for quality improvement.
Chui, Wing Hong; Cheng, Kevin Kwok-yin
Although there have been a handful of studies examining the work of chaplains and prison volunteers in a Western setting, few have endeavored to conduct research into the experiences of religious workers in Asian penitentiaries. To fill this gap, this article reports on exploratory research examining the work of a selected group of religious workers in Hong Kong prisons. A total of 17 religious workers were interviewed: 10 prison chaplains and 7 Buddhist volunteers who paid regular prison visits. Qualitative findings generated from in-depth interviews present three themes: the range of religious activities performed, the importance of religion for the rehabilitation of inmates, and the hope of continued religious support to prisoners after discharge. The significance of this research is that it sheds light on the understudied work of prison chaplains and volunteers in Hong Kong and portrays the difference between the works of the Christian ministry and Buddhist volunteers.
kimberly A. collica-cox
Full Text Available This article explores the importance of social bonds in facilitating an investment in prosocial behavior amongst female prisoners working as HIV peer educators. Female prisoners can lack strong prosocial attachments to both individuals and institutions prior to incarceration. Absent this bond, little prevents the female prisoner from recidivating. Prison provides an opportunity to fashion new attachments that will assist in the reintegrative process. One way to create strong bonds of attachment, particularly for women, is through working as an HIV peer educator while incarcerated. In order to measure attachment levels, interviews were conducted with 49 female prisoners who worked in two HIV prison-based peer programs during their incarceration. Female peers developed strong attachments to one another. Such attachments were formed while incarcerated and were maintained upon release, thus serving to bolster support for newfound prosocial identities.
Riigisaladuse ülimuslikkusest julgeoleku eesmärgil ning inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 3 tõlgendamisest Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu Abu Omar lahendi (23.veebr 2016) põhjal
Gordon, Adam J
The 19th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Addiction Medicine (ISAM) was held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, in October 2017. Contained in this paper are the abstracts of scientific work presented at the conference.
Full Text Available The essay explores the comical aspects of Behan’s autobiographical writings. It focuses on how humour, especially black humour, often flourishes wherever we find conflicts and contrasts. Humour is always born out of oppositions, and it can be argued that it always functions as an act of resistance to outside tragedy. Brendan Behan, a writer of slum and working class background, is one of the leading Irish prison writers. He is in many ways an exponent of an Irish republican tradition based on the idea of prison endurance. Given Behan’s notoriously flamboyant personality and his own talking gifts, it is not hard to imagine that the worst aspect of prison confinement might have been for him compulsory solitude and silence. His exuberant language and larger-than-life personality can be considered perhaps as a reaction to such partial deprivation of interpersonal relationships during his youth. In this context, where fictional and autobiographical truth are kept apart by an unstable divide increased by the abundance of comical interludes and jokes, the core of the essay analyses the second chapter of Confessions of an Irish Rebel in order to discuss the way in which Behan alternates funny accounts and tragedy in his own autobiographical reports.
Saeed Al Rashedi
Full Text Available The paper analysed the grain-size spectrum and textural parameters namely mean sorting skewness and kurtosis of Abu Dhabi coast in United Arab Emirates applying the ASTM sieves. For this purpose fifty seven samples were analysed. The results of the sieving analysis divulged that samples of the study area range between -2.63 pebble size to 2-39 Fine sands. The statistical analysis reveals that the sand is characteristically fine grained moderately well sorted to extremely poorly sorted. The sand distribution is strongly coarse and leptokurtic in nature. Abundance of the medium sand to fine sand shows the prevalence of comparatively moderate- to low-energy condition in the study area. Linear discriminate function of the samples indicates an Aeolian shallow marine deposition environment and less influence of fluvial 7 process.
A. F. Al-Taee
Full Text Available Through examination of 176 samples of the fresh water fish Liza abu obtained from Tigers River in Mosul city 2005, the percentage of total internal parasites infection was 57.38%. They were the trematode larval stage Diplostumum spathaecum 44.88%; the cestode larval stage of Ligula intestinalis 32.95%, oocyst of Cryptosporidium spp. 28.97%, oocyst of Eimeria spp. 23.29%. Cryptosporidium was recorded for the first time in Mosul city during examination of intestinal contents. They appeared after staining with modified Zeihl- Neelsen as bright red spherical oocysts with a diameter of 3-7 µ. The effect of season on types of infection was also studied.
Full Text Available Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir.
Sergio Di Tondo
Full Text Available After fifty years from the Salvage of the Abu Simbel Temples it has been possible to experiment the contemporary photo-modeling tools beginning from the original data of the photogrammetrical survey carried out in the 1950s. This produced a reflection on “Image Based” methods and modeling techniques, comparing strict 3d digital photogrammetry with the latest Structure From Motion (SFM systems. The topographic survey data, the original photogrammetric stereo couples, the points coordinates and their representation in contour lines, allowed to obtain a model of the monument in his configuration before the moving of the temples. The impossibility to carry out a direct survey led to touristic shots to create SFM models to use for geometric comparisons.
Al-Hosani, H A; Brebner, J; Bener, A B; Norman, J N
We investigated the association of biological, sociocultural and economic risk factors with child mortality in Abu Dhabi from 1 January-31 December 1997. With McNemar chi-squared test, most selected biological risk factors were statistically associated with child mortality, although maternal age older than 40 years and history of fetal death were not positively correlated with neonate, infant or age under 5 mortality. Among sociocultural and economic risk factors, maternal lack of formal education and low monthly income were significantly associated with child death. Consanguinity was significantly associated with under 5 and infant but not neonatal mortality. Gestation <37 weeks was highly associated with mortality among all ages. Strengthening health care programmes and emphasizing the need to identify high risk groups should be priorities.
Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Maqbool, Ahmed; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel
A total of 57 Aeromonas isolates from food samples such as fresh and frozen chicken, game birds, pasteurized milk, baby food, bakery products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and water from Abu Dahbi, UAE were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility profile. Most strains were resistant to penicillins (ticarcillin, mezlocillin, oxacillin, piperacillin), sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and macrolides (erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin) but sensitive to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin), cephalosporins (cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, cefazolin, cephalexin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime), quinolone (ciprofloxacin), colistin sulphate and SXT (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole). On the other hand, many antibiotics showed excellent inhibitory activity (>75% strains were sensitive to them) against all the strains tested. These include cefuroxime, ceftrioxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, amikacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime and tobramycin. In conclusion, the results show a detailed pattern of sensitivity of the various Aeromonas spp. isolates to a variety of antibiotics and provide useful information in the context of selective isolation and phenotypic identification of the aeromonads from food.
Edwards, Grace; Crowley, Treasa; Elsori, Deena; Sarr, Makhtar
Evidence suggests that, throughout the world, there is a lack of understanding of the midwife's role. It has previously been found that most pregnant women in Dubai did not understand the role of the midwife and felt safer being cared for by doctors This paper presents findings from a survey conducted in Abu Dhabi, where midwifery is well established, which sought to explore whether the role of the midwife is generally acknowledged and understood. Overall a lack of knowledge of the role and scope of practice of the midwife was evident amongst a third of respondents. Since midwifery care has been shown to provide high quality maternity care, marketing and promoting the role of the midwife both to service users and to other professionals is crucial.
Mohamed, Mohamed M; Murad, Ahmed; Chowdhury, RezaulKabir
Water samples were collected to evaluate the groundwater quality in the shallow unconfined alluvial aquifer in the eastern part of Abu-Dhabi Emirate, UAE. The chemical monitoring revealed some spatial variability in chemical parameters as influenced by matrix aquifer changes in geological formations. Results show that changes in groundwater chemistry in the aquifer is mainly controlled by evaporation, silicate mineral dissolution, evaporite dissolution, and cation exchange. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved sodium, chloride, and sulphate. The high value of total dissolved solids of shallow groundwater is mainly controlled by evaporation. The dominance of sodium ion was evident among the cationic compositions with an average of 2621.1 mg/L, while the chloride ion was the dominant among the anionic constituents with an average of 6249 mg/L. The prevalence of those two elements in most water samples contributes to the existence of saline water occurrence in the study area.
Hussein, E M
A measurement of the radioactivity content of phosphate ore material, phosphatic fertilizer (superphosphate), and by-product phosphogypsum in the Abu-Zaabal phosphate plant, Egypt, has been carried out. According to the results of gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, 238U was found in concentrations of 523, 473, and 134 Bq kg-1; 226Ra in concentrations of 514, 301, and 411 Bq kg-1; 232Th in concentrations of 37, 24, and 19 Bq kg-1; and 40K in concentrations of 19, 3, and 16 Bq kg-1 for the analyzed materials, respectively. The data are discussed and compared with those given in the literature for some other countries in light of permissible radiation dose rates.
Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER
Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.
Eibedingil, I. G.; Abula, B.; Afshari, A.; Temimi, M.
Land-Atmosphere interactions-their strength, directionality and evolution-are one of the main sources of uncertainty in contemporary climate modeling. A particularly crucial role in sustaining and modulating land-atmosphere interaction is the one of aerosols and dusts. Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the air ranging from a few nanometers to a few hundred micrometers in diameter. Furthermore, the amount of dust and fog in the atmosphere is an important measure of visibility, which is another dimension of land-atmosphere interactions. Visibility affects all form of traffic, aviation, land and sailing. Being able to predict the change of visibility in the air in advance enables relevant authorities to take necessary actions before the disaster falls. Time Series Analysis (TAS) method is an emerging technique for modeling and forecasting the behavior of land-atmosphere interactions, including visibility. This research assess the dynamics and evolution of visibility around Abu Dhabi International Airport (+24.4320 latitude, +54.6510 longitude, and 27m elevation) using mean daily visibility and mean daily wind speed. TAS has been first used to model and forecast the visibility, and then the Transfer Function Model has been applied, considering the wind speed as an exogenous variable. By considering the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) as a statistical criteria, two forecasting models namely univarite time series model and transfer function model, were developed to forecast the visibility around Abu Dhabi International Airport for three weeks. Transfer function model improved the MAPE of the forecast significantly.
Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M.; Matsushima, J.
There is a close link between fractures network and fluids circulation so information about nature and geometry of fractures in the reservoir zone is benificial for the petroleum industry. However the immaturity of the methodology and the complication of fractures network in some reservoirs like those of Abu Dhabi oil fields, make getting such information challenging. Since several studies showed the close link between physical properties of the subsurface and seismic wave attenuation (eg. Müller et al. 2010), we use this parameter in this study to assess its potentiality on fractures detection and characterization, even though its use is not common for reservoir characterization and even less for fractures characterization. To get an accurate attenuation profiles, we use a robust methods recently developed to estimate accurately attenuation from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) (Matsushima et al. 2016) and sonic waveforms (Suziki and Matsushima 2013) in the reservoir zones. The data were acquired from many wells located in offshore and onshore oil fields of Abu Dhabi region. The subsurface of this region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks, such media are known to be highly heterogeneous. Scattering and intrinsic attenuation profiles were compared to interpreted fractures by using Formation Micro-imager (FMI). The comparison shows a correlation between these two parameters and fractures characteristic, such as their density and dipping. We also performed Alford rotation on dipole data to estimate the attenuation from fast and slow shear waveforms. The anisotropy is proportional to the dispersion of the points plotted from the ratio between the intrinsic attenuation of fast and slow shear over the depth, from the line (Qslow /Qfast=1), which corresponds to the isotropic case. We noticed that the zones with low fractures density display less dispersion than those of high density. Even though our results show potentiality of the attenuation for fractured
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE and its associated factors in a major referral centre for nocturnal enuresis in the City of Abu Dhabi. Children referred to the Pediatric Continence Clinic of Department of Pediatric and Urology Surgery at Al Noor Hospital, Abu Dhabi (UAE, between January 2014 and January 2016 for the suspected diagnosis of NE were considered. The inclusion criteria of our study were: age 5-14 years; full medical history and physical examination; urine dipstick to exclude glycosuria and proteinuria; completion of diagnostic urological work-up; final diagnosis of PMNE. Parents were encouraged to follow a program on urotherapy. All children underwent renal and bladder ultrasound, abdominal X-ray and uroflowmetry with electromyography. Constipation was treated, if present. 39 patients had a diagnosis of PMNE. A constipation was present in 17 children (43.6%. Statistical analysis documented a higher incidence of PMNE in the male groups. 38 out of 39 children (97.4% resolved PMNE, 14 following urotherapy and 24 required medical therapy with desmopressin. Our experience clearly confirms a higher prevalence rate of PMNE in boys than in girls. In the study population, the large intake of dry and reducedin- fibers foods, the excessive intake of carbonated drinks and the hot climatic condition might negatively influence the incidence of fecal retention and the subsequent PMNE. A multi-modal assessment seems to be effective in the management of PMNE, showing a very high rate of resolution.
Yonenoh, Hiroto; Akiyama, Eizo
To investigate how a human subject selects her neighbors (opponents) to play the Prisoner׳s Dilemma within a social network, we conducted a human-subject experiment. The results are as follows: (1) A subject is more likely to dismiss the links to her neighbors most frequently when the subject chooses C and when the neighbor chooses D; (2) a subject who has more neighbors is less likely to dismiss links than a subject who has fewer neighbors; and (3) a subject is more likely to create links to (=select) opponents who have more neighbors than to opponents who have fewer neighbors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Batubara merupakan salah satu sumber energi alternatif yang murah. Oleh karena itu, penggunaan batubara di Indonesia meningkat pesat setiap tahunnya. Penggunaan batubara ini menghasilkan limbah yang dapat mencemari lingkungan baik limbah gas seperti CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hidrokarbon maupun limbah padat yang berupa abu layang dan abu dasar. Abu layang mengandung SiO2, Al2O3, dan sisa karbon yang tidak terbakar sehingga potensial digunakan sebagai adsorben. Pada penelitian ini, kemampuan adsorpsi abu layang ditingkatkan melalui aktivasi termal dan diuji untuk menjerap ion Pb2+ dalam limbah cair artifisial. Adsorpsi dilakukan pada sistem kolom yang berlangsung kontinyu menggunakan bahan isian abu layang teraktivasi, dalam bentuk serbuk dan granular, pada laju alir influen yang bervariasi. Hasilnya, laju alir mempengaruhi nilai kapasitas (qo, konstanta thomas (KtH dan waktu breakthrough.Kata Kunci : Pb2+ , adsorpsi, abu layang, breakthrough Coal is one of the inexpensive alternative energy. Therefore, the usage of coal in indonesia has been increased every year. It produces waste that can pollute the environment including gases waste such as CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons and solid waste including fly ash and bottom ash. Coal fly ash is composed of SiO2, Al2O3 and unburned carbon that enables it to act as a potential adsorbent. In this research, the adsorption capasity has increased by thermal activation and used to adsorp Pb2+ ion in wastewater. The adsorption was carried out in packed column contains powder and granular activated fly ash. In the system, flow rate was varied. The results show that flow rate influences adsorption capacity, Thomas constant and breakthrough time.Keywords: Pb2+, adsorption, coal fly ash, breakthrough
Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for
Davoren, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Caddow, Fintan; Caddow, Martin; O'Neill, Conor; O'Neill, Helen; Kennedy, Harry G
Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in most countries. They have high rates of physical and psychiatric co-morbidity, compared to community dwelling older persons and also compared with other prisoner groups. Very high rates of mental illness have been found in remand (pre-trial) prisoners when compared with other prisoner groups; however to date there have been no studies examining older male and female remand prisoners. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all remands, to a male and a female prison, over a six and half-year period. Demographic data were collected pertaining to psychiatric and medical diagnoses and seriousness of offending. We found rising numbers of older prisoners amongst male remand prisoners. Older remand prisoners had very high rates of affective disorder and alcohol misuse. They had rates of psychotic illnesses and deliberate self-harm comparable to younger remand prisoners. High rates of vulnerability were found among older prisoners and older prisoners had a greater need for general medical and psychiatric services than younger prisoners. We also found comparable offending patterns with younger prisoners and high rates of sexual offending among the older male prisoner group. Given the ageing population of many countries it is likely the numbers of older prisoners will continue to grow and given their high levels of both physical and psychiatric illness this will have implications for future service delivery.
Pervaiz, A.; Sipra, F.S.; Rana, T.H.; Qadeer, I.
Prisoners as a high risk group are never recommended for blood donations. In Pakistan, prisoners are legally allowed to donate blood and get thirty days extra remission. Inspectorate of prisons allowed Alizaib Foundation for blood donation camps subject to pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donor against infectious diseases. This study was conducted to identify the potential benefits of pre-donation screening. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in October, 2009 in Punjab. Intending volunteer prisoner blood donors from January, 2007 to September, 2009 from prisons of Punjab were included. Physically fit were tested for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and B Virus (HBV) by Rapid test kit before bleeding. Data was analysed by Epi-Info. Results: A total of 5894 male volunteer prisoner donors were screened and 1038 (17.6%) were rejected. The mean age was 28 years (range: 17-70 years). Of 5894, 857 (14.5%) were HCV positive and 222 (3.8%) were HBV positive. HCV and HBV co-infection was present among 41 (0.7%). Being convicted prisoner blood donor is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HCV (OR 1.35, 95% C.I. 1.17-1.57) and being under trial prisoner is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HBV (OR 1.40, 95% C.I. 1.06-1.85). Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C viruses were responsible for almost 18% prisoner blood donor rejection. Pre-donation screening of blood donors is an effective intervention to improve the safety and limit the cost of blood. Treatment of identified cases may contribute to public health. In the international scenario this study findings necessitate the amendments in the relevant prison rules. (author)
Dara, Masoud; Acosta, Colleen D; Melchers, Natalie V S Vinkeles; Al-Darraji, Haider A A; Chorgoliani, Dato; Reyes, Hernan; Centis, Rosella; Sotgiu, Giovanni; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Chadha, Sarabjit S; Migliori, Giovanni Battista
Tuberculosis (TB) in penitentiary services (prisons) is a major challenge to TB control. This review article describes the challenges that prison systems encounter in TB control and provides solutions for the more efficient use of limited resources based on the three pillars of the post-2015 End TB Strategy. This paper also proposes research priorities for TB control in prisons based on current challenges. Articles (published up to 2011) included in a recent systematic review on TB control in prisons were further reviewed. In addition, relevant articles in English (published 1990 to May 2014) were identified by searching keywords in PubMed and Google Scholar. Article bibliographies and conference abstracts were also hand-searched. Despite being a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among incarcerated populations, many prison systems encounter a variety of challenges that hinder TB control. These include, but are not limited to, insufficient laboratory capacity and diagnostic tools, interrupted supply of medicines, weak integration between civilian and prison TB services, inadequate infection control measures, and low policy priority for prison healthcare. Governmental commitment, partnerships, and sustained financing are needed in order to facilitate improvements in TB control in prisons, which will translate to the wider community. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Davies, Elizabeth A; Sehgal, Ashu; Linklater, Karen M; Heaps, Kate; Moren, Caroline; Walford, Carole; Cook, Ros; Møller, Henrik
Little research has investigated cancer care in UK prisons. We wished to identify the number of new cases and the most common cancer diagnoses occurring each year in London prisoners, and the place of death for those who died from their disease. Using the database of the Thames Cancer Registry, we identified cancer diagnoses in residents of seven London prisons from 1986 to 2005 and the place of death of patients dying from their disease between 1996 and 2005. On average, 31 patients were recorded as diagnosed with cancer while in prison within each 5-year period. In women, 83% (85/102) of diagnoses were in situ carcinoma of the cervix, and in men, 19% (11/57) were of lung cancer. None of the 25 patients recorded as dying from their disease died in prison. Most died in hospitals (48%, 12/25) or in hospices (28%, 7/25). London prisons contribute a small number of patients each year who require NHS cancer care, including those with advanced cancer who are released before death. Future studies should investigate cancer incidence for the national prison population, methods for improving screening coverage and follow-up, the timeliness of access to cancer treatments and end-of-life care, and prisoners' and health professionals' experiences of care.
In multiple stepwise regression analysis, a low BMl, a prison stay of ≤12 months, and a history of previous incarceration were positively associated with PTB. Conclusion: The study results confirm the high prevalence rates of PTB in prison populations and underscore the need for urgent preventive measures. East African ...
Allen, Rob; English, Paul
Over recent years lower income countries have shown increasing interest in the potential benefits of public private partnerships in the prison field. This paper opens with a brief survey of the history of prison privatization, a description of the various models applied in different countries and an outline of the potential attractions of those models. It then assesses the evidence about w...
Full Text Available In 1976, prisoners acquired the right to medical treatment from the U.S. Supreme Court through the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which forbade, in part, cruel and unusual punishment. The following year, a Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that medical treatment included psychiatric or mental health treatment. These rulings applied to general prisoners, but not initially prisoners who suffered from gender identity disorder. Courts ruled then that gender identity disorder was not a serious mental disorder—a critical component of the right to medical care and mental health treatment. Later, a few appeals courts ruled that gender identity disorder was a serious mental disorder, triggering a prisoner’s right to medical care and mental health treatment for this disorder. Prisoners with gender identity disorder have litigated for sex realignment surgery as part of their treatment, which prison administrators have balked. The latest ruling unequivocally ordered the Massachusetts Department of Corrections to give a prisoner suffering from gender identity disorder sex reassignment surgery, but the prison system has appealed. This ruling, and previous rulings, has furthered policy towards transsexual prisoners.
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan
Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…