WorldWideScience

Sample records for abstracting code specific

  1. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  2. Argonne Code Center: compilation of program abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.K.; DeBruler, M.; Edwards, H.S.; Harrison, C. Jr.; Hughes, C.E.; Jorgensen, R.; Legan, M.; Menozzi, T.; Ranzini, L.; Strecok, A.J.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the eleventh supplement to, and revision of, ANL-7411. It contains additional abstracts and revisions to some earlier abstracts and other pages. Sections of the complete document ANL-7411 are as follows: preface, history and acknowledgements, abstract format, recommended program package contents, program classification guide and thesaurus, and the abstract collection. (RWR)

  3. Argonne Code Center: compilation of program abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M.K.; DeBruler, M.; Edwards, H.S.

    1976-08-01

    This publication is the tenth supplement to, and revision of, ANL-7411. It contains additional abstracts and revisions to some earlier abstracts and other pages. Sections of the document are as follows: preface; history and acknowledgements; abstract format; recommended program package contents; program classification guide and thesaurus; and abstract collection. (RWR)

  4. Reversible machine code and its abstract processor architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    A reversible abstract machine architecture and its reversible machine code are presented and formalized. For machine code to be reversible, both the underlying control logic and each instruction must be reversible. A general class of machine instruction sets was proven to be reversible, building ...... on our concept of reversible updates. The presentation is abstract and can serve as a guideline for a family of reversible processor designs. By example, we illustrate programming principles for the abstract machine architecture formalized in this paper....

  5. Reversible machine code and its abstract processor architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    A reversible abstract machine architecture and its reversible machine code are presented and formalized. For machine code to be reversible, both the underlying control logic and each instruction must be reversible. A general class of machine instruction sets was proven to be reversible, building...

  6. Certificate size reduction in Abstraction-Carrying Code

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Elvira; Puebla, Germán; Hermenegildo, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Carrying Code (ACC) has recently been proposed as a framework for mobile code safety in which the code supplier provides a program together with an abstraction (or abstract model of the program) whose validity entails compliance with a predefined safety policy. The advantage of providing a (fixpoint) abstraction to the code consumer is that its validity is checked in a single pass (i.e., one iteration) of an abstract interpretation-based checker. A main challenge to make ACC useful in practice is to reduce the size of certificates as much as possible while at the same time not increasing checking time. The intuitive idea is to only include in the certificate information that the checker is unable to reproduce without iterating. We introduce the notion of reduced certificate which characterizes the subset of the abstraction which a checker needs in order to validate (and re-construct) the full certificate in a single pass. Based on this notion, we instrument a generic analysis algorithm with the necessary exte...

  7. Creating abstract topographic representations: implications for coding, learning and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Chris J

    2009-06-01

    Topographic maps are a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of the sensory and motor regions of the brain. There is less evidence for the existence of conventional topographic maps in associational areas of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex. The existence of topographically arranged anatomical projections is far more widespread and occurs in associational regions of the brain as well as sensory and motor regions: this points to a more widespread existence of topographically organised maps within associational cortex than currently recognised. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that abstract topographic representations may also occur in these regions. For example, a topographic mnemonic map of visual space has been described in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and topographically arranged visuospatial attentional signals have been described in parietal association cortex. This article explores how abstract representations might be extracted from sensory topographic representations and subsequently code abstract information. Finally a simple model is presented that shows how abstract topographic representations could be integrated with other information within the brain to solve problems or form abstract associations. The model uses correlative firing to detect associations between different types of stimuli. It is flexible because it can produce correlations between information represented in a topographic or non-topographic coordinate system. It is proposed that a similar process could be used in high-level cognitive operations such as learning and reasoning.

  8. Atlas C++ Coding Standard Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Albrand, S; Barberis, D; Bosman, M; Jones, B; Stavrianakou, M; Arnault, C; Candlin, D; Candlin, R; Franck, E; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Malon, D; Qian, S; Quarrie, D; Schaffer, R D

    2001-01-01

    This document defines the ATLAS C++ coding standard, that should be adhered to when writing C++ code. It has been adapted from the original "PST Coding Standard" document (http://pst.cern.ch/HandBookWorkBook/Handbook/Programming/programming.html) CERN-UCO/1999/207. The "ATLAS standard" comprises modifications, further justification and examples for some of the rules in the original PST document. All changes were discussed in the ATLAS Offline Software Quality Control Group and feedback from the collaboration was taken into account in the "current" version.

  9. Hardware Abstraction and Protocol Optimization for Coded Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    -efficient protocols that use such an abstraction, as well as mechanisms to optimize a communication protocol in terms of energy consumption. The problem is modeled for different feedback-based techniques, where sensors are connected to a base station, either directly or through relays. We show that for four example......The design of the communication protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often neglects several key characteristics of the sensor's hardware, while assuming that the number of transmitted bits is the dominating factor behind the system's energy consumption. A closer look at the hardware...... platforms, the use of relays may decrease up to 4.5 times the total energy consumption when the protocol and the hardware are carefully matched. We conclude that: 1) the energy budget for a communication protocol varies significantly on different sensor platforms; and 2) the protocols can be judiciously...

  10. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] The essay analyzed the action logic of hegemon with a power approach. Hegemony can be classified as benign or malignant. A benign hegemon should be pro- ductive, inclusive and maintain procedure justice when it uses its power. The power of hegemon can be categorized into two types: the hard power, which is the use of coer- cion and payment and can be measured by public products, and the soft power, which shows the ability to attract and co-opt and can be measured by the relationship-specific investments. The relationship between the input of public products and the relationship -specific investments is not positively correlative. Confusing with the public products and the soft power might lead to strategic misleading. A country rich in power re- sources should comply with the following principles if it wanted to improve its hard power and soft power: first, analyze the scope of the existing hegemon's soft power and avoid investing public products in the scope; second, maintain honesty in a long term and continue to increase others' benefits following the rule of neutral Pareto im- provement; third, provide both public goods and public bads; fourth, be more patient to obtain soft power. [ Key Words] hegemon, soft power, relationship-specific investment, strategic misleading [Authors]Feng Weijiang, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Science; Yu Jieya, Master, PBC Shanghai Headquarters.

  11. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Western Characteristics of the Pardims of International Studies in America:With the Huaxla System as a Counterexample Ye Zicheng (4)[ Abstract ] Three flaws are obvious in the three paradigms of International Studies in America. Specifically, their arguments are based on the assumption that the world is anarchic ; they go too far in employing the scientific and rational methodology; they pay little attention to the humans. Hence, the three paradigms of international studies in America aren' t necessarily useful for the explanation of China' s history and culture as well as its relations with the outside world. The Huaxia system, for example, is anarchic but also apparently hierarchical; the approach of pursuing security in understanding the rise of western powers may be meaningless, for the hegemony in the Huaxia System needn't worry about its security; the theory of power-balancing seemingly couldn' t explain why Qin ended up in defeating the alliance of the other six states in the Warring-states period. The Huaxia system is quite open, and has free movement of people, goods, and ideas. Some interstate regimes and institutions were formed through Huimeng (alliance-making) among states. However, this kind of limited and fragile interdependence and cooperation soon came to an end after the hegemonies of Qi, Jin and Wei. There does exit the identity problem among states in the Huaxia System, but this problem doesn't play such a great role as the constructivists expect it would.

  12. WASTK: A Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel Method for Source Code Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a source code plagiarism detection method, named WASTK (Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel, for computer science education. Different from other plagiarism detection methods, WASTK takes some aspects other than the similarity between programs into account. WASTK firstly transfers the source code of a program to an abstract syntax tree and then gets the similarity by calculating the tree kernel of two abstract syntax trees. To avoid misjudgment caused by trivial code snippets or frameworks given by instructors, an idea similar to TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency in the field of information retrieval is applied. Each node in an abstract syntax tree is assigned a weight by TF-IDF. WASTK is evaluated on different datasets and, as a result, performs much better than other popular methods like Sim and JPlag.

  13. Dual coding theory, word abstractness, and emotion: a critical review of Kousta et al. (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-02-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of abstract concepts. Their dual coding critique is, however, based on impoverished and, in some respects, incorrect interpretations of the theory and its implications. This response corrects those gaps and misinterpretations and summarizes research findings that show predicted variations in the effects of dual coding variables in different tasks and contexts. Especially emphasized is an empirically supported dual coding theory of emotion that goes beyond the Kousta et al. emphasis on emotion in abstract semantics.

  14. Formal Methods for Abstract Specifications – A Comparison of Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Instenberg, Martin; Schneider, Axel; Schnetter, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    In industry formal methods are becoming increasingly important for the verification of hardware and software designs. However current practice for specification of system and protocol functionality on high level of abstraction is textual description. For verification of the system behavior manual...... inspections and tests are usual means. To facilitate the introduction of formal methods in the development process of complex systems and protocols, two different tools evolved from research activities – UPPAAL and SpecEdit – have been investigated and compared regarding their concepts and functionality...

  15. Formal Methods for Abstract Specifications – A Comparison of Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Instenberg, Martin; Schneider, Axel; Schnetter, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    In industry formal methods are becoming increasingly important for the verification of hardware and software designs. However current practice for specification of system and protocol functionality on high level of abstraction is textual description. For verification of the system behavior manual...... inspections and tests are usual means. To facilitate the introduction of formal methods in the development process of complex systems and protocols, two different tools evolved from research activities – UPPAAL and SpecEdit – have been investigated and compared regarding their concepts and functionality...

  16. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Structure of Scientific Theory in the Scientist-Philosopher's Eyes、Two Theories of Scientific Abstraction Centered on Practices、Many-worlds Interpretation in Quantum Measurement and Its Meaning、Scientific Instrument: Paradigm Shift from Instrumentalism to Realism and Phenomenology

  17. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [ Abstract] Interaction between China and the international system has been a highlighted is- sue and drawing a great deal of attention all over the world. It has been approached from structural point of view and in a way of a conflicting pair of self and the other, which is the prevailing ontological perspective of IR studies. Contrary to it, processual

  18. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Western Theories of War Ethics and Contemporary Controversies Li Xiaodong U Ruijing (4) [ Abstract] In the field of international relations, war ethics is a concept with distinct westem ideological color. Due to factors of history and reality, the in

  19. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China' s Dual-identity Dilemma and Its Countermeasm'es Li Shaojun(4) [ Abstract] The international system, as the overall structure for interactions among actors, is the environment and stage for implementation of China' s foreign policy. In this system, identity is a fundamental factor determining China' s international position and interests, and how to achieve them. China has long stressed that it is a "developing country,"

  20. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The ethylene plant at SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Company Limited ranked in the middle among SINOPEC subsidiaries in terms of ethylene and propylene yields, technical economical indicator and so on, and its performance ranking went no further in chemical sector. By means of feedstock optimization, steam optimization, and energy saving and consumption reduction, the company enhanced its competitiveness in the market and improved its efficiency. In addition, some ideas were put forward on performance improvement of the ethylene plant in the future.

  1. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [ Abstract ] The global resurgence of religion and the return of religion from the so-call "Westphalia Exile" to the central stage of international religions have significantly trans- formed the viewpoints of both media and academia toward the role of religion in IR, and the challenges posed by religion to the contemporary international relations are often described as entirely subversive. The author argues that as a second-tier factor in most countries' for- eign policies and international affairs,

  2. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Research of the Subsistent States of the Artists Living in Guilin During the Anti-Japanese Period;A Brief History of Calligraphy Art of Chongqing as Provisional Capital during the Anti-Japanese Period;The Endless Stream and Terraced Mountains:on the Analysisof Spacein Chinese Landscape Painting of Gongxian;Political Vanguard in the Perspective View of the Formalism Aesthetic: 1980s Abstract Painting in China;Comparison of the Early-Stage Spreading of Western Pre-Modem Style Painting and Its Influence in China and Japan.

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (1) Lenin's "Unity of Three Dialectics": Notes Science of Logic and The Capital on Philosophy in the Dual Contexts of Sun Zhengyu 4 Lenin's dialectics in Notes on Philosophy is essentially a unity of materialistic logic, dialectics and epistemology that has arisen from interactions between Hegel' s Science of Logic and Marx' s The Capital. Due to a lack of understanding of Lenin' s "unity of three dialectics," people tend to misunderstand his dialectics for the meeting of two extremes of the "sum total of living instances" and "abstract methods,

  4. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    --Based on of Marx's Economic Philosophy Manuscripts of 1844 HE Jian-jin (Philosophy Department, Fujian Provincial Committee Party School, Fuzhou, Fujian 350012, China) Abstract: Socialism with Chinese characteristics has a close relationship with the return and growth of capital in China. To implement the scientific concept of development, we must confront the problem of scientifically controlling the capital. In Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, Marx criticized the three old philosophical thinking of treating capital: Object-oriented thinking, intuitive thinking, purely spiritual abstract thinking, and he established his own unique understanding of the capital that is to understand the capital from the human perceptual activities and practical activities. Contemporary Chinese society exist the problem of underdevelopment and abnormal development, and the three heterogeneity problems of pre-modern, modern, postmodern concurrent. In order to implement the scientific concept of development, we must reject any abstract positive or negative to modern basic principles under the guidance of the capital, against the eternal capital theory and capital theory of evil, and we must oppose the thinking that the capital is eternal or evil. Key words: socialism with Chinese characteristics; capital; national economics; scientific concept of development

  5. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Discussion on main hydraulic performance parameters' model acceptance test of mixed flow pump turbine YU Ji-xing, LI Jin-wei, CHEN Liu, REN Shao-cheng, JIANG Ming-li, LI Hai-ling (China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China) Abstract: Model acceptance test content and main performance parameter' acceptance mode of mixed flow pump turbine were introduced, main hydraulic performance parameters, such as hump of pump high lift region and S unstable region during turbine starting, were discussed, after that, frequency characteristic of pressure fluctuation beside guide blade area were presented in briefly. Key words: pump turbine; model acceptance test; hump region; "S" region; pressure fluctuation

  6. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual Construction and Its Ideological Sources in Contemporary China The spiritual construction in contemporary China is an important ideological task proposed by the historical practice of China. Modernized development often entails the meaning of entering into " modern civilization. " Nevertheless, an abstract understanding of this civilization has covered up its essential stipulation and historical nature. China has pursued its development on a different historical prerequisite from the west, and therefore, only partially belongs to modern capitalist modernization. The practical prospects of Chinese development imply a transformation and remodeling of the general lifestyle, life attitudes and values, which inevitably calls for a new form of philosophy. The ideological sources for this new philosophy are: Chinese philosophy, Western integration of them may point to philosophy and Marxist philosophy. A creative a potentially new type of civilization.

  7. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Rousseau's Equality and Freedom GONG Qun Abstract:Equality and freedom are the two core concepts of political philosophy and Rousseau~s political philosophy is no exception. Freedom and equality in Rousseau in- cludes two levels: natural state and social state under social contract, and among them, there is one state of un-equality. The relationship between the two concepts here is that equality is a necessary precondition of freedom, and that there is no equality, there is no freedom. The achievement of Rousseau~s equality is by one contractual behavior that all the members transfer their rights, especially property rights, and form of the Community. Freedom in Rousseau's mind is through the people's sovereignty in the Community to achieve freedom.

  8. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (1) ASEAN Security Community: Power Containment and Norm Construction --From the Perspective of Realist-Constructivism Zheng Ying-qin . 11 . Abstract:Combined of realism and constructivism, realist-constructivism emphasizes the interactions between power and identity through norms and their influence on international relations. From the perspective of realist-con- structivism, this article analyses the construction of ASEAN security community and figures out two main clues in the n of ASEAN : the containment of power system that facilitate the strategic cooperation of ASEAN and norms which promotes the cooperation. ASEAN has made achievements in security cooperation but security community. There are still lots of problems ASEAN needs to tackle, for example, to con- institution as well as to strengthen the regional economic interdependence. The possible way to pro- mote the ASEAN security community may start from the area of non-traditional security cooperation Key Wwords: ASEAN security community ; Realist-Constructivism ; power; norm

  9. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the Construction of Water Conservancy during 1930s in Hubei Yu Tao ( 1 ) Abstract: Two extra-large floods in the 1930s had drawn the National Government's attention to introspect itself. After those disasters, the government had made some progress by a series of measures like repairing the dike, completing water conservancy institutions and enacting regulations in order to strengthen the water conservancy construction in Hubei. The government took water conservancy construction as a complex system project so that they had a relatively comprehensive consideration. It reflects the advancement of modern government to mobilize local people and put such social power into the unified planning. However, thelimitations of the government's policy implementation weakened the effect of water conservancy construction. Keywords: flood; government; water conservancy construction; effect

  10. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Shift of World Center and the Change of the International System Yan Xuetong Abstract: The power transition caused by China' s rise will not only change the international configuration, but could also result in the world cen- ter shifting from Europe to Asia. However, neither a change in the interna- tional configuration nor the shift of the world center implies a change of the type of the international system. The international system is composed of three elements: international actors, international configuration and interna- tional norms. It will be neither possible to distinguish international system from its components nor clarify relations between components and system if changes in one element are treated as change of types of international system.

  11. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Realism: An Option for China' s Grand Strategy Song Dexing (4) [ Abstract] As a non-Western emerging power, China should positively adapt its grand strategy to the strategic psychological traits in the 21st century, maintain a realist tone consistent with the national conditions of China, and avoid adventurist policies while awaring both strategic strength and weakness. In the 21st century, China' s grand strategy should be based on such core values as security, development, peace and justice, especially focusing on development in particular, which we named "strategic realism". Given the profound changes in China and the world, strategic realism encourages active foreign policy to safe- guard the long-term national interests of China. Following the self-help logic and the fun- damental values of security and prosperity, strategic realism concerns national interests as its top-priority. It advocates smart use of power, and aims to achieve its objectives by optimizing both domestic and international conditions. From the perspective of diplomatic phi- losophy, strategic realism is not a summarization of concrete policies but a description of China' s grand strategy orientations in the new century. [ Key Words] China, grand strategy, strategic realism [ Author]Song Dexing, Professor, Ph.D. Supervisor, and Director of the Center for International Strategic Studies, University of International Studies of PLA.

  12. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Discussions of Design Highlights for Tailgas Treatment in Sulphuric Acid Plant Using New Technology for Flue Gas Desulfurization Through Catalytic Reduction LI Xin , CAO Long-wen , YIN Hua-qiang , El Yue-li , LI Jian-iun ( 1 ,College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China;2 ,Daye Nonferrous Metals Co., Ltd., Huangshi 435000, China; 3 ,Tile Sixth Construction Company Ltd. of China National Chemical Engineering Corp., Xiangfan 441021, China) Abstract : For the present situation of tailgas treatment in current sulphuric acid plants and existing problems with commonly used technologies, the fun- damental working principle, process flow and reference project for a new technology for flue gas desulfurization through catalytic redaction which is used for tailgas treatment in a sulphuric acid plant and recovery of sulphur resource are outlined. The design highlights of this technology are analyzed and the are proposed. Compared to conventional technologies, this new technology offers high desulfurization efficiency and unique technology, which can effectively tackle the difficuhies of tailgas treatment in sulphuric acid plants after enforcement of the new standard. This new technology is thought to be significant economic benefit, environmental benefit, as well as a promising future of application.

  13. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Ma Xiwu' s trial mode is a model of adjudication in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region, resulting from the joint forces of the border region' s specific wartime environment, local environment, the border region' s social transformation and judicial reform as well as many other factors.

  14. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on engineering practice, this paper applies the finite element method to model the SAC test results of bolted endplate connection. The ductility capacity of a new extended bolted end-plate connection for industrial buildings and structures is analyzed, and the analysis results can be used in engineering design and the development of specifications concerned.

  15. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Discussion on Geological Exploration Culture and Core Value System of Geological Exploration Industry PENG Qiming(Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100812, China) Abstract: Since the convening of the Sixth Plenary Session of the Sixth Central Committee of the CPC, the function of soft power of culture construction has been attracted widespread attention. For geological industry, an important factor which restricts the development of this industry is the culture of geological prospecting, while the key point is to establish the core value system of geological exploration industry. This paper introduces the role of the core value system of geological exploration industry, these include: guiding the direction and trace of industry development; gathering strength and forming resultant force; setting up the confidence and determination of inspiration; and establishing professional and ethical standards and behaviors. This paper offers some specific methods required for developing the advanced culture of geological industry,

  16. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (1) The Narrative Structure and Mode of Realization of Marx's Theory of Human Emancipation Liu Tongfang Understanding the inherent logic of the ideas in the classic Marxist texts and revealing the narrative structure and mode of realization of Marx's theory of human emancipation is an important intellectual approach to the extension of Marxist theoretical research. As a scientific theory of the history of society, the narrative structure of human emancipation involves three aspects: historical materialism, multi-dimensional forms of emancipation, and communist movements. It offers a comprehensive analysis of the basic way of perceiving human society, the fundamental path to human emancipation and the ultimate aim of the evolution of social forms. It reflects the thorough-going revolutionary nature of Marx's theory of human emancipation and its close relationship with the real life of society. It would thus be academically significant to reflect on Western Marxism, Soviet-type socialism and the socialist road with Chinese characteristics from the viewpoint of the narrative structure of Marx's theory of human emancipation, so as to extend the Marxist theory of human emancipation and explore its specific mode of realization

  17. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mintz, Tiffany M [ORNL; Hernandez, Oscar R [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  18. Software Abstractions and Methodologies for HPC Simulation Codes on Future Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Dubey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulations with multi-physics modeling have become crucial to many science and engineering fields, and multi-physics capable scientific software is as important to these fields as instruments and facilities are to experimental sciences. The current generation of mature multi-physics codes would have sustainably served their target communities with modest amount of ongoing investment for enhancing capabilities. However, the revolution occurring in the hardware architecture has made it necessary to tackle the parallelism and performance management in these codes at multiple levels. The requirements of various levels are often at cross-purposes with one another, and therefore hugely complicate the software design. All of these considerations make it essential to approach this challenge cooperatively as a community. We conducted a series of workshops under an NSF-SI2 conceptualization grant to get input from various stakeholders, and to identify broad approaches that might lead to a solution. In this position paper we detail the major concerns articulated by the application code developers, and emerging trends in utilization of programming abstractions that we found through these workshops.

  19. Optimization Specifications for CUDA Code Restructuring Tool

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Ayaz

    2017-03-13

    In this work we have developed a restructuring software tool (RT-CUDA) following the proposed optimization specifications to bridge the gap between high-level languages and the machine dependent CUDA environment. RT-CUDA takes a C program and convert it into an optimized CUDA kernel with user directives in a configuration file for guiding the compiler. RTCUDA also allows transparent invocation of the most optimized external math libraries like cuSparse and cuBLAS enabling efficient design of linear algebra solvers. We expect RT-CUDA to be needed by many KSA industries dealing with science and engineering simulation on massively parallel computers like NVIDIA GPUs.

  20. Using Abstraction and Model Checking to Detect Safety Violations in Requirements Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    into a corresponding scenario in the original state machine model 6.4 Combining Automatic Abstraction Methods with Other Methods After automatic...abstraction methods, such as those de- scribed above, are used to produce a reduced state machine model , other abstraction methods, such as those described...generation of invari- ants [46], may further reduce the state space. Moreover, once the specification of the state machine model has been reduced

  1. Hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes originating from long non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinkering with pre-existing genes has long been known as a major way to create new genes. Recently, however, motherless protein-coding genes have been found to have emerged de novo from ancestral non-coding DNAs. How these genes originated is not well addressed to date. Here we identified 24 hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes with precise origination timing in vertebrate phylogeny. Strand-specific RNA-Seq analyses were performed in five rhesus macaque tissues (liver, prefrontal cortex, skeletal muscle, adipose, and testis, which were then integrated with public transcriptome data from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque. On the basis of comparing the RNA expression profiles in the three species, we found that most of the hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes encoded polyadenylated non-coding RNAs in rhesus macaque or chimpanzee with a similar transcript structure and correlated tissue expression profile. According to the rule of parsimony, the majority of these hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes appear to have acquired a regulated transcript structure and expression profile before acquiring coding potential. Interestingly, although the expression profile was largely correlated, the coding genes in human often showed higher transcriptional abundance than their non-coding counterparts in rhesus macaque. The major findings we report in this manuscript are robust and insensitive to the parameters used in the identification and analysis of de novo genes. Our results suggest that at least a portion of long non-coding RNAs, especially those with active and regulated transcription, may serve as a birth pool for protein-coding genes, which are then further optimized at the transcriptional level.

  2. Hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes originating from long non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinkering with pre-existing genes has long been known as a major way to create new genes. Recently, however, motherless protein-coding genes have been found to have emerged de novo from ancestral non-coding DNAs. How these genes originated is not well addressed to date. Here we identified 24 hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes with precise origination timing in vertebrate phylogeny. Strand-specific RNA-Seq analyses were performed in five rhesus macaque tissues (liver, prefrontal cortex, skeletal muscle, adipose, and testis, which were then integrated with public transcriptome data from human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque. On the basis of comparing the RNA expression profiles in the three species, we found that most of the hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes encoded polyadenylated non-coding RNAs in rhesus macaque or chimpanzee with a similar transcript structure and correlated tissue expression profile. According to the rule of parsimony, the majority of these hominoid-specific de novo protein-coding genes appear to have acquired a regulated transcript structure and expression profile before acquiring coding potential. Interestingly, although the expression profile was largely correlated, the coding genes in human often showed higher transcriptional abundance than their non-coding counterparts in rhesus macaque. The major findings we report in this manuscript are robust and insensitive to the parameters used in the identification and analysis of de novo genes. Our results suggest that at least a portion of long non-coding RNAs, especially those with active and regulated transcription, may serve as a birth pool for protein-coding genes, which are then further optimized at the transcriptional level.

  3. A highly specific coding system for structural chromosomal alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, M L; Martínez-Fernández, M L

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC, from the name in Spanish) has developed a very simple and highly specific coding system for structural chromosomal alterations. Such a coding system would be of value at present due to the dramatic increase in the diagnosis of submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications through molecular techniques. In summary, our new coding system allows the characterization of: (a) the type of structural anomaly; (b) the chromosome affected; (c) if the alteration affects the short or/and the long arm, and (d) if it is a non-pure dicentric, a non-pure isochromosome, or if it affects several chromosomes. We show the distribution of 276 newborn patients with these types of chromosomal alterations using their corresponding codes according to our system. We consider that our approach may be useful not only for other registries, but also for laboratories performing these studies to store their results on case series. Therefore, the aim of this article is to describe this coding system and to offer the opportunity for this coding to be applied by others. Moreover, as this is a SYSTEM, rather than a fixed code, it can be implemented with the necessary modifications to include the specific objectives of each program. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Abstract Interface Specifications for the A-7E Device Interface Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-20

    Differential equations are an example of a mathematical abstraction representing systems as diverse as electrical circuits and collections of springs...Oxford, pp. 861-867. /4/ Liskov, B. and Zilles , S.; "Specification Techniques for Data Abstractions," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. SE...Crews, L., and Hall, C.; A-7D/E Aircraft Navigation Equations ; NWC Technical Note 404-176; March 1975. 3 George, R.; A-7E Weapon Delivery Equations ; NWC

  5. Abstracts of digital computer code packages assembled by the Radiation Shielding Information Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, B.J.; Maskewitz, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This publication, ORNL/RSIC-13, Volumes I to III Revised, has resulted from an internal audit of the first 168 packages of computing technology in the Computer Codes Collection (CCC) of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). It replaces the earlier three documents published as single volumes between 1966 to 1972. A significant number of the early code packages were considered to be obsolete and were removed from the collection in the audit process and the CCC numbers were not reassigned. Others not currently being used by the nuclear R and D community were retained in the collection to preserve technology not replaced by newer methods, or were considered of potential value for reference purposes. Much of the early technology, however, has improved through developer/RSIC/user interaction and continues at the forefront of the advancing state-of-the-art.

  6. Three stages during the evolution of the genetic code. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, U.; Oro, J.

    1994-01-01

    A diversification of the genetic code based on the number of codons available for the proteinous amino acids is established. Three groups of amino acids during evolution of the code are distinguished. On the basis of their chemical complexity and a small codon number those amino acids emerging later in a translation process are derived. Both criteria indicate that His, Phe, Tyr, Cys and either Lys or Asn were introduced in the second stage, whereas the number of codons alone gives evidence that Trp and Met were introduced in the third stage. The amino acids of stage one use purines rich codons, thus purines have been retained in their third codon position. All the amino acids introduced in the second stage, in contrast, use pyrimidines in this codon position. A low abundance of pyrimidines during early translation is derived. This assumption is supported by experiments on non enzymatic replication and interactions of DNA hairpin loops with a complementary strand. A back extrapolation concludes a high purine content of the first nucleic acids which gradually decreased during their evolution. Amino acids independently available form prebiotic synthesis were thus correlated to purine rich codons. Conclusions on prebiotic replication are discussed also in the light of recent codon usage data.

  7. Artificial grammar learning by 1-year-olds leads to specific and abstract knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R L; Gerken, L

    1999-03-01

    Four experiments used the head-turn preference procedure to assess whether infants could extract and remember information from auditory strings produced by a miniature artificial grammar. In all four experiments, infants generalized to new structure by discriminating new grammatical strings from ungrammatical ones after less than 2 min exposure to the grammar. Infants acquired specific information about the grammar as demonstrated by the ability to discriminate new grammatical strings from those with illegal endpoints (Experiment 1). Infants also discriminated new grammatical strings from those with string-internal pairwise violations (Experiments 2 and 3). Infants in Experiment 4 abstracted beyond specific word order as demonstrated by the ability to discriminate new strings produced by their training grammar from strings produced by another grammar despite a change in vocabulary between training and test. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of language acquisition.

  8. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2007-06-01

    web-based prototype capable of creating domain-specific investigator networks based on an application that accurately generates detailed investigator profiles from PubMed abstracts combined with robust standard vocabularies. This approach could be used for other biomedical fields to efficiently establish domain-specific investigator networks.

  9. A Study of Applications of Multiagent System Specifications and the Key Techniques in Automatic Abstracts System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, multiagent system specifications, multiagent system architecture s , agent communication languages and agent communication protocols, automatic abs tracting based on multiagent technologies are studied. Some concerned problems o f designs and realization of automatic abstracting systems based on multiagent t echnologies are studied, too. Chapter 1 shows the significance and objectives of the thesis, its main contents are summarized, and innovations of the thesis are showed. Some basic concepts of agents and multiagent systems are studied in Cha pter 2. The definitions of agents and multiagent systems are given, and the theo ry, technologies and applications of multiagent systems are summarized. Furtherm ore, some important studying trends of multiagent systems are set forward. Multi agent system specifications are studied in Chapter 3. MAS/KIB—a multiagent syst em specification is built using mental states such as K(Know), B(Belief) , and I(Intention), its grammar and semanteme are discussed, axioms and infe rence rules are given, and some properties are researched. We also compare MAS/K IB with other existing specifications. MAS/KIB has the following characteristics : (1) each agent has its own world outlook; (2) no global data in the system; (3 ) processes of state changes are used as indexes to systems; (4) it has the char acteristics of not only time series logic but also dynamic logic; and (5) intera ctive actions are included. The architectures of multiagent systems are studied in Chapter 4. First, we review some typical architecture of multiagent systems, agent network architecture, agent federated architecture, agent blackboard archi tecture, and Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agent(FIPA) architecture. For th e first time, we set forward and study the layering and partitioning models of t he architectures of multiagent systems, organizing architecture models, and inte roperability architecture model of multiagent

  10. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  11. Review of Form Fit Function Specification, Coding Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.

    1997-01-01

    A review of the proposed European standard for EUROBALISE, i.e. a system that communicates signal aspects (e.g. signal at red) to trains. The review contains exact description of the performance of coding strategy of the proposed standard......A review of the proposed European standard for EUROBALISE, i.e. a system that communicates signal aspects (e.g. signal at red) to trains. The review contains exact description of the performance of coding strategy of the proposed standard...

  12. Review of Form Fit Function Specification, Coding Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.

    1997-01-01

    A review of the proposed European standard for EUROBALISE, i.e. a system that communicates signal aspects (e.g. signal at red) to trains. The review contains exact description of the performance of coding strategy of the proposed standard...

  13. Code Shift: Grid Specifications and Dynamic Wind Turbine Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackermann, Thomas; Ellis, Abraham; Fortmann, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Grid codes (GCs) and dynamic wind turbine (WT) models are key tools to allow increasing renewable energy penetration without challenging security of supply. In this article, the state of the art and the further development of both tools are discussed, focusing on the European and North American...

  14. Stellarator-specific developments for the systems code PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix; Beidler, Craig; Dinklage, Andreas; Feng, Yuehe; Geiger, Joachim; Schauer, Felix; Turkin, Yuriy; Wolf, Robert; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Knight, Peter; Ward, David [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The ultimate goal of fusion research is to demonstrate the feasibility of economic production of electricity. The most promising concepts to achieve this by magnetic confinement are the Tokamak and the Stellarator. System codes are used to study the general properties of a fusion power plant. Built in a modular way systems codes describe the physical and technical properties of the power plant components. For the Helical Advanced Stellarator (HELIAS) concept modules have been developed in the frame of the existing Tokamak systems code PROCESS. These include: A geometry model based on Fourier coefficients which represent the complex 3-D plasma shape, a divertor model which assumes diffusive cross-field transport and high radiation at the X-point, a coil model which uses a scaling based on the HELIAS design and a transport model which either employs empirical confinement time scalings or sophisticated 1-D collisional and turbulent transport calculations. This approach aims at a direct comparison between Tokamak and Stellarator power plant designs.

  15. Are the products of statistical learning abstract or stimulus-specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena eVouloumanos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Learners segment potential lexical units from syllable streams when statistically variable transitional probabilities between adjacent syllables are the only cues to word boundaries. Here we examine the nature of the representations that result from statistical learning by assessing learners’ ability to generalize across acoustically different stimuli. In three experiments, we investigate limitations on the outcome of statistical learning by considering two possibilities: that the products of statistical segmentation processes are abstract and generalizable representations, or, alternatively, that products of statistical learning are stimulus-bound and restricted to perceptually similar instances. In Experiment 1, learners segmented units from statistically predictable streams, and recognized these units when they were acoustically transformed by temporal reversals. In Experiment 2, learners were able to segment units from temporally reversed syllable streams, but were only able to generalize in conditions of mild acoustic transformation. In Experiment 3, learners were able to recognize statistically segmented units after a voice change but were unable to do so when the novel voice was mildly distorted. Together these results suggest that representations that result from statistical learning can be abstracted to some degree, but not in all listening conditions.

  16. The impact of different breast support garments on larger breasted women with non-specific back pain - Abstract

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract\\ud \\ud Background: Larger breasted women are at higher risk of wearing ill-fitting breast-support garments. Failure to support breasts during everyday activity can lead to physiological conditions including back and breast pain. This study aimed to identify initial and short-term (4 weeks) biomechanical change and patient reported outcome measures (PROMS) in larger breasted women with non-specific back pain (NSBP) when wearing different breast-support garments.\\ud \\ud Methods & Resul...

  17. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN CATTLE FECAL SAMPLES - ABSTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  18. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN CATTLE FECAL SAMPLES - ABSTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several PCR methods have recently been developed to identify fecal contamination in surface waters. In all cases, researchers have relied on one gene or one microorganism for selection of host specific markers. Here, we describe the application of a genome fragment enrichment met...

  19. Domain-specific modeling enabling full code generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) is the latest approach tosoftware development, promising to greatly increase the speed andease of software creation. Early adopters of DSM have been enjoyingproductivity increases of 500–1000% in production for over adecade. This book introduces DSM and offers examples from variousfields to illustrate to experienced developers how DSM can improvesoftware development in their teams. Two authorities in the field explain what DSM is, why it works,and how to successfully create and use a DSM solution to improveproductivity and quality. Divided into four parts, the book covers:background and motivation; fundamentals; in-depth examples; andcreating DSM solutions. There is an emphasis throughout the book onpractical guidelines for implementing DSM, including how toidentify the nece sary language constructs, how to generate fullcode from models, and how to provide tool support for a new DSMlanguage. The example cases described in the book are available thebook's Website, www.dsmbook....

  20. Reaction rate constants of H-abstraction by OH from large ketones: Measurements and site-specific rate rules

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-01-01

    Reaction rate constants of the reaction of four large ketones with hydroxyl (OH) are investigated behind reflected shock waves using OH laser absorption. The studied ketones are isomers of hexanone and include 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 3-methyl-2-pentanone, and 4-methl-2-pentanone. Rate constants are measured under pseudo-first-order kinetics at temperatures ranging from 866 K to 1375 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. The reported high-temperature rate constant measurements are the first direct measurements for these ketones under combustion-relevant conditions. The effects of the position of the carbonyl group (CO) and methyl (CH3) branching on the overall rate constant with OH are examined. Using previously published data, rate constant expressions covering, low-to-high temperatures, are developed for acetone, 2-butanone, 3-pentanone, and the hexanone isomers studied here. These Arrhenius expressions are used to devise rate rules for H-abstraction from various sites. Specifically, the current scheme is applied with good success to H-abstraction by OH from a series of n-ketones. Finally, general expressions for primary and secondary site-specific H-abstraction by OH from ketones are proposed as follows (the subscript numbers indicate the number of carbon atoms bonded to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon atom, the subscript CO indicates that the abstraction is from a site next to the carbonyl group (CO), and the prime is used to differentiate different neighboring environments of a methylene group):P1,CO = 7.38 × 10-14 exp(-274 K/T) + 9.17 × 10-12 exp(-2499 K/T) (285-1355 K)S10,CO = 1.20 × 10-11 exp(-2046 K/T) + 2.20 × 10-13 exp(160 K/T) (222-1464 K)S11,CO = 4.50 × 10-11 exp(-3000 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1440 K/T) (248-1302 K)S11′,CO = 3.80 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 8.50 × 10-15 exp(1550 K/T) (263-1370 K)S 21,CO = 5.00 × 10-11 exp(-2500 K/T) + 4.00 × 10-13 exp(775 K/T) (297-1376 K) © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  1. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  2. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part II: Reduction Semantics and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    -class continuations.  Starting from this reduction semantics, (1) we refocus it into a small-step abstract machine; (2) we fuse the transition function of this abstract machine with its driver loop, obtaining a big-step abstract machine which is staged; (3) we compress its corridor transitions, obtaining an eval....../continue abstract machine; and (4) we unfold its ground closures, which yields an abstract machine that essentially coincides with Clinger's machine.  This lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions therefore aptly accounts for Core Scheme, including Clinger's permutations and unpermutations....

  3. Site-specific reaction rate constant measurements for various secondary and tertiary H-abstraction by OH radicals

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2015-02-01

    Reaction rate constants for nine site-specific hydrogen atom (H) abstraction by hydroxyl radicals (OH) have been determined using experimental measurements of the rate constants of Alkane+OH→Products reactions. Seven secondary (S 20, S 21, S 22, S 30, S 31, S 32, and S 33) and two tertiary (T 100 and T 101) site-specific rate constants, where the subscripts refer to the number of carbon atoms (C) connected to the next-nearest-neighbor (N-N-N) C atom, were obtained for a wide temperature range (250-1450K). This was done by measuring the reaction rate constants for H abstraction by OH from a series of carefully selected large branched alkanes. The rate constant of OH with four different alkanes, namely 2,2-dimethyl-pentane, 2,4-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-pentane were measured at high temperatures (822-1367K) using a shock tube and OH absorption diagnostic. Hydroxyl radicals were detected using the narrow-line-width ring-dye laser absorption of the R1(5) transition of OH spectrum near 306.69nm.Previous low-temperature rate constant measurements are added to the current data to generate three-parameter rate expressions that successfully represent the available direct measurements over a wide temperature range (250-1450. K). Similarly, literature values of the low-temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with seven normal and branched alkanes are combined with the recently measured high-temperature rate constants from our group [1]. Subsequent to that, site-specific rate constants for abstractions from various types of secondary and tertiary H atoms by OH radicals are derived and have the following modified Arrhenius expressions:. S20=8.49×10-17T1.52exp(73.4K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(250-1450K) S21=1.07×10-15T1.07exp(208.3K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(296-1440K) S22=2.88×10-13T0.41exp(-291.5K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(272-1311K) S30=3.35×10-18T1.97exp(323.1K/T)cm3molecule-1s-1(250-1366K) S31=1.60×10-18T2.0exp(500.0K/T)cm3

  4. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part II: Reduction Semantics and Abstract Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacka, Małgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    We present a context-sensitive reduction semantics for a lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions and we show that the functional implementation of this small-step semantics mechanically corresponds to that of the abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI’98, including first-class continuations. Starting from this reduction semantics, (1) we refocus it into a small-step abstract machine; (2) we fuse the transition function of this abstract machine with its driver loop, obtaining a big-step abstract machine which is staged; (3) we compress its corridor transitions, obtaining an eval/continue abstract machine; and (4) we unfold its ground closures, which yields an abstract machine that essentially coincides with Clinger’s machine. This lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions therefore aptly accounts for Core Scheme, including Clinger’s permutations and unpermutations.

  5. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part II: Reduction Semantics and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We present a context-sensitive reduction semantics for a lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions and store and we show that the functional implementation of this small-step semantics mechanically corresponds to that of an abstract machine. This abstract machine is very close to the abstract...... machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. This lambda-calculus with explicit substitutions and store therefore aptly accounts for Core Scheme....

  6. Specifications and applications of the technical code for monitoring of building and bridge structures in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the exclusive compulsory technical code (GB 50982-2014 for structural health monitoring of buildings and bridges in China has been developed and implemented. This code covers the majority of the field monitoring methods and stipulates the corresponding technical parameters for monitoring of high-rise structures, large-span spatial structures, bridges and base-isolated structures. This article first presents the comprehensive review and linear comparison of existing structural health monitoring codes and standards. Subsequently, the progress of the codification of GB 50982-2014 is imparted and its main features and specifications are summarized. Finally, in accordance with GB50982-2014, several representative structural health monitoring practical applications of large-scale infrastructures in China are exemplified to illustrate how this national code can bridge the gap between theory and practical applications of structural health monitoring. This technical code is an important milestone in the application of well-established structural health monitoring techniques into the realistic and complex engineering projects. Also, it can provide abundant and authoritative information for practitioners and researchers involving the structural health monitoring techniques.

  7. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation-passing style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  8. Towards Compatible and Interderivable Semantic Specifications for the Scheme Programming Language, Part I: Denotational Semantics, Natural Semantics, and Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    We derive two big-step abstract machines, a natural semantics, and the valuation function of a denotational semantics based on the small-step abstract machine for Core Scheme presented by Clinger at PLDI'98. Starting from a functional implementation of this small-step abstract machine, (1) we fuse...... refunctionalize this adjusted abstract machine, obtaining the functional implementation of a natural semantics in continuation style; and (4) we closure-unconvert this natural semantics, obtaining a compositional continuation-passing evaluation function which we identify as the functional implementation...

  9. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  10. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  11. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  12. Specificity-Determining DNA Triplet Code for Positioning of Human Preinitiation Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshtein, Matan; Lukatsky, David B

    2017-05-23

    The notion that transcription factors bind DNA only through specific, consensus binding sites has been recently questioned. No specific consensus motif for the positioning of the human preinitiation complex (PIC) has been identified. Here, we reveal that nonconsensus, statistical, DNA triplet code provides specificity for the positioning of the human PIC. In particular, we reveal a highly nonrandom, statistical pattern of repetitive nucleotide triplets that correlates with the genomewide binding preferences of PIC measured by Chip-exo. We analyze the triplet enrichment and depletion near the transcription start site and identify triplets that have the strongest effect on PIC-DNA nonconsensus binding. Using statistical mechanics, a random-binder model without fitting parameters, with genomic DNA sequence being the only input, we further validate that the nonconsensus nucleotide triplet code constitutes a key signature providing PIC binding specificity in the human genome. Our results constitute a proof-of-concept for, to our knowledge, a new design principle for protein-DNA recognition in the human genome, which can lead to a better mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. H-Abstraction by OH from Large Branched Alkanes: Overall Rate Measurements and Site-Specific Tertiary Rate Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dapeng

    2017-01-10

    Reaction rate coefficients for the reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with nine large branched alkanes (i.e., 2-methyl-3-ethyl-pentane, 2,3-dimethyl-pentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,2,3-trimethyl-pentane, 2,3,4-trimethyl-pentane, 3-ethyl-pentane, 2,2,3,4-tetramethyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethyl-pentane) are measured at high temperatures (900-1300 K) using a shock tube and narrow-line-width OH absorption diagnostic in the UV region. In addition, room-temperature measurements of six out of these nine rate coefficients are performed in a photolysis cell using high repetition laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. Our experimental results are combined with previous literature measurements to obtain three-parameter Arrhenius expressions valid over a wide temperature range (300-1300 K). The rate coefficients are analyzed using the next-nearest-neighbor (N-N-N) methodology to derive nine tertiary (T003, T012, T013, T022, T023, T111, T112, T113, and T122) site-specific rate coefficients for the abstraction of H atoms by OH radicals from branched alkanes. Derived Arrhenius expressions, valid over 950-1300 K, are given as (the subscripts denote the number of carbon atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor carbon): T003 = 1.80 × 10-10 exp(-2971 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T012 = 9.36 × 10-11 exp(-3024 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T013 = 4.40 × 10-10 exp(-4162 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T022 = 1.47 × 10-10 exp(-3587 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T023 = 6.06 × 10-11 exp(-3010 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T111 = 3.98 × 10-11 exp(-1617 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T112 = 9.08 × 10-12 exp(-3661 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T113 = 6.74 × 10-9 exp(-7547 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1; T122 = 3.47 × 10-11 exp(-1802 K/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1.

  14. Synthesis of Site-Specific Radiolabeled Antibodies for Radioimmunotherapy via Genetic Code Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fei; Chen, Jingxian; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Ling; Si, Longlong; Xu, Huan; Yao, Tianzhuo; Xiao, Sulong; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Lihe; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Demin

    2016-10-19

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) delivers radioisotopes to antigen-expressing cells via monoantibodies for the imaging of lesions or medical therapy. The chelates are typically conjugated to the antibody through cysteine or lysine residues, resulting in heterogeneous chelate-to-antibody ratios and various conjugation sites. To overcome this heterogeneity, we have developed an approach for site-specific radiolabeling of antibodies by combination of genetic code expansion and click chemistry. As a proof-of-concept study, model systems including anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, positron-emitting isotope (64)Cu, and a newly synthesized bifunctional linker (4-dibenzocyclooctynol-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid, DIBO-DOTA) were used. The approach consists of three steps: (1) site-specific incorporation of an azido group-bearing amino acid (NEAK) via the genetic code expansion technique at the defined sites of the antibody as a "chemical handle"; (2) site-specific and quantitative conjugation of bifunctional linkers with the antibodies under a mild condition; and (3) radiolabeling of the chelate-modified antibodies with the appropriate isotope. We used heavy-chain A122NEAK rituximab as proof-of-concept and obtained a homogeneous radioconjugate with precisely two chelates per antibody, incorporated only at the chosen sites. The conjugation did not alter the binding and pharmacokinetics of the rituximab, as indicated by in vitro assays and in vivo PET imaging. We believe our research is a good supplement to the genetic code expansion technique for the development of novel radioimmunoconjugates.

  15. Analysis of genetic code ambiguity arising from nematode-specific misacylated tRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyofumi Hamashima

    Full Text Available The faithful translation of the genetic code requires the highly accurate aminoacylation of transfer RNAs (tRNAs. However, it has been shown that nematode-specific V-arm-containing tRNAs (nev-tRNAs are misacylated with leucine in vitro in a manner that transgresses the genetic code. nev-tRNA(Gly (CCC and nev-tRNA(Ile (UAU, which are the major nev-tRNA isotypes, could theoretically decode the glycine (GGG codon and isoleucine (AUA codon as leucine, causing GGG and AUA codon ambiguity in nematode cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the functionality of nev-tRNAs and their impact on the proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences in the 3' end regions of the nev-tRNAs showed that they had matured correctly, with the addition of CCA, which is a crucial posttranscriptional modification required for tRNA aminoacylation. The nuclear export of nev-tRNAs was confirmed with an analysis of their subcellular localization. These results show that nev-tRNAs are processed to their mature forms like common tRNAs and are available for translation. However, a whole-cell proteome analysis found no detectable level of nev-tRNA-induced mistranslation in C. elegans cells, suggesting that the genetic code is not ambiguous, at least under normal growth conditions. Our findings indicate that the translational fidelity of the nematode genetic code is strictly maintained, contrary to our expectations, although deviant tRNAs with misacylation properties are highly conserved in the nematode genome.

  16. The PP1 binding code: a molecular-lego strategy that governs specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroes, Ewald; Lesage, Bart; Görnemann, Janina; Beullens, Monique; Van Meervelt, Luc; Bollen, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a single-domain hub protein with nearly 200 validated interactors in vertebrates. PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) are ubiquitously expressed but show an exceptional diversity in brain, testis and white blood cells. The binding of PIPs is mainly mediated by short motifs that dock to surface grooves of PP1. Although PIPs often contain variants of the same PP1 binding motifs, they differ in the number and combination of docking sites. This molecular-lego strategy for binding to PP1 creates holoenzymes with unique properties. The PP1 binding code can be described as specific, universal, degenerate, nonexclusive and dynamic. PIPs control associated PP1 by interference with substrate recruitment or access to the active site. In addition, some PIPs have a subcellular targeting domain that promotes dephosphorylation by increasing the local concentration of PP1. The diversity of the PP1 interactome and the properties of the PP1 binding code account for the exquisite specificity of PP1 in vivo.

  17. STELLA: A domain-specific embedded language for stencil codes on structured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, Tobias; Fuhrer, Oliver; Osuna, Carlos; Cumming, Benjamin; Schulthess, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Adapting regional weather and climate models (RCMs) for hybrid many-core computing architectures is a formidable challenge. Achieving high performance on different supercomputing architectures while retaining a single source code are often perceived as contradicting goals. Typically, the numerical algorithms employed are tightly inter-twined with hardware dependent implementation choices and optimizations such as for example data-structures and loop order. While Fortran is currently the de-facto standard for programming RCMs, no single such standard for porting such models to graphics processing units (GPUs) has yet emerged. The approaches used can be grouped into three main categories: compiler directives (OpenACC, PGI compiler directives), custom programming languages (CUDA, OpenCL) and domain-specific libraries or languages. STELLA (STencil Loop LAnguage) is a domain-specific embedded language (DSEL) built using generic programming in C++ which is targeted at stencil codes on structured grids. It allows a high-level specification of the algorithm while separating hardware dependent implementation details into back-ends. Currently, a back-end for multi-core CPUs using the OpenMP programming model and a back-end for NVIDIA GPUs using the CUDA programming mode has been developed. We will present the domain-specific language and its features such as software managed caching. With the example of an implementation of the dynamical core of a RCM (COSMO) we will compare performance with respect to the original Fortran implementation both on both CPUs and GPUs. Finally, we will discuss advantages and disadvantages of our approach as compared to other approaches such as source-to-source translators.

  18. Reactions of the cumyloxyl and benzyloxyl radicals with tertiary amides. Hydrogen abstraction selectivity and the role of specific substrate-radical hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Michela; Milan, Michela; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2013-06-21

    A time-resolved kinetic study in acetonitrile and a theoretical investigation of hydrogen abstraction reactions from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) by the cumyloxyl (CumO(•)) and benzyloxyl (BnO(•)) radicals was carried out. CumO(•) reacts with both substrates by direct hydrogen abstraction. With DMF, abstraction occurs from the formyl and N-methyl C-H bonds, with the formyl being the preferred abstraction site, as indicated by the measured kH/kD ratios and by theory. With DMA, abstraction preferentially occurs from the N-methyl groups, whereas abstraction from the acetyl group represents a minor pathway, in line with the computed C-H BDEs and the kH/kD ratios. The reactions of BnO(•) with both substrates were best described by the rate-limiting formation of hydrogen-bonded prereaction complexes between the BnO(•) α-C-H and the amide oxygen, followed by intramolecular hydrogen abstraction. This mechanism is consistent with the very large increases in reactivity measured on going from CumO(•) to BnO(•) and with the observation of kH/kD ratios close to unity in the reactions of BnO(•). Our modeling supports the different mechanisms proposed for the reactions of CumO(•) and BnO(•) and the importance of specific substrate/radical hydrogen bond interactions, moreover providing information on the hydrogen abstraction selectivity.

  19. A conserved influenza A virus nucleoprotein code controls specific viral genome packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Étori Aguiar; Weber, Anna; Bolte, Hardin; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Giese, Sebastian; Lakdawala, Seema; Beer, Martin; Zimmer, Gert; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Schwemmle, Martin; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    Packaging of the eight genomic RNA segments of influenza A viruses (IAV) into viral particles is coordinated by segment-specific packaging sequences. How the packaging signals regulate the specific incorporation of each RNA segment into virions and whether other viral or host factors are involved in this process is unknown. Here, we show that distinct amino acids of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) are required for packaging of specific RNA segments. This was determined by studying the NP of a bat influenza A-like virus, HL17NL10, in the context of a conventional IAV (SC35M). Replacement of conserved SC35M NP residues by those of HL17NL10 NP resulted in RNA packaging defective IAV. Surprisingly, substitution of these conserved SC35M amino acids with HL17NL10 NP residues led to IAV with altered packaging efficiencies for specific subsets of RNA segments. This suggests that NP harbours an amino acid code that dictates genome packaging into infectious virions. PMID:27650413

  20. Selected Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Elasticity of Vague Language Abstract:This paper develops an overarching theoretical framework for dealing with the strategic elastic- ity of vague language. Employing the metaphor of a slingshot, it describes how the vague language (VL) is stretched to meet the needs of communication. Drawing attention to the positive and effective role played by VL, the study further looks into how the VL theory is derived from real - life data of ten- sion -prone encounters. The empirical evidence validates the theory~ main maxim and its four specific maxims, and lends support to the following findings: 1 ) the pragmatic functions which VL performs, their linguistic realizations, and the pragmatic maxims they conform to are interconnected; 2) the dom- inant factor in the functioning of VL is the communicative goal; and 3 ) stretching on a continuum of polarities, between soft and tough, firm and flexible, cooperative and uncooperative, shows the versa- tility and elasticity of VL. An important implication of this study is that while VL~ vagueness is context -governed and culture- denendent it~ nll A ~1.o~;.;~.. ; :

  1. Evidence for gene-specific rather than transcription rate-dependent histone H3 exchange in yeast coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Viks, Irit; Vingron, Martin

    2009-02-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histones are dynamically exchanged independently of DNA replication. Recent reports show that different coding regions differ in their amount of replication-independent histone H3 exchange. The current paradigm is that this histone exchange variability among coding regions is a consequence of transcription rate. Here we put forward the idea that this variability might be also modulated in a gene-specific manner independently of transcription rate. To that end, we study transcription rate-independent replication-independent coding region histone H3 exchange. We term such events relative exchange. Our genome-wide analysis shows conclusively that in yeast, relative exchange is a novel consistent feature of coding regions. Outside of replication, each coding region has a characteristic pattern of histone H3 exchange that is either higher or lower than what was expected by its RNAPII transcription rate alone. Histone H3 exchange in coding regions might be a way to add or remove certain histone modifications that are important for transcription elongation. Therefore, our results that gene-specific coding region histone H3 exchange is decoupled from transcription rate might hint at a new epigenetic mechanism of transcription regulation.

  2. Non-coding cancer driver candidates identified with a sample- and position-specific model of the somatic mutation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Malene; Bertl, Johanna; Guo, Qianyun; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Świtnicki, Michał; Hornshøj, Henrik; Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding mutations may drive cancer development. Statistical detection of non-coding driver regions is challenged by a varying mutation rate and uncertainty of functional impact. Here, we develop a statistically founded non-coding driver-detection method, ncdDetect, which includes sample-specific mutational signatures, long-range mutation rate variation, and position-specific impact measures. Using ncdDetect, we screened non-coding regulatory regions of protein-coding genes across a pan-cancer set of whole-genomes (n = 505), which top-ranked known drivers and identified new candidates. For individual candidates, presence of non-coding mutations associates with altered expression or decreased patient survival across an independent pan-cancer sample set (n = 5454). This includes an antigen-presenting gene (CD1A), where 5’UTR mutations correlate significantly with decreased survival in melanoma. Additionally, mutations in a base-excision-repair gene (SMUG1) correlate with a C-to-T mutational-signature. Overall, we find that a rich model of mutational heterogeneity facilitates non-coding driver identification and integrative analysis points to candidates of potential clinical relevance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21778.001 PMID:28362259

  3. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  4. Tissue-Specific Evolution of Protein Coding Genes in Human and Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Kryuchkova-Mostacci

    Full Text Available Protein-coding genes evolve at different rates, and the influence of different parameters, from gene size to expression level, has been extensively studied. While in yeast gene expression level is the major causal factor of gene evolutionary rate, the situation is more complex in animals. Here we investigate these relations further, especially taking in account gene expression in different organs as well as indirect correlations between parameters. We used RNA-seq data from two large datasets, covering 22 mouse tissues and 27 human tissues. Over all tissues, evolutionary rate only correlates weakly with levels and breadth of expression. The strongest explanatory factors of purifying selection are GC content, expression in many developmental stages, and expression in brain tissues. While the main component of evolutionary rate is purifying selection, we also find tissue-specific patterns for sites under neutral evolution and for positive selection. We observe fast evolution of genes expressed in testis, but also in other tissues, notably liver, which are explained by weak purifying selection rather than by positive selection.

  5. Stimulus Specificity of Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Code Modulation Visual Evoked Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Wei

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI based on code modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEP is among the fastest BCIs that have ever been reported, but it has not yet been given a thorough study. In this study, a pseudorandom binary M sequence and its time lag sequences are utilized for modulation of different stimuli and template matching is adopted as the method for target recognition. Five experiments were devised to investigate the effect of stimulus specificity on target recognition and we made an effort to find the optimal stimulus parameters for size, color and proximity of the stimuli, length of modulation sequence and its lag between two adjacent stimuli. By changing the values of these parameters and measuring classification accuracy of the c-VEP BCI, an optimal value of each parameter can be attained. Experimental results of ten subjects showed that stimulus size of visual angle 3.8°, white, spatial proximity of visual angle 4.8° center to center apart, modulation sequence of length 63 bits and the lag of 4 bits between adjacent stimuli yield individually superior performance. These findings provide a basis for determining stimulus presentation of a high-performance c-VEP based BCI system.

  6. Ethics On The Fly: Toward A Drone - Specific Code Of Conduct For Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Stuart Mill are two philosophers frequently associated with utilitarianism. Deontological ethical theories stress the importance of the act itself in...choose how to act in often difficult 101 Stuart C. Gilman, Ethics Codes and Codes of Conduct as Tools for...Delineate by what mechanism the agency will communicate with the public regarding UAS use for law enforcement missions. Consider town hall meetings

  7. OSSMETER D3.4 – Language-Specific Source Code Quality Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinju, J.J.; Shahi, A.; Basten, H.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable is part of WP3: Source Code Quality and Activity Analysis. It provides descriptions and prototypes of the tools that are needed for source code quality analysis in open source software projects. It builds upon the results of: • Deliverable 3.1 where infra-structure and a domain anal

  8. Selected Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Three - Stage Interaction Model of Lexicon - Syntax Interface Liu Yuhong (80) The Three -Stage Interaction Model maintains that the interactions at the lexicon -syntax interface are divisible into three levels, namely, the interaction between lexical meaning and lexical grammar that determines syntactic items, the interaction among lexical items that determines syntactic structure, and the interaction between abstract syntactic structure (i. e. construction) and temporary syntactic combinations that determines and coerces grammaticality of the latter. The Three - Stage Interaction Model is hierarchical, complete and bidirectional in language comprehension. It also testifies to the varying abstractness between grammar (syntax) and semantics, and between the five grammatical cases. According to this model, temporary syntactic combination is sanctioned by abstract syntactic structure, therefore the conventional linguistic significance of P600 is maintained without coining contradictory new terms.

  9. Coding of meaningful concepts in lymphedema-specific questionnaires with the ICF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viehoff, P.B.; Hidding, J.T.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Ravensberg, C.D. van; Neumann, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To identify and quantify the meaningful concepts within questionnaires focusing on lymphedema using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods: Electronic searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENtral and Pedro (2005-2010) were conducted. T

  10. Coding of meaningful concepts in lymphedema-specific questionnaires with the ICF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viehoff, P.B.; Hidding, J.T.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Ravensberg, C.D. van; Neumann, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To identify and quantify the meaningful concepts within questionnaires focusing on lymphedema using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Methods: Electronic searches of Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENtral and Pedro (2005-2010) were conducted.

  11. Specificity Protein (Sp) Transcription Factors and Metformin Regulate Expression of the Long Non-coding RNA HULC

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is evidence that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor (TF) regulates expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. RNA interference (RNAi) studies showed that among several lncRNAs expressed in HepG2, SNU-449 and SK-Hep-1...

  12. Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng (NIH); (Beijing U); (UNC)

    2011-10-28

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  13. Specific and modular binding code for cytosine recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R; Li, Chunhua; Hall, Traci M Tanaka; Wang, Zefeng

    2011-07-29

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  14. The specific purpose Monte Carlo code McENL for simulating the response of epithermal neutron lifetime well logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Gardner, R.P.; Verghese, K. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Center for Engineering Applications and Radioisotopes)

    1993-08-01

    A new specific purpose Monte Carlo code called McENL for modeling the time response of epithermal neutron lifetime tools is described. The code was developed so that the Monte Carlo neophyte can easily use it. A minimum amount of input preparation is required and specified fixed values of the parameters used to control the code operation can be used. The weight windows technique, employing splitting and Russian Roulette, is used with an automated importance function based on the solution of an adjoint diffusion model to improve the code efficiency. Complete composition and density correlated sampling is also included in the code and can be used to study the effect on tool response of small variations in the formation, borehole, or logging tool composition and density. An illustration of the latter application is given here for the density of a thermal neutron filter. McENL was benchmarked against test-pit data for the Mobil pulsed neutron porosity (PNP) tool and found to be very accurate. Results of the experimental validation and details of code performance are presented.

  15. MAIN ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ideological Critique of Marx and Philosophical Transformation This paper addresses a tendency today that tries to reinterpret the Marxist transformation in philosophy with a "non-ideological" perspective. It explicates the leap that Marx achieved from abstract human spirit and state reason to the proletariat world view, as well as the overall withdrawal from the abstract universalism. Such a leap and withdrawal is not only the key to the materialistic inversion of the Hegelian dialectics, but also the foundation for sticking to and enriching the Marxist philosophy. Without sticking to this direction, we will not be able to clearly understand Marxism as the successor and promoter of the magnificent cultural achievements of mankind, including the enlightenment thoughts and classical German philosophy, nor will we fully understand the value and strength of Marxist philosophy today.

  16. Specific structural probing of plasmid-coded ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, C; Rosendahl, G; Dam, M

    1991-01-01

    The preferred method for construction and in vivo expression of mutagenised Escherichia coli ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) is via high copy number plasmids. Transcription of wild-type rRNA from the seven chromosomal rrn operons in strains harbouring plasmid-coded mutant rRNAs leads to a heterogeneous...... ribosome population, which consequently hinders direct probing of mutant rRNAs. Here, we describe how nonconserved helical regions of plasmid-coded rRNA have been altered in a manner that preserves their secondary structures while creating new sites for primer extension of mutant rRNAs. This facilitates...

  17. Inventory Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Leigh

    2000-11-03

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in

  18. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest

  19. Specific structural probing of plasmid-coded ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, C; Rosendahl, G; Dam, M

    1991-01-01

    ribosome population, which consequently hinders direct probing of mutant rRNAs. Here, we describe how nonconserved helical regions of plasmid-coded rRNA have been altered in a manner that preserves their secondary structures while creating new sites for primer extension of mutant rRNAs. This facilitates...

  20. Site-Specific Rate Constant Measurements for Primary and Secondary H- and D-Abstraction by OH Radicals: Propane and n -Butane

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2014-07-03

    Site-specific rate constants for hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) abstraction by hydroxyl (OH) radicals were determined experimentally by monitoring the reaction of OH with two normal and six deuterated alkanes. The studied alkanes include propane (C3H8), propane 2,2 D2 (CH 3CD2CH3), propane 1,1,1-3,3,3 D6 (CD 3CH2CD3), propane D8 (C3D 8), n-butane (n-C4H10), butane 2,2-3,3 D4 (CH3CD2CD2CH3), butane 1,1,1-4,4,4 D6 (CD3CH2CH2CD3), and butane D10 (C4D10). Rate constant measurements were carried out over 840-1470 K and 1.2-2.1 atm using a shock tube and OH laser absorption. Previous low-temperature data were combined with the current high-temperature measurements to generate three-parameter fits which were then used to determine the site-specific rate constants. Two primary (P1,H and P 1,D) and four secondary (S00,H, S00,D, S 01,H, and S01,D) H- and D-abstraction rate constants, in which the subscripts refer to the number of C atoms connected to the next-nearest-neighbor C atom, are obtained. The modified Arrhenius expressions for the six site-specific abstractions by OH radicals are P1,H = 1.90 × 10-18T2.00 exp(-340.87 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); P1,D= 2.72 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-895.57 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1317 K); S00,H = 4.40 × 10-18 T1.93 exp(121.50 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (210-1294 K); S00,D = 1.45 × 10-20 T2.69 exp(282.36 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (295-1341 K); S01,H = 4.65 × 10-17 T1.60 exp(-236.98 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (235-1407 K); S01,D = 1.26 × 10-18 T2.07 exp(-77.00 K/T) cm 3molecule-1s-1 (294-1412 K). © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Identification of Tissue-Specific Protein-Coding and Noncoding Transcripts across 14 Human Tissues Using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhang; Chen, Geng; Zhu, Sibo; Li, Suqing; Wen, Zhuo; Bin Li; Zheng, Yuanting; Shi, Leming

    2016-06-22

    Many diseases and adverse drug reactions exhibit tissue specificity. To better understand the tissue-specific expression characteristics of transcripts in different human tissues, we deeply sequenced RNA samples from 14 different human tissues. After filtering many lowly expressed transcripts, 24,729 protein-coding transcripts and 1,653 noncoding transcripts were identified. By analyzing highly expressed tissue-specific protein-coding transcripts (TSCTs) and noncoding transcripts (TSNTs), we found that testis expressed the highest numbers of TSCTs and TSNTs. Brain, monocytes, ovary, and heart expressed more TSCTs than the rest tissues, whereas brain, placenta, heart, and monocytes expressed more TSNTs than other tissues. Co-expression network constructed based on the TSCTs and TSNTs showed that each hub TSNT was co-expressed with several TSCTs, allowing functional annotation of TSNTs. Important biological processes and KEGG pathways highly related to the specific functions or diseases of each tissue were enriched with the corresponding TSCTs. These TSCTs and TSNTs may participate in the tissue-specific physiological or pathological processes. Our study provided a unique data set and systematic analysis of expression characteristics and functions of both TSCTs and TSNTs based on 14 distinct human tissues, and could facilitate future investigation of the mechanisms behind tissue-specific diseases and adverse drug reactions.

  2. An Improved Algorithm based on Abstract Syntax Tree for Source Code Plagiarism Detection%一种改进的基于抽象语法树的软件源代码比对算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘楠; 韩丽芳; 夏坤峰; 曲通

    2014-01-01

    在软件同源性检测方法中,基于抽象语法树的比对方法能够有效地检测出基于代码全文拷贝、修改变量名、调整代码顺序等的抄袭手段,被广泛用于抄袭检测工具中。但基于抽象语法树的比对方法对于修改变量类型和添加无意义变量的抄袭手段束手无策。针对这种情况,提出了一种基于抽象语法树的改进思想,该思想通过剪去语法树中影响判断的叶子节点的手段来还原检测原文抄袭,能够达到有效检测修改变量类型和添加无意义变量等抄袭的目的。%Among the source code plagiarism detection algorithms used in software engineering, the algorithm based on abstract syntax tree (AST) can effectively detect those plagiarized cases of copying with no modiifcation, modifying variable names and changing the source code sequence, but the algorithm can not detect the cases of modifying the variable type, adding no useful variables and so on. In this paper, we propose an improved algorithm based on abstract syntax tree, which is implemented by cutting out the syntax tree leaf nodes that may affect the judgment. This improved algorithm can positively detect the plagiarism cases described in the previous.

  3. Non coding RNA: sequence-specific guide for chromatin modification and DNA damage signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eFrancia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports suggest that ncRNAs are involved in DDR signaling and homology-mediated DNA repair. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair.

  4. Non-Coding RNA: Sequence-Specific Guide for Chromatin Modification and DNA Damage Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports show their involvement in DDR. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair.

  5. A meiosis-specific Spt5 homolog involved in non-coding transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchota, Julita; Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda; Nowak, Jacek K

    2017-01-03

    Spt5 is a conserved and essential transcriptional regulator that binds directly to RNA polymerase and is involved in transcription elongation, polymerase pausing and various co-transcriptional processes. To investigate the role of Spt5 in non-coding transcription, we used the unicellular model Paramecium tetraurelia In this ciliate, development is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms that use different classes of non-coding RNAs to target DNA elimination. We identified two SPT5 genes. One (STP5v) is involved in vegetative growth, while the other (SPT5m) is essential for sexual reproduction. We focused our study on SPT5m, expressed at meiosis and associated with germline nuclei during sexual processes. Upon Spt5m depletion, we observed absence of scnRNAs, piRNA-like 25 nt small RNAs produced at meiosis. The scnRNAs are a temporal copy of the germline genome and play a key role in programming DNA elimination. Moreover, Spt5m depletion abolishes elimination of all germline-limited sequences, including sequences whose excision was previously shown to be scnRNA-independent. This suggests that in addition to scnRNA production, Spt5 is involved in setting some as yet uncharacterized epigenetic information at meiosis. Our study establishes that Spt5m is crucial for developmental genome rearrangements and necessary for scnRNA production.

  6. Abstract algebra structure and application

    CERN Document Server

    Finston, David R

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to generate interest in abstract algebra by introducing each new structure and topic via a real-world application. The down-to-earth presentation is accessible to a readership with no prior knowledge of abstract algebra. Students are led to algebraic concepts and questions in a natural way through their everyday experiences. Applications include: Identification numbers and modular arithmetic (linear) error-correcting codes, including cyclic codes ruler and compass constructions cryptography symmetry of patterns in the real plane Abstract Algebra: Structure and Application is suitable as a text for a first course on abstract algebra whose main purpose is to generate interest in the subject, or as a supplementary text for more advanced courses. The material paves the way to subsequent courses that further develop the theory of abstract algebra and will appeal to students of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, and engineering interested in applications of algebraic concepts.

  7. Emergence and Evolution of Hominidae-Specific Coding and Noncoding Genomic Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Saber, Morteza Mahmoudi; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-01-01

    Family Hominidae, which includes humans and great apes, is recognized for unique complex social behavior and intellectual abilities. Despite the increasing genome data, however, the genomic origin of its phenotypic uniqueness has remained elusive. Clade-specific genes and highly conserved noncoding sequences (HCNSs) are among the high-potential evolutionary candidates involved in driving clade-specific characters and phenotypes. On this premise, we analyzed whole genome sequences along with g...

  8. Germ cell-specific sustained activation of Wnt signalling perturbs spermatogenesis in aged mice, possibly through non-coding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Atkins, Joshua; Cairns, Murray; Ali, Ayesha; Tanwar, Pradeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated Wnt signalling is associated with human infertility and testicular cancer. However, the role of Wnt signalling in male germ cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we first confirmed the activity of Wnt signalling in mouse, dog and human testes. To determine the physiological importance of the Wnt pathway, we developed a mouse model with germ cell-specific constitutive activation of βcatenin. In young mutants, similar to controls, germ cell development was normal. However, with age, mutant testes showed defective spermatogenesis, progressive germ cell loss, and flawed meiotic entry of spermatogonial cells. Flow sorting confirmed reduced germ cell populations at the leptotene/zygotene stages of meiosis in mutant group. Using thymidine analogues-based DNA double labelling technique, we further established decline in germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Overactivation of Wnt/βcatenin signalling in a spermatogonial cell line resulted in reduced cell proliferation, viability and colony formation. RNA sequencing analysis of testes revealed significant alterations in the non-coding regions of mutant mouse genome. One of the novel non-coding RNAs was switched on in mutant testes compared to controls. QPCR analysis confirmed upregulation of this unique non-coding RNA in mutant testis. In summary, our results highlight the significance of Wnt signalling in male germ cells. PMID:27992363

  9. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  10. ESPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    The Proceedings on ESPR 2014 include abstracts concerning the following topics: pediatric imaging: thorax, cardiovascular system, CT-technique, head and neck, perinatal imaging, molecular imaging; interventional imaging; specific focus: muscoskeletal imaging in juvenile idiopathic arthritis; radiation protection; oncology; molecular imaging - nuclear medicine; uroradiology and abdominal imaging.

  11. 基于数字喷泉码相关链提取的水声传感器网络HARQ协议%HARQ Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Based on Fountain Codes Correlation Chain Abstraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晋珏; 赵旦峰; 梁明珅

    2015-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) are prone to packet loss due to their poor link condition with high noise and high bit error rate. Therefore, a fountain codes correlation chain abstraction based HARQ protocol (CCA-HARQ) is proposed for UASNs to guarantee the reliable message delivery. The CCA-HARQ protocol could feedback the decoding status of the receiver to the sender in a more detailed way by attaching the correlation chain abstraction information in the NACK message, with which the sender could make more intelligent decisions to conduct more effective retransmission coding packets and the transmission overhead as well as the end to end throughput performance are optimized as a result. On the basis, the proposed protocol is simulated on the platform of OPNET network simulators. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed CCA-HARQ plays better than traditional UW-HARQ protocol from the perspective of transmission overhead and the end to end throughput.%由于水声信道具有高噪声、高误比特率的特点,水声传感器网络链路可靠性非常差,很容易出现信息的丢失情况。为此,文章提出了一种基于喷泉码相关链提取的HARQ协议以解决水下不可靠传输问题的方法。协议通过在接收端提取译码状况的相关链信息并反馈,使得发送端能够根据反馈信息提供更有效的重传编码,从而降低了传输冗余,提高了端到端吞吐量。在此基础上,借助OPNET网络仿真平台对提出的协议进行仿真分析,论证了提出协议同现有的UW-HARQ协议相比,能够实现更好的吞吐量与传输冗余性能。

  12. Emergence and Evolution of Hominidae-Specific Coding and Noncoding Genomic Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Morteza Mahmoudi; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-07-12

    Family Hominidae, which includes humans and great apes, is recognized for unique complex social behavior and intellectual abilities. Despite the increasing genome data, however, the genomic origin of its phenotypic uniqueness has remained elusive. Clade-specific genes and highly conserved noncoding sequences (HCNSs) are among the high-potential evolutionary candidates involved in driving clade-specific characters and phenotypes. On this premise, we analyzed whole genome sequences along with gene orthology data retrieved from major DNA databases to find Hominidae-specific (HS) genes and HCNSs. We discovered that Down syndrome critical region 4 (DSCR4) is the only experimentally verified gene uniquely present in Hominidae. DSCR4 has no structural homology to any known protein and was inferred to have emerged in several steps through LTR/ERV1, LTR/ERVL retrotransposition, and transversion. Using the genomic distance as neutral evolution threshold, we identified 1,658 HS HCNSs. Polymorphism coverage and derived allele frequency analysis of HS HCNSs showed that these HCNSs are under purifying selection, indicating that they may harbor important functions. They are overrepresented in promoters/untranslated regions, in close proximity of genes involved in sensory perception of sound and developmental process, and also showed a significantly lower nucleosome occupancy probability. Interestingly, many ancestral sequences of the HS HCNSs showed very high evolutionary rates. This suggests that new functions emerged through some kind of positive selection, and then purifying selection started to operate to keep these functions. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Genome-Scale Analysis of Cell-Specific Regulatory Codes Using Nuclear Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have made it possible for biologists to generate genome-wide profiles of chromatin features at the nucleotide resolution. Enzymes such as nucleases or transposes have been instrumental as a chromatin-probing agent due to their ability to target accessible chromatin for cleavage or insertion. On the scale of a few hundred base pairs, preferential action of the nuclear enzymes on accessible chromatin allows mapping of cell state-specific accessibility in vivo. Such accessible regions contain functionally important regulatory sites, including promoters and enhancers, which undergo active remodeling for cells adapting in a dynamic environment. DNase-seq and the more recent ATAC-seq are two assays that are gaining popularity. Deep sequencing of DNA libraries from these assays, termed genomic footprinting, has been proposed to enable the comprehensive construction of protein occupancy profiles over the genome at the nucleotide level. Recent studies have discovered limitations of genomic footprinting which reduce the scope of detectable proteins. In addition, the identification of putative factors that bind to the observed footprints remains challenging. Despite these caveats, the methodology still presents significant advantages over alternative techniques such as ChIP-seq or FAIRE-seq. Here we describe computational approaches and tools for analysis of chromatin accessibility and genomic footprinting. Proper experimental design and assay-specific data analysis ensure the detection sensitivity and maximize retrievable information. The enzyme-based chromatin profiling approaches represent a powerful and evolving methodology which facilitates our understanding of how the genome is regulated.

  14. Navigation-specific neural coding in the visual system of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Alex D M; Wystrach, Antoine; Graham, Paul; Philippides, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila melanogaster are a good system in which to understand the minimal requirements for widespread visually guided behaviours such as navigation, due to their small brains (adults possess only 100,000 neurons) and the availability of neurogenetic techniques which allow the identification of task-specific cell types. Recently published data describe the receptive fields for two classes of visually responsive neurons (R2 and R3/R4d ring neurons in the central complex) that are essential for visual tasks such as orientation memory for salient objects and simple pattern discriminations. What is interesting is that these cells have very large receptive fields and are very small in number, suggesting that each sub-population of cells might be a bottleneck in the processing of visual information for a specific behaviour, as each subset of cells effectively condenses information from approximately 3000 visual receptors in the eye, to fewer than 50 neurons in total. It has recently been shown how R1 ring neurons, which receive input from the same areas as the R2 and R3/R4d cells, are necessary for place learning in Drosophila. However, how R1 neurons enable place learning is unknown. By examining the information provided by different populations of hypothetical visual neurons in simulations of experimental arenas, we show that neurons with ring neuron-like receptive fields are sufficient for defining a location visually. In this way we provide a link between the type of information conveyed by ring neurons and the behaviour they support.

  15. Sparse and Specific Coding during Information Transmission between Co-cultured Dentate Gyrus and CA3 Hippocampal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Daniele; Thiagarajan, Srikanth; DeMarse, Thomas B; Wheeler, Bruce C; Brewer, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli. We used the evoked responses in CA3 to decode the stimulation sites in DG (and vice-versa) by means of learning algorithms for classification (support vector machine, SVM). The device was placed over an 8 × 8 grid of extracellular electrodes (micro-electrode array, MEA) in order to provide a platform for monitoring development, self-organization, and improved access to stimulation and recording at multiple sites. The micro-tunnels were designed with dimensions 3 × 10 × 400 μm allowing axonal growth but not migration of cell bodies and long enough to exclude traversal by dendrites. Paired-pulse stimulation (inter-pulse interval 50 ms) was applied at 22 different sites and repeated 25 times in each chamber for each sub-region to evoke time-locked activity. DG-DG and CA3-CA3 networks were used as controls. Stimulation in DG drove signals through the axons in the tunnels to activate a relatively small set of specific electrodes in CA3 (sparse code). CA3-CA3 and DG-DG controls were less sparse in coding than CA3 in DG-CA3 networks. Using all target electrodes with the three highest spike rates (14%), the evoked responses in CA3 specified each stimulation site in DG with optimum uniqueness of 64%. Finally, by SVM learning, these evoked responses in CA3 correctly decoded the stimulation sites in DG for 43% of the

  16. Sparse and Specific Coding during Information Transmission between Co-cultured Dentate Gyrus and CA3 Hippocampal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Daniele; Thiagarajan, Srikanth; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli. We used the evoked responses in CA3 to decode the stimulation sites in DG (and vice-versa) by means of learning algorithms for classification (support vector machine, SVM). The device was placed over an 8 × 8 grid of extracellular electrodes (micro-electrode array, MEA) in order to provide a platform for monitoring development, self-organization, and improved access to stimulation and recording at multiple sites. The micro-tunnels were designed with dimensions 3 × 10 × 400 μm allowing axonal growth but not migration of cell bodies and long enough to exclude traversal by dendrites. Paired-pulse stimulation (inter-pulse interval 50 ms) was applied at 22 different sites and repeated 25 times in each chamber for each sub-region to evoke time-locked activity. DG-DG and CA3-CA3 networks were used as controls. Stimulation in DG drove signals through the axons in the tunnels to activate a relatively small set of specific electrodes in CA3 (sparse code). CA3-CA3 and DG-DG controls were less sparse in coding than CA3 in DG-CA3 networks. Using all target electrodes with the three highest spike rates (14%), the evoked responses in CA3 specified each stimulation site in DG with optimum uniqueness of 64%. Finally, by SVM learning, these evoked responses in CA3 correctly decoded the stimulation sites in DG for 43% of the

  17. Software Security - The Dangers of Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollmann, Dieter

    Software insecurity can be explained as a potpourri of hacking methods, ranging from the familiar, e.g. buffer overruns, to the exotic, e.g. code insertion with Chinese characters. From such an angle software security would just be a collection of specific countermeasures. We will observe a common principle that can guide a structured presentation of software security and give guidance for future research directions: There exists a discrepancy between the abstract programming concepts used by software developers and their concrete implementation on the given execution platform. In support of this thesis, five case studies will be discussed, viz characters, integers, variables, atomic transactions, and double linked lists.

  18. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  19. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  20. Task-Specific Codes for Face Recognition: How they Shape the Neural Representation of Features for Detection and Individuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background The variety of ways in which faces are categorized makes face recognition challenging for both synthetic and biological vision systems. Here we focus on two face processing tasks, detection and individuation, and explore whether differences in task demands lead to differences both in the features most effective for automatic recognition and in the featural codes recruited by neural processing. Methodology/Principal Findings Our study appeals to a computational framework characterizing the features representing object categories as sets of overlapping image fragments. Within this framework, we assess the extent to which task-relevant information differs across image fragments. Based on objective differences we find among task-specific representations, we test the sensitivity of the human visual system to these different face descriptions independently of one another. Both behavior and functional magnetic resonance imaging reveal effects elicited by objective task-specific levels of information. Behaviorally, recognition performance with image fragments improves with increasing task-specific information carried by different face fragments. Neurally, this sensitivity to the two tasks manifests as differential localization of neural responses across the ventral visual pathway. Fragments diagnostic for detection evoke larger neural responses than non-diagnostic ones in the right posterior fusiform gyrus and bilaterally in the inferior occipital gyrus. In contrast, fragments diagnostic for individuation evoke larger responses than non-diagnostic ones in the anterior inferior temporal gyrus. Finally, for individuation only, pattern analysis reveals sensitivity to task-specific information within the right “fusiform face area”. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate: 1) information diagnostic for face detection and individuation is roughly separable; 2) the human visual system is independently sensitive to both types of information; 3) neural

  1. Implementing the LIM code: the structural basis for cell type-specific assembly of LIM-homeodomain complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Mugdha; Lee, Christopher; Nancarrow, Amy L.; Lee, Mihwa; Craig, Vanessa J.; Bach, Ingolf; Guss, J. Mitchell; Mackay, Joel P.; Matthews, Jacqueline M. (UMASS, MED); (Sydney)

    2008-09-03

    LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors form a combinatorial 'LIM code' that contributes to the specification of cell types. In the ventral spinal cord, the binary LIM homeobox protein 3 (Lhx3)/LIM domain-binding protein 1 (Ldb1) complex specifies the formation of V2 interneurons. The additional expression of islet-1 (Isl1) in adjacent cells instead specifies the formation of motor neurons through assembly of a ternary complex in which Isl1 contacts both Lhx3 and Ldb1, displacing Lhx3 as the binding partner of Ldb1. However, little is known about how this molecular switch occurs. Here, we have identified the 30-residue Lhx3-binding domain on Isl1 (Isl1{sub LBD}). Although the LIM interaction domain of Ldb1 (Ldb1{sub LID}) and Isl1{sub LBD} share low levels of sequence homology, X-ray and NMR structures reveal that they bind Lhx3 in an identical manner, that is, Isl1{sub LBD} mimics Ldb1{sub LID}. These data provide a structural basis for the formation of cell type-specific protein-protein interactions in which unstructured linear motifs with diverse sequences compete to bind protein partners. The resulting alternate protein complexes can target different genes to regulate key biological events.

  2. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  3. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...... directly from the syntax of the programming language. They are especially used for describing compilation of programming languages and very efficient evaluators have been developed for subclasses of attribute grammars. By relating abstract interpretation and attribute grammars we obtain a closer connection...

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations

  5. Plastids of three Cuscuta species differing in plastid coding capacity have a common parasite-specific RNA composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sabine; Krupinska, Karin; Krause, Kirsten

    2003-11-01

    The chlorophyll containing holoparasitic species Cuscuta reflexa, the achlorophyllous species Cuscuta odorata and the intermediate species Cuscuta gronovii, which contains only traces of chlorophyll, were compared with respect to their plastid coding capacity and plastid gene expression at the level of RNA. While extensive deletions have taken place in the plastid DNA of the achlorophyllous species C. odorata, the green species C. reflexa has retained an almost complete plastid genome. Although the plastid genome of the intermediate species C. gronovii has suffered extensive deletions, in contrast to the plastid genome of C. odorata it has retained photosynthesis-related genes. Hybridization with radioactive 3'-labelled RNA revealed that in all three species only a small 'parasite-specific' portion of the plastid genome consisting of mainly rRNAs and tRNAs is represented at the level of steady-state RNA. Run-on transcription assays revealed that in plastids of C. reflexa the entire genome is transcribed. Hence, the subset of RNA species required for a parasitic lifestyle is preferentially stabilized in Cuscuta plastids.

  6. Towards Composable Concurrency Abstractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janwillem Swalens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many different programming models for managing concurrency in applications have been proposed, such as the actor model, Communicating Sequential Processes, and Software Transactional Memory. The ubiquity of multi-core processors has made harnessing concurrency even more important. We observe that modern languages, such as Scala, Clojure, or F#, provide not one, but multiple concurrency models that help developers manage concurrency. Large end-user applications are rarely built using just a single concurrency model. Programmers need to manage a responsive UI, deal with file or network I/O, asynchronous workflows, and shared resources. Different concurrency models facilitate different requirements. This raises the issue of how these concurrency models interact, and whether they are composable. After all, combining different concurrency models may lead to subtle bugs or inconsistencies. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of the concurrency abstractions provided by the Clojure language. We study all pairwise combinations of the abstractions, noting which ones compose without issues, and which do not. We make an attempt to abstract from the specifics of Clojure, identifying the general properties of concurrency models that facilitate or hinder composition.

  7. Compiling scheme using abstract state machines

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The project investigates the use of Abstract State Machine in the process of computer program compilation. Compilation is to produce machine-code from a source program written in a high-level language. A compiler is a program written for the purpose. Machine-code is the computer-readable representation of sequences of computer instructions. An Abstract State Machine (ASM) is a notional computing machine, developed by Yuri Gurevich, for accurately and easily representing the semantics of...

  8. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  9. Tools for Rapid Understanding of Malware Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    semantics-based techniques for identifying and removing obfuscation code; and the synthesis of simplification techniques to transform the resulting... software obfuscation. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...Specific accomplishments include: (a) Development of improved techniques for information flow analysis in software [8]. (b) Generic techniques for

  10. Comparison of the calculations of the stability properties of a specific stellarator equilibrium with different MHD stability codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Wakatani, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Plasma Physics Lab.; Galkin, S.A.; Drozdov, V.V.; Martynov, A.A.; Poshekhonov, Yu.Yu. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ichiguchi, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Garcia, L. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    A particular configuration of the LHD stellarator with an unusually flat pressure profile has been chosen to be a test case for comparison of the MHD stability property predictions of different three-dimensional and averaged codes for the purpose of code comparison and validation. In particular, two relatively localized instabilities, the fastest growing modes with toroidal mode number n = 2 and n = 3 were studied using several different codes, with the good agreement that has been found providing justification for the use of any of them for equilibria of the type considered.

  11. Validation of coupled Relap5-3D code in the analysis of RBMK-1500 specific transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evaldas, Bubelis; Algirdas, Kaliatka; Eugenijus, Uspuras [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2003-07-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of RBMK-1500 specific transients taking place at Ignalina NPP. These transients include: measurements of void and fast power reactivity coefficients, change of graphite cooling conditions and reactor power reduction transients. The simulation of these transients was performed using RELAP5-3D code model of RBMK-1500 reactor. At the Ignalina NPP void and fast power reactivity coefficients are measured on a regular basis and, based on the total reactor power, reactivity, control and protection system control rods positions and the main circulation circuit parameter changes during the experiments, the actual values of these reactivity coefficients are determined. Graphite temperature reactivity coefficient at the plant is determined by changing graphite cooling conditions in the reactor cavity. This type of transient is very unique and important from the gap between fuel channel and the graphite bricks model validation point of view. The measurement results, obtained during this transient, allowed to determine the thermal conductivity coefficient for this gap and to validate the graphite temperature reactivity feedback model. Reactor power reduction is a regular operation procedure during the entire lifetime of the reactor. In all cases it starts by either a scram or a power reduction signal activation by the reactor control and protection system or by an operator. The obtained calculation results demonstrate reasonable agreement with Ignalina NPP measured data. Behaviours of the separate MCC thermal-hydraulic parameters as well as physical processes are predicted reasonably well to the real processes, occurring in the primary circuit of RBMK-1500 reactor. Reasonable agreement of the measured and the calculated total reactor power change in time demonstrates the correct modelling of the neutronic processes taking place in RBMK- 1500 reactor core. And finally, the performed validation of RELAP5-3D model of Ignalina NPP RBMK-1500

  12. Structure of Moves in Research Article Abstracts in Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seden Can

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An abstract summarizes the accompanying article in order to promote it. While many move-analysis studies of abstracts in applied linguistics (AL have used similar coding frameworks and demonstrated similar rhetorical organizations, their findings have not yet been aggregated to show the overall picture. The present study aimed to both examine move structures in AL abstracts and compare the results with previous studies both synchronically and diachronically. Fifty abstracts were collected from articles published in the journal English for Specific Purposes (ESP between 2011 and 2013. Sentences were coded using a five-move scheme adapted from previous studies. Combining the results from previous research and the present study showed that most AL abstracts give information on the purpose, methodology, and findings of the associated article, while about half of the articles omit introduction of the topic and discussion of the findings. It was also found that authors frequently violate the move sequence expected by current schemes. These findings consistent with previous research suggest that future researchers informed by move analyses should explore the connection between the findings of move analyses and teaching materials for academic writing.

  13. Melanoma long non-coding RNA signature predicts prognostic survival and directs clinical risk-specific treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xijia; Guo, Wenna; Xu, Xin-Jian; Su, Fangchu; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yingzheng; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Liucun

    2017-03-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the Breslow thickness, tumor ulceration and mitotic index could serve as prognostic markers in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Recently, however, as these clinicopathological biomarkers lack efficient interpretation of endogenous mechanism of melanoma, the emphasis on the prognosis of melanoma has transformed to molecular tumor markers. This study was designed to identify survival-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and based on the different expressions of these lncRNAs, clinical risk-specific diagnosis and adjuvant therapy could be employed on melanoma patients, especially patients in the early course of disease or patients with a Breslow thickness no more than 2mm. The clinical information and corresponding RNA expression data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (GSE65904). All samples were categorized into one training dataset and two validation datasets. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was then used to identify survival-related lncRNAs and risk assessment signature was constructed in training dataset. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the utility of this signature in predicting the duration of survival of patients both in the training dataset and two validation datasets. Meanwhile receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to evaluate the predictive effectiveness of this signature in two validation datasets. It was found that the signature was effective while used for risk stratification, and Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that the duration of survival of patients in high-risk groups were significantly shorter than that of low-risk groups. Moreover, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.711 (95% confidence interval: 0.618-0.804) and 0.698 (95% confidence interval: 0.614-0.782) when this signature was used to predict the patients' duration of survival in two validation datasets respectively, indicating the

  14. PRISMA for Abstracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Elaine M; Glasziou, Paul P; Altman, Douglas G;

    2013-01-01

    Elaine Beller and colleagues from the PRISMA for Abstracts group provide a reporting guidelines for reporting abstracts of systematic reviews in journals and at conferences.......Elaine Beller and colleagues from the PRISMA for Abstracts group provide a reporting guidelines for reporting abstracts of systematic reviews in journals and at conferences....

  15. THE SC7/SC14 GENE FAMILY OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE CODES FOR EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS SPECIFICALLY EXPRESSED DURING FRUIT-BODY FORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUREN, FHJ; ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; KOTHE, EM; SCHEER, JMJ; WESSELS, JGH

    The Sc7 and Sc14 genes are specifically expressed in the dikaryon of the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune during fruiting. These genes are closely linked (within 6 kb) and highly similar in gene structure and nucleotide sequence (70% identical nucleotides in their coding regions). The

  16. A benchmark-problem specification and calculation using SENSIBL, a one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code of the AARE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, D.W.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Davierwalla, D.M.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of suitable benchmark problems makes it difficult to test sensitivity codes with a covariance library. A benchmark problem has therefore been defined for one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainity analysis codes and code systems. The problem, representative of a fusion reactor blanket, has a simple, three-zone )tau)-z geometry containing a D-T fusion neutron source distributed in a central void region surrounded by a thick /sup 6/LiH annulus. The response of interest is the /sup 6/Li tritium production per source neutron, T/sub 6/. The calculation has been performed with SENSIBL using other codes from the AARE code system as a test of both SENSIBL and the linked, modular system. The caluclation was performed using the code system in the standard manner with a covariance data library in the COVFILS-2 format but modified to contain specifically tailored covariance data for H and /sup 6/Li (Path A). The calculation was also performed by a second method which uses specially perturbed H and Li cross sections (Path B). This method bypasses SENSIBL and allows a hand calculation of the benchmark T/sub 6/ uncertainties. The results of Path A and Path B were total uncertainties in T/sub 6/ of 0.21% and 0.19%, respectively. The closeness of the results for this challenging test gives confidence that SENSIBL and the AARE system will perform well for realistic sensitivity and uncertainty analyses

  17. The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides.

  18. Abstract: Magnetic solitons' contribution to the specific heat of (CH3)4NMnCl3 in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, F.

    1982-03-01

    It has been shown theoretically that linear magnetic systems with planar anisotropy should display nonlinear excitations, i.e., sine-Gordon solitons upon application of a magnetic field perpendicular to the chain axis. Experimental evidence for ID magnetic solitons has been presented for TMMC from neutron scattering and NMR measurements.1 The classical statistical mechanics of this system predict a soliton contribution to the free energy and thus to the specific heat.2 In order to test experimentally the thermodynamic relevance of magnetic solitons, I performed measurements of specific heat in single crystal TMMC in an external magnetic field up to 10 Tesla, applied both perpendicular and parallel to the chain. The measurements were performed with an adiabatic calorimeter in the temperature range 1.5-15 °K. The results show an extra contribution for H⊥c not present for H∥c. This contribution displays a broad maximum which scales approximately as H/T in agreement with the theory. The maximum occurs just above the peak in the specific heat which is observed in correspondence to the three-dimensional transition temperature, and it can be clearly resolved only for H⩾5.0 T. The soliton energy obtained by fitting the experiments to the classical theory is Es = 2.0 H for H = 5.39 T and Es = 1.8 H for H = 10 T to be compared with the theoretical value of Es = gμBHS = 3.35 H and with the value obtained by neutron scattering at H = 3.2 T, i.e., Es = 2.6 H. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is discussed in terms of renormalization corrections and of a possible soliton instability occurring for fields between 3 and 5 T. a)Permanent address: Institut di Fisica, Universita di Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy. 1J. P. Boucher, L. P. Regnault, J. Rossad Miguod, J. P. Renard, J. Bouillot, and W. G. Stirling, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1956 (1981). 2K. M. Leung, D. Hone, D. L. Mills, P. S. Riseborough, and S. E. Trullinger, Phys. Rev. B 21, 4017 (1980).

  19. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  20. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  1. Abstraction and Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  2. Tools and Behavior Abstraction: A Future for Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Solís

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Software engineers rely on and use tools to analyze automatically and detailed the code and design specifications. Although many are still used to find new defects in old code, is expected in the future have more application in software engineering and are available to developers at the time of editing their products. If were possible build them fast enough and easy to use, software engineers would apply it to improve design and product development. To solve any problem, traditional engineering use programming languages, however, the level of abstraction of the most popular is not much larger than C programs several decades ago. Moreover, this level is the same in all the code and do not leaves room for abstraction of behavior, in which the design is divided into phases and which gradually introduces more details. This article presents a study of the need for a larger set of analysis tools to create languages and development environments, which provide good support to archive this abstraction.

  3. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  4. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchette Mathieu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements.

  5. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  6. Abstraction processes in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, D R; Johnstone, T; Staggs, L

    1997-02-01

    Four experiments explored the extent the extent to which abstract knowledge may underlie subjects' performance when asked to judge the grammaticality of letter strings generated from an artificial grammar. In Experiment 1 and 2 subjects studied grammatical strings instantiated with one set of letters and were then tested on grammatical and ungrammatical strings formed either from the same or a changed letter-set. Even with a change of letter-set, subjects were found to be sensitive to a variety of violation of the grammar. In Experiments 3 and 4, the critical manipulation involved the way in which the training strings were studied: an incidental learning procedure was used for some subjects, and others engaged in an explicit code-breaking task to try to learn the rules of the grammar. When strings were generated from a biconditional (Experiment 4) but not from a standard finite-state grammar (Experiment 3), grammaticality judgements for test strings were independent of their surface similarity to specific studied strings. Overall, the results suggest that transfer in this simple memory task is mediated at least to some extent by abstract knowledge.

  7. Practices in Code Discoverability

    CERN Document Server

    Teuben, Peter; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to develop ways in which information about astrophysics codes can be shared. We also discuss why some scientist coders resist sharing or publishing their codes, the reasons for and importance of overcoming this resistance, and alert the community to a reworking of one of the first attempts for sharing codes, the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). We discuss the implementation of the ASCL in an accompanying poster paper. We suggest that code could be given a similar level of referencing as data gets in repositories such ...

  8. Abstracts--Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Mental Health, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include absenteeism, alcoholism, drug abuse, leisure, disadvantaged, job satisfaction, and others. (SB)

  9. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...

  10. A PCC Architecture based on Certified Abstract Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Frédéric; Jensen, Thomas; Pichardie, David

    2005-01-01

    Proof Carrying Code (PCC) is a technique for downloading mobile code on a host machine while ensuring that the code adheres to the host's security policy. We show how certified abstract interpretation can be used to build a PCC architecture where the code producer can produce program certificates automatically. Code consumers use proof checkers derived from certified analysers to check certificates. Proof checkers carry their own correctness proofs and accepting a new proof checker amounts to...

  11. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  12. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  13. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  14. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  15. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  16. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  17. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  18. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  19. Identification of a cell lineage-specific gene coding for a sea urchin alpha 2(IV)-like collagen chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito, J Y; Suzuki, H; Geourjon, C; Garrone, R; Solursh, M; Ramirez, F

    1994-05-06

    We report the isolation of several overlapping cDNAs from an embryonic library of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus coding for a novel sea urchin collagen chain. The conceptual amino acid translation of the cDNAs indicated that the protein displays the structural features of a vertebrate type IV-like collagen alpha chain. In addition to a putative 31-residue signal peptide, the sea urchin molecule contains a 14-residue amino-terminal non-collagenous segment, a discontinuous 1,477-amino acid triple helical domain, and a 225-residue carboxyl-terminal domain rich in cysteines. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal non-collagenous regions of the echinoid molecule are remarkably similar to the 7 S and carboxyl-terminal non-collagenous (NC1) domains of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of vertebrate type IV collagen. The sequence similarity and distinct structural features of the 7 S and NC1 domains strongly suggest that the sea urchin polypeptide is evolutionarily related to the alpha 2(IV) class of collagen chains. Finally, in situ hybridizations revealed that expression of this collagen gene is restricted to the mesenchyme cell lineage of the developing sea urchin embryo.

  20. On specific character of Austrian national code in literature and music: origins of game-like nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetkov Yu. L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the mutual influence of folk theatre, Austrian Singspiel and Viennese opera in the genres of comic opera, operetta and drama performances involving music, singing and dancing is studied. The powerful influence of Italian and French opera schools, as well as the Italian Commedia Dell'arte led to the flourishing of music and theatre art in Austria: opera buffa (A. Salieri, Ch. W. Glück, J. Haydn, W. A. Mozart, fairy-tale comedies of F. Raimund and satirical dramas of Nestroy. Their game-like nature finds its expression in musical turns, satirical songs and duets. Viennese dance operetta has absorbed the traditions of Viennese popular comedy and comic opera. Recitative, vocal music and folk dances were the key elements of operettas (J. Strauss junior, F. von Suppe, K. Millöcker, K. Zeller, F. Lehar. The music and the game in Austria are the results of theatralization of life: the life turns into something like art. Austrian culture, which is addressed directly to the human being and short of complex philosophical musings and speculative schemes, has genetically built-in playful, musical and theatrical basis, as well as German. Strongly-pronounced playful and musical source as an important national component of the culture, its code, determine its highly fictitious character (staginess and integrity (both genre and intermediately, thereby maintain its special status in the European culture.

  1. Systematic dissection of coding exons at single nucleotide resolution supports an additional role in cell-specific transcriptional regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Y Birnbaum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three liver eExons (SORL1 exon 17, TRAF3IP2 exon 2, PPARG exon 6 at single nucleotide resolution in the mouse liver. We find that both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have similar effects on enhancer activity and many of the deleterious mutation clusters overlap known liver-associated transcription factor binding sites. Carrying a similar massively parallel reporter assay in HeLa cells with these three eExons found differences in their mutation profiles compared to the liver, suggesting that enhancers could have distinct operating profiles in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that eExon mutations could lead to multiple phenotypes by disrupting both the protein sequence and enhancer activity and that enhancers can have distinct mutation profiles in different cell types.

  2. A new way to generate cytolytic tumor-specific T cells: electroporation of RNA coding for a T cell receptor into T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaft, Niels; Dörrie, Jan; Müller, Ina; Beck, Verena; Baumann, Stefanie; Schunder, Tanja; Kämpgen, Eckhart; Schuler, Gerold

    2006-09-01

    Effective T cell receptor (TCR) transfer until now required stable retroviral transduction. However, retroviral transduction poses the threat of irreversible genetic manipulation of autologous cells. We, therefore, used optimized RNA transfection for transient manipulation. The transfection efficiency, using EGFP RNA, was >90%. The electroporation of primary T cells, isolated from blood, with TCR-coding RNA resulted in functional cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) (>60% killing at an effector to target ratio of 20:1) with the same HLA-A2/gp100-specificity as the parental CTL clone. The TCR-transfected T cells specifically recognized peptide-pulsed T2 cells, or dendritic cells electroporated with gp100-coding RNA, in an IFNgamma-secretion assay and retained this ability, even after cryopreservation, over 3 days. Most importantly, we show here for the first time that the electroporated T cells also displayed cytotoxicity, and specifically lysed peptide-loaded T2 cells and HLA-A2+/gp100+ melanoma cells over a period of at least 72 h. Peptide-titration studies showed that the lytic efficiency of the RNA-transfected T cells was similar to that of retrovirally transduced T cells, and approximated that of the parental CTL clone. Functional TCR transfer by RNA electroporation is now possible without the disadvantages of retroviral transduction, and forms a new strategy for the immunotherapy of cancer.

  3. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  4. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...

  5. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  6. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  7. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  8. Abstracts of Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LU Bingfu, The semantic characteristics of event nouns in Chinese and English The article analyzes the eommonalities and differences of event nouns in Chinese and English. It points out that in both languages complex social events are most likely to be coded as social event nouns, which constitute the core of event nouns. However, peripheral event nouns in the two languages are very different. The article also discusses the various motivations for events to be coded as nouns.

  9. Ca(2+) coding and decoding strategies for the specification of neural and renal precursor cells during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marc; Néant, Isabelle; Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L; Riou, Jean-François; Leclerc, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    During embryogenesis, a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) is known to be a widespread trigger for directing stem cells towards a specific tissue fate, but the precise Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms involved in achieving these pleiotropic effects are still poorly understood. In this review, we compare the Ca(2+) signalling events that appear to be one of the first steps in initiating and regulating both neural determination (neural induction) and kidney development (nephrogenesis). We have highlighted the necessary and sufficient role played by Ca(2+) influx and by Ca(2+) transients in the determination and differentiation of pools of neural or renal precursors. We have identified new Ca(2+) target genes involved in neural induction and we showed that the same Ca(2+) early target genes studied are not restricted to neural tissue but are also present in other tissues, principally in the pronephros. In this review, we also described a mechanism whereby the transcriptional control of gene expression during neurogenesis and nephrogenesis might be directly controlled by Ca(2+) signalling. This mechanism involves members of the Kcnip family such that a change in their binding properties to specific DNA sites is a result of Ca(2+) binding to EF-hand motifs. The different functions of Ca(2+) signalling during these two events illustrate the versatility of Ca(2+) as a second messenger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew;

    2013-01-01

    -bounding to be independent of any particular semantics. Monads become the unifying agent between these concepts and between semantics. For instance, by plugging the same “context-insensitivity monad” into a monadicallyparameterized semantics for Java or for the lambda calculus, it yields the expected context......-insensitive analysis. To achieve this unification, we develop a systematic method for transforming a concrete semantics into a monadically-parameterized abstract machine. Changing the monad changes the behavior of the machine. By changing the monad, we recover a spectrum of machines—from the original concrete...... semantics to a monovariant, flow- and context-insensitive static analysis with a singly-threaded heap and weak updates. The monadic parameterization also suggests an abstraction over the ubiquitous monotone fixed-point computation found in static analysis. This abstraction makes it straightforward...

  11. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    -bounding to be independent of any particular semantics. Monads become the unifying agent between these concepts and between semantics. For instance, by plugging the same “context-insensitivity monad” into a monadicallyparameterized semantics for Java or for the lambda calculus, it yields the expected context...... semantics to a monovariant, flow- and context-insensitive static analysis with a singly-threaded heap and weak updates. The monadic parameterization also suggests an abstraction over the ubiquitous monotone fixed-point computation found in static analysis. This abstraction makes it straightforward...... to instrument an analysis with high-level strategies for improving precision and performance, such as abstract garbage collection and widening. While the paper itself runs the development for continuationpassing style, our generic implementation replays it for direct-style lambda-calculus and Featherweight Java...

  12. An introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Derek JS

    2003-01-01

    This is a high level introduction to abstract algebra which is aimed at readers whose interests lie in mathematics and in the information and physical sciences. In addition to introducing the main concepts of modern algebra, the book contains numerous applications, which are intended to illustrate the concepts and to convince the reader of the utility and relevance of algebra today. In particular applications to Polya coloring theory, latin squares, Steiner systems and error correcting codes are described. Another feature of the book is that group theory and ring theory are carried further than is often done at this level. There is ample material here for a two semester course in abstract algebra. The importance of proof is stressed and rigorous proofs of almost all results are given. But care has been taken to lead the reader through the proofs by gentle stages. There are nearly 400 problems, of varying degrees of difficulty, to test the reader''s skill and progress. The book should be suitable for students ...

  13. Comparison of 2015 Medicare relative value units for gender-specific procedures: Gynecologic and gynecologic-oncologic versus urologic CPT coding. Has time healed gender-worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M F; Ma, J F; Upperman, B A

    2017-02-01

    In 1992, Congress implemented a relative value unit (RVU) payment system to set reimbursement for all procedures covered by Medicare. In 1997, data supported that a significant gender bias existed in reimbursement for gynecologic compared to urologic procedures. The present study was performed to compare work and total RVU's for gender specific procedures effective January 2015 and to evaluate if time has healed the gender-based RVU worth. Using the 2015 CPT codes, we compared work and total RVU's for 50 pairs of gender specific procedures. We also evaluated 2015 procedure related provider compensation. The groups were matched so that the procedures were anatomically similar. We also compared 2015 to 1997 RVU and fee schedules. Evaluation of work RVU's for the paired procedures revealed that in 36 cases (72%), male vs female procedures had a higher wRVU and tRVU. For total fee/reimbursement, 42 (84%) male based procedures were compensated at a higher rate than the paired female procedures. On average, male specific surgeries were reimbursed at an amount that was 27.67% higher for male procedures than for female-specific surgeries. Female procedure based work RVU's have increased minimally from 1997 to 2015. Time and effort have trended towards resolution of some gender-related procedure worth discrepancies but there are still significant RVU and compensation differences that should be further reviewed and modified as surgical time and effort highly correlate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Targeted cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic adenovirus coding for a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for CTLA-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, J D; Hemminki, O; Diaconu, I; Hirvinen, M; Bonetti, A; Guse, K; Escutenaire, S; Kanerva, A; Pesonen, S; Löskog, A; Cerullo, V; Hemminki, A

    2012-10-01

    Promising clinical results have been achieved with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as ipilimumab and tremelimumab that block cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, CD152). However, systemic administration of these agents also has the potential for severe immune-related adverse events. Thus, local production might allow higher concentrations at the target while reducing systemic side effects. We generated a transductionally and transcriptionally targeted oncolytic adenovirus Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4 expressing complete human mAb specific for CTLA-4 and tested it in vitro, in vivo and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal donors and patients with advanced solid tumors. mAb expression was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Biological functionality was determined in a T-cell line and in PBMCs from cancer patients. T cells of patients, but not those of healthy donors, were activated by an anti-CTLA4mAb produced by Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4. In addition to immunological effects, a direct anti-CTLA-4-mediated pro-apoptotic effect was observed in vitro and in vivo. Local production resulted in 43-fold higher (P<0.05) tumor versus plasma anti-CTLA4mAb concentration. Plasma levels in mice remained below what has been reported safe in humans. Replication-competent Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4 resulted in 81-fold higher (P<0.05) tumor mAb levels as compared with a replication-deficient control. This is the first report of an oncolytic adenovirus producing a full-length human mAb. High mAb concentrations were seen at tumors with lower systemic levels. Stimulation of T cells of cancer patients by Ad5/3-Δ24aCTLA4 suggests feasibility of testing the approach in clinical trials.

  15. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    production. In Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Deleuze and Guatari gave the most comprehensive explanation to the abstract machine in the work of art. Like the war-machines of Virilio, the Kafka-machine operates in three gears or speeds. Furthermore, the machine is connected to spatial diagrams...

  16. Abstraction and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  17. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  18. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher forms of cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving force throughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rational thought. Wending its way...

  19. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Study on Optimization of Enzymic Preparation of Collagen Polypeptide from Skin of Gadous macrocephaius Liu Chun-e et al. (1) Abstract Enzymolysis was used to prepare collagen peptide. The optimum condition was determined based on one way ANOVA and orthogonal experimental design. The result indicated that use alkaline protease on the concentration of 4.5%,

  20. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  1. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Study on the Long-distance Transportation of Argopecten irridians concentricus ShenQin-long(1) Abstract The experiment was carried out in order to improve the survival rate of the scallop. The result indicated that keeping the water temperature at 4℃ was reasonable for the long-distance transportation of the scallop with oxygenated bags.

  2. Full Abstraction for HOPLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for the higher-order process language HOPLA is presented. It characterises contextual and logical equivalence, the latter linking up with simulation. The semantics is a clean, domain-theoretic description of processes as downwards-closed sets of computation...

  3. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  4. Abstraction through Game Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  5. Beyond the abstractions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

      The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...

  6. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  7. Incremental Bisimulation Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Jens Christian; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    an abstraction refinement approach for the probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL), which is based on incrementally computing a sequence of may- and must-quotient automata. These are induced by depth-bounded bisimulation equivalences of increasing depth. The approach is both sound and complete, since...

  8. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  9. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Study on the Enrichment Regularity of Semicarbazide in Algae Tian Xiu-hui eta1. (1) Abstract Semicarbazide (SEM) in three kinds of representative algae (Nitzschia closterium, Tetraselmis chui and Dicrateria sp) and seawater was determined using ultra performance liquid chromatogram tandem mass spectrometry in this work. Accumulation of semicarbazide (SEM) in algae under laboratory conditions was studied.

  10. Metaphors in Abstract Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Boot (Inge)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the dissertation was to investigate the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999).The CMT proposes that abstract concepts are partly structured by concrete concepts through the mechanism of metaphorical mapping. In Chapter 2 we wanted to investigate the

  11. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  12. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950's,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA's original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  13. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950’s,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA’s original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  14. Learning abstract algebra with ISETL

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1994-01-01

    Most students in abstract algebra classes have great difficulty making sense of what the instructor is saying. Moreover, this seems to remain true almost independently of the quality of the lecture. This book is based on the constructivist belief that, before students can make sense of any presentation of abstract mathematics, they need to be engaged in mental activities which will establish an experiential base for any future verbal explanation. No less, they need to have the opportunity to reflect on their activities. This approach is based on extensive theoretical and empirical studies as well as on the substantial experience of the authors in teaching astract algebra. The main source of activities in this course is computer constructions, specifically, small programs written in the mathlike programming language ISETL; the main tool for reflections is work in teams of 2-4 students, where the activities are discussed and debated. Because of the similarity of ISETL expressions to standard written mathematics...

  15. Codes in the codons: construction of a codon/amino acid periodic table and a study of the nature of specific nucleic acid-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyo, B; Biro, J C; Benyo, Z

    2004-01-01

    The theory of "codon-amino acid coevolution" was first proposed by Woese in 1967. It suggests that there is a stereochemical matching - that is, affinity - between amino acids and certain of the base triplet sequences that code for those amino acids. We have constructed a common periodic table of codons and amino acids, where the nucleic acid table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons and the corresponding amino acid table also displayed periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydrophobicity) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table indicates that the middle (2/sup nd/) amino acid in the codon has a prominent role in determining some of the structural features of the amino acids. The possibility that physical contact between codons and amino acids might exist was tested on restriction enzymes. Many recognition site-like sequences were found in the coding sequences of these enzymes and as many as 73 examples of codon-amino acid co-location were observed in the 7 known 3D structures (December 2003) of endonuclease-nucleic acid complexes. These results indicate that the smallest possible units of specific nucleic acid-protein interaction are indeed the stereochemically compatible codons and amino acids.

  16. The place of 'codes' in nonlinear neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Walter J

    2007-01-01

    A key problem in cognitive science is to explain the neural mechanisms of the rapid transposition between stimulus energy and abstract concept--between the specific and the generic--in both material and conceptual aspects, not between neural and psychic aspects. Three approaches by researchers to a solution in terms of neural codes are considered. Materialists seek rate and frequency codes in the interspike intervals of trains of action potentials induced by stimuli and carried by topologically organized axonal lines. Cognitivists refer to the symbol grounding problem and search for symbolic codes in firings of hierarchically organized feature-detector neurons of phonemes, lines, odorants, pressures, etc., that object-detector neurons bind into representations of probabilities of stimulus occurrence. Dynamicists seek neural correlates of stimuli and associated behaviors in spatial patterns of oscillatory fields of dendritic activity that self-organize and evolve as trajectories through high-dimensional brain state space; the codes are landscapes of chaotic attractors. Unlike codes in DNA and the periodic table, these codes have neither alphabet nor syntax. They are epistemological metaphors required by experimentalists to measure neural activity and by engineers to model brain functions. Here I review the central neural mechanisms of olfaction as a paradigm for use of codes to explain how brains create cortical activities that mediate sensation, perception, comprehension, prediction, decision, and action or inaction.

  17. Leptin receptor isoform 219.1: an example of protein evolution by LINE-1-mediated human-specific retrotransposition of a coding SVA element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damert, Annette; Löwer, Johannes; Löwer, Roswitha

    2004-04-01

    Phylogenetically new insertions of repetitive sequences may contribute to genome evolution by altering the function of preexisting proteins. One example is the SVA sequence, which forms the C-terminal coding exon of the human leptin receptor isoform 219.1. Here, we report that the SVA insertion into the LEPR locus has occurred after divergence of humans and chimpanzees. The SVA element was inserted into a Hal-1/LINE element present in all monkeys and apes tested. Structural features point toward an integration event that was mediated by the L1 protein machinery acting in trans. Thus, our findings add evidence to the hypothesis that retrotransposition events are a driving force in genomic evolution and that the presence or absence of specific retroelements are one distinguishing feature that separates humans from chimpanzees.

  18. Concentration of acrylamide in a polyacrylamide gel affects VP4 gene coding assignment of group A equine rotavirus strains with P[12] specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background It is universally acknowledged that genome segment 4 of group A rotavirus, the major etiologic agent of severe diarrhea in infants and neonatal farm animals, encodes outer capsid neutralization and protective antigen VP4. Results To determine which genome segment of three group A equine rotavirus strains (H-2, FI-14 and FI-23) with P[12] specificity encodes the VP4, we analyzed dsRNAs of strains H-2, FI-14 and FI-23 as well as their reassortants by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) at varying concentrations of acrylamide. The relative position of the VP4 gene of the three equine P[12] strains varied (either genome segment 3 or 4) depending upon the concentration of acrylamide. The VP4 gene bearing P[3], P[4], P[6], P[7], P[8] or P[18] specificity did not exhibit this phenomenon when the PAGE running conditions were varied. Conclusions The concentration of acrylamide in a PAGE gel affected VP4 gene coding assignment of equine rotavirus strains bearing P[12] specificity. PMID:20573245

  19. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...... into the notions of concurrent and alternating objects. Alternating objects may be used to start a cooperative thread for each possible blocking communication and is thus an alternative to asynchronous messages and guarded commands. Beta like SIMULA, the first OO language, was designed as a language for modeling...... as well as programming, and we describe how this has had an impact on the design of the language. Although Beta supports the definition of high-level concurrency abstractions, the use of these rely on the discipline of the programmer as is the case for Java and other mainstream OO languages. We introduce...

  20. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Position of Capitalist Study in Marx's Social Formation Theory Yang Xue-gong Xi Da-min The orientation and achievements of Marx's study of Capitalism or bourgeois society is the foundation of his social formation theory. On the base of his scientific study of capitalism, Marx evolves his concept of eco- nomic social formation, the scientific methodology of researching other social formations or social forms, the clues of the development of social formations, the abstraction of the general laws as well as his reflection on this abstraction. A full evaluation and acknowledgement of the position of capitalist study in Marx's social formation theory is crucial for revising Marx's social formation theory in the new era and for solving some controversial issues in the research of social formation theory.

  1. An Abstract Data Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  2. Introduction to abstract analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Marvin E

    2015-01-01

    Developed from lectures delivered at NASA's Lewis Research Center, this concise text introduces scientists and engineers with backgrounds in applied mathematics to the concepts of abstract analysis. Rather than preparing readers for research in the field, this volume offers background necessary for reading the literature of pure mathematics. Starting with elementary set concepts, the treatment explores real numbers, vector and metric spaces, functions and relations, infinite collections of sets, and limits of sequences. Additional topics include continuity and function algebras, Cauchy complet

  3. DEGRO 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.

  4. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  5. Research Abstracts of 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Activity in Hamsters (Abstract #667) 9. L. SIMONSON*, B. LAMBERTS, E. PEDERSON and D. REIHER’--*gEffect of Saliva and Sucrose on Adherence of S.. mutans to...presence of osteosclerosis and/or enlargement of periodontal ligament space; pain duration greater than one hour and spontaneous or severe pain; no...Unstimulated whole saliva was collected in chilled containers from 29 CF and 29 CA recruits, along with data on smoking habits. Flow rate, pH, OSCN

  6. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  7. Serkalem Eshetie Adinew Abstract This article explores the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article explores the Commercial Code and other laws of Ethiopia regarding founders – ... INTRODUCTION. A share ... LLB (Haramaya University), LLM in Business and Corporate Law (Bahir Dar University), Lecturer at Haramaya.

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  9. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  10. 49. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts; 49. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-10-15

    The conference proceedings of the 48. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie contain abstracts on the following issues: neuro-oncological imaging, multimodal imaging concepts, subcranial imaging, spinal codes, interventional neuroradiology.

  11. IPR 2016. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.

  12. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-10

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  13. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of a Method for Content Determination of Polysaccharide in Membranous milkveteh root Applied in Fisheries Yu Xiao-qing et al. (1) Abstract Some chemical component in the traditional Chinese medicine Membranous milkvetch root can improve the ability of disease-prevention of animal and it can be applied in fisheries. In the paper, the method about content determination of polysaccharide in the root was established based on orthogonal experimental design Key words medicine; polysaccharide in Membranous milkvetch root; method of determination

  14. Abstracts of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Problems in Fujian's Present Health Insurance Professionals and Related Suggestions LIN Deng-hui,WU Xiao-nan (School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350108, China) Abstract:Based on a statistical analysis of questionnaire survey data collected from practitioners in Fu- jian's medical insurance management system, the paper discusses the problems relevant to the staff's qua lity structure in this industry as well as mechanisms for continuing education and motivation. Finally, the authors advance such suggestions as increasing the levels of practitioner's expertise and working capacity by developing disciplinary education and continuing motivated with a well-established motivation system. education, and encouraging employees to get highly

  15. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  16. Elements of abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Allan

    1984-01-01

    This concise, readable, college-level text treats basic abstract algebra in remarkable depth and detail. An antidote to the usual surveys of structure, the book presents group theory, Galois theory, and classical ideal theory in a framework emphasizing proof of important theorems.Chapter I (Set Theory) covers the basics of sets. Chapter II (Group Theory) is a rigorous introduction to groups. It contains all the results needed for Galois theory as well as the Sylow theorems, the Jordan-Holder theorem, and a complete treatment of the simplicity of alternating groups. Chapter III (Field Theory)

  17. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    into the notions of concurrent and alternating objects. Alternating objects may be used to start a cooperative thread for each possible blocking communication and is thus an alternative to asynchronous messages and guarded commands. Beta like SIMULA, the first OO language, was designed as a language for modeling...... as well as programming, and we describe how this has had an impact on the design of the language. Although Beta supports the definition of high-level concurrency abstractions, the use of these rely on the discipline of the programmer as is the case for Java and other mainstream OO languages. We introduce...

  18. Developing A Specific Criteria For Categorization Of Radioactive Waste Classification System For Uganda Using The Radar's Computer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamukama, Abdul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Haiyong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive materials are utilized in industries, agriculture and research, medical facilities and academic institutions for numerous purposes that are useful in the daily life of mankind. To effectively manage the radioactive waste and selecting appropriate disposal schemes, it is imperative to have a specific criteria for allocating radioactive waste to a particular waste class. Uganda has a radioactive waste classification scheme based on activity concentration and half-life albeit in qualitative terms as documented in the Uganda Atomic Energy Regulations 2012. There is no clear boundary between the different waste classes and hence difficult to; suggest disposal options, make decisions and enforcing compliance, communicate with stakeholders effectively among others. To overcome the challenges, the RESRAD computer code was used to derive a specific criteria for classifying between the different waste categories for Uganda basing on the activity concentration of radionuclides. The results were compared with that of Australia and were found to correlate given the differences in site parameters and consumption habits of the residents in the two countries.

  19. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  20. Abstract Storage Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, Robert; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be read, but that there is a degree of freedom as to which partial information should be retrieved. This concept leads to a number of interesting problems which we address, like the reduction of one device to another device, the equivalence of devices, direct products of devices, as well as the factorization of a device into primitive devices. We prove that every ASD has an equivalent ASD with minimal number of states and of possible read operations. Also, we prove that the reducibility problem for ASD's is NP-complete, that t...

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  2. Transplantation as an abstract good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø; Olejaz, Maria

    2015-01-01

    a more general salience in the organ transplant field by way of facilitating a perception of organ transplantation as an abstract moral good rather than a specific good for specific people. Furthermore, we suggest that multiple forms of ignorance sustain each other: a desire for ignorance with respect......This article investigates valuations of organ transfers that are currently seen as legitimising increasingly aggressive procurement methods in Denmark. Based on interviews with registered donors and the intensive care unit staff responsible for managing organ donor patients we identify three types...... to the prioritisation of recipients sustains pressure for more organs; this pressure necessitates more aggressive measures in organ procurement and these measures increase the need for ignorance in relation to the actual procedures as well as the actual recipients. These attempts to avoid knowledge are in remarkable...

  3. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  4. Writing a successful research abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  5. Reed-Solomon convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Schmale, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will introduce a specific class of cyclic convolutional codes. The construction is based on Reed-Solomon block codes. The algebraic parameters as well as the distance of these codes are determined. This shows that some of these codes are optimal or near optimal.

  6. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the Estrogen Alkylphenols and Bisphenol A in Marine Sediments by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Deng Xu-xiu et al. (1) Abstract Octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A are recognized environmental endocrine disruptors. A quantitative method was established for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A in marine sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The test sample was extracted by methanol with ultrasonic technique, purified with copper powder and carbon solid phase extraction column, and derived with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Then the analytes were separated on HP-5ms column and determined by gas chromatography-mass. The recovery of the method was between 84.3% and 94.5%, and the LOQ of 4-N- octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was 0.25 g/kg, 0.15 g/kg and 0.15 g/kg. Key words octylphenol; nonylphenol; bisphenol A; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  7. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  8. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Acute Toxicity Test of Four Drugs to Perch Fries Zhu You-fang et al(1) Abstract Acute toxicity test of four drugs to perch Lateolabrax maculates were studied. The results showed: (1)The LC50 values of perch to copper sulfate was 4.58 mg/L(24h), 2.93 mg/ L(48h), 1.81 mg/L(72h) and 0.78 mg/L (96h) respectively; to SHA CHONG WEI was 35.11 mg/ L(24h), 15.81 mg/L(48h), 11.20 mg/L(72h), 9.36 mg/ L (96h)respectively;

  9. Abstracts of Selected Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the Social Solidarity of Organization An Empirical Analysis Li Hanlin Abstract: Based on the 2002 survey data, this paper tries to measure solidarity in organization. The operationalization for this measurement goes from two points of view. One is from the degree of cohesion and another one is from the degree of vulnerability. To observe and measure the degree of cohesion three subscales like social support, vertical integration and organizational identity have been used. To observe and measure the degree of vulnerability other three subscales like dissatisfaction, relative deprivation and anomie have been used. The paper tries to explore finally under which condition the organization behavior and behavior orientation could go to the similarity or make some difference. Key words: Organization Cohesion Vulnerability Organization Behavior

  10. Contents and Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations] Title: On Poseidon's Image in Homeric Epics Author: Zhu Yizhang, Lecturer, School of History and Culture, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250100, China. Abstract: Poseidon was an important role in religion, myth and literature of ancient Greece. His religious functions, and status in mythical image in literature were mainly established by Homeric Epics. Poseidon doesn't only appear frequently in the Homeric Epics but also influences the development of the plots directly; therefore, he could be seen as one of the most important gods in the Epics. But Homeric Epics do not introduce his basic image clearly. In Homeric Epics, Poseidon carries the deity and humanity aspect of the figure, and the latter was emphasized, which implied his archetype was a mortal wanax.

  11. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  12. GolS controls the response to gold by the hierarchical induction of Salmonella-specific genes that include a CBA efflux-coding operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontel, Lucas B; Audero, María E Pérez; Espariz, Martín; Checa, Susana K; Soncini, Fernando C

    2007-11-01

    Salmonella employs a specific set of proteins that allows it to detect the presence of gold salts in the environment and to mount the appropriate resistance response. This includes a P-type ATPase, GolT, and a small cytoplasmic metal binding protein, GolB. Their expression is controlled by a MerR-like sensor, GolS, which is highly selective for Au ions. Here, we identify a new GolS-controlled operon named gesABC which codes for a CBA efflux system, and establish its role in Au resistance. GesABC can also mediate drug resistance when induced by Au in a GolS-dependent manner, in a strain deleted in the main drug transporter acrAB. The GolS-controlled transcription of gesABC differs from the other GolS-regulated loci. It is activated by gold, but not induced by copper, even in a strain deleted of the main Cu transporter gene copA, which triggers a substantial GolS-dependent induction of golTS and golB. We demonstrate that the Au-dependent induction of gesABC transcription requires higher GolS levels than for the other members of the gol regulon. This correlates with a divergent GolS operator in the gesABC promoter. We propose that the hierarchical induction within the gol regulon allows Salmonella to cope with Au-contaminated environments.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the land snail Cornu aspersum (Helicidae: Mollusca: intra-specific divergence of protein-coding genes and phylogenetic considerations within Euthyneura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia

    Full Text Available The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific divergence analysis revealed that COX1 has the lower genetic differentiation, while the most divergent genes were NADH1, NADH3 and NADH4. With the exception of Euhadra herklotsi, the structural comparisons showed the same gene order within the family Helicidae, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in order Pulmonata. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered Basommatophora as polyphyletic group, whereas Eupulmonata and Pulmonata as paraphyletic groups. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed that C. aspersum is a close relative of Cepaea nemoralis, and with the other Helicidae species form a sister group of Albinaria caerulea, supporting the monophyly of the Stylommatophora clade.

  14. Code Speed Measuring for VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 688 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14025 CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ Tom Nealis...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT It’s often important to know how fast a snippet of code executes. This information allows the coder to make important decisions

  15. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  16. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  17. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulović Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Marković et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  18. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  19. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  20. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  1. Verification of Statecharts Using Data Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Helke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for verifying Statecharts including infinite data spaces. We devise a technique for checking that a formula of the universal fragment of CTL is satisfied by a specification written as a Statechart. The approach is based on a property-preserving abstraction technique that additionally preserves structure. It is prototypically implemented in a logic-based framework using a theorem prover and a model checker. This paper reports on the following results. (1 We present a proof infra-structure for Statecharts in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL, which constitutes a basis for defining a mechanised data abstraction process. The formalisation is based on Hierar-chical Automata (HA which allow a structural decomposition of Statecharts into Sequential Automata. (2 Based on this theory we introduce a data abstraction technique, which can be used to abstract the data space of a HA for a given abstraction function. The technique is based on constructing over-approximations. It is structure-preserving and is designed in a compositional way. (3 For reasons of practicability, we finally present two tactics supporting the abstraction that we have implemented in Isabelle/HOL. To make proofs more efficient, these tactics use the model checker SMV checking abstract models automatically.

  2. Using abstract language signals power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  3. Converting One Type-Based Abstract Domain to Another

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick; Puebla, German; Albert, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    The specific problem that motivates this paper is how to obtain abstract descriptions of the meanings of imported predicates (such as built-ins) that can be used when analysing a module of a logic program with respect to some abstract domain. We assume that abstract descriptions of the imported p...

  4. AN ALGORITHM OF TEST FOR FUZZY CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MoZhiwen; PenJiayin

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. How to verify that a given fuzzy set A∈F(X ) is a fuzzy code? In this paper, an al-gorithm of test has been introduced and studied with the example of test. The measure notionfor a fuzzy code and a precise formulation of fuzzy codes and words have been discussed.

  5. Multirate Filter Bank Representations of RS and BCH Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Meerbergen Geert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the use of multirate filter banks in the context of error-correction coding. An in-depth study of these filter banks is presented, motivated by earlier results and applications based on the filter bank representation of Reed-Solomon (RS codes, such as Soft-In Soft-Out RS-decoding or RS-OFDM. The specific structure of the filter banks (critical subsampling is an important aspect in these applications. The goal of the paper is twofold. First, the filter bank representation of RS codes is now explained based on polynomial descriptions. This approach allows us to gain new insight in the correspondence between RS codes and filter banks. More specifically, it allows us to show that the inherent periodically time-varying character of a critically subsampled filter bank matches remarkably well with the cyclic properties of RS codes. Secondly, an extension of these techniques toward the more general class of BCH codes is presented. It is demonstrated that a BCH code can be decomposed into a sum of critically subsampled filter banks.

  6. C++ PROGRAM IMPLEMENTING THE ABELIAN GROUP ABSTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz L., Edgar; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a C++ Program implementing the Commutative or Abelian Group Algebraic Concept. The whole Program code that manages abelian class objects as a new data abstract type, TAD, using concepts such as operators overcharge is shown. Implementation has been carried out in a Dev C++ 4.1 compiler, a GNU compiler with GLP licence. El artículo presenta un programa en C++ que implementa el concepto algebraico de grupo conmutativo o abeliano. Se muestra todo el código del programa q...

  7. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  8. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    In David Schmidts PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may...... examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus...... in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen...

  9. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  10. Abstracts of Main Essays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Marx's "Individual" and "Community" Concepts Hou Cai "Individual" and "community" were important in the theories of Marx's philosophy and history. The "personality individual" (das persoenliche Individuum) and the "real community" (wirkliche Gemein- schaft) as individual unity were both inseparable ends of an ideal society Marx pursued. Marx~ understanding and reconstruction of individual and community and its relation were reflected in the specific words used by Marx. In German Ideology and Communist Manifesto, Marx strictly distinguished the concepts "individual" (Individuum) and "person" (Person) , the "community" (Gemeinschaft) or "association" ( Assozia- tion) and "society" (Gesellschaft). The differences in the use of these concepts by Marx not only clearly embodied the Transcendence of Marx~ philosophy to the past concepts of history but also were the premise of accurately and profound grasp to Marx~ philosophy and his conceptions of the ideal society.

  11. Sharing code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  12. PNA-mediated modulation and redirection of Her-2 pre-mRNA splicing: specific skipping of erbB-2 exon 19 coding for the ATP catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Birgit N; Shiraishi, Takehiko;

    2010-01-01

    The Her-2 receptor coded for by the proto-oncogenic erbB-2 gene is a clinically validated target for treatment of a significant genetic subclass of breast cancers, and Her-2 is also overexpressed or mutated in a range of other cancers. In an approach to exploit antisense mediated splicing...... oligomers that specifically induce skipping of exon 19 as this exon is coding for the ATP catalytic domain of Her-2, and if expressed such truncated version of the Her-2 protein should be functionally inactive in a dominant negative fashion. Therefore, antisense compounds having efficient erbB-2 exon 19...

  13. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The increasing scale-up of fast pyrolysis in North America and Europe, as well as the exploration and expansion of markets for the energy use of biocrude oils that now needs to take place, suggested that it was timely to convene an international meeting on the properties and combustion behavior of these oils. A common understanding of the state-of-the-art and technical and other challenges which need to be met during the commercialization of biocrude fuel use, can be achieved. The technical issues and understanding of combustion of these oils are rapidly being advanced through R&D in the United States, Canada, Europe and Scandinavia. It is obvious that for the maximum economic impact of biocrude, it will be necessary to have a common set of specifications so that oils can be used interchangeably with engines and combustors which require minimal modification to use these renewable fuels. Fundamental and applied studies being pursued in several countries are brought together in this workshop so that we can arrive at common strategies. In this way, both the science and the commercialization are advanced to the benefit of all, without detracting from the competitive development of both the technology and its applications. This United States-Canada-Finland collaboration has led to the two and one half day specialists meeting at which the technical basis for advances in biocrude development is discussed. The goal is to arrive at a common agenda on issues that cross national boundaries in this area. Examples of agenda items are combustion phenomena, the behavior of trace components . of the oil (N, alkali metals), the formation of NO{sub x}, in combustion, the need for common standards and environmental safety and health issues in the handling, storage and transportation of biocrudes.

  14. Managed Data: Modular Strategies for Data Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Loh; T. van der Storm (Tijs); W.R. Cook

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractManaged Data is a two-level approach to data abstraction in which programmers first define data description and manipulation mechanisms, and then use these mechanisms to define specific kinds of data. Managed Data allows programmers to take control of many important aspects of data,

  15. Managed data: modular strategies for data abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Loh; T. van der Storm (Tijs); W.R. Cook

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractManaged Data is a two-level approach to data abstraction in which programmers first define data description and manipulation mechanisms, and then use these mechanisms to define specific kinds of data. Managed Data allows programmers to take control of many important aspects of data,

  16. Managed data: modular strategies for data abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loh, A.; Storm, T. van der; Cook, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    Managed Data is a two-level approach to data abstraction in which programmers first define data description and manipulation mechanisms, and then use these mechanisms to define specific kinds of data. Managed Data allows programmers to take control of many important aspects of data, including persis

  17. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included. (HLW)

  18. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well...... as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...

  19. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  20. Hedonism in Abstract Art: Minimalist digital abstract photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Jovanović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this piece of writing the writer/artist puts forward the view that art can be understood and taken in as sometimes purely hedonistic. By drawing upon the theories pertaining to hedonism, he applies this view to minimalist digital abstract photography and tries to justify his point of view with the help of three abstract photographs.

  1. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) offer an attractive path to Exascale software since they provide expressive power through appropriate abstractions and enable domain-specific optimizations. But the advantages of a DSL compete with the difficulties of implementing a DSL, even for a narrowly defined domain. The DTEC project addresses how a variety of DSLs can be easily implemented to leverage existing compiler analysis and transformation capabilities within the ROSE open source compiler as part of a research program focusing on Exascale challenges. The OSU contributions to the DTEC project are in the area of code generation from high-level DSL descriptions, as well as verification of the automatically-generated code.

  2. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  3. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  4. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  5. The Drosophila genes CG14593 and CG30106 code for G-protein-coupled receptors specifically activated by the neuropeptides CCHamide-1 and CCHamide-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Williamson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel neuropeptide, CCHamide, was discovered in the silkworm Bombyx mori (L. Roller et al., Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 38 (2008) 1147-1157). We have now found that all insects with a sequenced genome have two genes, each coding for a different CCHamide, CCHamide-1 and -2. We have also...... flea Daphnia pulex (Crustacea) and the tick Ixodes scapularis (Chelicerata)....

  6. Expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs located in autoimmune disease-associated regions reveal immune cell-type specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrdlickova, Barbara; Kumar, Vinod; Kanduri, Kartiek; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Tripathi, Subhash; Karjalainen, Juha; Lund, Riikka J.; Li, Yang; Ullah, Ubaid; Modderman, Rutger; Abdulahad, Wayel; Lahdesmaki, Harri; Franke, Lude; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Wijmenga, Cisca; Withoff, Sebo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants associated with a risk for autoimmune and immune-related disorders (AID), our understanding of the disease mechanisms is still limited. In particular, more than 90% of the risk variants lie in non-coding

  7. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model....... The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  8. Argument structure and the representation of abstract semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Ferreiro

    Full Text Available According to the dual coding theory, differences in the ease of retrieval between concrete and abstract words are related to the exclusive dependence of abstract semantics on linguistic information. Argument structure can be considered a measure of the complexity of the linguistic contexts that accompany a verb. If the retrieval of abstract verbs relies more on the linguistic codes they are associated to, we could expect a larger effect of argument structure for the processing of abstract verbs. In this study, sets of length- and frequency-matched verbs including 40 intransitive verbs, 40 transitive verbs taking simple complements, and 40 transitive verbs taking sentential complements were presented in separate lexical and grammatical decision tasks. Half of the verbs were concrete and half were abstract. Similar results were obtained in the two tasks, with significant effects of imageability and transitivity. However, the interaction between these two variables was not significant. These results conflict with hypotheses assuming a stronger reliance of abstract semantics on linguistic codes. In contrast, our data are in line with theories that link the ease of retrieval with availability and robustness of semantic information.

  9. Argument structure and the representation of abstract semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Mònica

    2014-01-01

    According to the dual coding theory, differences in the ease of retrieval between concrete and abstract words are related to the exclusive dependence of abstract semantics on linguistic information. Argument structure can be considered a measure of the complexity of the linguistic contexts that accompany a verb. If the retrieval of abstract verbs relies more on the linguistic codes they are associated to, we could expect a larger effect of argument structure for the processing of abstract verbs. In this study, sets of length- and frequency-matched verbs including 40 intransitive verbs, 40 transitive verbs taking simple complements, and 40 transitive verbs taking sentential complements were presented in separate lexical and grammatical decision tasks. Half of the verbs were concrete and half were abstract. Similar results were obtained in the two tasks, with significant effects of imageability and transitivity. However, the interaction between these two variables was not significant. These results conflict with hypotheses assuming a stronger reliance of abstract semantics on linguistic codes. In contrast, our data are in line with theories that link the ease of retrieval with availability and robustness of semantic information.

  10. Abstract concepts in grounded cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.

    2010-01-01

    When people think about highly abstract concepts, they draw upon concrete experiences to structure their thoughts. For example, black knights in fairytales are evil, and knights in shining armor are good. The sensory experiences black and white are used to represent the abstract concepts of good and

  11. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well as re...

  12. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  13. Abstract models of transfinite reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We investigate transfinite reductions in abstract reduction systems. To this end, we study two abstract models for transfinite reductions: a metric model generalising the usual metric approach to infinitary term rewriting and a novel partial order model. For both models we distinguish between...

  14. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broesius, J.Y. (comp.)

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  15. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  16. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Wu Jie and Duan Yanchao. The current line drawing of Laterolog and its application. PI, 2011, 25(4) : 1 - 4 The current line plays an important role in the directly understanding the characteristics of Laterolog tool. A method of drawing current lines for the discrete potential data based on the Finite Element calculation is studied. It solves a series of key problems, including the selection of step length, the identification of direction, treatment of nmtation point and the control of stop. A drawing program is written by MATLAB software. Taking the current line drawing of the dual Laterolog logging as an example, we analyze the tool's investigation characteristics in the several formations such as homogeneous, low or high invasion, and invasion with shoulder. These results verify the effectiveness of the new method. The method can be applied to the other kinds of Laterolog tools to draw their current lines and analyze their investigation characteristics.

  17. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through-bit-logging (TBL) technology is developed corporately by Shell and Reeves Oil Company. It can replace standard cable logging and logging while drilling technology. It has characteristics of saving cost and convenient operation.The principle is to transmit the logging tool into borehole through drill rod with a special bit. The acquired formation evaluation data are read on surface from the wire line tool or stored in the tool before pulling out the hole.The paper introduces the principle of work, advantages and development trend of TBL, and cases of its application in rough borehole in North Sea fields. Finally development of TBL technology is summarized. Keywords: TBL; logging while drilling wireline logging

  18. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Liu Diren, Xie Weibiao, Yin Qiuli and Zhou Liyan. Study on the Influence of induction logging response on tool eccentricity in horizontal well. Jiang Yiqing, Xu Lin, Wang Jianmin and Du Hui. Simulation of time spectrum by oxygen activation logging.Zhang Jiawei, Song Gongpu, Sai Fang, Xue Zhibo. Design of simulator based on NMR downhole tools.

  19. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Xionghui, You Chang, Tang Jie, Zhou Qizhi, Xu Feng, Li Ganghan and Ma Yan. Development of a series of logging tool long-time working under high temperature and high pressure condition. PI, 2012,26 (3) : 1-3

  20. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.APPLICATION OF VSP TECHNOLOGY OF GREAT WALL DRILLING COMPANY IN OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION ABROAD/Du Xudong., Huang Daqin, Zhao Qihui.2011 (6)8-13 ( Interpretation Research Center of Great Wall Drilling Engineering Company ) Development and perfection of VSP technology have close relationship with the requirements of production. The paper presents 6 aspects of application about VSP technology in oil and gas exploration abroad: lproviding high-precision interpretation result----high-precision time-depth;

  1. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Overview of the development of the hybrid locomotive at home and abroad TIAN Rui, KANG Yi-nan (Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd., Dalian 116021, China ) Abstract: This paper analyzes the structure principle and classification feature of hybrid locomotive from the perspective of energy saving and emission reduction, discussing the key technology and summarizing its development and application at home and abroad. On this basis, the development prospect and problems to be solved of hybrid locomotive are analyzed. Key words: hybrid locomotive; principle; classification; application; prospect

  2. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification of the poor and their characteristics; they should be given a chance to ... established to help eradicate the poverty, which include the People Empowerment ... Welfare Service Scheme has programmes like: Special Education ...

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A Representative work that Vainly Attempts to Westernize China On Yang Ji.sheng's Paper "My View of Chinese Pattern" XU Chong-wenAbstract: Mr. Yang Ji-sheng calls economic connotation of Chinese pattern "market economy of power" with all sorts of drawbacks, it is to take the problems that Chinese model deliberately struggles with and even the objects must be resolutely eliminated as the parts of Chinese pattern, thus they are absolute nonsense; he boils down political connotation of Chinese pattern to "authority politics" of "thoroughly denying modem democratic system",

  4. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... , Abduljaleel Al Alwan 1,2 , Abeer Ibrahim 4 , Hadi Kuriry 3 , Ali Albenmousa 6 1 Department of Hepatobiliary Sciences, Division of Hepatology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, 2...

  5. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Representation or Construction? An Interpretation of Quantum Field Theory Abstract: In this essay, I argue that the basic entities in the causality organized hierarchy of entities that quantum field theory describes are not particles but fields. Then I

  6. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the Logic of Heart and the Intuitive Approach: An Outline of Modern Idealism Linked Chinese and Western Philosophical Ideas,A Reflection and Analogical Interpretation of Active Justice,Channel of the Effectiveness of Public Policy in the Perspective of Social Equality: A Theoretical Analysis of the Efficacy of Public Policy

  7. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Chinese foreign trade enterprises enter the crucial period of transformation and upgrade The global economy is likely into a long-term downturn and recovery is difficult. For a long time, the foreign trade development environment is difficult to be improved obviously. Many negative factors are overlaid and will bring the foreign trade greater challenge. Impacted by the dual factors of intemational market fluctuation, domestic economic environment tightening,

  8. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    per week; processed in a team work, and finalized by a local work shop accommodating the ... biological, health sciences, social sciences ... the new education and training policy of Ethiopia ...... schools were budget, staff shortage, classrooms ...

  9. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Coolant Temperature on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in YC6A220C Diesel Engine;Optimizing NOx emission performance for 16V280ZC diesel engine;CA3-13 coupler of DFsBI diesel locomotive exported to Iran;Mixed traction technology with LOCOTROL system;

  10. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Design of the LabVIEW-based test stand for diesel engine hydraulic governor ZHANG Wei-dong1, LIU Li-hua2, ZONG Ya-ping1 ( 1. Air Force Radar Academy, Wuhan 430019, China; 2. Second Artillery Command College, Wuhan 430019, China)Abstract: the test stand The structure for diesel engine and working principle of hydraulic governor were introduced. The user interface, speed governing curves display and data analysis were realized by IabVIEW to conduct calibration and draulic governor diagnosis for diesel engine hy-

  11. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Application of UIC standards to Chinese railway traction diesel engine industry WANG Xian (Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd., Dalian 116021, China) Abstract: The development, main contents and the practical application of the standards for type test for Chinese railway traction diesel engine were discussed. Key words: UIC standards; locomotive diesel en- gine; type test

  12. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Solving the vibration problem of diesel engine and its peripheral equipments with MK II PAK analysis system,Quality situation and analysis of copper radiator for diesel locomotive,Development of cooling system for GMC-96 rail grinding car

  13. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Development status of domestic and foreign hydraulic transmissions;Effect of advance angle of fuel supply on exhaust emissions for a diesel engine with EGR technology;Effect on noise of diesel engine under different atmospheric preessure and biodiesel blends;Application of digital governing system to V280/285 series marine diesel engine;

  14. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Post-Western International System and the Rise of the East;Hegemonlc Dependence and the Logic in the Declining Asceudance of Leading Powers;Constructive Leadership and China's Diplomatic Transformation;The Bargaining Model of International Mediation Onset:A Quantitative Test;The Imnact of Gender Differences on National Military Expenditure

  15. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Establishment and Distribution of the Police Stations in the Public Concessions in Modern Shanghai -Also on the Substitution Index of the Expansion of City Space WU Heng By analyzing relevant materials, this paper finds that the total number of police stations and the population is closely related to each other and regards it as the substitution index of city expansion. The author thinks that the urbanization of the public concessions can be divided into three phases, while this process is not in synchronization with the expansion of the land expansion of public concessions.

  16. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    South Korea's strategy and the economic and trade relations with China South Korea in a relatively short period of time has obtained the economic fast boom, creating "the Han River Miracle" remarkably. Due to the typical export-oriented economy, the South Korea is very sensitive to the international situation.

  17. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Changing the Means of Structural Adjustment for Transformation of Development Pattern SONG Ze Abstract: History of China's reform and opening up has proven that government-led industrial structural adjustment is unsuccessful. Facing the new situation and economic development tasks, new ideas of industrial restructuring should be clearly put forward that the government will create conditions to adjust the structure by the market. During the Twelve-Five Years, the most priority should be how to reform the way how to change the structural adjustment. If the "structural adjustment" approach, especially in the manufacturing sector can not be changed, many goals on economic transition are likely to fall again. Under the circumstance it is necessary to accelerate the development of a unified, open and orderly modern market system, and effectively implement the market-pushed industrial restructuring approach, and strengthen the intermediary function of finance and inner trade and create good policy environment conducive to promoting the services sector in the process of structural adjustment and industrial upgrading. Key Words:industrial structure; adjustment approach

  18. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Probe into The Production of Songhua Inkstone in Kangxi period and His Bestowing Them upon His Subjects;A Study of Kiln-Firing Production for Construction of Beijing in The Ming Dynasty: Focus on The Changes of Kiln Sites, Product Structure and Manufacture System of Supplies;More on The Design of The Large Timbers in The Structure of Daxiong Dian(Hall) of Fengguo Temple of Yi County with The Enlightenment from The Latest Research Available;

  19. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Energy transformation is the only way of the transformation of the world economy Describing and explaining from different view of the world from the angle of political, economic, cultural and environmental development, the presentation of the transformation, change, adjustment, conversion and a series of concept reflects that the current world situation is undergoing profound changes, multi-polarization and globalization. The global problems such as financial crisis, recession, climate change, energy transformation and the environment change,

  20. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    "Strategic communication" refers to practices involving the widespreaddissemination of information as well as contact activities for the purpose of nationalstrategic interest and objectives. Though people currently do not have a clearcomprehension of its definition, they are deepening their understanding. There is stillroom for its development in terms of theoretical research and practice. We shouldactively carry out research on mechanism building, communication targets and strategiccommunication content in order to serve our national strategies.

  1. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The AIDS epidemic has infected more than 50 million and claimed the lives of more than .... or preventive vaccine trials, as well as of HIV-positive women presenting as ... The lack of public understanding of doctors' and/or of scientific methods'.

  2. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Look in the Mirror of Personality Left by Liang Qichao The New Preface to His Reflecting Moral This article is my new foreword of Reflecting Moral, which had been edited and written by Liang Qichao in 1905, and has just been recommended as one of the moral readers of Tsinghua Academy of Chinese Learning. I point that the exhortation of our univer- sity proposed by Liang Qichao has its original determination in his mind himself, which had already been compiled in Reflecting Moral more than a century ago.

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Summary of Construction of a Hz S-based Sulphuric Acid Unit for a Large-sized Synthetic Ammonia Plant/Development and Application of New Process for Yellow Phosphorus Filtration during Yellow Phosphorus Production/Review of the Low-temperature Heat Recovery System of 250 kt/a Sulpharic Acid Plant of Shandong Bofeng/Technology for Combined Production in Compound Phosphate Fertilizer Plant of SHCCIG/Practice of Fouling Removal with Sulphuric Acid in the Cooling Water System of 400 kt/aSulfuric Acid Plant Based on Sulphur Burning/Production of Nitro-compound Fertilizer with Nitric Acid and Sulphuric Acid Method/Application of Tantalum Heat Exchanger and Glass Equipment in Spent Sulphuric Acid Concentration

  4. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of rural-urban migration of youths on agricultural labour supply in. Umuahia north local .... range of 50-61 years above, only 15% were below 40 years. This means that ... Family labour. 45. 49 ... under severe pressure. CONCLUSION ...

  5. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    When discussing the maturation of Chinese sociology, one has to reconsider the relationsbetween Western sociology and Chinese sociology and distinguish the flows from their sources ifone wants to find a way forward for Chinese sociology. Chinese sociology should view theresources of homegrown sociological tradition as a "source, " which is represented by "qunxue"(literally the study of groups).

  6. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Case Studies of The New Young Man at Ministry of Organization's Editing Li Pin The editing of The New Young Man at Ministry of Organization wins its fame in the modern history of Chinese editing and pub- lishing for its conscious intensification of anti-bureaucracy theme, and its embodiment of the editing pursuit of Qin Zhaoyang, Peo- ple's Literature's executive editor-in-chief. After Mao Zedong's proposal of public criticism, China Writers Association persisted in editing reason, discussed related theoretical and practical problems in the form of panel, and brought forward the title of unknown heroes for editors, which means a milestone in the modern history of Chinese editing principles.

  7. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Mud logging subject and its speciality construction is an important practical issue in the field of mud logging engineering and accurately positioning mud logging subject and reasonably setting mud logging speciality have an important significance for promoting and guiding the rapid development of mud logging technology.

  8. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of spectroscopy logging theory and application prospects. Zhu Genqing. Mud Logging Engineering, 2011,22(3) :2-6,28 Based on a lot of research and years' practice and set ting out from the purpose of enriching the basic theory of mud logging technology, the author described several spectroscopic methods and theories commonly used in mud logging technology and explored the concept of the spectroscopy logging and the views to establish mud logging theory svstem.

  9. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Training Model of Training the Nursing Humanistic Quality by Employing the College English Teaching Li Hongfeng (Nursing College of Zhengzhou University, Zhenghou, Herman, 450052) Read and Write Periodica,vol.8, No.11,27,2011(ISSN1672-1578,in,Chinese) Abstract: The college English, as one of the most important public humanities courses in the curriculum system of collegiate nursing education, its teaching has positive orientation of human values and strong function in humanistic quality education.

  10. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    A bus line inquiry algorithm based on set theory is proposed,and the design flow of transfer algorithm is presented. A plan for improving the efficiency of the inquiry algorithm is put forward. The bus line inquiry algorithm is simple and effective, and it can help user select optimal bus line.

  11. Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Costa Quintana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the importance of the Cash Flow Statement and the Value Added Statement as effective instruments of financial management, due to the information that these statements can provide. To demonstrate this, a financial analysis of the principal financial statements of the Empresa Transmissora de Energia Elétrica do Sul do Brasil S.A. – Eletrosul – was made and in particular, a detailed analysis of the Cash Flow Statement and the Value Added Statement. To do this, the financial statements published by the company were obtained. First, liquidity ratios from the Balance Sheet were calculated and, subsequently, an analysis of the Cash Flow Statement and the Value Added Statement was made. This was done to demonstrate that the information obtained from the Balance Sheet could be better detailed by the use of the referenced statements, showing in the end that alterations in the liquidity of the company can be explained by the changes in the ways in which the company used its cash resources.

  12. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Function Ascriptions of Technical Artifacts (p.1) CHEN Fan, XU Jia (Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110004) Abstract: The function of technical artifacts is mind dependent. It is an ontologicaUy subjective entity and an epistemologically objective judgment. Function ascription is a general form of technical function in the epistemological sense. Function ascriptions may be taken in a descriptive and in a performative sense. The former can be called function ascriptions for short and the latter function assignments. The mind dependency of the function of technical artifacts is grounded in performative function ascriptions instead of descriptive function ascriptions. Key Words: Function ascriptions; Descriptive function ascriptions; Performative function ascriptions; Function assignments

  13. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agricultural extension practitioners should intensify efforts in educating rural farmers ... disease caused by Human immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV), usually found in ... Health experts put Nigeria prevalence rate at 5.4% ranging from a low 1.9% to .... income may increase food and livelihood insecurity and severely undermine ...

  14. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs and Establishment of Their Orders —— From Sociological Theory Perspectives of Chinese Beliefs LI Xiang-ping Abstract: To understand the "harmonious" phenomena of China's history and culture and their concepts, the key is to understand and recognize its beliefs. Chinese beliefs and their social practice are closely related to establishment of harmonious social, historical and cultural orders in China. In fact, Harmony can refer to either a value target or a social reality, and it is also a kind of belief. The establishment of harmony based on certain beliefs, moral orders, political orders and power orders are basic components of social and cultural harmony. This article, from a sociological theory perspective of beliefs, discusses the positions and roles of different beliefs in building harmonious cultural orders in China, and it then aims to find out some rules of dual changes in Chinese society and Chinese beliefs. Key words: belief; order; harmony; sociological perspectives of belief

  15. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China gradually got rid of foreign controls and finally became one of Great Powers from the "Sick man of East Asia" during the Republican era. During this period, intellectuals played significant roles both from the perspective of knowledge building and from the practical perspective. With respect to knowledge building, intellectuals initiatively introduced western knowledge and constructed a new knowledge framework about international relations based on the Chinese tradition in order to counter the shock of external knowledge and reduce the frustration from the collapse of Tributary System, which made China deal with the New world with much more self-confidence. The progress on knowledge building also provide theoretical foundation of foreign attitude and shape the Chinese, especially the elites' perceptions towards international affairs. Meanwhile, intellectuals attempted to deliver Chinese voices through diverse international platforms,

  16. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (1) New Forms of the "Production of Social Relations" under the Scrutiny of Social Engineering Tian Pengying In the Marxist perspective, the production and reproduction of social relations constitute the basic prerequisite and guarantee for human existence and development, and the establishment of an orderly and harmonious modern social relationship that promotes the coordinated development of material production and spiritual production is an important symbol of man's self-conscientiousness to adapt to, rely on and transform the society. The development, transformation and evolution of social relations is both a natural historical process and a creative process in which social subjects participate, design and construct.

  17. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Be Independent from Autocracy: a Comparison Between Wang Yuanhua and Gong Zizhen Also on the Depth of Wang Yuanhua's Thinking on the Eve of the Ideological Emancipation Movement Xia Zhongyi In 1977 ,Wang Yuanhua began to appreciate Gong Zizhen, not only because they were similar in temperament, context and situation, but also because Wang Yuanhua had found out the element of personal liberation in Gong zizhen's saying Be Independent from Autocracy, which shows that Wang Yuanhua's realization of the personal value was earlier than Li Zehou ( who established the Subjectivity Outline in a Kant's Way in 1979 ) and Wang Ruoshui (who proposed that personal value is the basis of Marxism in 1981 ) , and Wang Yuanhua's contribution in study Chinese by Chinese experience.

  18. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Fold distribution, offset distribution and azi- muth distribution in a bin have direct effects on ge- ometry attributes in 3D seismic survey design. If two adjacent bins have the same fold but different offsets, this non-uniform offset distribution brings some stack amplitude diversity in the adjacent bins. At present, 3D geometry attribute uniformi- ty of the most analytical methods is expressed by qualitative analysis chart. We introduce in this pa- per a uniformity quantitative analysis method for offset distribution by average value, square devia- tion and weighting factor. The paper analyses effects on offset distribution uniformity of different 3D geometry parameters by the proposed uniformi- ty quantitative analysis method. Furthermore, the paper analyses effects on seismic stack amplitude or frequency uniformity of different 3D geometry parameters by the seismic wave modeling. The re- suits show that offset distribution uniformity is in good agreement with seismic stack amplitude or frequency uniformity. Therefore this improved method can be considered as a useful tool for ana- lyzing and evaluating 3D geometry attribute uni- formity.

  19. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administrative interference in staff work and a reasonable reduction in the work load of ... Traditional definition of attitude contains a slightly conception of its meaning. Definitions ..... Conditions for the Design and Management Of. Agricultural ...

  20. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Changes Come from Turmoils, Hopes Reside in Stagnancy,by Zhu Feng a professor at the Schobl ofInternational t/elations, t'eklng University, anu a member oi ecutorlai Doaro oi Peaceand Development and a gust researcher of CDPS. In 2011, "the Arab Spring" changed the geopolitical ecology of the Middle East and North Africa. The U.S. stepped up readjustment to its global strategy with a high-sounding voice proclaimed its "return to Asia Pacific". A great surge was felt in the political trend of thoughts in the world, and the world was still faced with various terrorist threats.

  1. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of importance of TG Water CultureQuest Yang Bin Fan Lingling ( 1 ) Abstract: The awareness of quest constitutes the essence and demonstrates the basic characteristic of the water culture in the Three Gorges areas. The legend of King Yu controlling floods by dredging the Three Gorges marked the budding of this spirit. Qu Yuan fully demonstrated the essence of the spirit by a frequently quoted saying, "yet high and low I will search with my will unbending", "I will not regret a thousand death to die". The inscription of White Crane Ridge displayed the ancient fashion of the spirit. The construction of the Three Gorges Project interpreted the spirit of exploring of the Three Gorges water culture. The local higher education institution, with its motto "quest", can be taken as a model in carrying forward the spirit of"constant exploration". Key words: awareness of quest; the Three Gorges; water culture

  2. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Chen Xianzhang's Moral Culture Blending Confucianism and Daoism (by ZHANG Yun-- hua) Abstract: Chen Xianzhang, who experienced and witnessed the social changes during the Ming Dynasty, achieved direction change of the scholarship and culture of his time from the rationalistic attitude to the idealistic philosophy through shattering the fetters and bold innovation in order to redeem people's spirit, save society, and rebuild the moral subject philosophy. Chen's elaboration of life and death, suffering and happiness, fame and gain, and retreat and withdrawal in this cultural shift reveals the characteristics of his moral culture blending Confucianism and Daoisrn. Key words: Chen Xianzhang; life and death; suffering and happiness; fame; gain; retreat

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Mao Zedong' s "Three World Theory" underwent three stages of development: the "One Intermediate Zone" thought, the embryonic form of the theory, was put forward in the 1940s-50s; the "Two Intermediate Zones" thought, taking shape in the 1960s, was the rudimentary form; and the early 1970s witnessed the perfection of the theory. Mao Zedong developed the "Three World Theory" with sovereignty and national interests as the logical starting point, the theory of unity of opposites as the philosophical foundation, the Cold War as the historical background, and fighting against hegemonism as the major diplomatic strategy.

  4. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Development and Application of Three-stage and Four-layer Fluorine Removal Technology for Purification of Smelting Flue Gas Removal of fluorine from fluorine-containing smelting gas during the sulphurie acid production provides effective protection for the equipment in the system, and it is al~ a necessary measure to maintain normal prodluetion. For the equipment features and resource conditions in a sulphuric acid plant, the concept of three-stage and four layer fluorine removal is proposed, and the purification technology for fluorine removal is developed through optimization of the process design. Practice has shown that by utilizing the three-stage and four-layer fluorine removal technology, it offers advantages like higher efficiency of fluorine removal, shorter process flow, less equipment investment, easier operation, and offers certain value for promotion.

  5. Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafdrup, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf......Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf...

  6. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Critique of Contemporary Anti-Marxism Ideologies --Based on Thoughts of the "Four Major Boundaries";The Conflict on Public Ownership: A Comparison between the Socialist Market Economic Theory and the Theory of Market Socialism of British Labour Party;On The Germination of Marxist Theory of Property;Aesthetic Transformation of Mass Media for Socialist Core Value System;

  7. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Plato on Political Rhetoric Generally, Plato was regarded as being hostile to rhetoric. However, I will show that in Plato's some important political dialogues he still verifies the significance of rhetoric or persuasion. Then, I list the attacks of Plato on his contemporary rhetoric, which is called in the essay as "politician rhetoric". On the other hand, Plato also articu- lates the characteristics of true rlhetoric, which I name as "dialectical rhetoric. " In order to elaborate "dialectical rhetoric", I take Pericles as an example to show how the dialectic rhetoric could work in the real political world. Finally, I point out that dialectical rhetoric still can give some reflection for today's political rhetoric. It contains the ideal of the good, caring the soul of the audience, speaking the truth, insisting the right thing with reason, etc.

  8. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a representative kind of "new diplomacy", the Silk Road Economic Beltand 21st Century Maritime Initiatives have aroused different responses at homeand abroad. They are important initiatives about co-building the Belt and Road,and give full play to China's strengths in the era of globalization. It is an importantopportunity to promote public diplomacy. The crux of the Initiatives lies in ourefforts in enhancing the awareness of cooperation, strengthening investigation andresearch, promoting mutual understanding, highlighting advantages and shunningdisadvantages for mutual benefit and win-win results through responding to theneeds of all parties.

  9. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstract abstract

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including 0, 500 and 1000 µl L-1 and 3 level of MeSA including 0, 0.1 and 0.2 mM. After treatment, the fruits were inoculated by Botrytis suspension and transferred to storage and quality parameters were evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days. At each sampling time, disease incidence, weight loss, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that both LEO and MeSA treatments had significant effects on inhibition of mycelium growth within in-vitro condition (p < 0.05. Inhibition rate of mycelium growth significantly improved by LEO and MeSA concentration increase of, (Table 1. At in-vivo assessment, diseases incidence of treated fruits with 500 µl L-1 LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA were 32% and 64% lower than untreated fruits, respectively (Fig. 1 and 2. During storage period, the percentage of infected fruits increased. In addition, LEO and MeSA treatments affected quality parameters of strawberry fruits including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity. Treated fruits had a high content of soluble solids, vitamin C and antioxidant activity in comparison to untreated fruits (Table 3 and 4. Probably ascorbic acid decreased through fungal infection duo to cell wall break down during storage. Any factors such as essential oil and salicylate that inhibit fungal growth can help preserving vitamin C in stored products. High level of vitamin C and antioxidant activity was observed in treated fruits with 0.1 mM MeSA and 500 µl L-1 LEO. In controlling weight loss of fruits, 0.2 mM of MeSA and 500 µl L-1 of LEO had significant effects, although MeSA was more effective than LEO treatments, possibly due to elimination of respiration rates and fungi infection (Table 4. Therefore, LEO and MeSA with fungicide effects could be replaced with synthetic fungicides in controlling fungal diseases of strawberry and maintain fruits quality during storage. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results showed that LEO and MeSA treatments could be safe and used to prevent infection of strawberry during storage, although LEO was more effective than MeSA treatments. Concentration of 500 μl L-1 of LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA could control fungal infection of fruits during storage. Also, LEO and MeSA treatments can extend shelf life for over the minimum period required to transit strawberries to foreign markets and without affecting quality, adversely. However, future studies are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms by which LEO and MeSA treatments may act as a fungicide and increase their postharvest life.

  10. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    ( 1 )How does China Appraise the Rising of India Zhao Can-cheng · 1 · Abstract: The rising of India has become an important topic in Chinese Media in the 21st century,and how does China appraise the rising of India is worth discussion. According to the recognition of Chinese official, media and schol- ars on India, this paper discusses the possible impact on China following India's rise and make a prediction on Sino-In- dia relationships. Key Words: China; Appraise ; Rising of India

  11. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, it wasnecessary and in its interest for China to join the socialist camp led by the SovietUnion. In 1954, China proposed the five principles of "peaceful coexistence". Atthe Bandung Conference in 1955, China, India and Myanmar jointly advocated thefive principles as a means of good governance in Asia and the whole world. Earlyin the 21st century, China proposed a new concept of "win-win cooperation" as animportant principle for international relations in the new global era.

  12. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Balance and Loss of Balance in Human Rights Law;The Socialist Legal System with Chinese Characteristics: Its Structure, Features and Trends;Historical Materialism and Contemporary Socio-historical Reality;Rousseau, Kant and Marx in the Lineage of "Moral P

  13. Abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Kucrová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    My thesis deals with the legal aspects of counterfeit trademarks, the competence of Customs Administration in the control of intellectual property rights, labor courts and CTI. My work describe the basic concepts and legal rules governing intellectual property rights. All rights and duties, regulations, agreements and treaties in the field of legal protection designation.

  14. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On Law Theory of Public Interest : An Analysis Based on the Need Spill Theory;The Theory of the Nature of Harming Society : Its Fate in Contemporary China;Criminal Law Fiction : An Analysis of Its Function and Application Rules;How to Define Illegal Financing : A Critique of Legal Interpretation of Illegal Financing by Supreme Court;

  15. Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Carvalho de Souza Domingues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of teaching, in actuality, shows the necessity of teachers and students coming together to form a behavior that is different from the traditional model of teaching. The unity formed from various types of knowledge and the relation between theory and practice show themselves to be fundamental. Starting in 2002, and in search of this unity, a project that hoped to unify the disciplines taught in the second semester of the course in Administration was implemented. During the semester, a single work sought to relate the theories studied with the reality of an organization. Each professor evaluated the works from the point of view of his discipline, as well as the presentation, in general, of the group. It can be affirmed that seeking to bring together various types of knowledge necessarily passes to a rethinking of the postures of teachers and students.

  16. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    4 Introduction of the Methods Generalized from Mineral Exploration HU Kui (Consulting & Research Center Ministry of Land & Resources, Beijing 100035, China) Abstract: This paper focuses on the introduction of prospecting methods generalized from mineral exploration, these include: prospecting in deep part of the deposit based on shallow deposit, and periphery prospecting within the ore district; finding other type ( kind ) of deposit according to this type; lean ore is the base for rich deposit; small rich ore can depends on large lean ore; the dependence of economical mineral resource is uneconomical mineral resource; prospecting mineral deposit on the basis of different minerals; following outcrop mine to find blind ore; and with marks to explore ore.

  17. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Research on the Theory and Standard of Peasants" Life Cycle Pension Compensation Mu Huaizhong Shen Yi· 2 · Thedifficulties of full coverage in pension system lie in rural farmers. In this paper, we put forward a "dual agricultural welfare difference" theory and apply it to the issues regarding peasants' life cycle pension compensation. Taking differential between equilib- rium and biased agricultural incomes as the key indicator, we build mathematical models of "dual agricultural welfare balance" and measure the size from 1953 to 2009. Our finding shows that China's "dual agricultnral welfare difference" has a fluctuation ranged be- tween 0.4 and 0.6. Based on life cycle characteristics, such as natural life cycle, policy and institutional life cycle, our suggestion is to compensate peasants' primary pension with a balance of "dual agriculture welfare difference" and other countermeasures.

  18. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific Culture and Cultural Science (p.1) Today science advances at an astonishingly high speed, and driven by the ideological and industrial revolutions, it even becomes a dominant culture in the society and is respected as the supreme authority. However, the scientific culture, which plays the leading role in the industrial civilization, turns out to be more and more alienated from culture and humanity, resulting in the so-called cultural confusions and loss of humanity. This article, investigating the phenomenon deeply, argues that science has no privileged position over the other cultural traditions, and suggests that science identify itself as a member equal with the other cultural patterns in the society in order to restore its cultural connotations. It is believed that by establishing the cultural science, we can bring culture and humanity back to science.

  19. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Research on the Necessity of Building Intercity Transit System within Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Metropolitan Huang Weili 4 To plan and build intercity transit network within Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metropolitan will not only meet the rapidly increasing demand for passenger transport service and promoting the integration and urbanization of the metropolitan, but is also the necessary measures to build energy-saving and environmental-friendly society, and realize sustainable development.

  20. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@CONCURRENT SESSION: FOOD AND WATERBORNE DISEASES      Chair  Prof. Liu Xiu-mei, Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene (CAPM), China   Co-chair   Dr. Jorgen Schlundt, World Health Organization, Switzerland   1530-1545 hrs Emerging Foodborne Disearse: An Evolving Public Health Challenge   Robert Baldwin, Center for Disease Control, USA   1545-1600 hrs Food Poisoning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesia   Adil Basuki Abza, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia   1600-1615 hrs The Management of Food Poisoning in China   Li Tai-ran, Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection, Ministry of Health, China   1615-1630 hrs Detection of Campylobacter Species Using a Fluorogenic Real-Time PCR Detection System   Hai-yan Wang, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Canada, Canada   1630-1645 hrs An Overview on Bongkrekic Acid Food Poisoning   Liu Xiu-mei, Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene (CAPM), China   1645-1700 hrs Screening Procedure from Cattle Feces and the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Taiwan Dairy Cattle   Chin-Cheng Chou, Taiwan University, Taibei, China

  1. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    4The Current Trends in Global Mineral Exploration and Development LIU Shucken (Information Center of Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100812, China) Abstract: This paper introduces the main issues that the global mineral exploration and development are faced with. The main issues of focus include: the mineral exploration has rapidly recovered from the short depression caused by the effects of global financial crisis; most of the important mineral reserves have continued to grow; there has been continued rapid growth in mining development investment; the supply capacity of mineral products has increased; mergers and acquisitions of mining company are stirring, and multinational mergers & acquisitions has become mainstream,

  2. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CARBONIFEROUS- PERMIAN PETROLEUM GEOLOGY AND EXPLORATION DIRECTION OF TIAOHU DEPRESSION IN SANTANGHU BASIN;THE APPLICATION OF S- WAVE PARAMETERS BUILDING TECHNOLOGY IN THE LITHOLOGIC RESERVOIRS EXPLORATION;THE IDENTIFICATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION FOR LITHOLOGY OF NIUDONG VOLCANIC RESERVOIR;CAUSES OF PERMIAN DENSE CONGLOMERATE RESERVOIR AND FAVORABLE BLOCK PREDICTION IN ZHONG GUAI BULGE;

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE MAIN SAFETY MEASURES AND VISTA OF THE SUCCESSFUL EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE " THREE HIGH" GAS FIELD IN NORTH-EAST OF SICHUAN PROVINCE[ 1] Peng Guosheng (SINOPEC Safety & Environmental Protection Bureau, Beijing , 100728) Abstract: Based on the special safety risk of "Three High" gas field in north-east of Sichuan province, this paper makes a systematic analysis on the necessity of special supervising and managing measures taken by SINOPEC during exploration and development.

  4. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Reliability validation studies of locomotive engine turbocharger LI Yu (Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd., Dalian 116021, China) Abstract: Considering the use features of the locomotive diesel engine turbocharger and combining the finite element simulation with experiment, the validation method of tile turbocharger has been studied. In this way, the number of tests can be reduced and the success rate of the test can be increased. And the turbocharger relia- bility assessment can be ahead of the schedule. Key words: turbocharger; reliability; validation test

  5. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Determining Dynamic Rese-rve of Gas R e~servoir by Improved Pressure Drop Method; Mechanical Analysis for Completion String and Its Engineering Applications;Performance Prediction of Natural Depleting Development of Condensate Reservoir with High Gas Condensate Content with a Single Well.

  6. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive traction test of HXD3 locomotive under simulated rain conditions HAN Chang-hu1, LIU Jie-min2, XU Hao-dong1, SONG Yu-ping1 (1. West Jinan Locomotive Depot, Jinan 250117, China; 2. Jinan Railway Administration, Jinan 250001, China)Abstract: To study the impact of severe weather on HXD3 locomotive adhesive traction force, Jinan Rail- way Administration conducted a adhesive traction test of HXD3 locomotive under simulated rain conditions and accumulated large amount of data for reference.

  7. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 4 No.3 2011 ... networks, distribution systems, and other social facilities (Handler and ... water, healthcare, education, sanitation and security. However, the ...

  8. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Power, Space and Inner Structure of Blocks--on Rue Massenet of Shanghai MA Xue - qiang This paper dwells on the formation and change of Rue Massenet in modern Shanghai, and studies Rue Massenet' s history as a road as well as a block. It also investigates the structure of the block and reveals its inner function features. The analysis of Rue Massenet which is regarded as a "sample" of modern block type helps expand and deepen the researches of urban history research.

  9. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their job performance in Imo state agricultural development programme, Nigeria. ... The blocks are made up of many communities with the block extension .... detailed to rural areas to probably execute government policies and decisions. ... office for about 7 times during the past 12 months, listened to agrie radio talk for ...

  10. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that the per capita calorie intake of the people is 1990 kcal/day while the average household size and dependency ratio were found to be 9 persons and 0.77 .... staple food, and large number of female controlled households suggest.

  11. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the state development of fuel-spray in the combustion chamber of TBD620 diesel engine, a spray visualization system was construc-ted by the method of flash photography capturing images of fuel spray at different times. Fuel injection characteris-tics changes were studied by changing the fuel injection pressure and the spray wall-impingement was discovered, which provides a basis of structural optimization for the combustion chamber.

  12. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the main steps of typical QRA through application of QRA to the risk management of petrochemical construction projects. It explores the limitations of QRA method and points out the role of QRA in risk management of construction proje

  13. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock feeds and diet (RRIN, 1985b). So also is the ... growing on kernels impact their various colours to the seeds (Igeleke and Ekpebor, 1986). Biochemical ... Rotting and caking seed meal (Heating, and production of mycotoxins).Heating ...

  14. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Practice and experience on key equipment localization for Longtan project Abstract: Longtan Hydropower Station is the second largest hydropower station after Three Gorges in those have put into production in China. Based on the idea of "objective, practical and economic", an exploratory investigation to promote the key equipment localization and the national industry revitalization was conducted. The localization of key equipment such as 700MW hydraulic generating unit, 500kV three-phase composite transformer, 500kV crosslinked polyethylene insulated cable and monitoring system for giant hydropower stations was realized successfully. The experience is using for reference in after hydropower projects.

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ­E¢b

    entrepreneurial attitude (that is measured through achievement and innovation) and .... As such, indigenous entrepreneurial attitudes toward innovation will be restricted ..... http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/amsrev/theory/lindsay. 05-2005.html.

  16. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    International Norms, Group Identity and Domestic Institutional Re- form: The Case of China's Entrance to FATF Lie Xinghua Abstract: International norms are the collection of binding rules governing the international community. International norms with high levels of legitimacy result in norm groups. Such norm groups directly affect the space for and effectiveness of behavior. In order to enter a norm group and obtain membership status within the group, states must engage in domestic institu- tional reforms in order to meet standards of admission. In order to enter FATF, China studied the principles of the 40+ 9 Recommendations, and ad- vanced comprehensive domestic reforms to counter money laundering.

  17. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Concept Construction and Empirical Analysis of Social Integration for Rural-Urban Migrants in China; Under the Dual Structure of the Triple Migration Model: A Shortage of Migrant Workers, a New Research Framework;Cultural Meanings of Chinese Guanxi: A Viewpoint of Management Scholars;Determinants of Banking Efficiency: Cross-Country Evidence;

  18. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and forecast of the world economy The pace of global economic recovery has slowed down markedly and the risk of a sagging world economy has been increasing in 2011. However, the economic slowdown was taking place at different speeds in different categories of economies. The momentum of economic recovery in the developed economies is clearly insufficient, and its economic growth rate is far lower than the rate of the emerging economies and has declined much more than that of emerging economies. Many big developed economies are facing very severe employment situation now, while the space of the their fiscal and monetary policies have been compressed by the upgrade of the sovereign debt crisis and long-term low interest rates, which are associated with the turmoil in international financial markets, the sluggish growth of international trade and investment, fluctuations in international commodity prices, and aggravated social problems.

  19. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As the institutional quality audit is being conducted in some pilot provinces,different interpretations of it have occurred,some of which appear to be misleading.This paper is to redefine it in terms of thematic focus,role,value and method to facilitate its implementation.It proposes that the institutional quality audit should keep consistently focused on internal quality assurance,in-volve various stakeholders,enhance its empowerment function and develop itself into a comprehen-sive and systematic approach to continuous quality improvement.

  20. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Analyses and Suggestions on Coordinated Regional Development of Insurance Industry in China GUO Jin-long Abstract: Through studies on the coordinated development status between insurance industry and social economy in China from 2005 to 2009, it is found that the coordination between insurance and economy remains slightly imbalanced in most of the provinces and cities in China, with only a few provinces and cities showing low-degree coordination in 2007. As a whole,

  1. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Models of Reduction and Functionalism: Comments on Kim's Reductive Physicalism CHEN Xiaoping (Research Center of System Science and System Management, School of Public Administration, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006) Abstra

  2. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Philosophical Analysis of the Essential Characteristics of Transgenic Technology: Based on the Comparative Studies of Different Breeding Ways (p.1);Public Recognition of the Issue of Technology Ethics of GM Corn in Contemporary China (p.7);Uncertainty of Commercializing GM Crops in China (p.13);Analysis of the Public's Perception of and Attitude to GM Rice and Guidance to Their Behavior: Based on the Data from Social Survey in Hubei Province (p.18)

  3. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Subject of Research, Methodology and Research Paradigm of ‘Das Kapital'; ‘Das Kapital' and the Scientific View of Marx on Wealth;The Way of Capitalism in the Background of Global Financial Crisis;

  4. ABSTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİK, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Discourse analysis takes its place within a larger body of social and cultural researchthat is concerned with the production of meaning through talk and texts. In this study generalprinciples of discourse analysis and how discourse analysis is used in qualitative research arementioned. Theoretical background of discourse analysis based on different fields in socialsciences such as sociology, politic, linguistic, media, psychology, etc... Each of them usediscourse analysis according to their o...

  5. Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Characteristics of Modern Tianjin Salt Merchants Culture As a new commercial culture in modern China, Tianjin salt merchants culture has its own different characteristics, such as luxury consumption culture, political culture, religious scholar culture and moral culture. In these cultures behind embodies the Salter group's behavior pattern and psychological structure.

  6. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarized the status of foreign mud log- ging technology from geological logging, engineering logging and mud logging informalization and put forward the future development direction of mud logging technique. The abroad geological logging focuses on micro-nalysis, in which the cutting CT scan, laser element analysis and field gamma scan are used as important means of setting up the geological profiles.

  7. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    COSCO Shipping semi-sub veseis POOL achieving new progress On August 8, 2012, the second member China Zhejiang Xiazhiyuan Ship Management Co., Ltd. joined the semi-submersible vessels POOL created by COSCO Shipping Co., Ltd. (COSCOL) earlier this year. The new member comes after the Guangzhou Salvage Bureau of the Ministry of Communications, who joined the semi-submersible vessels POOL in February. The capacity structure of the COSCO Shipping's semi-submersible vessel POOL can be further optimized in 20000, 30000, 40000 and 50000 DWT and achieved universal coverage, which powerfully promoting the brand of appeal. COSCO Shipping Co., Ltd. owns and operates nearly 100 ships including semi-submersible, heavy lift, multi-purpose, ro-ro/Io-lo, general cargo ships and pure car carriers. Among them, semi-submersible vessels are the leading.P18

  8. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Severe Damage of Absorbing Foreign Capital Must Be Correctly Observed Accelerating Transformation of Economic Development;Lenin Had Never Set Forth a "National Syndicate" Pattern;Talent Allocation for Undertaking Service Outsourcing of China;Preliminary Management for "Urban Disease" during British Industrialization;Comprehensive Review on Review on Risk Management of Sports Tourism in China;

  9. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current Situation and Prospect of Urban Transit Development in Mainland China The paper reviews the development of urban transit construction, networking operation and diversified technology systems in mainland China during the last 40 years. The paper also presents the short-term planning of urban transit in mainland China and the solutions for financing, construction period and operational cost etc.

  10. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China's roles in the rice cultivation culture in the world---the inventor of artificial cultivation of rice; Zhuang nationality's roles in the artificial cultivation of rice in China--the earliest inventor of artificial cultivation of rice; Longan County's roles in the rice cultivation culture of Zhuang nationality---the most concentrated and most splendid exhibition place and the biggest highlight for the rice cultivation culture of Zhuang nationality. Key words: Longan County; rice cultivation culture; biggest highlight

  11. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    STUDY ON THE FEATURES OF DIFFERENT REFLECTION IN TAHE OILFIELD PALEOCAVES RESERVOIR/Jianfeng Wang, Pei Jin, Xinhua, Li et al. Northwest Oilfield Company of SINOPEC, Urumqi, Xinfiang ,830011/Xinfiang ShiYou TianRan Qi ,2011,7 ( 3 ) : 1 - 5 Abstract:In This paper, in the light of Seismic migration section and tectonic analysis data, seismic echo styles of Tahe oilfield paleocaves reservoir in time migration are summed up; different reflection features are classified. In the meantime, the classification criteria of quantizing identification with reservoir seismic echo model is established. With those methods above, the paleocaves reservoirs forecasting degree and well arrangement ratio are improved, the risk of developmental drilling is reduced and efficiency is reduced. The high development efficiency in Ordovician paleocaves reservoir is fulfilled. Key Words : Tahe Oilfield ; Paleocaves Reservoir; Reflection features ; Quantizing identification ; Reservoirs forecasting

  12. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . user

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF677 and selected natural hybrid of peach × almond (H1and H2, and almond vegetative rootstock (local control.In this study,EMtreatments for 60 days before stress treatments were applied so that in each irrigation, EM solution to a concentration of one percent was given to half of the experiment pots. Other pots were irrigated equally with normal water. Stress levels were applied from July as follow: full irrigation, watering after unloading 33% and 66% soil moisture availability. In order to evaluate the performance, seedling survival, plant growth, number of leaves, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight and leaves and root length were measured. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that between rootstock levels across all treatments were significantly differences at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that the highest fresh and dry weight and leaf are awere observed forGF677and H1.Rootstockannualgrowth rate was also different. Most of the growth was related to the H1 Rootstocks. Thes urvival ratewas significantly different from the Rootstocks ofGF677,andH1showedthe highestpercentage of survival. The degree of adaptation to drought in varieties of almonds is different. The results showed that changes ingrowthparametersinGF677and H1were observed less often than other rootstocks. Because of strong roots,GF677and H1continue to attract more minerals under stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that the between irrigation levels for all treatments were significantly different at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that among the study traits, the highest amount was obtained from complete irrigation, while irrigationat66 percenthad the least amount. Water stress may directly affect photosyn thesis, through leaf photochemicalprocessorindirectly,byclosing stomata, reducingleaf area and growth. The results showed that the levels of(EM on the leaf surface, leaf number, annual growth, root dry weight and volume were significantly different (p

  13. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    ( 1 ) Overview on the Political and Economic Situation in Southeast Asia in 2011 Wang Shi-lu · 1 · Abstract: Being affected by negative factors home and abroad, all countries of Southeast Asia faced pressure in maintaining stability and pushing development in 2011. Despite all that, the relatively stable politics, better economic situation as a whole in Southeast Asia remained. Though security situation was grim, all governments took proper measures to resolve crisis. Meanwhile, regional cooperation was pushed forward in Southeast Asia , and achieved some results.

  14. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Academic progress and innovation depend on the development and change of researchparadigms. In order to lay a foundation for research based on "Chinese discourse, " scholars inChina must develop their own academic paradigms based on realities of their country. A review ofvillager self-administration research indicates that, the practice of villager self-administration inChina has once again become a focus of its political science, among others. Not only has a "valuesystem" paradigm been created, but also its change into a new one of "form-condition" hascompleted, the process of which is of universal value.

  15. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Judicature, Public Opinion, and Politics at An Age of Disordered Legal World View :A Study Centered on the Case of Li Changkui The Case of L/Changkui represents a kind of simple "hard case", in which whatever the judge made a de- cision, result of the case failed to gain good social and legal effects, and the causation, however, rested on the internal system of judicature. The Case of Li reflects an age at which legal world view is deficient in coherence and integration. Although it's not an exclusive problem for China that judicature, public opinion and politics in- teract complicatedly, and the society shows distustt upon the criminal justice system, it reveals that, in the case of Li, some judicial personnel and academics hold an uni-dimensional and prejudiced understanding on the credi- bility, legitimacy and stability of judicature.

  16. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Another Cost of Rights : State Identification and Its Western Experience OU Shujun The Western Experience of State Identification shows that identification is another cost of rights, a prerequisite for constructing the rule of law and good governance. Identification is the most infrastructural public goods that should be supplied by the government, and its publicness comes through in that it almost is a precondition for all state institutions, so it can be called the most infrastructural power of national governance system. In the fourfold-building process of one country under the rule of law, a state rule by law, a tax state, a welfare state and a regulatory state, a modem state increasingly needs to enhance the state identification capacity, so that the majority can be involved in the state identification system, which in turn will accelerate the process of state-building, make law and policies more effective, minimize the intermediate cost of communication between states and individuals, and eventually realize good governance by focusing on the expectations of the majority and serving for the majority. The people seeking a strong democratic country under the rule of law must face up to the fact that identification as a kind of govemmentality has been institutiona/ized and routinized in advanced indnstrial democracies.

  17. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Since labor resources are a key factor in economic development, the difference of their allocation efficiency has aggravated the imbalance of China's regional economic development. Based on the formula of per capital GDP, this paper constructs an interpretation model of demographic bonus containing influence factors of human capital and material capital accumulation. Subsequently, using data envelopment analysis model we have measured and decomposed relative efficiency of demographic bonus in each region of China during 2006-2010. We have also accounted for the technical efficiency and scale efficiency by using Tobit model. Empirical analysis shows that the relative efficiency of demographic bonus in the Eastern region is higher than those in the middle and west areas. The technical efficiency is mainly affected by education level, aggregation effect of labor force and its participation rate, with influence radios of 0.0102 and 0.0149. Meanwhile, The scale efficiency is mainly affected by education level, aggregation effect of labor force, industrial environment of capital accumulation and generation effect of material capital, with influence radios of 0.1549, 0.1234 and 0.0371. Finally, this paper puts forward suggestions related to the findings.

  18. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... المؤسسات إرشادات بشأن أفضل المُمارسات، يوضح هذا البحث مُمارسات الباحثين في إدارة البيانات، والنتائج الأولية لمشروع تم تنفيذه في جامعة جريفيث لتطبيق إطارًا مفاهيميًا...

  19. Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2013-01-01

    ... والتي تتضمن إدارة النظم المكتبية والموارد الإلكترونية والمُعدات الرقمية والاستفادة من مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي في جذب المُستخدمين. دول الكومنولث: كيف شكلت نماذج...

  20. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A Discussion on Theme Slogan and Logo of Tourism Image Beautiful Hubei also on Hubei Tourist Attractions and Branding :Cao Shitu Han Guowei (2) Abstract: The paper analyzes the deficiencies of the existing theme slogan and logo of tounsm, image Beaufil Hube by using the methodology of tourism image-building, and then puts forward new theme slogan and logo Magnincent Huoei Door to Magical Landscape and Romantic Culture"as well as the idea of b uildingtouri"brand "Magical and Romantic Tour".

  1. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    4 Thoughts and Suggestion about Rural Collective Land System Reform YAN Zhiyao (Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100812, China) Abstract: The imperfect rural collective land property right system has caused the difficulties in increasing the income of farmers, surplus migrant workers, laborer shortage, and sharp conflict for land requisition, which has become the biggest bottleneck in the current development and stability. This paper argues that the rural land property rights institution and land requisition system are the core and key for rural economic breakout and the harmonious development of urban and rural economy,

  2. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Old local government documents are an important basis for studying ancient villages and clan cultures. From the Xinhui County Gazetteer, it is known that the development of the Tangxia Basin where Liangxi is located had started by the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. By the Kangxi reign period in the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the village and its clan had received considerable government attention. By' the end of the Qing Dynasty, the village had been sanctified. It is a notewor- thy phenomenon that a clan could have attained such an important cultural position.

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Applications of converted-wave anisotropic prestack time migration in LMD area. Zhang Liyan1, Li AngI, Pei Jiangyun1 and Song Zongpingz. OGP, 2012, 47(5): 683-689 Media anisotropy affects greatly converted- wave imaging for large offset gather. Based on non-hyperbolic NMO equations of converted-wave anisotropy, we propose a simple and practical high precision Gamma (Average velocity ratio of P and S wave) field building method and a structure ve- locity scanning method in this paper. These two methods can obtain accurate Gamma field and con- verted-wave RMS velocity field. Migration travel time can be calculated by anisotropy double square root scattering travel time equation. The applica- tion of the methods on 3D3C data in LMD area,

  4. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Peace is one of humanity's eternal pursuits; conflict, however, is a part of humandestiny. In the course of pursuing peace, religion, as a major practical form of publicdiplomacy, has played an important role in averting conflicts between differentcivilizations. By upholding the ultimate goal of promoting mutual understanding andtrust between different countries and peoples and world peace, the Charhar Institutehas since its founding actively facilitated a religious peace movement focusing onexchanges between the Buddhists of China and South Korea. Serving as a typicalexample of public diplomacy, this has been an important element of the institute'sactivity, and achieved fruitful results. The integration of public diplomacy and religionhas proved itself to be good for the peace effort sof humanity.

  5. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unique firstlady

    To capture impact of subsidy removal on domestic consumption of petroleum product ... curtains, detergents, records, plastic toys and toothpaste. Crude oil got from ... This implies uncondensable gases, methane, ethane, and ethylene, which ...

  6. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    DESIGN OF ANTI-LIGHTENING AND GROUNDING SYSTEM FOR COMPRESSOR SHELTER AND LARGE WAREHOUSE IN REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANT[1] Wang Zongjing (SINOPEC Engineering Incorporation, Beijing, 100101) Abstract:With the rapid development of national economy, petrochemical industry plays a more and more important role in national economy. Since most of the process medium in various units in refineries and petrochemical plants are flammable and explosive hazardous substances, high requirements are imposed on the reliability, continuity and stability of each link and facility in the production. Most of the compressor shelters and large warehouses, which are the core buildings in refin- ery and petrochemical plant, are closed or semi-open, so that the atmospheric diffusion of explosive gas mixture is restrained and explosion hazard concentration is kept within a certain period of time. In case of ignition, the enormous explosion pressure will result in damage to equipment and buildings. Therefore, the anti-lightening design of compressor shelter and large warehouse is especially important for the anti-lightening security of refineries and petrochemical plants.

  7. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    An Exploration of the Origin of the Yue People in Lingnan (by BAI Bing) Abstract: Investigations into the origin of the Yue people in Lingnan based on reliable archaeological data, literature, and data concerning nationalities, and by means of periodation, backward inference, and paleographic knowledge show that the Maba people living 129,000 years ago were probably the main body of the ~ue people. From their ancient ancestry to the Warring States period, the ~ue people underwent continuous evolution. They were probably aboriginals of local origin. There were continuous exchanges between the various tribes of the Yue people and they incorporated each other. Key words: Lingnan; the Yue people; origin

  8. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Research of Theory & Method Miscible Flooding Well Test Model With Carbon Dioxide Injection and Its Pressure Analysis. 2011,20(4):1 -4 Zhu Jianwei, Shao Changjin, Liao Xinwei, Yang Zhenqing( China University of Petroleum (Beijing) ) Based on miscible flooding well test analysis theory with carbon dioxide injection, the diffusion model of mixture components when carbon dioxide miscible with the oil and variation law of the temperature and viscosity are analyzed,

  9. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    How can an ordinary Chinese do better in contributing to national reputationthrough public diplomacy? All they need to do is to tell stories of their own and ofothers' around them in an appropriate way. These stories are from the daily life, theyare real, rich, natural, vivid, lively and easy to understand, but not so rhetoric. They canmove people deeply and improve the image of China and Chinese people successfully.

  10. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to select 243 yam growing women farmers from the three agricultural zones of the State. .... adoption, benefits and problems of adoption of yam minisett technology. .... farmer's previous experience with other innovations will likely influence her ...

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    1 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Avinashilingam University, ... traditional Indian medicinal systems which has a very important role in indicating ... obstructive disorders, diabetes, leprosy, respiratory disorders and certain skin ...

  12. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gathered through the use of interview schedule. Percentages and ... processing equipment that will reduce both the time on each operation and the tedious .... required for the processor to measure water into the cassava tuber container.

  13. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    students of different disciplines as it will help them to learn their respective subjects with ease. Keywords: ... areas or those that faces difficulties with real ..... International Journals of English Studies, Monograph issue 2: New trends in computer ...

  14. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CONTROL SIGNAL POWERING & WIRING DESIGN OF INTELLIGENT MOTOR OPERATED VALVE ACTU- ATOR [1] Fan Zonghai , J ia Tiehu ( S INOPEC Engineering Incorporation, Beijing, I00101) AbstractzThis article introduces the application of Motor Operated Valve (MOV) actuator, the problems in its control unit wiring, as well as its main technical parameters and control functions. The powering and wiring design of MOV actuator are explained based on application examples, and the advantages, disadvantages and selection principles of two powering design methods, i.e.

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    published more than 80 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters on topics .... In reviewing the literature, we found no studies that addressed .... self based on HIV status, 5 items, alpha = 0.906; (iii) health care ..... Disclosure of HIV status:.

  16. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , formed and operated along democratic lines for the purpose of ... water, good roads, communication, electricity and hospital constitute a rural area. Finally, ..... Ijere M.O. (1988) The Role of Cooperatives in Agricultural Technology Transfer, In.

  17. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The wisdom of practice exists in its conceptual form as an inherent part of man and functions in the process of practice. It coheres as the quality of virtue expressed in value orientation and contains cognitive experience of the world and of man himself. The two permeate man's actual capacities or powers. Aiming at completion of the self and of things, the wisdom of practice integrates theoretical and practical reason and reflects the unity of understandinl~ the world and transforming the world.

  18. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeys with more than 19% have a tendency to ferment. As a general rule ... pollen contents, Agwu and Akanbi (1985) recommended alcohol or water dilution technique ... is also a product factor of the type of pollen collected by honey bees.

  19. ABSTRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of the Revolution of 1911 Promoting the Deep Development of the CPC History and National History by the Research and Publication of the History of the Revolution of …………1911 Zhu Jiamu (4)

  20. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Relational Capital, the Institutional Environment and the Validity of the Payment by Fiscal Transfers;The Framing of the Clauses of the Company Regulations, the Protection of the Law for the Right of Investors, and the Company Governance: Evidences f

  1. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Kong Jie, Li Shurong and Wang Weibo. ARMA model of MEMS acceleration detector and its characteristic analysis. PI, 2011, 25(5): 1 - 3 Impulse response datum of MEMS acceleration detector is got by the vibro-bench experiment. The ARMA model of this detector is built through the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method with impulse response datum. And the orders of ARMA model is evaluated using Hankel matrix rank. The simulation shows that the ARMA model built is very accurate. In the end, the amplitude frequency characteristics of this detector are analyzed according to the ARMA model.

  2. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Introduction of Western Learning to the East and the Sinicization of Marxist Philosophy The introduction of western learning to the east objectively promoted the dissemination of Marxist philosophy in China, forming an important historical prerequisite for the sinicization of Marxist philosophy. Moreover, it also triggered a great transformation in the historical development of Chinese philosophy and facilitated its transition from ancient to early modern traditions, thereby establishing through sinicization a link between Marxist philosophy, which originated in the western philosophical tradition, and the Chinese tradition of philosophy, and rendering Marxist philosophy Chinese. This offered the possibility that sinicized Marxist philosophy would play a positive guiding role in the development of modern Chinese philosophy. Therefore, we may say that without the introduction of western learning to the east, there would be no sinicization of Marxist Ichilosophy; and without in-depth research on the relationship between the introduction of western learning to the east and the sinicization of Marxist philosophy, there would be no real understanding of the sinicization of Marxist philosophy. However, the close links between the sinicization of Marxist philosophy and the introduction of western learning do not indicate that the sinicization of Marxist philosophy is part of the history of the introduction of western learning to the east. The sinicization of Marxist philosophy does not itself belong to the category of the spread of western learning to the east. This is because Marxist philosophy is essentially different from all other commonly known western sciences; its sinicization differs from the eastward spread of western learning in terms of its goals, social nature, results and effects on society.

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    STUDY ON THE NATURAL GAS ACCUMULATION IN LOW RELIEF STRUCTURE RESERVOIR AT MIDDLE PORTION OF CHARZHOU STEPS IN AMUDARY BASIN Abstract: This paper focuses on the Hydrocarbon accumulation in low relief structure based on the comprehensive studies of seismic data, regional stratum, sedimentary facies, abundance of hydrocarbon and the character of petroleum geology of the Karakul territory in Chardjou step of Amudarya Basin. A reservoir geological model was established and the Potential zones of oil and gas accumulation were recommended by means of analysis well data, seismic data and three existing low relief gas deposits in the Karakul.

  4. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Practice and Discussion to Achieve p( SO2 ) ≤400 mg/m3 in Tailgas Emitted from Sulphuric Acid Plant Using New AS Series Catalyst;Progress and Prospect for Application of Lithium Iron Phosphate Modification Technology in China;Technological Progress in Wet-process Phosphoric Acid Concentration Plant of China;

  5. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Conbating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics United Nations Research Institute for Social Development As UNRISD's latest reflection upon poverty alleviation and inequality, this report advocates an approach that pu

  6. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between gender, age, marital status, number of wives, education and constraints to ... identified as affecting feedback provision on forestry related ... Only farm size it- value = -3.31 ... contract with extension agent (t- value =3.84, p<0.05) has significant .... (occupation) and years of farming experience while section В consists.

  7. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Type-selection design of axle box bearing for high-speed passenger car bogie LIANG Yun, XIA Chun-jing (Changchun Railway Vehicle Co., Ltd., Chang- chun 130062, China) Abstract: This paper elaborates type-selection analysis of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger ear bogie and introduces the main influence factors of type- selection and life calculation of bearings.

  8. Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Carneiro Affonso da Costa Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has the objective of verifying if simultaneous investments in several international stock markets are more attractive than in only one national stock market, in other words, if the first ones present a superior risk-return relationship. It can be admitted that if there is a total integration among the analyzed countries, there is little advantage in the international diversification, but if the countries are less integrated, the diversification would bring advantages in risk-return terms. The empirical work is based on Markowitz portfolio theory, CAPM and in the portfolio performance measures of Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen. The analysis was made for the period of February 1993 to January 2003, based in the most liquid stocks negotiated in the stock market of the main countries of Latin America. The results showed that portfolio diversification in international markets is a better approach.

  9. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The flue gas flow in entrance of electrostatic precipitator was simulated by Fluent software. Base on the simulation result, a new corona wires arrangement method was proposed for better gas flow distribution. The results indicated that when the corona wires in entrance of two adjacent flues arranged in parallel, the high speed ion airflow occurred in strong electric field would hamper the even distribution of flow, while when the corona wires was staggered arranged, it would benefit to the even distribution of gas flow in precipitator and further improve the dust removal efficiency. This result can provide very important guidance to the transformation and the design of electrostatic precipitator.

  10. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The modem transition of philosophy is the transition of world metaphysics to conscious metaphysics therefore the aprioristic philosophy exploring the consciousness has taken place which experienced the three progressing periods from Descartes to Kant to Edmund Husserl: Descartes tried to prove that consciousness was the unique and stable starting point of understanding all problems, and Kant tried to prove that consciousness had the ability to build up effec- tive knowledge as well as had the ability to guide the right behavior, while Edmund Husserl tried to prove that conscious- ness had the overall object, which relatively equal to had its own word. Through these three great and difficult periods of efforts, aprioristic conscious philosophy has completed the proving of the arguments of I think and thinking, nevertheless, the arguments did not reach to the level of laying the foundation, therefore they did not interpret the world correctly.

  11. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The present situation and development countermeasures of Chinese mud logging operations. Liu Yingzhong, Li Yichao and Liu Zhenjiang. Mud Logging Engineering, 2012, 23 (2):1-7 From mud logging data interpretation and evaluation, acquisition, data processing, equipment, software and mud logging information etc. , the authors summarized the development status of Chinese mud logging techniques, and the contributions that mud logging technology made in speeding up drilling, regional geological research, well location optimization etc. with timely detection and accurate evaluation of oil, gas and water layers, a comprehensive analysis was made to the challenges faced by mud logging technology in aspects of the complex hydrocarbon reservoirs evaluation,

  12. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Comment on "State-owned Economy Retreating from Competitive Field";Analysis of Real Effects of State-owned Enterprise Discussing with Research Group of Tianze Institute of Economics;Treating the Nature of Social Labor with a Developing and Opening Sight And Basic Principles to Judge the Nature of Social Labour

  13. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale hydropower units excitation transformer design characteristics and insulation mode choice,CFD analysis and upgrading of bulb tubular turbine runner,Technical reform and operation analysis of 500 kV bus protection in Ertan Hydropower Plant

  14. Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafdrup, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf......Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf...

  15. ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Stefano Sabino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and to analyze the integration observed in the Sintonia project with respect to the comparison of project management processes to the model of the Stage-Gate ®. The literature addresses these issues conceptually, but lack an alignment between them that is evident in practice. As a method was used single case study. The report is as if the Sintonia project, developed by PRODESP - Data Processing Company of São Paulo. The results show the integration of project management processes with the Stage-Gate model developed during the project life cycle. The formalization of the project was defined in stages in which allowed the exploitation of economies of repetition and recombination to the development of new projects. This study contributes to the technical vision in dealing with the integration of project management processes. It was concluded that this system represents an attractive way, in terms of creating economic value and technological innovation for the organization.

  16. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    4 Thoughts on Several Issues with respect to Geological Prospecting Work Peng Qiming (Department of Geological Exploration, Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing 100812, China) Abstract: This paper first analyses some issues concerning geological prospecting work, such as: the understanding of the connotation of geological prospecting new mechanism; how to play the role of public geological work in strengthening basis properly; reform and development of geological prospecting units; and the issue of the quality descent of geological exploration. It goes on to argue that the core of the new mechanism of geological prospecting includes: social capital is the main part in mineral exploration market;

  17. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    4 Carrying on the Past and Forge Ahead into the Future for New Contributions to the Cause of Geology and Mineral Resource Development in New Period ——Speech at the Celebration Meeting of 30^th Anniversary of China Society of Geology and Mineral Resource Economics

  18. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1.China-U.S. Relations and the Setuv of Asia-Pacific China Institute of International Studies, a member by Shi Yongming, Associate Fellow, of the editorial board of "Peace and Development" magazine and a guest researcher of CPDS. The Asia-Pacific region is a confluence area where interests of China and the U.S. meet together. Development in China-U.S. strategic relationship will have direct impact on the the regional setup. Likewise, evolution and changes in that setup will also produce an effect on that alignment of relationship.

  19. Geoscience indexing at petroleum abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnegan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Geoscience literature received by Petroleum Abstracts Information System is indexed by Scientist with field experience. The indexing consists of relating concepts produced by the author to a controlled vocabulary used at Petroleum Abstracts. The primary emphasis of selection of the literature at Petroleum Abstracts is petroleum-related, but not petroleum restricted. Geoscience literature indexed at Petroleum Abstracts comprises the following subjects: Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Mineral Commodities. The depth of indexing attributed to each article does in fact depend on the amount of petroleum-related subject matter in the article. Once the indexing is completed, the abstract is then cut to approximately 150 words. The scientist who indexes at Petroleum Abstracts is not expected to know or remember every detail or concept ever published. But he or she is expected to be able to go to an atlas, dictionary, or any other reference material available and apply the concepts to a controlled vocabulary. This is somewhat of a restriction on scientists, but it is the only way to maintain any kind of consistency in the indexing. Successful searching of the Petroleum Abstracts Information System can be accomplished with an understanding of the indexing strategy and the importance and necessity of referencing the thesauri controlled vocabulary. It may be more time-consuming, but will certainly be more accurate in the retrieval of the information.

  20. Program Optimization Using Abstract State Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel SOFONEA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually the result code of source code by a compiler is not necessary the best one, and can be improved to run faster or to use less memory. This kind of improvement is done in compiling phase after parsing. Some good techniques in optimization are in folding the constants, elimination of dead code, or improvement of the loops. Here it is considered the runtime overhead and present how can this be improved. The source is specific for objectoriented languages with late binding, where a name of method to be called is bound to method dynamically. It increases the computation time by a cost of traversing the class hierarchy each time a method is called.

  1. Introduction to coding and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    1997-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce coding theory and information theory to undergraduate students of mathematics and computer science. It begins with a review of probablity theory as applied to finite sample spaces and a general introduction to the nature and types of codes. The two subsequent chapters discuss information theory: efficiency of codes, the entropy of information sources, and Shannon's Noiseless Coding Theorem. The remaining three chapters deal with coding theory: communication channels, decoding in the presence of errors, the general theory of linear codes, and such specific codes as Hamming codes, the simplex codes, and many others.

  2. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  3. A book of abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pinter, Charles C

    2009-01-01

    Accessible but rigorous, this outstanding text encompasses all of the topics covered by a typical course in elementary abstract algebra. Its easy-to-read treatment offers an intuitive approach, featuring informal discussions followed by thematically arranged exercises. Intended for undergraduate courses in abstract algebra, it is suitable for junior- and senior-level math majors and future math teachers. This second edition features additional exercises to improve student familiarity with applications. An introductory chapter traces concepts of abstract algebra from their historical roots. Suc

  4. Exploiting mid-range DNA patterns for sequence classification: binary abstraction Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Samuel S.; McSweeny, Andrew; Serpen, Gursel; Fedorov, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    Messenger RNA sequences possess specific nucleotide patterns distinguishing them from non-coding genomic sequences. In this study, we explore the utilization of modified Markov models to analyze sequences up to 44 bp, far beyond the 8-bp limit of conventional Markov models, for exon/intron discrimination. In order to analyze nucleotide sequences of this length, their information content is first reduced by conversion into shorter binary patterns via the application of numerous abstraction schemes. After the conversion of genomic sequences to binary strings, homogenous Markov models trained on the binary sequences are used to discriminate between exons and introns. We term this approach the Binary Abstraction Markov Model (BAMM). High-quality abstraction schemes for exon/intron discrimination are selected using optimization algorithms on supercomputers. The best MM classifiers are then combined using support vector machines into a single classifier. With this approach, over 95% classification accuracy is achieved without taking reading frame into account. With further development, the BAMM approach can be applied to sequences lacking the genetic code such as ncRNAs and 5′-untranslated regions. PMID:22344692

  5. Introduction to indexing and abstracting

    CERN Document Server

    Cleveland, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Successful information access in the digital information age requires robust systems of indexing and abstracting. This book provides a complete introduction to the subject that covers the many recent changes in the field.

  6. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh;

    2015-01-01

    in biocards. This was done in two workshops conducted with design students in Denmark and India. Students were given a design assignment and instructions for how to perform the BID ideation work. Half of the students were given biocards with abstract descriptions while the other half got biocards...... with concrete descriptions. The novelty of found solutions was evaluated by the students by rating novelty of each solution on a scale from 1 to 5. Mean values for abstract descriptions were 0,3 higher than for concrete descriptions indicating that more innovative solutions were found when students used...... biocards with abstract descriptions compared to concrete descriptions. The difference in mean value is significant with a confidence level better than 1%. It seems likely that more abstract descriptions in biocards helps avoiding design fixation in biomimetic design work....

  7. 10081 Abstracts Collection -- Cognitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Lakemeyer, Gerhard; Levesque, Hector J.; Pirri, Fiora

    2010-01-01

    From 21.02. to 26.02.2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10081 ``Cognitive Robotics '' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in general. Link...

  8. Chemical Abstracts for chemical education. Kagaku kyoiku ni yakudatsu chemicalter dot abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokizane, S. (Japan Association for International Chemical Information, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-20

    The Chemical Abstracts, an information source indispensable for chemical researchers, is introduced with an explanation extended to specific procedure for the on-line retrieval. The Chemical Abstracts is an abstract journal for chemical theses, having a history of nearly 85 years, first published in 1907 for the purpose of introducing its members with advanced chemical researches in Europe. The journal is published weekly at the present, 52 volumes annually, with a large index volume. It collects all kinds of literatures and patents in the world relating to chemistry and engineerings, with many issues containing articles about chemical education. The issue number is divided into odd and even numbers, each issue being sectionalized. For example, the Section 20 in an odd number issue is classified as the History, Education and Documentation. The whole abstracts are retrievable on line even from Japan, with a system called CAS ONLINE available. 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Video abstraction generation supervised by user preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Truong, Thang C.; Bae, Beet Nara; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we propose an automated abstract extraction for soccer video using MPEG-7 descriptors. The video abstraction is created in form of highlight scenes which represent some pre-defined contexts. For soccer video, the events often have some specific order of actions, so the Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to detect the interested highlights. In our system, the input video is first separated into shots, then the video shots are classified and clustered based on the features of MPEG-7 standard descriptors. The HMM-based detection has two layers. The first is to eliminate the trivial scenes, and the second is to distinguish the highlights of different semantic events. Specific user preference will be used to select the highlight scenes relevant to the interest of user.

  10. Abstract Diagnosis for Timed Concurrent Constraint programs

    CERN Document Server

    Comini, Marco; Villanueva, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    The Timed Concurrent Constraint Language (tccp in short) is a concurrent logic language based on the simple but powerful concurrent constraint paradigm of Saraswat. In this paradigm, the notion of store-as-value is replaced by the notion of store-as-constraint, which introduces some differences w.r.t. other approaches to concurrency. In this paper, we provide a general framework for the debugging of tccp programs. To this end, we first present a new compact, bottom-up semantics for the language that is well suited for debugging and verification purposes in the context of reactive systems. We also provide an abstract semantics that allows us to effectively implement debugging algorithms based on abstract interpretation. Given a tccp program and a behavior specification, our debugging approach automatically detects whether the program satisfies the specification. This differs from other semiautomatic approaches to debugging and avoids the need to provide symptoms in advance. We show the efficacy of our approach...

  11. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  12. A Simple and a Retargetable Code Generator for TCGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Twente Compiler Generator System (TCGS) is a parser-generator system which is typically used to generate a compiler that, given an input program, generates abstract stack code. A code generator for TCGS translates this stack code generated by a TCGS compiler to assembler code for a particular ta

  13. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  14. The Mystery Behind the Code: Differentiated Instruction with Quick Response Codes in Secondary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Wajciechowski, Misti R.; Scantling, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Quick response codes, better known as QR codes, are small barcodes scanned to receive information about a specific topic. This article explains QR code technology and the utility of QR codes in the delivery of physical education instruction. Consideration is given to how QR codes can be used to accommodate learners of varying ability levels as…

  15. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    ; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  16. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  17. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  18. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  19. Abstracts from Rambam Research Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraga Blazer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [Extract] This Supplement of Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal presents the abstracts from the Eleventh Rambam Research Day. These abstracts represent the newest basic and clinical research coming out of Rambam Health Care Campus—research that is the oxygen for education and development of today’s generation of physicians. Hence, the research presented on Rambam Research Day is a foundation for future generations to understand patient needs and improve treatment modalities. Bringing research from the bench to the bedside and from the bedside to the community is at the heart of Maimonides’ scholarly and ethical legacy.

  20. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-30

    Abraham . Ketterig. both of Ohio Kuhn (𔃽[ Assignee The United States of America as [57] ABSTRACT represented by the Secretary of the Thermooxidatively and... Pelee . Nalibth het United States Gees..wa, an sy Pe... acting en behalf ef the United States Goernent~e satetes any liebility resulting Its. he se ef the...r Abraham Ci.. Dayton, Ohi,, 45414 Dun,,vyAn tw i -oehE uzRoc Kr 121 pp N U,78(57] ABSTRACT 1211AppiNo ~A graphic curve ditizer is disclosed

  1. Code lists for interoperability - Principles and best practices in INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, M.; Portele, C.; Cox, S.; Murray, K.

    2012-04-01

    external vocabulary. In the former case, for each value, an external identifier, one or more labels (possibly in different languages), a definition and other metadata should be specified. In the latter case, the external vocabulary should be characterised, e.g. by specifying the version to be used, the format(s) in which the vocabulary is available, possible constraints (e.g. if only as specific part of the external list is to be used), rules for using values in the encoding of instance data, and the maintenance rules applied to the external vocabulary. This information is crucial for enabling implementation and interoperability in distributed systems (such as SDIs) and should be made available through a code list registry. While thus the information on allowed code list values is usually managed outside the UML application schema, we recommend inclusion of «codeList»-stereotyped classes in the model for semantic clarity. Information on the obligation, extensibility and a reference to the specified values should be provided through tagged values. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the INSPIRE Thematic Working Groups, the Data Specifications Drafting Team and the JRC Contact Points for their contributions to the discussions on code lists in INSPIRE and to this abstract.

  2. Structured LDPC Codes over Integer Residue Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a new class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes over represented by regular, structured Tanner graphs. These graphs are constructed using Latin squares defined over a multiplicative group of a Galois ring, rather than a finite field. Our approach yields codes for a wide range of code rates and more importantly, codes whose minimum pseudocodeword weights equal their minimum Hamming distances. Simulation studies show that these structured codes, when transmitted using matched signal sets over an additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel, can outperform their random counterparts of similar length and rate.

  3. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  4. Intern Abstract for Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William

    2016-01-01

    The Human Interface Branch - EV3 - is evaluating Organic lighting-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an upgrade for current displays on future spacecraft. OLEDs have many advantages over current displays. Conventional displays require constant backlighting which draws a lot of power, but with OLEDs they generate light themselves. OLEDs are lighter, and weight is always a concern with space launches. OLEDs also grant greater viewing angles. OLEDs have been in the commercial market for almost ten years now. What is not known is how they will perform in a space-like environment; specifically deep space far away from the Earth's magnetosphere. In this environment, the OLEDs can be expected to experience vacuum and galactic radiation. The intern's responsibility has been to prepare the OLED for a battery of tests. Unfortunately, it will not be ready for testing at the end of the internship. That being said much progress has been made: a) Developed procedures to safely disassemble the tablet. b) Inventoried and identified critical electronic components. c) 3D printed a testing apparatus. d) Wrote software in Python that will test the OLED screen while being radiated. e) Built circuits to restart the tablet and the test pattern, and ensure it doesn't fall asleep during radiation testing. f) Built enclosure that will house all of the electronics Also, the intern has been working on a way to take messages from a simulated Caution and Warnings system, process said messages into packets, send audio packets to a multicast address that audio boxes are listening to, and output spoken audio. Currently, Cautions and Warnings use a tone to alert crew members of a situation, and then crew members have to read through their checklists to determine what the tone means. In urgent situations, EV3 wants to deliver concise and specific alerts to the crew to facilitate any mitigation efforts on their part. Significant progress was made on this project: a) Open channel with the simulated Caution

  5. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  6. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulowetz, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  7. The Complexity of Abstract Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Accattoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-calculus is a peculiar computational model whose definition does not come with a notion of machine. Unsurprisingly, implementations of the lambda-calculus have been studied for decades. Abstract machines are implementations schema for fixed evaluation strategies that are a compromise between theory and practice: they are concrete enough to provide a notion of machine and abstract enough to avoid the many intricacies of actual implementations. There is an extensive literature about abstract machines for the lambda-calculus, and yet—quite mysteriously—the efficiency of these machines with respect to the strategy that they implement has almost never been studied. This paper provides an unusual introduction to abstract machines, based on the complexity of their overhead with respect to the length of the implemented strategies. It is conceived to be a tutorial, focusing on the case study of implementing the weak head (call-by-name strategy, and yet it is an original re-elaboration of known results. Moreover, some of the observation contained here never appeared in print before.

  8. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  9. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  10. Abstraction by Set-Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The abstraction and over-approximation of protocols and web services by a set of Horn clauses is a very successful method in practice. It has however limitations for protocols and web services that are based on databases of keys, contracts, or even access rights, where revocation is possible, so...

  11. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  12. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  13. International abstracting and indexing services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CABI is a not-for-profit science-based development and information organization ... and abstracts the world's chemistry-related information, updating it daily and ... Through Africa-Wide Information, a database compiled by NISC SA and which ...

  14. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...

  15. Dialogical surface text features in abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid García-Østbye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A sample driven description of Research Article-Comment-Reply (RA-C-R abstracts in terms of abstract sentence length, reference, possessive structures, modal verbs and word range was carried out to find out whether their surface text features showed some trace of a dialogical construction of knowledge within the psychology discourse community. The study served an exploratory purpose. A Boolean search was conducted in the PsycLIT database yielding a sample of 149 PsycLIT RA-C-R abstracts (13,978 words. Relative frequency percent distributions were calculated for all variables, including reported speech verbs. Specific comparisons with a Medline corpus were conducted and variations were accounted for in terms of scientific discourse characteristics, field, database policies, and dialogical nature; that is, in the framework provided by the strands of research of quantitative applied linguistics, social concerns in genre analysis and the model monopoly theory developed in the implementation in sociology of the systems theory. The results suggest: (i a word range affected by both psychology as a discipline and the dialogical content on which PsycLIT RA-C-R abstracts report; (ii a complementarity of reference and possessive structures characterised by features of scientific discourse, feedback genres and dialogical dimensions; (iii the presence of both deontic and epistemic modality in the modal verbs of our sample; (iv and also that abstract length, sentence length and number of sentences per paragraph in our sample may not vary greatly in general terms from those of the social sciences.

  16. Analysis of the small non-protein-coding RNA profile of mouse spermatozoa reveals specific enrichment of piRNAs within mature spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Kate; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Stanger, Simone J; Bernstein, Ilana R; Dun, Matthew D; Eamens, Andrew L; Nixon, Brett

    2017-08-17

    Post-testicular sperm maturation and storage within the epididymis is a key determinant of gamete quality and fertilization competence. Here we demonstrate that mouse spermatozoa possess a complex small non-protein-coding RNA (sRNA) profile, the composition of which is markedly influenced by their epididymal transit. Thus, although miRNAs are highly represented in the spermatozoa of the proximal epididymis, this sRNA class is largely diminished in mature spermatozoa of the distal epididymis. Coincident with this, a substantial enrichment in Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) abundance in cauda spermatozoa was detected. Further, features of cauda piRNAs, including; predominantly 29-31 nts in length; preference for uracil at their 5' terminus; no adenine enrichment at piRNA nt 10, and; predominantly mapping to intergenic regions of the mouse genome, indicate that these piRNAs are generated by the PIWIL1-directed primary piRNA production pathway. Accordingly, PIWIL1 was detected via immunoblotting and mass spectrometry in epididymal spermatozoa. These data provide insight into the complexity and dynamic nature of the sRNA profile of spermatozoa and raise the intriguing prospect that piRNAs are generated in situ in maturing spermatozoa. Such information is of particular interest in view of the potential role for paternal sRNAs in influencing conception, embryo development and intergenerational inheritance.

  17. Software abstractions logic, language, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In Software Abstractions Daniel Jackson introduces an approach to software design that draws on traditional formal methods but exploits automated tools to find flaws as early as possible. This approach--which Jackson calls "lightweight formal methods" or "agile modeling"--takes from formal specification the idea of a precise and expressive notation based on a tiny core of simple and robust concepts but replaces conventional analysis based on theorem proving with a fully automated analysis that gives designers immediate feedback. Jackson has developed Alloy, a language that captures the essence of software abstractions simply and succinctly, using a minimal toolkit of mathematical notions. This revised edition updates the text, examples, and appendixes to be fully compatible with the latest version of Alloy (Alloy 4). The designer can use automated analysis not only to correct errors but also to make models that are more precise and elegant. This approach, Jackson says, can rescue designers from "the tarpit of...

  18. Specific absorbed fractions of photons calculated in voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo EGS4 and MCNP4 codes; Fracoes absorvidas especificas de fotons calculadas em fantomas de voxels utilizando os codigos Monte Carlo EGS4 e MCNP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J. [Pernambuco Univ. (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, F.R.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Recife, PE (Brazil); Faculdade Boa Viagem (FBV), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based on specific absorbed fractions (SAFs), which have been calculated in the mathematical MIRD phantoms. The replacement of the MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms proposed by the ICRP raises the question about the changes to be expected for the SAFs, and consequently also for the dose coefficients. In order to investigate the dosimetric consequences of this replacement, SAFs have been calculated in the recently introduced MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head + trunk phantoms for photon energies between 10 keV and 4 MeV. For this purpose the phantoms have been connected to the EGS4 as well as to the MCNP4 code, which at present are probably the most used general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. Thereby it was possible to assess the impact on the SAFs, if different radiation transport methods are used. The mathematical MIRD phantoms have also been connected to the EGS4 code, and their elemental compositions of body tissues were replaced by those used in the voxel phantoms. In this manner it was possible to compare the SAFs of the MIRD phantoms on the one hand and the MAX and FAX phantom on the other hand as a function of the geometrical anatomy only, i.e. the volume, the shape and the position of organs at risk. (author)

  19. Potential value of color-coded dynamic breast-specific gamma-imaging; comparing {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP in a mouse mammary tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van, E-mail: fw.v.leeuwen@nki.n [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buckle, Tessa; Batteau, Lukas; Pool, Bert; Sinaasappel, Michiel [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonkers, Jos [Department of Molecular Biology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Using a mouse mammary tumor model based on orthotopic transplantation of luciferase-expressing mouse ILC cells (KEP1-Luc cells), we evaluated the diagnostic value of three clinically applied tracers: {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP. Uptake of the tracers is compared using static and dynamic imaging procedures. We found that dynamic imaging in combination with pixel-by-pixel color coding has an added value over (high resolution) static imaging procedures. Such dynamic imaging procedures could enhance the potential of breast-specific gamma-imaging.

  20. Buffer Overflow Detection on Binary Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan-fei; LI Hui; CHEN Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Most solutions for detecting buffer overflow are based on source code. But the requirement for source code is not always practical especially for business software. A new approach was presented to detect statically the potential buffer overflow vulnerabilities in the binary code of software. The binary code was translated into assembly code without the lose of the information of string operation functions. The feature code abstract graph was constructed to generate more accurate constraint statements, and analyze the assembly code using the method of integer range constraint. After getting the elementary report on suspicious code where buffer overflows possibly happen, the control flow sensitive analysis using program dependence graph was done to decrease the rate of false positive. A prototype was implemented which demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the new approach.

  1. A Model-Driven Parser Generator, from Abstract Syntax Trees to Abstract Syntax Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Quesada, Luis; Cubero, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Model-based parser generators decouple language specification from language processing. The model-driven approach avoids the limitations that conventional parser generators impose on the language designer. Conventional tools require the designed language grammar to conform to the specific kind of grammar supported by the particular parser generator (being LL and LR parser generators the most common). Model-driven parser generators, like ModelCC, do not require a grammar specification, since that grammar can be automatically derived from the language model and, if needed, adapted to conform to the requirements of the given kind of parser, all of this without interfering with the conceptual design of the language and its associated applications. Moreover, model-driven tools such as ModelCC are able to automatically resolve references between language elements, hence producing abstract syntax graphs instead of abstract syntax trees as the result of the parsing process. Such graphs are not confined to directed ac...

  2. Pondering the Concept of Abstraction in (Illustrative) Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Ivan; Isenberg, Tobias

    2017-09-04

    We explore the concept of abstraction as it is used in visualization, with the ultimate goal of understanding and formally defining it. Researchers so far have used the concept of abstraction largely by intuition without a precise meaning. This lack of specificity left questions on the characteristics of abstraction, its variants, its control, or its ultimate potential for visualization and, in particular, illustrative visualization mostly unanswered. In this paper we thus provide a first formalization of the abstraction concept and discuss how this formalization affects the application of abstraction in a variety of visualization scenarios. Based on this discussion, we derive a number of open questions still waiting to be answered, thus formulating a research agenda for the use of abstraction for the visual representation and exploration of data. This paper, therefore, is intended to provide a contribution to the discussion of the theoretical foundations of our field, rather than attempting to provide a completed and final theory.

  3. Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, Irina V

    2001-01-01

    Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

  4. Translucent Procedures, Abstraction without Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    que dI no pudo recibir. con este trabajo realizo. Lo proinetido es deuda. Acknowledgments There are many people to whom I owe my sanity and to whom I...21 2.1.1 Fundamental Differences .......................... 23 2.1.2 Accidental Differences ....... ...................... 26 2.2 The...no a-priori reason why the whole code could not. be written in TScheme. TScheme differs from Scheme in both fundamental and accidental ways. 2.1

  5. Incremental Code Clone Detection and Elimination for Erlang Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huiqing; Thompson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A well-known bad code smell in refactoring and software maintenance is the existence of code clones, which are code fragments that are identical or similar to one another. This paper describes an approach to incrementally detecting 'similar' code based on the notion of least-general common abstraction, or anti-unification, as well as a framework for user-controlled incremental elimination of code clones within the context of Erlang programs. The clone detection algorithm proposed in this pape...

  6. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  7. Automatic code generation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Kuhrmann, Marco; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2016-01-01

    -specific language to specify those requirements and to allow for generating a safety-enforcing layer of code, which is deployed to the robot. The paper at hand reports experiences in practically applying code generation to mobile robots. For two cases, we discuss how we addressed challenges, e.g., regarding weaving...... code generation into proprietary development environments and testing of manually written code. We find that a DSL based on the same conceptual model can be used across different kinds of hardware modules, but a significant adaptation effort is required in practical scenarios involving different kinds...

  8. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ole F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being

  9. Comparison of ICD code-based diagnosis of obesity with measured obesity in children and the implications for health care cost estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhle Stefan; Kirk Sara FL; Ohinmaa Arto; Veugelers Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Administrative health databases are a valuable research tool to assess health care utilization at the population level. However, their use in obesity research limited due to the lack of data on body weight. A potential workaround is to use the ICD code of obesity to identify obese individuals. The objective of the current study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of an ICD code-based diagnosis of obesity from administrative health data relative to the gold s...

  10. Retinal degeneration slow (rds) in mouse results from simple insertion of a t haplotype-specific element into protein-coding exon II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Norton, J.C.; Allen, A.C.; Burns, J.L.; Travis, G.H. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-20

    Retinal degeneration slow (rds) is a semidominant mutation of mice that causes dysplasia and degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors. Mutations in RDS, the human ortholog of the rds gene, are responsible for several inherited retinal dystrophies including a subset of retinitis pigmentosa. The normal rds locus encodes rds/peripherin, an integral membrane glycoprotein present in outer segment discs. Genomic libraries form wildtype and rds/rds mice were screened with an rds cDNA, and phage {lambda} clones that span the normal and mutant loci were mapped. We show that in mice, rds is caused by the insertion into exon II of a 9.2-kb repetitive genomic element that is very similar to the t haplotype-specific element in the H-2 complex. The entire element is included in the RNA products of the mutant locus. We present evidence that rds in mice represents a null allele. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory textto algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain insideknowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeperunderstanding of state-of-the-art coding systems.This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar withthis topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptographyand communication. Linear error-correcting block codesthrough elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text.Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decodingalgorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography andsecret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutionsat the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbertbound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac-Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error,and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finitefield Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm for polynomials.

  12. Abstract commensurators of braid groups

    OpenAIRE

    Leininger, Christopher J; Margalit, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Let B_n be the braid group on n strands, with n at least 4, and let Mod(S) be the extended mapping class group of the sphere with n+1 punctures. We show that the abstract commensurator of B_n is isomorphic to a semidirect product of Mod(S) with a group we refer to as the transvection subgroup, Tv(B_n). We also show that Tv(B_n) is itself isomorphic to a semidirect product of an infinite dimensional rational vector space with the multiplicative group of nonzero rational numbers.

  13. Conveying Communicative Intent: Moves and Metadiscourse in Abstract Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuah Ek Lon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts form the first reading contact of extended discourse in pursuance of a meaningful engagement with a report. An abstract possesses distinct features drawn from a specific genre of academic writing that communicates its discourse intent to any academic or professional community. Among the discourse conventions is the use of a move pattern and metadiscourse elements which together, establishes logical connections with the reader. This paper investigates good communication practice in abstract writing, a significant preliminary that fronts a report. The effectiveness of an abstract specifically, can be tied to the realization of a peculiar move structure that is accompanied by a judicious choice of words and phrases that relates to and involves the reader both interactively and interactionally. A content analysis of the move structure and its underlying metadiscourse in 100 randomly selected abstracts gives petite indication of how students manage abstract writing in a technical report. The results will have a bearing on situating appropriate pedagogical approaches for the teaching of a salient feature in academic writing and will also inform students of related genre expectations towards abstract writing. It is a skill that they may not have sufficient contact with in their university writing experience, though, nonetheless, one that needs to be accomplished to fulfill communicative intent that serves both local and international purposes insofar as academic writing is concerned. Keywords: abstract, metadiscourse, rhetorical moves and genre

  14. Good Codes From Generalised Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jibril, Mubarak; Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Tjhai, Cen

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic geometry codes or Goppa codes are defined with places of degree one. In constructing generalised algebraic geometry codes places of higher degree are used. In this paper we present 41 new codes over GF(16) which improve on the best known codes of the same length and rate. The construction method uses places of small degree with a technique originally published over 10 years ago for the construction of generalised algebraic geometry codes.

  15. Mammalian BEX, WEX and GASP genes: Coding and non-coding chimaerism sustained by gene conversion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponting Chris P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of sequence innovations in the genomes of mammals facilitates understanding of human gene function, as well as sheds light on the molecular mechanisms which underlie these changes. Although gene duplication plays a major role in genome evolution, studies regarding concerted evolution events among gene family members have been limited in scope and restricted to protein-coding regions, where high sequence similarity is easily detectable. Results We describe a mammalian-specific expansion of more than 20 rapidly-evolving genes on human chromosome Xq22.1. Many of these are highly divergent in their protein-coding regions yet contain a conserved sequence motif in their 5' UTRs which appears to have been maintained by multiple events of concerted evolution. These events have led to the generation of chimaeric genes, each with a 5' UTR and a protein-coding region that possess independent evolutionary histories. We suggest that concerted evolution has occurred via gene conversion independently in different mammalian lineages, and these events have resulted in elevated G+C levels in the encompassing genomic regions. These concerted evolution events occurred within and between genes from three separate protein families ('brain-expressed X-linked' [BEX], WWbp5-like X-linked [WEX] and G-protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein [GASP], which often are expressed in mammalian brains and associated with receptor mediated signalling and apoptosis. Conclusion Despite high protein-coding divergence among mammalian-specific genes, we identified a DNA motif common to these genes' 5' UTR exons. The motif has undergone concerted evolution events independently of its neighbouring protein-coding regions, leading to formation of evolutionary chimaeric genes. These findings have implications for the identification of non protein-coding regulatory elements and their lineage-specific evolution in mammals.

  16. A review on synchronous CDMA systems: optimum overloaded codes, channel capacity, and power control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Seyed Amirhossein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a tutorial review on important issues related to code-division multiple-access (CDMA systems such as channel capacity, power control, and optimum codes; specifically, we consider optimum overloaded codes that achieve errorless transmission in the absence of noise for the binary and nonbinary cases. A survey of lower and upper bounds for the sum channel capacity of such systems is given in the presence and absence of channel noise. The asymptotic results for the channel capacity are also investigated. The channel capacity, errorless transmission codes, and power estimation for near-far effects are also explored. The emphasis of this tutorial review is on the overloaded CDMA systems.

  17. TASS/SMR code improvement for small break LOCA applicability at an integral type reactor, SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young-Jong, E-mail: chung@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Lim, Sung-Won; Bae, Kyoo-Hwan

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • SMART adopts a passive system to enhance its safety. • TASS/SMR code is developed to analyze thermal hydraulic phenomena of the SMART plant. • Improved TASS/SMR code predicts well the results of the OSU-MASLWR total-loss-of-feedwater test. - Abstract: Small reactors are a suitable option for nuclear system deployment in developing countries or non-electrical applications for various facilities. SMART is one of the small integral type reactors to apply flexibly local power demands or sea water desalination. A thermal hydraulic analysis code, TASS/SMR, having SMART specific models, was developed to simulate thermal hydraulic phenomena of the SMART plant. The improved TASS/SMR code predicts well the system behaviors under two-phase conditions compared with the OSU-MASLWR experimental results. A small break LOCA simulation of the SMART plant is improved a void distribution, a break flow, and a collapsed water level in the core.

  18. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analysis of chemosensory receptors in a pair of divergent ant species reveals sex-specific signatures of odor coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Slone, Jesse D; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Reinberg, Danny; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2012-01-01

    Ants are a highly successful family of insects that thrive in a variety of habitats across the world. Perhaps their best-known features are complex social organization and strict division of labor, separating reproduction from the day-to-day maintenance and care of the colony, as well as strict discrimination against foreign individuals. Since these social characteristics in ants are thought to be mediated by semiochemicals, a thorough analysis of these signals, and the receptors that detect them, is critical in revealing mechanisms that lead to stereotypic behaviors. To address these questions, we have defined and characterized the major chemoreceptor families in a pair of behaviorally and evolutionarily distinct ant species, Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator. Through comprehensive re-annotation, we show that these ant species harbor some of the largest yet known repertoires of odorant receptors (Ors) among insects, as well as a more modest number of gustatory receptors (Grs) and variant ionotropic glutamate receptors (Irs). Our phylogenetic analyses further demonstrate remarkably rapid gains and losses of ant Ors, while Grs and Irs have also experienced birth-and-death evolution to different degrees. In addition, comparisons of antennal transcriptomes between sexes identify many chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed between males and females and between species. We have also revealed an agonist for a worker-enriched OR from C. floridanus, representing the first case of a heterologously characterized ant tuning Or. Collectively, our analysis reveals a large number of ant chemoreceptors exhibiting patterns of differential expression and evolution consistent with sex/species-specific functions. These differentially expressed genes are likely associated with sex-based differences, as well as the radically different social lifestyles observed between C. floridanus and H. saltator, and thus are targets for further functional characterization

  19. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analysis of chemosensory receptors in a pair of divergent ant species reveals sex-specific signatures of odor coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Zhou

    Full Text Available Ants are a highly successful family of insects that thrive in a variety of habitats across the world. Perhaps their best-known features are complex social organization and strict division of labor, separating reproduction from the day-to-day maintenance and care of the colony, as well as strict discrimination against foreign individuals. Since these social characteristics in ants are thought to be mediated by semiochemicals, a thorough analysis of these signals, and the receptors that detect them, is critical in revealing mechanisms that lead to stereotypic behaviors. To address these questions, we have defined and characterized the major chemoreceptor families in a pair of behaviorally and evolutionarily distinct ant species, Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator. Through comprehensive re-annotation, we show that these ant species harbor some of the largest yet known repertoires of odorant receptors (Ors among insects, as well as a more modest number of gustatory receptors (Grs and variant ionotropic glutamate receptors (Irs. Our phylogenetic analyses further demonstrate remarkably rapid gains and losses of ant Ors, while Grs and Irs have also experienced birth-and-death evolution to different degrees. In addition, comparisons of antennal transcriptomes between sexes identify many chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed between males and females and between species. We have also revealed an agonist for a worker-enriched OR from C. floridanus, representing the first case of a heterologously characterized ant tuning Or. Collectively, our analysis reveals a large number of ant chemoreceptors exhibiting patterns of differential expression and evolution consistent with sex/species-specific functions. These differentially expressed genes are likely associated with sex-based differences, as well as the radically different social lifestyles observed between C. floridanus and H. saltator, and thus are targets for further functional

  20. The microRNAs in an ancient protist repress the variant-specific surface protein expression by targeting the entire coding sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh A Saraiya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNA have been detected in the deeply branched protist, Giardia lamblia, and shown to repress expression of the family of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs, only one of which is expressed in Giardia trophozoite at a given time. Three next-generation sequencing libraries of Giardia Argonaute-associated small RNAs were constructed and analyzed. Analysis of the libraries identified a total of 99 new putative miRNAs with a size primarily in the 26 nt range similar to the size previously predicted by the Giardia Dicer crystal structure and identified by our own studies. Bioinformatic analysis identified multiple putative miRNA target sites in the mRNAs of all 73 VSPs. The effect of miRNA target sites within a defined 3'-region were tested on two vsp mRNAs. All the miRNAs showed partial repression of the corresponding vsp expression and were additive when the targeting sites were separately located. But the combined repression still falls short of 100%. Two other relatively short vsp mRNAs with 15 and 11 putative miRNA target sites identified throughout their ORFs were tested with their corresponding miRNAs. The results indicate that; (1 near 100% repression of vsp mRNA expression can be achieved through the combined action of multiple miRNAs on target sites located throughout the ORF; (2 the miRNA machinery could be instrumental in repressing the expression of vsp genes in Giardia; (3 this is the first time that all the miRNA target sites in the entire ORF of a mRNA have been tested and shown to be functional.

  1. Management of Statically Modifiable Prolog Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨曦; 慈云桂

    1989-01-01

    The Warren Abstract Machine is an efficient execution model for Prolog,which has become the basis of many high performance Prolog systems.However.little support for the implementation of the non-logical components of Prolog is provided in the WAM.The original Warren code is not modifiable.In this paper,we show how static modifications of Warren code can be achieved by adding a few instructions and a little extra information to the code.The implementation of the code manager is discussed.Algorithms for some basic operations are given.

  2. De-coding and re-coding RNA recognition by PUF and PPR repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Traci M Tanaka

    2016-02-01

    PUF and PPR proteins are two families of α-helical repeat proteins that recognize single-stranded RNA sequences. Both protein families hold promise as scaffolds for designed RNA-binding domains. A modular protein RNA recognition code was apparent from the first crystal structures of a PUF protein in complex with RNA, and recent studies continue to advance our understanding of natural PUF protein recognition (de-coding) and our ability to engineer specificity (re-coding). Degenerate recognition motifs make de-coding specificity of individual PPR proteins challenging. Nevertheless, re-coding PPR protein specificity using a consensus recognition code has been successful.

  3. Transversal Clifford gates on folded surface codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-01

    Surface and color codes are two forms of topological quantum error correction in two spatial dimensions with complementary properties. Surface codes have lower-depth error detection circuits and well-developed decoders to interpret and correct errors, while color codes have transversal Clifford gates and better code efficiency in the number of physical qubits needed to achieve a given code distance. A formal equivalence exists between color codes and folded surface codes, but it does not guarantee the transferability of any of these favorable properties. However, the equivalence does imply the existence of constant-depth circuit implementations of logical Clifford gates on folded surface codes. We achieve and improve this result by constructing two families of folded surface codes with transversal Clifford gates. This construction is presented generally for qudits of any dimension. The specific application of these codes to universal quantum computation based on qubit fusion is also discussed.

  4. Efficient abstractions for visualization and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstractions, such as functions and methods, are an essential tool for any programmer. Abstractions encapsulate the details of a computation: the programmer only needs to know what the abstraction achieves, not how it achieves it. However, using abstractions can come at a cost: the resulting program

  5. A Modal-Logic Based Graph Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, J.; Boneva, I.B.; Kurban, M.E.; Rensink, A.; Ehrig, H.; Heckel, R.; Rozenberg, G.; Taentzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite or very large state spaces often prohibit the successful verification of graph transformation systems. Abstract graph transformation is an approach that tackles this problem by abstracting graphs to abstract graphs of bounded size and by lifting application of productions to abstract graphs

  6. Abstract Interpretation for Probabilistic Termination of Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Roberta; 10.4204/EPTCS.11.9

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper the authors applied the Abstract Interpretation approach for approximating the probabilistic semantics of biological systems, modeled specifically using the Chemical Ground Form calculus. The methodology is based on the idea of representing a set of experiments, which differ only for the initial concentrations, by abstracting the multiplicity of reagents present in a solution, using intervals. In this paper, we refine the approach in order to address probabilistic termination properties. More in details, we introduce a refinement of the abstract LTS semantics and we abstract the probabilistic semantics using a variant of Interval Markov Chains. The abstract probabilistic model safely approximates a set of concrete experiments and reports conservative lower and upper bounds for probabilistic termination.

  7. Comparison between SERPENT and MONTEBURNS codes applied to burnup calculations of a GFR-like configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chersola, Davide [GeNERG – DIME/TEC, University of Genova, via all’Opera Pia 15/a, 16145 Genova (Italy); INFN, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Lomonaco, Guglielmo, E-mail: guglielmo.lomonaco@unige.it [GeNERG – DIME/TEC, University of Genova, via all’Opera Pia 15/a, 16145 Genova (Italy); INFN, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Marotta, Riccardo [GeNERG – DIME/TEC, University of Genova, via all’Opera Pia 15/a, 16145 Genova (Italy); INFN, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Mazzini, Guido [Centrum výzkumu Řež (Research Centre Rez), Husinec-Rez, cp. 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • MC codes are widely adopted to analyze nuclear facilities, including GEN-IV reactors. • Burnup calculations are an efficient tool to test neutronic Monte Carlo codes. • In this comparison the used codes show some differences but a good agreement exists. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparison between two Monte Carlo based burnup codes: SERPENT and MONTEBURNS. Monte Carlo codes are fully and worldwide adopted to perform analyses on nuclear facilities, also in the frame of Generation IV advanced reactors simulations. Thus, faster and most powerful calculation codes are needed with the aim to analyze complex geometries and specific neutronic behaviors. Burnup calculations are an efficient tool to test neutronic Monte Carlo codes: indeed these calculations couple transport and depletion procedures, so that neutronic reactor behavior can be simulated in its totality. Comparisons have been performed on a configuration representing the Allegro MOX 75 MW{sub th} reactor proposed by the European GoFastR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor) Project in the frame of the 7th Euratom Framework Program. Although in burnup and criticality comparisons the codes used in simulations show different calculation times and some differences in amounts and in precision (in term of statistical errors), a reasonably good agreement between them exists.

  8. Computing abstractions of nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reißig, Gunther

    2009-01-01

    We present an efficient algorithm for computing discrete abstractions of arbitrary memory span for nonlinear discrete-time and sampled systems, in which, apart from possibly numerically integrating ordinary differential equations, the only nontrivial operation to be performed repeatedly is to distinguish empty from non-empty convex polyhedra. We also provide sufficient conditions for the convexity of attainable sets, which is an important requirement for the correctness of the method we propose. It turns out that requirement can be met under rather mild conditions, which essentially reduce to sufficient smoothness in the case of sampled systems. Practicability of our approach in the design of discrete controllers for continuous plants is demonstrated by an example.

  9. Domain-Specific Language Engineering: A Case Study in Agile DSL Development (Mark I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of domain-specific languages (DSLs) is to increase the productivity of software engineers by abstracting from low-level boilerplate code. Introduction of DSLs in the software development process requires a smooth workflow for the production of DSLs themselves. This tutorial gives an overvie

  10. Space Time Codes from Permutation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A new class of space time codes with high performance is presented. The code design utilizes tailor-made permutation codes, which are known to have large minimal distances as spherical codes. A geometric connection between spherical and space time codes has been used to translate them into the final space time codes. Simulations demonstrate that the performance increases with the block lengths, a result that has been conjectured already in previous work. Further, the connection to permutation codes allows for moderate complex en-/decoding algorithms.

  11. Does a code make a difference – assessing the English code of practice on international recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah Kwadwo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper draws from research completed in 2007 to assess the effect of the Department of Health, England, Code of Practice for the international recruitment of health professionals. The Department of Health in England introduced a Code of Practice for international recruitment for National Health Service employers in 2001. The Code required National Health Service employers not to actively recruit from low-income countries, unless there was government-to-government agreement. The Code was updated in 2004. Methods The paper examines trends in inflow of health professionals to the United Kingdom from other countries, using professional registration data and data on applications for work permits. The paper also provides more detailed information from two country case studies in Ghana and Kenya. Results Available data show a considerable reduction in inflow of health professionals, from the peak years up to 2002 (for nurses and 2004 (for doctors. There are multiple causes for this decline, including declining demand in the United Kingdom. In Ghana and Kenya it was found that active recruitment was perceived to have reduced significantly from the United Kingdom, but it is not clear the extent to which the Code was influential in this, or whether other factors such as a lack of vacancies in the United Kingdom explains it. Conclusion Active international recruitment of health professionals was an explicit policy intervention by the Department of Health in England, as one key element in achieving rapid staffing growth, particularly in the period 2000 to 2005, but the level of international recruitment has dropped significantly since early 2006. Regulatory and education changes in the United Kingdom in recent years have also made international entry more difficult. The potential to assess the effect of the Code in England is constrained by the limitations in available databases. This is a crucial lesson for those considering a

  12. Abstract Résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groups to examine sexual health care access and seeking behaviours in men 5 years ... and young adults, specifically exploring how new media and technology ... Martha Sello, RN midwife, RNE, BCur is a clinical nurse manager at the STI ...

  13. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  14. Verification Based on Set-Abstraction Using the AIF Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    The AIF framework is a novel method for analyzing advanced security protocols, web services, and APIs, based a new abstract interpretation method. It consists of the specification language AIF and a translation/abstraction processes that produces a set of first-order Horn clauses. These can then ...... then be checked with several back-ends such as SPASS. We discuss in this article how to use AIF for modeling of a variety of examples....

  15. Local Martingale and Pathwise Solutions for an Abstract Fluids Model

    OpenAIRE

    Debussche, Arnaud; Glatt-Holtz, Nathan; Temam, Roger

    2010-01-01

    We establish the existence and uniqueness of both local martingale and local pathwise solutions of an abstract nonlinear stochastic evolution system. The primary application of this abstract framework is to infer the local existence of strong, pathwise solutions to the 3D primitive equations of the oceans and atmosphere forced by a nonlinear multiplicative white noise. Instead of developing our results specifically for the 3D primitive equations we choose to develop them in a slightly abstrac...

  16. ABSTRACT MODELS FOR SYSTEM VIRTUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Koveshnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to issues of system objects securing (system files and user system or application configuration files against unauthorized access including denial of service attacks. We have suggested the method and developed abstract system virtualization models, which are used toresearch attack scenarios for different virtualization modes. Estimation for system tools virtualization technology effectiveness is given. Suggested technology is based on redirection of access requests to system objects shared among access subjects. Whole and partial system virtualization modes have been modeled. The difference between them is the following: in the whole virtualization mode all copies of access system objects are created whereon subjects’ requests are redirected including corresponding application objects;in the partial virtualization mode corresponding copies are created only for part of a system, for example, only system objects for applications. Alternative solutions effectiveness is valued relating to different attack scenarios. We consider proprietary and approved technical solution which implements system virtualization method for Microsoft Windows OS family. Administrative simplicity and capabilities of correspondingly designed system objects security tools are illustrated on this example. Practical significance of the suggested security method has been confirmed.

  17. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  18. An abstract approach to music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  19. Energy information data base: report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Each report processed by the US DOE Technical Information Center is identified by a unique report number consisting of a code plus a sequential number. In most cases, the code identifies the originating installation. In some cases, it identifies a specific program or a type of publication. Listed in this publication are all codes that have been used by DOE in cataloging reports. This compilation consists of two parts. Part I is an alphabetical listing of report codes identified with the issuing installations that have used the codes. Part II is an alphabetical listing of installations identified with codes each has used. (RWR)

  20. P-adic arithmetic coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rodionov, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    A new incremental algorithm for data compression is presented. For a sequence of input symbols algorithm incrementally constructs a p-adic integer number as an output. Decoding process starts with less significant part of a p-adic integer and incrementally reconstructs a sequence of input symbols. Algorithm is based on certain features of p-adic numbers and p-adic norm. p-adic coding algorithm may be considered as of generalization a popular compression technique - arithmetic coding algorithms. It is shown that for p = 2 the algorithm works as integer variant of arithmetic coding; for a special class of models it gives exactly the same codes as Huffman's algorithm, for another special model and a specific alphabet it gives Golomb-Rice codes.