WorldWideScience

Sample records for abstract spider diagrams

  1. The Legs That Rock the Cradle: Spider Mothers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Spiders are excellent models to study behavioural diversityand evolutionary adaptations in the animal world. This articleexplores the strategies used by spiders to maximise thesurvival of their offspring.

  2. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University Health Services. Ahmadu Bella University, Zaria, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Phywieo-chemical methods were used to analyse the commonly used lcualt samples bought from Zaria and Kano local markets. Blood-leadaoncentrations in ltuali ...

  3. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Abstract. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from the leaves of Ficus religiosa, Thespesia populnea and Hibiscus tiliaceus were completely screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chloroform extract of F. religiosa possessed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity with a zone of inhibition of 10 to 21 ...

  4. Abstract,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract·. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of overso~ing legumes on ~a~gela~d pe'rtormance in. Shinyanga'region, Tanzania. Four leguminous species namely Centrosema pubescence, Clito-':iii ternatea,. cMacroptilium atropurpureum and Stylosanthes hamata were Qversown in. a"natural ran,geland in a.

  5. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Abstract. For well over three hundred years, the monsoon has been considered to be a gigantic land-sea breeze driven by the land-ocean contrast in surface temperature. In this paper, this hypothesis ..... primary driver of the monsoon in many papers and most textbooks (e.g. Lau and Li, 1984,. Webster 1987a, Meehl 1994, ...

  6. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Email: jameskigera@yahoo.co.uk. ABSTRACT. Background: Implant orthopaedic surgery is associated with a risk of post operative Surgical Site. Infection (SSI). This can have devastating consequences in the case of arthroplasty. Due to the less than ideal circumstances under which surgery is conducted in Africa, there are ...

  7. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WORKERS ON THEIR JOB PERFORMANCE IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA. NGOZI OKEREKE AND no. ONU. ABSTRACT. The study focused on the. efl'ect of socioeconomic characteristics of field extension workers on their job performance in.1mo state agricultural development programme, Nigeria. Data was collected with the ...

  8. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Abstract. Many mathematical models of stochastic dynamical systems were based on the assumption that the drift and volatility coefficients were linear function of the solution. In this work, we arrive at the drift and the volatility by observing the dynamics of change in the selected stocks in a sufficiently small interval t∆ .

  9. Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Penney, David; Dunlop, Jason; Marusik, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Spiders (Araneae) are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant). Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa) were compiled from current...

  10. SPIDER SILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The strengthness and toughness of spider fiber and its multifunctional nature is only surpassed in some cases by synthetic high performance fibers. In the world of natural fibers, spider silk has been long time recognized as a wonder fiber for its unique combination of high strength and rupture elongation. Scientists in civil military engineering reveal that the power of biological material (spider silk lies in the geometric configuration of structural protein, and the small cluster of week hydrogen bonds that works together to resist force and dissipate energy. Each spider and each type of silk has a set of mechanical properties optimized for their biological function. Most silks, in particular deagline silk, have exceptional mechanical properties. They exhibit a unique combination of high tensile strength and extensibility (ductility. This enables a silk fiber to absorb a lot of energy before breaking (toughness, the area under a stress- strain curve. A frequent mistake made in the mainstream media is to confuse strength and toughness when comparing silk to other materials. As shown below in detail, weight for weight, silk is stronger than steel, but not as strong as Kevlar. Silk is,however, tougher than both.This paper inform about overview on the today trend in the world of spider silk.

  11. Spider phobics more easily see a spider in morphed schematic pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partchev Ivailo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with social phobia are more likely to misinterpret ambiguous social situations as more threatening, i.e. they show an interpretive bias. This study investigated whether such a bias also exists in specific phobia. Methods Individuals with spider phobia or social phobia, spider aficionados and non-phobic controls saw morphed stimuli that gradually transformed from a schematic picture of a flower into a schematic picture of a spider by shifting the outlines of the petals until they turned into spider legs. Participants' task was to decide whether each stimulus was more similar to a spider, a flower or to neither object while EEG was recorded. Results An interpretive bias was found in spider phobia on a behavioral level: with the first opening of the petals of the flower anchor, spider phobics rated the stimuli as more unpleasant and arousing than the control groups and showed an elevated latent trait to classify a stimulus as a spider and a response-time advantage for spider-like stimuli. No cortical correlates on the level of ERPs of this interpretive bias could be identified. However, consistent with previous studies, social and spider phobic persons exhibited generally enhanced visual P1 amplitudes indicative of hypervigilance in phobia. Conclusion Results suggest an interpretive bias and generalization of phobia-specific responses in specific phobia. Similar effects have been observed in other anxiety disorders, such as social phobia and posttraumatic stress disorder.

  12. Brown Recluse Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  13. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body rash fever and chills fatigue Of a black widow spider bite: rigid, painful muscles within 8 hours no ... child was bitten by a brown recluse or black widow spider Think Prevention! Make sure garages, attics, and woodpiles ...

  14. Parametric diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper will introduce the PhD research into applied 3d modeling and parametric design outlining the idea of a parametric diagram linked to philosophical and applied examples.......This paper will introduce the PhD research into applied 3d modeling and parametric design outlining the idea of a parametric diagram linked to philosophical and applied examples....

  15. Spider Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t had one in the last five years. Black widow spider You can usually identify a black widow spider by the hourglass marking on its belly. In ... in the South. Signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite may include: At first, slight swelling and ...

  16. Inductively generating Euler diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi

    2011-01-01

    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  17. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  18. SCADA Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Matthew Rose worked at the Naval Postgraduate School as a graphic designer from February 2002-November 2011. His work for NPS included logos, brochures, business packs, movies/presentations, posters, the CyberSiege video game and many other projects. This material was organized and provided by the artist, for inclusion in the NPS Archive, Calhoun. Includes these files: Plan_ver.ai; powerline.jpg; SCADA diagram.ai; SCADA diagram.pdf; SCADA diagramsmall.pdf; SCADA2.pdf

  19. Funnel-web spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on ... the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous ...

  20. Spiders in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Isaia, Marco

    2017-04-26

    World experts of different disciplines, from molecular biology to macro-ecology, recognize the value of cave ecosystems as ideal ecological and evolutionary laboratories. Among other subterranean taxa, spiders stand out as intriguing model organisms for their ecological role of top predators, their unique adaptations to the hypogean medium and their sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance. As the description of the first eyeless spider ( Stalita taenaria ), an array of papers on subterranean spider biology, ecology and evolution has been published, but a comprehensive review on these topics is still lacking. We provide a general overview of the spider families recorded in hypogean habitats worldwide, we review the different adaptations of hypogean spiders to subterranean life, and we summarize the information gathered so far about their origin, population structure, ecology and conservation status. Finally, we point out the limits of the knowledge we currently have regarding hypogean spiders, aiming to stimulate future research. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Delimiting diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, V. van

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the unifying notion of delimiting diagram. Hitherto unrelated results such as: Minimality of the internal needed strategy for orthogonal first-order term rewriting systems, maximality of the limit strategy for orthogonal higher-order pattern rewrite systems (with maximality of the

  2. Bat Predation by Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (∼90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

  3. SPIDERS (ARANEI) OF VOLGOGRAD SITY AND ITS ENVIRONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Ponomarev; A. S. Khnykin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Aim. Fauna of spiders of Volgograd Region is researched uncompletely. Only 149 species of 19 families were listed in previous references. Complete listing of spiders of this large region was the aim of our investigation.Location. Volgograd Region, Russia.Methods. Material was collected in Volgograd City with environs and Volga-Don area in 2009–2013. Areas with minimum of anthropogenic influence within the city, artificial ecosystem of park type, plots of native vegetation along the ...

  4. Tarantula spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spider belongs, contains the largest number of venomous species known. This article is for information only. DO ... Wash the area with soap and water. Place ice (wrapped in a clean cloth or other covering) ...

  5. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spider belongs, contains the largest number of venomous species known. This article is for information only. DO ... Clean the area with soap and water. Wrap ice in a clean cloth and place it on ...

  6. Space spider crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macconochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Pennington, Jack E. (Inventor); Kinkead, Rebecca L. (Inventor); Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space spider crane for the movement, placement, and or assembly of various components on or in the vicinity of a space structure is described. As permanent space structures are utilized by the space program, a means will be required to transport cargo and perform various repair tasks. A space spider crane comprising a small central body with attached manipulators and legs fulfills this requirement. The manipulators may be equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors or tools to accomplish various repair tasks. The legs are also equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors to grip the space structure. Control of the space spider crane may be achieved either by computer software or a remotely situated human operator, who maintains visual contact via television cameras mounted on the space spider crane. One possible walking program consists of a parallel motion walking program whereby the small central body alternatively leans forward and backward relative to end effectors.

  7. Spider Spinning for Dummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Richard S.

    Spider spinning is a snappy name for the problem of listing the ideals of a totally acyclic poset in such a way that each ideal is computed from its predecessor in constant time. Such an algorithm is said to be loopless. Our aim in these lectures is to show how to calculate a loopless algorithm for spider spinning. The calculation makes use of the fundamental laws of functional programming and the real purpose of the exercise is to show these laws in action.

  8. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time co...

  9. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  10. Company profile: Spider stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    SpiderBiotech is a biotech company that has carried out extensive research and development on peptide-based anti-infectives, with five people involved in R&D activities and a strong network of industrial and academic partners experienced in the field of anti-infectives. SpiderBiotech has also created a proprietary library of bioactive peptides and lipopeptides (both linear and dendrimeric) active against bacterial and viral infections. At the moment they have two ongoing projects: the most advanced is focused on the development of a panel of peptide based antibiotics. The second project is related to novel antiviral drugs to treat acyclovir resistant Herpes virus infections.

  11. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

  12. Black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    Black widow spiders are found throughout the continental United States and north into the southern Canadian provinces. Male black widow spiders are of little medical importance. Female black widow spiders can be 20 times larger than males. The female can be identified by the hourglass pattern, red or orange in color, on the ventral aspect of her shiny, globose black abdomen. Black widow spiders control the amount of venom they inject; an estimated 15% of bites to humans are non-envenomating. Cats are very sensitive to the venom and deaths are common. Dogs have severe clinical signs but are considered more resistant than cats. A single bite is capable of delivering a lethal dose of venom to companion animals. There are several toxic components consisting of five or six biologically active proteins. These include a potent mammalian neurotoxin called alpha-latrotoxin, which induces neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. Acetylcholine, noradrenalin, dopamine, glutamate, and enkephalin systems are all susceptible to the toxin. Onset of clinical signs usually occurs during the first 8 hours post envenomation. The condition is extremely painful in moderate to severe envenomations. Abdominal rigidity without tenderness is a hallmark sign of Latrodectus envenomation. In cats, paralytic signs may occur early and are particularly marked. Hypertension is a significant threat. First aid is of no value in the treatment. The primary treatment for black widow spider envenomation is the administration of specific antivenin, which provides the most permanent and quickest relief of the envenomation syndrome, usually within 30 minutes of infusion. The prognosis of Latrodectus envenomation is uncertain of several days, and complete recovery may take weeks.

  13. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...

  14. Stability field diagrams for Ln–O–Cl systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/039/03/0603-0611. Keywords. Predominance area diagram; Kellogg diagram; lanthanide oxychloride; rare-earth mineral processing; thermodynamic properties. Abstract. Isothermal stability field diagrams for Ln−O−Cl systems (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, ...

  15. Diagrams for certain quotients of PSL(2,Z[i])

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Actions of the Picard group PSL(2, Z[i]) on PL(Fp), where p ≡ 1(mod 4), are investigated through diagrams. Each diagram is composed of fragments of three types. A technique is developed to count the number of fragments which frequently occur in the diagrams for the action of the Picard group on PL(Fp).

  16. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian network...... analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  17. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  18. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    in emphasis from the three syntheses to mappings and rhizomatic diagrams that cut across semiotics or “blow apart regimes of signs”. The aim here is the absolute deterritorialization. Deleuze has shown how abstract machines operate in the philosophy of Foucault, the literature of Proust and Kafka......, and the painting of Bacon. We will finish our presentation by showing how these machines apply to architecture....

  19. Black widow spider and brown recluse spider bites in Texas from 1998 through 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B; Stanley, Sharilyn K

    2003-10-01

    Black widow spiders and brown recluse spiders are of medical importance to humans in the US. However, these spiders differ in their habits, habitat, and the clinical effects and treatment of their bite. This study used data from human exposure calls to poison centers in Texas to compare the epidemioloy of bites from these 2 spiders. During 1998-2002, 760 black widow spider bites and 1,369 brown recluse spider bites were reported. Black widow spider bite penetrance demonstrated no secular trend during this time period while the penetrance of brown recluse spider bites increased. A higher percentage of black widow spider bites occurred among males, while a higher proportion of brown recluse spider bites were reported for females. Black widow spider bites most frequently had mild outcomes while brown recluse spider bites most often had moderate outcomes. The majority of reported bites for both types of spider occurred at the patient's own residence, although the percentage was lower for black widow spiders. Seasonal trends were noted for both black widow and brown recluse spiders. The highest penetrance of black widow spider bites was observed in western Texas while the highest penetrance of brown recluse spider bites was observed in central Texas. This information is useful for identifying those populations at greatest risk for the respective spider bites.

  20. Black widow spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, M

    1984-05-01

    Latrodectus mactans has now invaded towns and cities. The spider's venom is a neurotoxin that causes little local reaction but produces pain and spasm in large skeletal muscle groups within 30 minutes to three hours after the bite. Severe envenomation may result in respiratory failure and coma. First aid is of no value. Muscle relaxants are useful in treatment, as is calcium gluconate. Antivenin is indicated for high-risk victims, such as those with hypertension and persons younger than 16 or older than 60 years of age.

  1. Event-related potentials when identifying or color-naming threatening schematic stimuli in spider phobic and non-phobic individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musial Frauke

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies revealed increased parietal late positive potentials (LPPs in response to spider pictures in spider phobic individuals. This study searched for basic features of fear-relevant stimuli by investigating whether schematic spider images are sufficient to evoke differential behavioral as well as differential early and late ERP responses in spider phobic, social phobic (as a clinical control group, and non-phobic control participants. Methods Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of the processing of schematic spider and flower images were investigated while participants performed a color (emotional Stroop and an object identification task. Stimuli were schematic pictures of spiders and flowers matched with respect to constituting visual elements. Results Consistent with previous studies using photographic spider pictures, spider phobic persons showed enhanced LPPs when identifying schematic spiders compared to schematic flowers. In addition, spider phobic individuals showed generally faster responses than the control groups. This effect was interpreted as evidence for an increased general behavioral hypervigilance in this anxiety disorder group. Furthermore, both phobic groups showed enhanced P100 amplitudes compared to controls, which was interpreted as evidence for an increased (cortical hypervigilance for incoming stimuli in phobic patients in general. Finally, all groups showed faster identification of and larger N170 amplitudes in response to schematic spider than flower pictures. This may reflect either a general advantage for fear-relevant compared to neutral stimuli, or might be due to a higher level of expertise in processing schematic spiders as compared to the more artificially looking flower stimuli. Conclusion Results suggest that schematic spiders are sufficient to prompt differential responses in spider-fearful and spider-non-fearful persons in late ERP components. Early ERP components, on

  2. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  3. Logical reasoning with diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Allwein, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    PART A: Theoretical Issues. 1. Visual Information and Valid Reasoning, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 2. Operational Constraints in Diagrammatic Reasoning, Atsushi Shimojima. 3. Diagrams and the Concept of Logical System, Jon Barwise and Eric Hammer. PART B: Case Studies. 4. Situation-Theoretic Account of Valid Reasoning with Venn Diagrams, Sun-Joo Shin. 5. Towards a Model Theory of Venn Diagrams, eric Hammer and Norman Danner. 6. Peircean Graphs for Propositional Logic, Eric Hammer. 7. A Diagrammatic Subsystem of Hilbert''s Geometry, Isabel Luengo. PART C: Heterogenous Systems. 8. Heterogenous Logic, Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. 9. Toward the Rigorous Use of Diagrams in Reasoning about Hardware, Steven D. Johnson, Jon Barwise, and Gerard Allwein. 10. Exploiting the Potential of Diagrams in Guiding Hardware Reasoning, Kathi D. Fisler

  4. Application of 3 kinds of practical electromagnetic spiders in electromagnetic spider web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic spider web the launch circuit has introduced a lot, but in the center position of the utility of the spider generally have 3 kinds of circuits respectively, the use of single-chip microcomputer circuit of the low energy consumption spider by multi-channel transmission, single circuit receiver circuit. Direct use of the 3 channels of the spider and the use of PLC circuit spider, depending on the actual situation were placed.

  5. Spider phylogenomics: untangling the Spider Tree of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Garrison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spiders (Order Araneae are massively abundant generalist arthropod predators that are found in nearly every ecosystem on the planet and have persisted for over 380 million years. Spiders have long served as evolutionary models for studying complex mating and web spinning behaviors, key innovation and adaptive radiation hypotheses, and have been inspiration for important theories like sexual selection by female choice. Unfortunately, past major attempts to reconstruct spider phylogeny typically employing the “usual suspect” genes have been unable to produce a well-supported phylogenetic framework for the entire order. To further resolve spider evolutionary relationships we have assembled a transcriptome-based data set comprising 70 ingroup spider taxa. Using maximum likelihood and shortcut coalescence-based approaches, we analyze eight data sets, the largest of which contains 3,398 gene regions and 696,652 amino acid sites forming the largest phylogenomic analysis of spider relationships produced to date. Contrary to long held beliefs that the orb web is the crowning achievement of spider evolution, ancestral state reconstructions of web type support a phylogenetically ancient origin of the orb web, and diversification analyses show that the mostly ground-dwelling, web-less RTA clade diversified faster than orb weavers. Consistent with molecular dating estimates we report herein, this may reflect a major increase in biomass of non-flying insects during the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution 125–90 million years ago favoring diversification of spiders that feed on cursorial rather than flying prey. Our results also have major implications for our understanding of spider systematics. Phylogenomic analyses corroborate several well-accepted high level groupings: Opisthothele, Mygalomorphae, Atypoidina, Avicularoidea, Theraphosoidina, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae, Araneoidea, the RTA clade, Dionycha and the Lycosoidea. Alternatively, our results

  6. Query Processing for Probabilistic State Diagrams Describing Multiple Robot Navigation in an Indoor Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czejdo, Bogdan [ORNL; Bhattacharya, Sambit [North Carolina Fayetteville State University; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the syntax and semantics of multi-level state diagrams to support probabilistic behavior of cooperating robots. The techniques are presented to analyze these diagrams by querying combined robots behaviors. It is shown how to use state abstraction and transition abstraction to create, verify and process large probabilistic state diagrams.

  7. Functional relations between locomotor performance traits in spiders and implications for evolutionary hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Phillip W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Locomotor performance in ecologically relevant activities is often linked to individual fitness. Recent controversy over evolution of extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD in spiders centres on the relationship between size and locomotor capacity in males. Advantages for large males running over horizontal surfaces and small males climbing vertically have been proposed. Models have implicitly treated running and climbing as functionally distinct activities and failed to consider the possibility that they reflect common underlying capacities. Findings We examine the relationship between maximum climbing and running performance in males of three spider species. Maximum running and climbing speeds were positively related in two orb-web spiders with high SSD (Argiope keyserlingi and Nephila plumipes, indicating that for these species assays of running and climbing largely reveal the same underlying capacities. Running and climbing speeds were not related in a jumping spider with low SSD (Jacksonoides queenslandica. We found no evidence of a performance trade-off between these activities. Conclusions In the web-spiders A. keyserlingi and N. plumipes good runners were also good climbers. This indicates that climbing and running largely represent a single locomotor performance characteristic in these spiders, but this was not the case for the jumping spider J. queenslandica. There was no evidence of a trade-off between maximum running and climbing speeds in these spiders. We highlight the need to establish the relationship between apparently disparate locomotor activities when testing alternative hypotheses that yield predictions about different locomotor activities. Analysis of slopes suggests greater potential for an evolutionary response on performance in the horizontal compared to vertical context in these spiders.

  8. Spider and burnable poison rod combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An improved design of burnable poison rods and associated spiders used in fuel assemblies of pressurized water power reactor cores, is described. The rods are joined to the spider arms in a manner which is proof against the reactor core environment and yet allows the removal of the rods from the spider simply, swiftly and delicately. (U.K.)

  9. Approach and avoidance in fear of spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined attitudes towards spiders by employing an Approach-Avoidance Task, in which participants respond to pictures by pulling a joystick towards themselves or by pushing it away from themselves. For spider fearfuls, this stimulus–response assignment is either compatible (push spiders away) or

  10. A troglomorphic spider from Java (Araneae, Ctenidae, Amauropelma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy; Rahmadi, Cahyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data. PMID:22303127

  11. Innate pattern recognition and categorization in a jumping spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinnon Dolev

    Full Text Available The East African jumping spider Evarcha culicivora feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by preferentially preying upon blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria1, using the distinct resting posture and engorged abdomen characteristic of these specific prey as key elements for their recognition. To understand perceptual categorization of objects by these spiders, we investigated their predatory behavior toward different digital stimuli--abstract 'stick figure' representations of Anopheles constructed solely by known key identification elements, disarranged versions of these, as well as non-prey items and detailed images of alternative prey. We hypothesized that the abstract images representing Anopheles would be perceived as potential prey, and would be preferred to those of non-preferred prey. Spiders perceived the abstract stick figures of Anopheles specifically as their preferred prey, attacking them significantly more often than non-preferred prey, even when the comprising elements of the Anopheles stick figures were disarranged and disconnected from each other. However, if the relative angles between the elements of the disconnected stick figures of Anopheles were altered, the otherwise identical set of elements was no longer perceived as prey. These data show that E. culicivora is capable of making discriminations based on abstract concepts, such as the hypothetical angle formed by discontinuous elements. It is this inter-element angle rather than resting posture that is important for correct identification of Anopheles. Our results provide a glimpse of the underlying processes of object recognition in animals with minute brains, and suggest that these spiders use a local processing approach for object recognition, rather than a holistic or global approach. This study provides an excellent basis for a comparative analysis on feature extraction and detection by animals as diverse as bees and mammals.

  12. Biphasic activity of a jumping spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    Individual variation is a ubiquitous and important factor that affects ecological dynamics. This study examined individual variation in the nest-use pattern of the jumping spider Phidippus audax. Although the jumping spider is a diurnal species, field observations in this study revealed that the majority of individuals remained in their nests during the day. An accompanying examination of the hunger level of the spiders revealed that spiders that remained in nests were more starved than those observed outside nests. If spiders actively forage when they are starved, as has been suggested by previous studies, one would expect to see the opposite trend (i.e., spiders that remained in nests are more satiated). Thus, the pattern observed in the field contradicts the known behavioral pattern of the spiders. An individual-based model was used to investigate the behavioral mechanism of the spider and the discrepancy found in the observations. A basic assumption of the model is that spiders possess distinct inactive and active phases (biphasic activity pattern), and transitions between the two phases are regulated by the hunger level of the spider. Data from a laboratory experiment were used to examine the assumptions of the model partially. The model was able to capture patterns observed in the data, suggesting that the pattern of transitions in biphasic activity is an important trait of the foraging behavior of the jumping spider.

  13. The application of diagrams in architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulić Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagrams in architecture represent the visualization of the thinking process, or selective abstraction of concepts or ideas translated into the form of drawings. In addition, they provide insight into the way of thinking about and in architecture, thus creating a balance between the visual and the conceptual. The subject of research presented in this paper are diagrams as a specific kind of architectural representation, and possibilities and importance of their application in the design process. Diagrams are almost old as architecture itself, and they are an element of some of the most important studies of architecture during all periods of history - which results in a large number of different definitions of diagrams, but also very different conceptualizations of their features, functions and applications. The diagrams become part of contemporary architectural discourse during the eighties and nineties of the twentieth century, especially through the work of architects like Bernard Tschumi, Peter Eisenman, Rem Koolhaas, SANAA and others. The use of diagrams in the design process allows unification of some of the essential aspects of the profession: architectural representation and design process, as well as the question of the concept of architectural and urban design at a time of rapid changes at all levels of contemporary society. The aim of the research is the analysis of the diagram as a specific medium for processing large amounts of information that the architect should consider and incorporate into the architectural work. On that basis, it is assumed that an architectural diagram allows the creator the identification and analysis of specific elements or ideas of physical form, thereby constantly maintaining concept of the integrity of the architectural work.

  14. Phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewalt, J L; Bloom, M

    1992-10-01

    Two mono-cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid molecules, having very different gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures as a consequence of the relative positions of the double bond, exhibit PC:cholesterol phase diagrams that are very similar to each other and to that obtained previously for a fully saturated PC:cholesterol mixture (Vist, M. R., and J. H. Davis. 1990. Biochemistry 29:451-464). This leads to the conjecture that PC:cholesterol membrane phase diagrams have a universal form which is relatively independent of the precise chemical structure of the PC molecule. One feature of this phase diagram is the observation over a wide temperature range of a fluid but highly conformationally ordered phase at bilayer concentrations of more than approximately 25 mol% cholesterol. This ;liquid ordered' phase is postulated to be the relevant physical state for many biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, that contain substantial amounts of cholesterol or equivalent sterols.

  15. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  16. Spinning geodesic Witten diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Ethan; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sully, James; McGill University, Montreal, QC

    2017-01-01

    We present an expression for the four-point conformal blocks of symmetric traceless operators of arbitrary spin as an integral over a pair of geodesics in Anti-de Sitter space, generalizing the geodesic Witten diagram formalism of Hijano et al. to arbitrary spin. As an intermediate step in the derivation, we identify a convenient basis of bulk threepoint interaction vertices which give rise to all possible boundary three point structures. Lastly, we highlight a direct connection between the representation of the conformal block as geodesic Witten diagram and the shadow operator formalism.

  17. The toxicology of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus: the Mediterranean Black Widow spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M S

    2004-01-01

    The symptomatology of envenomation by the Mediterranean Black Widow Spider, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, is reviewed. The results confirm the hypothesis that the homeopathic remedy, Tarentula hispanica, is derived from this spider, not from the Wolf spider, Lycosa tarentula.

  18. Article Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.

  19. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Cyclic ovarian activity and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were assessed for 179 days in 5. (free grazing) and 6 (free grazing + high energy and protein-supplemented) normocyclic donkeys. In addition, plasma p4 and cortisol were measured in blood samples collected at J5·min intervals in the.

  20. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Abstract. Hemoglobin is a tetrameric protein which is able to dissociate into dimers. The dimers can in turn dissociate into tetramers. It has been found that dimers are more reactive than tetramers. The difference in the reactivity of these two species has been used to determine the tetramer- dimer dissociation constant of ...

  1. A comparative study of linear and region based diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Gottfried

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories of objects spatial information science investigates: actual objects and their spatial properties, such as in geography, and abstract objects which are employed metaphorically, as for visual languages. A prominent example of the latter are diagrams that model knowledge of some domain. Different aspects of diagrams are of interest, including their formal properties or how human users work with them, for example, with diagrams representing sets. The literature about diagrammatic systems for the representation of sets shows a dominance of region-based diagrams like Euler circles and Venn diagrams. The effectiveness of these diagrams, however, is limited because region-based diagrams become quite complex for more then three sets. By contrast, linear diagrams are not equally prevalent but enable the representation of a greater number of sets without getting cluttered. Cluttered diagrams exhibit inherent complexity due to overlapping objects, irrelevant details, or other reasons that impinge upon their legibility. This study contrasts both types of diagrammatic systems and investigates whether the performance of users differs for both kinds of diagrams. A significant difference can be shown regarding the number of diagrams that can be drawn within a fixed period of time and regarding the number of errors made. The results indicate that linear diagrams are more effective by being more restrictive and because region based diagrams show much clutter due to overlapping, coincident, and tangentially touching contours, as well as an overwhelming number of empty zones. Linear diagrams are less prone to errors and do not suffer from clutter.

  2. Drawing Euler Diagrams with Circles: The Theory of Piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Leishi Zhang; Howse, John; Rodgers, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.

  3. Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Chris J; Kasza, Jessica; Simpson, Julie A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2017-07-01

    Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed," meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram. The overall procedure is cast as a preprocessing technique that is agnostic to subsequent causal inferences. Results based on simulated data and data derived from an observational cohort illustrate the potential for data-assisted elicitation in epidemiologic applications. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B208.

  4. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  5. The evolution of sociality in spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubin, Yael; Bilde, T.

    2007-01-01

    . Anelosimus (Theridiidae) C. Sociality in Spiders: An Evolutionary Dead End? V. Evolution and Maintenance of Sociality in Spiders: Relevant Models A. Kin Selection 1. Kin Recognition 2. Inbreeding and Kin Selection B. Multilevel Selection (Group Selection) C. Ecological Benefits D. Ecological Constraints E......I. Introducing Social Spiders II. Social and Subsocial Species: A Survey of Behavioral Traits III. Inbred Sociality in Spiders A. Cooperation Versus Competition: A Balancing Act B. Do Social Spiders Have Division of Labor? C. Colony Foundation: Propagule Dispersal Versus Fission D. Female......-Biased Colony Sex Ratios: Primary and Operational Sex Ratios E. Mating System: Inbreeding and Its Population-Genetic Consequences F. "Boom and Bust" Colony Dynamics IV. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Social Spider Species A. Common Features of Social Evolution B. Case Studies 1. Stegodyphus (Eresidae) 2...

  6. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  7. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  8. Peircean diagrams of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Some very good arguments can be given in favor of the Augustinean wisdom, according to which it is impossible to provide a satisfactory definition of the concept of time. However, even in the absence of a proper definition, it is possible to deal with conceptual problems regarding time. It can...... be done in terms of analogies and metaphors. In particular, it is attractive to make use of Peirce's diagrams by means of which various kinds of conceptual experimentation can be carried out. This paper investigates how Peircean diagrams can be used within the study of time. In particular, we discuss 1......) the topological properties of time, 2) the implicative structure in tense logic, 3) the notions of open future and branching time models, and finally 4) tenselogical alternatives to branching time models....

  9. Evidence for antimicrobial activity associated with common house spider silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Simon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spider silk is one of the most versatile materials in nature with great strength and flexibility. Native and synthetically produced silk has been used in a wide range of applications including the construction of artificial tendons and as substrates for human cell growth. In the literature there are anecdotal reports that suggest that native spider silk may also have antimicrobial properties. Findings In this study we compared the growth of a Gram positive and a Gram negative bacterium in the presence and absence of silk produced by the common house spider Tegenaria domestica. We demonstrate that native web silk of Tegenaria domestica can inhibit the growth of the Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. No significant inhibition of growth was detected against the Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial effect against B. subtilis appears to be short lived thus the active agent potentially acts in a bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal manner. Treatment of the silk with Proteinase K appears to reduce the ability to inhibit bacterial growth. This is consistent with the active agent including a protein element that is denatured or cleaved by treatment. Tegenaria silk does not appear to inhibit the growth of mammalian cells in vitro thus there is the potential for therapeutic applications.

  10. Automation of Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentyukov, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented. It consists of two parts: the analyzer of diagrams and the interpreter of a special text manipulating language. This language can be used to create a source code for analytical or numerical evaluations and to keep the control of the process in general

  11. Can ant-eating Zodarion spiders (Araneae: Zodariidae) develop on a diet optimal for euryphagous arthropod predators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekar, Stano; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    accept ants, more than one-third of 35 spiders refuse to consume fruit flies and starve. Furthermore, severe hunger does not induce these individuals to accept fruit flies. Starving spiders die before moulting to the second stadium. Spiders that eat fruit flies increase only little and slowly in weight......Abstract. Little attention is paid to the behavioural and physiological adaptations of ant-eating predators. It is expected that there should be a strong selection for traits related to prey handling, leading to the evolution of morphological, behavioural and nutritional adaptations....... Such adaptations may then entail trade-offs in handling and utilization of alternative prey. To investigate behavioural as well as nutritional adaptations and the occurrence of the corresponding trade-offs in two ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion [Zodarion atlanticum Pekár & Cardoso and Zodarion germanicum...

  12. Tangled in a sparse spider web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar Stefanov; Lopardo, Lara; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the tempo and the mode of spider orb web evolution and diversification, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis using six genetic markers along with a comprehensive taxon sample. The present analyses are the first to recover the monophyly of orb-weaving spiders based solely on DNA ...

  13. Petersen diagram revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolec Radoslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years, the Petersen diagram for classical pulsators, Cepheids and RR Lyr stars, populated with a few hundreds of new multiperiodic variables. We review our analyses of the OGLE data, which resulted in a significant extension of the known, and in the discovery of a few new and distinct forms of multiperiodic pulsation. The showcase includes not only radial mode pulsators, but also radial-non-radial pulsators and stars with significant modulation observed on top of the beat pulsation. First theoretical models explaining the new forms of stellar variability are briefly discussed.

  14. BALWOIS: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    anthropogenic pressures and international shared water. Here are the 320 abstracts proposed by authors and accepted by the Scientific Committee. More than 200 papers are presented during the Conference on 8 topics related to Hydrology, Climatology and Hydro biology: - Climate and Environment; - Hydrological regimes and water balances; - Droughts and Floods; -Integrated Water Resources Management; -Water bodies Protection and Eco hydrology; -Lakes; -Information Systems for decision support; -Hydrological modelling. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Untangling spider silk evolution with spidroin terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garb Jessica E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spidroins are a unique family of large, structural proteins that make up the bulk of spider silk fibers. Due to the highly variable nature of their repetitive sequences, spidroin evolutionary relationships have principally been determined from their non-repetitive carboxy (C-terminal domains, though they offer limited character data. The few known spidroin amino (N-terminal domains have been difficult to obtain, but potentially contain critical phylogenetic information for reconstructing the diversification of spider silks. Here we used silk gland expression data (ESTs from highly divergent species to evaluate the functional significance and phylogenetic utility of spidroin N-terminal domains. Results We report 11 additional spidroin N-termini found by sequencing ~1,900 silk gland cDNAs from nine spider species that shared a common ancestor > 240 million years ago. In contrast to their hyper-variable repetitive regions, spidroin N-terminal domains have retained striking similarities in sequence identity, predicted secondary structure, and hydrophobicity. Through separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of N-terminal domains and their corresponding C-termini, we find that combined analysis produces the most resolved trees and that N-termini contribute more support and less conflict than the C-termini. These analyses show that paralogs largely group by silk gland type, except for the major ampullate spidroins. Moreover, spidroin structural motifs associated with superior tensile strength arose early in the history of this gene family, whereas a motif conferring greater extensibility convergently evolved in two distantly related paralogs. Conclusions A non-repetitive N-terminal domain appears to be a universal attribute of spidroin proteins, likely retained from the origin of spider silk production. Since this time, spidroin N-termini have maintained several features, consistent with this domain playing a key role in silk

  16. Sintering diagrams of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, A.; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    Ashby's method (see Acta Met., vol. 22, p. 275, 1974) of constructing sintering diagrams has been modified to obtain contribution diagrams directly from the computer. The interplay of sintering variables and mechanisms are studied and the factors that affect the participation of mechanisms in UO 2 are determined. By studying the physical properties, it emerges that the order of inaccuracies is small in most cases and do not affect the diagrams. On the other hand, even a 10% error in activation energies, which is quite plausible, would make a significant difference to the diagram. The main criticism of Ashby's approach is that the numerous properties and equations used, communicate their inaccuracies to the diagrams and make them unreliable. The present study has considerably reduced the number of factors that need to be refined to make the sintering diagrams more meaningful. (Auth.)

  17. Learned predation risk management by spider mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHackl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation is a prime selective force shaping prey behavior. Investment in anti-predator behavior is traded-off against time and energy for other fitness-enhancing activities such as foraging or reproduction. To optimize this benefit/cost trade-off, prey should be able to innately and/or by experience modulate their behavior to the level of predation risk. Here, we assessed learned predation risk management in the herbivorous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. We exposed spider mites coming from benign (naïve or high immediate predation risk (experienced environments to latent and/or no risk and assessed their site choice, activity and oviposition. Benign environments were characterized by the absence of any predator cues, high immediate risk environments by killed spider mites, physical presence of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and associated chemosensory traces left on the surface, and latent risk environments by only predator traces. In the no-choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites laid their first egg later on leaves with than without predator traces. Irrespective of predator traces presence/absence, experienced mites laid their first egg earlier than naïve ones did. Naïve spider mites were more active, indicating higher restlessness, and laid fewer eggs on leaves with predator traces, whereas experienced mites were less active and laid similar numbers of eggs on leaves with and without predator traces. In the choice experiment both naïve and experienced spider mites preferentially resided and oviposited on leaves without predator traces but experienced mites were less active than naïve ones. Overall, our study suggests that spider mites experienced with high predation risk behave bolder under latent risk than naïve spider mites. Since predator traces alone do not indicate immediate risk, we argue that the attenuated anti-predator response of experienced spider mites represents adaptive learned

  18. Understanding Spider-Man: Your Everyday Superhero

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Nicklas; Blomsterberg, Sofie Amalie; Suciu, Alice Sabrina; Pedersen, Mads Peter; Lucas, Vilhelm

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the understanding of Spider-Man, and the morals and ethics that lie behind the choices he makes. Through the Dimensions Philosophy & Science/Text & Sign, this understanding is concluded by looking at ethical theories and comic book analysis. Based on the Ultimate Spider-Man comic book series, the aim is to clarify who Spider-Man is and what causes him to act in certain ways; before and after his realization of power. Some theories used to investigate these area...

  19. Modeling process flow using diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process improvement projects. The paper finds that traditional diagrams, such as the flowchart, the VSM, and OR-type of diagrams, have severe limitations, miss certain elements, or are based on implicit but cons...

  20. Almost a spider: a 305-million-year-old fossil arachnid and spider origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell J; Dunlop, Jason A; Selden, Paul A; Spencer, Alan R T; Atwood, Robert C; Vo, Nghia T; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2016-03-30

    Spiders are an important animal group, with a long history. Details of their origins remain limited, with little knowledge of their stem group, and no insights into the sequence of character acquisition during spider evolution. We describe a new fossil arachnid, Idmonarachne brasierigen. et sp. nov. from the Late Carboniferous (Stephanian,ca 305-299 Ma) of Montceau-les-Mines, France. It is three-dimensionally preserved within a siderite concretion, allowing both laboratory- and synchrotron-based phase-contrast computed tomography reconstruction. The latter is a first for siderite-hosted fossils and has allowed us to investigate fine anatomical details. Although distinctly spider-like in habitus, this remarkable fossil lacks a key diagnostic character of Araneae: spinnerets on the underside of the opisthosoma. It also lacks a flagelliform telson found in the recently recognized, spider-related, Devonian-Permian Uraraneida. Cladistic analysis resolves our new fossil as sister group to the spiders: the spider stem-group comprises the uraraneids and I. brasieri While we are unable to demonstrate the presence of spigots in this fossil, the recovered phylogeny suggests the earliest character to evolve on the spider stem-group is the secretion of silk. This would have been followed by the loss of a flagelliform telson, and then the ability to spin silk using spinnerets. This last innovation defines the true spiders, significantly post-dates the origins of silk, and may be a key to the group's success. The Montceau-les-Mines locality has previously yielded a mesothele spider (with spinnerets). Evidently, Late Palaeozoic spiders lived alongside Palaeozoic arachnid grades which approached the spider condition, but did not express the full suite of crown-group autapomorphies. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Modelling Crop Biocontrol by Wanderer Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturino, Ezio; Ghersi, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    We study mathematically the effects some spiders populations have on insects living in and near agroecosystems, where woods and vineyards alternate in the landscape as in the Alta Langa, Piemonte, NW Italy.

  2. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  3. Diagram Techniques in Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Geoffrey E.

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Elementary examples; 2. Angular momentum coupling diagram techniques; 3. Extension to compact simple phase groups; 4. Symmetric and unitary groups; 5. Lie groups and Lie algebras; 6. Polarisation dependence of multiphoton processes; 7. Quantum field theoretic diagram techniques for atomic systems; 8. Applications; Appendix; References; Indexes.

  4. Modeling process flow using diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, B.; de Mast, J.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the practice of process improvement, tools such as the flowchart, the value-stream map (VSM), and a variety of ad hoc variants of such diagrams are commonly used. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear, precise, and consistent framework for the use of such flow diagrams in process

  5. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  6. Spider's web inspires fibres for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, James

    2010-03-01

    Spiders may not be everybody's idea of natural beauty, but nobody can deny the artistry in the webs that they spin, especially when decorated with water baubles in the morning dew. Inspired by this spectacle, a group of researchers in China has mimicked the structural properties of the spider's web to create a fibre for industry that can manipulate water with the same skill and efficiency, writes James Dacey.

  7. Reversible Myocarditis after Black Widow Spider Envenomation

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Dendane; Khalid Abidi; Naoufel Madani; Asmae Benthami; Fatima-Zohra Gueddari; Redoune Abouqal; Amine-Ali Zeggwagh

    2012-01-01

    Black widow spiders can cause variable clinical scenarios from local damage to very serious conditions including death. Acute myocardial damage is rarely observed and its prognostic significance is not known. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old man who developed an acute myocarditis with cardiogenic pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation caused by black widow spider's envenomation. The patient was previously healthy. The clinical course was associated with systemic and cardiovasc...

  8. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    OpenAIRE

    R. Horváth; T. Magura; G. Péter; B. Tóthmérész

    2002-01-01

    The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest...

  9. SENSE 2010, Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, M.D.; Argyriou, D.N.; Inosov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic origin of unconventional superconductivity continues to attract the attention of the condensed matter community. Whereas rare-earth / actinide-based intermetallic and copper oxide-based high temperature superconductors are studied for more than twenty years, the iron-based superconductors have been in the focus of interest since their recent discovery. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been of particular importance for the understanding of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these compounds. With its 29 talks and 14 posters the workshop provided a forum for the 71 registered participants to review and discuss experimental achievements, recognize the observed synergy and differences as well as discuss theoretical efforts to identify the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter in addition to the coupling mechanisms of the Cooper pairs. The workshop covered different topics relevant for the study of unconventional superconductivity. Magnetization and lattice dynamics such as spin resonances, phonons, magnetic and other excitations as studied by spectroscopic methods were presented. Investigations of (doping, pressure and magnetic field dependent) phase diagrams, electronic states as well as vortex physics by the various diffraction techniques were also addressed. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)

  10. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  11. Anaphylaxis to black widow spider antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyte, Christopher O; Cushing, Tracy A; Heard, Kennon J

    2012-06-01

    Black widow spider envenomation is commonly reported to poison centers. Black widow spider envenomation produces a clinical syndrome, known as latrodectism, characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, several muscle cramping and pain, joint stiffness, hypertension, and regional diaphoresis. Black widow spider antivenom (Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA USA) is an effective and relatively safe treatment option. There is 1 clear case of anaphylaxis secondary to black widow spider antivenom reported in the medical literature. Here, we report a case of anaphylaxis to antivenom. A 12-year-old boy presented to the emergency department (ED) with diffuse, severe pain 2 1/2 hours after being bitten by a black widow spider on the right lower extremity. In the ED, the patient failed analgesic therapy with fentanyl and was given black widow spider antivenom. Within 45 minutes, he exhibited signs and symptoms consistent with anaphylaxis, including wheezing, chest tightness, pruritus, and urticarial rash. The patient was given standard therapy for anaphylaxis, and all of his signs and symptoms (including the pain secondary to the black widow envenomation) resolved over 6 hours of observation. Leading experts agree that the use of antivenom is indicated in cases of severe envenomation not responsive to standard therapy. Despite concern that the antivenom is an equine-derived whole IgG and can precipitate early hypersensitivity reactions, there is only 1 other reported case of anaphylaxis to the antivenom in the medical literature.

  12. Cognitive bias in spider-phobic children: Comparison of a pictorial and a linguistic spider Stroop.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Brosschot, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the relation between spider fear in children and cognitive processing bias toward threatening information. It was investigated whether spider fear in children is related to a cognitive bias for threatening pictures and words. Pictorial and linguistic Stroop stimuli were administered to 28

  13. SPIDERS (ARANEI IN HEPRETOBIONT MESOFAUNA OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponomarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. We discussed in previous work a herpetobiont fauna of arachnids (Arachnida from the isolated yewboxwood wood, located in the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve, 20 km near Sochi (Ponomarev, Chumachenko, 2007. The aim of the paper is to summarize available data about herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus. Location. Republic of Adygea, Russia.Methods. Material was collected in 2009 on north macroslope of Main Caucasian Ridge within the territory of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve between 1000–1820 m. The following plant communities are studied: beech-silver fir (assotiation Abieti-Fagetion orientalis Korotkov et Belonovskaya 1987, maple forest (assotiation Petasito albae-Abietetum nordmannianae subassotiation Aceretosum trautvetteri Francuzov 2006, subalpine meadow (assotiation Poa longifolii – Calamagrostietum arundinaceae Semagina, 1992. Soil traps were used for collection of spiders.Results and main conclusions. During the period of study 100 species of spiders from 19 families are registered. Most diverse araneofauna of subalpine meadows includs 54 species belonging to 14 families. The least diverse araneofauna is in maple forest (24 species of 7 families. In beech-silver fir includes 45 species of 16 families of spiders. Only 3 species (Pireneitega ovtchinnikovi, Cybaeus abchasicus, Tenuiphantes mengei were found in all surveyed habitats. These 3 species clearly tend to forest habitats. Herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus characterized by high taxonomic diversity with clear predominance of representatives of the family Linyphiidae. Specificity of araneofauna in different types of plant communities is high.

  14. Abstracts of Other Talks Given at the Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Bruce

    from the first ATS meeting held at the United States Naval Observatory. Abstracts in addition to Debra Jean Warner's were: "Use of Spider Webs in Early Scopes" by Steve Turner; "Mogey: A Man and a Telescope" by Peter Serrada; "Notes on Some Early American Telescopes" by John W. Briggs; and "The Long and the Short of it: Telescopes of the Seventeenth Century" by Dr. Eugene Rudd.

  15. Abstracts and Abstracting in Knowledge Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Lancaster, F. W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents various levels of criteria for judging the quality of abstracts and abstracting. Requirements for abstracts to be read by humans are compared with requirements for those to be searched by computer. Concludes that the wide availability of complete text in electronic form does not reduce the value of abstracts for information retrieval.…

  16. Discovery of fossil spider remains in Tertiary soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manewald, U.; Heimer, S.; Volkman, N.

    1986-11-01

    A fossil spring spider (Salticidae) is described, discovered in a 1 cm/sup 3/ void of a lower Miocene brown coal seam in Bitterfeld (GDR). The spider's hair, chelicerae and legs are well preserved. A photograph of the cephalothorax is provided. In the same coal seam egg cocoons of other spiders were also found and are shown in two further microscopic photographs. Conclusions are drawn on spider fossilization, sedimentation and paleoenvironment of the Miocene coal seam 8 references.

  17. SPIDER OR NO SPIDER? NEURAL CORRELATES OF SUSTAINED AND PHASIC FEAR IN SPIDER PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münsterkötter, Anna Luisa; Notzon, Swantje; Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Zwanzger, Peter; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Processes of phasic fear responses to threatening stimuli are thought to be distinct from sustained, anticipatory anxiety toward an unpredicted, potential threat. There is evidence for dissociable neural correlates of phasic fear and sustained anxiety. Whereas increased amygdala activity has been associated with phasic fear, sustained anxiety has been linked with activation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insula. So far, only a few studies have focused on the dissociation of neural processes related to both phasic and sustained fear in specific phobia. We suggested that first, conditions of phasic and sustained fear would involve different neural networks and, second, that overall neural activity would be enhanced in a sample of phobic compared to nonphobic participants. Pictures of spiders and neutral stimuli under conditions of either predicted (phasic) or unpredicted (sustained) fear were presented to 28 subjects with spider phobia and 28 nonphobic control subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Phobic patients revealed significantly higher amygdala activation than controls under conditions of phasic fear. Sustained fear processing was significantly related to activation in the insula and ACC, and phobic patients showed a stronger activation than controls of the BNST and the right ACC under conditions of sustained fear. Functional connectivity analysis revealed enhanced connectivity of the BNST and the amygdala in phobic subjects. Our findings support the idea of distinct neural correlates of phasic and sustained fear processes. Increased neural activity and functional connectivity in these networks might be crucial for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Short-term spider community monitoring after cattle removal in grazed grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. At the Pampa Biome, grazing, like others disturbances, affects fauna and flora, creating heterogeneity in the environment. Little is known about how the diversity and richness of arthropods change during this impact. To improve the knowledge of how spider diversity is affected by grazing, experiments were realized at Pampa. The hypothesis is that abundance of spider will be different when comparing grazed and ungrazed areas. A paired block, with two areas of one hectare each, was established in three areas in the Environmental Protection Area of Ibirapuitã (APA Ibirapuitã, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. One of these hectares was closed with fences, excluding the catle grazing, in August of 2012. Samplings were realized in November of 2011, 2012 and 2013 using Pitfall traps filled with formol 4% and disposed in an “X” format in each area. For statistical analyses, T test, ANOSIM, ANOVA and Rarefaction were performed. A total of 1,315 spiders were captured, comprising 77 species or morphospecies belonging to 20 families. The family most abundant was Lycosidae followed by Hahniidae, Linyphiidae and Theridiidae. Linyphiidae was the richest family with 14 species or morphospecies identified. All spiders, adults and juveniles, only adults in species and morphospecies, and most abundant species were used as models for statistics. These models revealed no significant difference between grazed and ungrazed areas after three and 15 months of cattle exclusion.

  19. Damage, Self-Healing, and Hysteresis in Spider Silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, D.; Puglisi, G.; Saccomandi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we propose a microstructure-based continuum model to describe the material behavior of spider silks. We suppose that the material is composed of a soft fraction with entropic elasticity and a hard, damageable fraction. The hard fraction models the presence of stiffer, crystal-rich, oriented regions and accounts for the effect of softening induced by the breaking of hydrogen bonds. To describe the observed presence of crystals with different size, composition, and orientation, this hard fraction is modeled as a distribution of materials with variable properties. The soft fraction describes the remaining regions of amorphous material and is here modeled as a wormlike chain. During stretching, we consider the effect of bond-breaking as a transition from the hard- to the soft-material phase. As we demonstrate, a crucial effect of bond-breaking that accompanies the softening of the material is an increase in contour length associated with chains unraveling. The model describes also the self-healing properties of the material by assuming partial bond reconnection upon unloading. Despite its simplicity, the proposed mechanical system reproduces the main experimental effects observed in cyclic loading of spider silks. Moreover, our approach is amenable to two- or three-dimensional extensions and may prove to be a useful tool in the field of microstructure optimization for bioinspired materials. PMID:20441758

  20. Sex-specific kleptoparasitic foraging in ant-eating spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martisová, Martina; Bilde, T.; Pekar, Stano

    2009-01-01

    . To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effect of sex and life history stage on the frequency of kleptoparasitism in ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion in the field. These spiders use a special capture technique involving a quick attack on an ant that is left unguarded by spiders for several minutes...

  1. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP Triggered by a Spider Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Makris

    2009-01-01

    Discussion: A spider bite may represent a possible causative factor of AGEP. A spider's venom contains sphingomyelinase that stimulates the release of IL8 and GM-CSF, which are involved in AGEP pathogenesis. Whether or not the con-current use of antibiotics has an effect in AGEP appearance when combined with a spider's venom, cannot be excluded.

  2. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  3. Stability field diagrams for Ln–O–Cl systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Isothermal stability field diagrams for Ln−O−Cl systems (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy,. Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) are developed by taking partial pressures of volatile components oxygen and chlorine as variables. Thermodynamic properties of all the oxides and trichlorides (LnCl3) are available in the literature.

  4. Spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D. Battirola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water, using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA. A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0% distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals, Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals, Salticidae (1,542 individuals and Pisauridae (906 individuals, were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.

  5. Spider Invasion Across the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yue Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the exotic stellar corpses which reincarnate by consuming their companion is reviewed. Apart from sucking life from their partners, they are actually eating the doomed companions away by their deadly and powerful particle/radiation beams. Such situation resembles that a female “black widow” spider that eats its mate after mating. These celestial zombies are called - Millisecond pulsars (MSPs. In this review article, I will focus on the effort of Fermi Asian Network (FAN in exploring these intricating objects over the last five years. Two special classes of MSPs are particularly striking. Since Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has started surveying the gamma−ray sky, the population of “black widows” has been boosted. Another dramatic class is so-called “redbacks” (Australian cousin of “black widows” which has just emerged in the last few years. These MSPs provide us with a long-sought missing link in understanding the transition between accretion-powered and rotation-powered systems. The strategy of hunting MSPs through mulitwavelength observations of the unidentified Fermi objects is also reviewed.

  6. Spider Invasion Across the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chung-Yue

    2014-06-01

    The nature of the exotic stellar corpses which reincarnate by consuming their companion is reviewed. Apart from sucking life from their partners, they are actually eating the doomed companions away by their deadly and powerful particle/radiation beams. Such situation resembles that a female ¡°black widow¡± spider that eats its mate after mating. These celestial zombies are called - Millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In this review article, I will focus on the effort of Fermi Asian Network (FAN) in exploring these intricating objects over the last five years. Two special classes of MSPs are particularly striking. Since Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has started surveying the gamma?ray sky, the population of ¡°black widows¡± has been boosted. Another dramatic class is so-called ¡°redbacks¡± (Australian cousin of ¡°black widows¡±) which has just emerged in the last few years. These MSPs provide us with a long-sought missing link in understanding the transition between accretion-powered and rotation-powered systems. The strategy of hunting MSPs through mulitwavelength observations of the unidentified Fermi objects is also reviewed.

  7. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  8. Disentangling the phylogenetic and ecological components of spider phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables) to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i) between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale) and (ii) among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale). We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species) and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships). At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure.

  9. Checklist of spider fauna of FR Peshawar, FATA, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Perveen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spiders are known as poisonous arthropods, but they also act as the predator or biological pests control agent. Their 23 species belonging to 15 genera and 09 families were reported during 2009-2010 from FR Peshawar, FATA, Pakistan. The reported families Clubionidae, Scytodidae and Sprassidae covered each 4%, Araneidae, Gnaphosidae, Pholicidae and Salticidae each 9%, Thomisidae 13% and Lycosidae 43% biodiversity of spiders of FATA. However, the largest spider collected was huntsman, Isopoda tuhodnigra (Barrion with total body length 15.80+-0.83 mm. Moreover, the smallest spider was wolf spider, Pardosa birmanica (Simon with total body length 4.20+-1.30 mm. Further, the crab spiders, Thomisus pugilis (Stoliczka, T. spectabilis (Doleschall and Diaea evanida (Thorell were the most colorful species belonging to family Thomisidae. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of FATA.

  10. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzad; Banan Khojasteh, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Rahmani, Farnaz; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore, we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments.

  11. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments. 

  12. Uncovering the structure-function relationship in spider silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, Jeffery L.; Cherry, Brian R.; van der Vaart, Arjan

    2018-03-01

    All spiders produce protein-based biopolymer fibres that we call silk. The most studied of these silks is spider dragline silk, which is very tough and relatively abundant compared with other types of spider silks. Considerable research has been devoted to understanding the relationship between the molecular structure and mechanical properties of spider dragline silks. In this Review, we overview experimental and computational studies that have provided a wealth of detail at the molecular level on the highly conserved repetitive core and terminal regions of spider dragline silk. We also discuss the role of the nanocrystalline β-sheets and amorphous regions in determining the properties of spider silk fibres, endowing them with strength and elasticity. Additionally, we outline imaging techniques and modelling studies that elucidate the importance of the hierarchical structure of silk fibres at the molecular level. These insights into structure-function relationships can guide the reverse engineering of spider silk to enable the production of superior synthetic fibres.

  13. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  14. Programming spiders, bots, and aggregators in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The content and services available on the web continue to be accessed mostly through direct human control. But this is changing. Increasingly, users rely on automated agents that save them time and effort by programmatically retrieving content, performing complex interactions, and aggregating data from diverse sources. Programming Spiders, Bots, and Aggregators in Java teaches you how to build and deploy a wide variety of these agents-from single-purpose bots to exploratory spiders to aggregators that present a unified view of information from multiple user accounts. You will quickly build on

  15. Fish Predation by Semi-Aquatic Spiders: A Global Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Pusey, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders – observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens – are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2–6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil). Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae), in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae), and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae). The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences). There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the ‘swimming’ huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae]) predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders’ body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders). Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance. PMID:24940885

  16. New detectors for powders diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convert, P.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years, all the classical neutron diffractometers for powders have used one or maybe a few counters. So, it takes a long time to obtain a diagram which causes many disadvantages: 1) very long experiments: one or two days (or flux on the sample about 10 6 n/cm 2 /a); 2) necessity of big samples: many cm 3 ; 3) necessity of having the whole diagram before changing anything in the experiment: magnetic field, temperature, quality of the sample; 4) necessity of having collimators of a few times ten minutes to obtain correct statistics in the diagram. Because of these disadvantages, several attempts have been made to speed up the experimental procedure such as using more counters, the detection of neutrons on a resistive wire, etc. In Grenoble, new position-sensitive detectors have been constructed using a digital technique

  17. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn V.

    2007-01-01

    When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption that the......When using the influence diagrams framework for solving a decision problem with several different quantitative utilities, the traditional approach has been to convert the utilities into one common currency. This conversion is carried out using a tacit transformation, under the assumption...... that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the influence diagram framework. The extension allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a linear conversion function between the currencies...

  18. Phase diagrams and crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkrbec, Jan

    1980-04-01

    Phase diagrams are briefly treated as generalized property-composition relationships, with respect to crystal technology optimization. The treatment is based on mutual interaction of three systems related to semiconductors: (a) the semiconducting material systems, (b0 the data bank, (c) the system of crystallization methods. A model is proposed enabling optimatization on the path from application requirements to the desired material. Further, several examples of the selection as to the composition of LED and laser diode material are given. Some of molten-solution-zone methods are being successfully introduced for this purpose. Common features of these methods, the application of phase diagrams, and their pecularities compared with other crystallization methods are illustrated by schematic diagrams and by examples. LPE methods, particularly the steady-state LPE methods such as Woodall's ISM and Nishizawa's TDM-CVP, and the CAM-S (Crystallization Method Providing Composition Autocontrol in Situ) have been chosen as examples. Another approach of exploiting phase diagrams for optimal material selection and for determination of growth condition before experimentation through a simple calculation is presented on InP-GaP solid solutions. Ternary phase diagrams are visualized in space through calculation and constructions based on the corresponding thermodynamic models and anaglyphs. These make it easy to observe and qualitatively analyze the crystallization of every composition. Phase diagrams can be also used as a powerful tool for the deduction of new crystallization methods. Eutectic crystallization is an example of such an approach where a modified molten-solution-zone method can give a sandwich structure with an abrupt concentration change. The concentration of a component can range from 0 to 100% in the different solid phases.

  19. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  20. Reversible Myocarditis after Black Widow Spider Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Dendane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Black widow spiders can cause variable clinical scenarios from local damage to very serious conditions including death. Acute myocardial damage is rarely observed and its prognostic significance is not known. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old man who developed an acute myocarditis with cardiogenic pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation caused by black widow spider's envenomation. The patient was previously healthy. The clinical course was associated with systemic and cardiovascular complaints. His electrocardiogram revealed ST-segment elevation with T-wave amplitude. The plasma concentrations of cardiac enzymes were elevated. His first echocardiography showed hypokinesis of the left ventricle (left ventricle ejection fraction 48%. Magnetic resonance imaging showed also focal myocardial injury of the LV. There was progressive improvement in cardiac traces, biochemical and echocardiographical values (second left ventricle ejection fraction increased to 50%. Myocardial involvement after a spider bite is rare and can cause death. The exact mechanism of this myocarditis is unknown. We report a rare case of acute myocarditis with cardiogenic pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation caused by black widow spider's envenomation. We objectively documented progressive clinical and electrical improvement.

  1. Reversible myocarditis after black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendane, Tarek; Abidi, Khalid; Madani, Naoufel; Benthami, Asmae; Gueddari, Fatima-Zohra; Abouqal, Redoune; Zeggwagh, Amine-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Black widow spiders can cause variable clinical scenarios from local damage to very serious conditions including death. Acute myocardial damage is rarely observed and its prognostic significance is not known. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old man who developed an acute myocarditis with cardiogenic pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation caused by black widow spider's envenomation. The patient was previously healthy. The clinical course was associated with systemic and cardiovascular complaints. His electrocardiogram revealed ST-segment elevation with T-wave amplitude. The plasma concentrations of cardiac enzymes were elevated. His first echocardiography showed hypokinesis of the left ventricle (left ventricle ejection fraction 48%). Magnetic resonance imaging showed also focal myocardial injury of the LV. There was progressive improvement in cardiac traces, biochemical and echocardiographical values (second left ventricle ejection fraction increased to 50%). Myocardial involvement after a spider bite is rare and can cause death. The exact mechanism of this myocarditis is unknown. We report a rare case of acute myocarditis with cardiogenic pulmonary edema requiring mechanical ventilation caused by black widow spider's envenomation. We objectively documented progressive clinical and electrical improvement.

  2. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives.

  3. Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as soon as you can because they can make you very sick. With an adult's help, wash the bite well with soap and water. Then apply an ice pack to the bite, and try to elevate the area and keep it still to help prevent the ... black widows, you'll want to make sure that's the kind of spider that bit ...

  4. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Casas

    Full Text Available Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.

  5. Phase diagram of Hertzian spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pàmies, J.C.; Cacciuto, A.; Frenkel, D.

    2009-01-01

    We report the phase diagram of interpenetrating Hertzian spheres. The Hertz potential is purely repulsive, bounded at zero separation, and decreases monotonically as a power law with exponent 5/2, vanishing at the overlapping threshold. This simple functional describes the elastic interaction of

  6. Diagrams in the polaron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smondyrev, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The perturbation theory for the polaron energy is systematically treated on the diagrammatic basis. Feynman diagrams being constructed allow to calculate the polaron energy up to the third order in powers of the coupling constant. Similar calculations are performed for the average number of virtual phonons

  7. Multi-currency Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Holbech; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    that the converted problem is equivalent to the original one. In this paper we present an extension of the Influence Diagram framework, which allows for these decision problems to be modelled in their original form. We present an algorithm that, given a conversion function between the currencies, discovers...

  8. Electrical elementary diagrams and operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Inc., Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: HumanFactors@netscape.ca

    2005-07-01

    After 40 years of reading and interrupting electrical elementary logic drawings, I have concluded that we need to make a change. We need to write and express our nuclear power plant logic in some other language than relay ladder logic, solid state logic or computer mnemonics. The language should be English, or your native language, and the format should be Descriptive Block Diagrams. (author)

  9. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  10. Infrared thermography method for fast estimation of phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Del Barrio, Elena [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Cadoret, Régis [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France); Daranlot, Julien [Solvay, Laboratoire du Futur, 178 Av du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Achchaq, Fouzia, E-mail: fouzia.achchaq@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, 33405 Talence (France)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography is proposed to determine phase diagrams in record time. • Phase boundaries are detected by means of emissivity changes during heating. • Transition lines are identified by using Singular Value Decomposition techniques. • Different binary systems have been used for validation purposes. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCM) are widely used today in thermal energy storage applications. Pure PCMs are rarely used because of non adapted melting points. Instead of them, mixtures are preferred. The search of suitable mixtures, preferably eutectics, is often a tedious and time consuming task which requires the determination of phase diagrams. In order to accelerate this screening step, a new method for estimating phase diagrams in record time (1–3 h) has been established and validated. A sample composed by small droplets of mixtures with different compositions (as many as necessary to have a good coverage of the phase diagram) deposited on a flat substrate is first prepared and cooled down to ambient temperature so that all droplets crystallize. The plate is then heated at constant heating rate up to a sufficiently high temperature for melting all the small crystals. The heating process is imaged by using an infrared camera. An appropriate method based on singular values decomposition technique has been developed to analyze the recorded images and to determine the transition lines of the phase diagram. The method has been applied to determine several simple eutectic phase diagrams and the reached results have been validated by comparison with the phase diagrams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter measurements and by thermodynamic modelling.

  11. A novel neurotoxin from venom of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yunhua; Song, Bo; Mo, Guoxiang; Yuan, Mingwei; Li, Hongli; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Minglong; Lu, Qiumin

    2014-01-01

    Spiders have evolved highly selective toxins for insects. There are many insecticidal neurotoxins in spider venoms. Although a large amount of work has been done to focus on neurotoxicity of spider components, little information, which is related with effects of spider toxins on tumor cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, is available for Brachypelma albopilosum venom. In this work, a novel spider neurotoxin (brachyin) was identified and characterized from venoms of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum. Brachyin is composed of 41 amino acid residues with the sequence of CLGENVPCDKDRPNCCSRYECLEPTGYGWWYASYYCYKKRS. There are six cysteines in this sequence, which form three disulfided bridges. The serine residue at the C-terminus is amidated. Brachyin showed strong lethal effects on American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). This neurotoxin also showed significant analgesic effects in mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and formalin-induced paw licking tests. It was interesting that brachyin exerted marked inhibition on tumor cell proliferation.

  12. A novel neurotoxin from venom of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua Zhong

    Full Text Available Spiders have evolved highly selective toxins for insects. There are many insecticidal neurotoxins in spider venoms. Although a large amount of work has been done to focus on neurotoxicity of spider components, little information, which is related with effects of spider toxins on tumor cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, is available for Brachypelma albopilosum venom. In this work, a novel spider neurotoxin (brachyin was identified and characterized from venoms of the spider, Brachypelma albopilosum. Brachyin is composed of 41 amino acid residues with the sequence of CLGENVPCDKDRPNCCSRYECLEPTGYGWWYASYYCYKKRS. There are six cysteines in this sequence, which form three disulfided bridges. The serine residue at the C-terminus is amidated. Brachyin showed strong lethal effects on American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle. This neurotoxin also showed significant analgesic effects in mice models including abdominal writhing induced by acetic acid and formalin-induced paw licking tests. It was interesting that brachyin exerted marked inhibition on tumor cell proliferation.

  13. Stress/Strain Characteristics and Biochemical Correlates of Spider Silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-18

    do aminoacid analysis on silk samples measured and collected from the same spiders. Background to reports 1 and 2: Dr Kaplan left Natick during the...properties (shown by us) as well as measurable effects on silk aminoacid compositions (C Craig pers. comm). Thus after initial samples of silks from a...variability could be the state of nutrition of the spider. Starvation has been shown to have an effect on the web- geometry in orb-weaving spiders 2; and

  14. Spider silk: a novel optical fibre for biochemical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hey Tow, Kenny; Chow, Desmond; Vollrath, Fritz; Dicaire, Isabelle; Gheysens, Tom; Thévenaz, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Whilst being thoroughly used in the textile industry and biomedical sector, silk has not yet been exploited for fibre optics-based sensing although silk fibres directly obtained from spiders can guide light and have shown early promises to being sensitive to some solvents. In this communication, a pioneering optical fibre sensor based on spider silk is reported, demonstrating for the first time the use of spider silk as an optical fibre sensor to detect polar solvents such as water, ammonia a...

  15. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Todd A; Scharff, Nikolaj; Coddington, Jonathan A; Szüts, Tamas; Wenzel, John W; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2009-03-31

    The evolutionary diversification of spiders is attributed to spectacular innovations in silk. Spiders are unique in synthesizing many different kinds of silk, and using silk for a variety of ecological functions throughout their lives, particularly to make prey-catching webs. Here, we construct a broad higher-level phylogeny of spiders combining molecular data with traditional morphological and behavioral characters. We use this phylogeny to test the hypothesis that the spider orb web evolved only once. We then examine spider diversification in relation to different web architectures and silk use. We find strong support for a single origin of orb webs, implying a major shift in the spinning of capture silk and repeated loss or transformation of orb webs. We show that abandonment of costly cribellate capture silk correlates with the 2 major diversification events in spiders (1). Replacement of cribellate silk by aqueous silk glue may explain the greater diversity of modern orb-weaving spiders (Araneoidea) compared with cribellate orb-weaving spiders (Deinopoidea) (2). Within the "RTA clade," which is the sister group to orb-weaving spiders and contains half of all spider diversity, >90% of species richness is associated with repeated loss of cribellate silk and abandonment of prey capture webs. Accompanying cribellum loss in both groups is a release from substrate-constrained webs, whether by aerially suspended webs, or by abandoning webs altogether. These behavioral shifts in silk and web production by spiders thus likely played a key role in the dramatic evolutionary success and ecological dominance of spiders as predators of insects.

  16. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

     Probabilistic networks, also known as Bayesian networks and influence diagrams, have become one of the most promising technologies in the area of applied artificial intelligence, offering intuitive, efficient, and reliable methods for diagnosis, prediction, decision making, classification......, troubleshooting, and data mining under uncertainty. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. Intended...... primarily for practitioners, this book does not require sophisticated mathematical skills or deep understanding of the underlying theory and methods nor does it discuss alternative technologies for reasoning under uncertainty. The theory and methods presented are illustrated through more than 140 examples...

  17. Anatomy of geodesic Witten diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Kuo, En-Jui; Kyono, Hideki

    2017-05-01

    We revisit the so-called "Geodesic Witten Diagrams" (GWDs) [1], proposed to be the holographic dual configuration of scalar conformal partial waves, from the perspectives of CFT operator product expansions. To this end, we explicitly consider three point GWDs which are natural building blocks of all possible four point GWDs, discuss their gluing procedure through integration over spectral parameter, and this leads us to a direct identification with the integral representation of CFT conformal partial waves. As a main application of this general construction, we consider the holographic dual of the conformal partial waves for external primary operators with spins. Moreover, we consider the closely related "split representation" for the bulk to bulk spinning propagator, to demonstrate how ordinary scalar Witten diagram with arbitrary spin exchange, can be systematically decomposed into scalar GWDs. We also discuss how to generalize to spinning cases.

  18. The canopy spiders (Araneae of the floodplain forest in Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The canopy spiders of the floodplain forest in Leipzig have become a focus of ecological studies in recent years. In 2006 we sampled 30 tree canopies in the ‘Burgaue’ nature reserve with pyrethrum knock-down fogging, recording 502 adult spiders belonging to 48 species and 11 families. Based on these data and the results of a previous fogging study, the studied spider community was dominated by forest and forest-edge species with a preference for the shrub and canopy strata as well as by spiders of the web spider feeding guild. The community structure was typical for arboreal spider communities from northern temperate forests but very different from communities in the tropics. Species richness and evenness were similar to the old growth near-primary Białowieża Forest in Poland. The checklist of 96 canopy spider species of the floodplain forest of Leipzig includes 54 additions to the spider fauna of Leipzig and vicinity by recent canopy studies and eight first canopy records for Leipzig from our field work. The theridiid Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875 was recorded for the first time in Saxony. The floodplain forest of Leipzig sustains a large and species-rich arboreal spider community and is thus a valuable habitat for a large proportion of endangered species (12%.

  19. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2003-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velo...

  20. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-06-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  1. Causal diagrams, the placebo effect, and the expectation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar, Eyal; Shahar, Doron J

    2013-01-01

    Eyal Shahar,1 Doron J Shahar2 1Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, 2Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Using causal diagrams, a formal research methodology, we analyzed several definitions of placebo and the placebo effect. We conclude that placebo is an ambiguous, redundant term and that the so-called placebo effect conceals far more interesting effects that are attributed t...

  2. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Kostanjšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

  3. Red-back spider (Latrodectus hasselti) antivenom prevents the toxicity of widow spider venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudins, A; Padula, M; Broady, K; Nicholson, G M

    2001-02-01

    Widow spiders of the genus Latrodectus are found worldwide and produce similar clinical envenomation syndromes. In Australia, red-back spider antivenom (RBS-AV) is effective therapy for Latrodectus hasselti envenomation and it has been reported to reverse envenomation by other widow spiders. This study assessed the efficacy of RBS-AV in preventing in vitro and in vivo toxicity of widow spider venoms of North America and Europe. The binding of RBS-AV to alpha-latrotoxin and Latrodectus venoms (Latrodectus spp mactans, hesperus, lugubris, tredecimguttatus, hasselti) was assayed using Western blotting. Prevention of in vitro toxicity to alpha-latrotoxin and the same venoms was tested by pretreating an isolated chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation with RBS-AV. Prevention of in vivo toxicity was determined by a lethality study in male Balb/c mice (2.5 to 5x median lethal dose [LD50]) or alpha-latrotoxin (10x LD50) preincubated with antivenom or without RBS-AV (control). In Western blots, RBS-AV bound to alpha-latrotoxin and similar widow spider proteins in all venoms tested, indicating antigenic similarity with proteins found in RBS venom. Antivenom prevented the typical in vitro muscle contracture and loss of twitch tension seen with alpha-latrotoxin and the venoms tested. Control mice rapidly developed signs of envenomation, but mice treated with RBS-AV remained free of signs of envenomation. RBS-AV prevented both in vitro and in vivo toxicity from Latrodectus venoms and alpha-latrotoxin in mice. These data suggest that RBS-AV may be clinically effective in the treatment of envenomation resulting from the bite of other widow spiders.

  4. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics

  5. Disentangling the phylogenetic and ecological components of spider phenotypic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gonçalves-Souza

    Full Text Available An understanding of how the degree of phylogenetic relatedness influences the ecological similarity among species is crucial to inferring the mechanisms governing the assembly of communities. We evaluated the relative importance of spider phylogenetic relationships and ecological niche (plant morphological variables to the variation in spider body size and shape by comparing spiders at different scales: (i between bromeliads and dicot plants (i.e., habitat scale and (ii among bromeliads with distinct architectural features (i.e., microhabitat scale. We partitioned the interspecific variation in body size and shape into phylogenetic (that express trait values as expected by phylogenetic relationships among species and ecological components (that express trait values independent of phylogenetic relationships. At the habitat scale, bromeliad spiders were larger and flatter than spiders associated with the surrounding dicots. At this scale, plant morphology sorted out close related spiders. Our results showed that spider flatness is phylogenetically clustered at the habitat scale, whereas it is phylogenetically overdispersed at the microhabitat scale, although phylogenic signal is present in both scales. Taken together, these results suggest that whereas at the habitat scale selective colonization affect spider body size and shape, at fine scales both selective colonization and adaptive evolution determine spider body shape. By partitioning the phylogenetic and ecological components of phenotypic variation, we were able to disentangle the evolutionary history of distinct spider traits and show that plant architecture plays a role in the evolution of spider body size and shape. We also discussed the relevance in considering multiple scales when studying phylogenetic community structure.

  6. Black widow spider envenomation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael D; Myers, Orrin; Caravati, E Martin; Rayburn, William F; Seifert, Steven A

    2011-01-01

    Little data exist regarding the optimal treatment and outcomes of pregnancies complicated by black widow spider envenomation. Our objective is to evaluate the clinical effects, medical outcomes, and treatment differences between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This observational study is based on a review of the database maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers from 2003 to 2007. Of the 12,640 human black widow spider envenomations reported at 61 poison centers in the United States, 3194 (25.3%) involved women of reproductive age, defined as age 15-45 years of age, with 97 (3.0% of reproductive-age women) being pregnant. Comparing pregnant and nonpregnant women, there were no significant differences in recommended or administered treatments. Pregnant women were more likely than nonpregnant women (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.20-2.83) to have outcomes coded as minor, moderate, or major rather than no effect. Significantly higher percentages of pregnant patients were treated at a healthcare facility where they were either released (36.1% vs. 19.9%, p  Black widow spider envenomation is a rare occurrence in pregnant women and the short-term outcomes appear to be favorable.

  7. Host selection by a kleptobiotic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Yann; Delme, Juliette; Legal, Luc; Williams, Trevor

    2005-02-01

    Why do kleptobiotic spiders of the genus Argyrodes seem to be associated with spiders of the genus Nephila worldwide? Observations following introduction of experimental insect prey of different sizes and weights on to host webs revealed that: (1) small prey are more effectively retained on the web of Nephila clavipes than on the web of another common host, Leucauge venusta. (2) N. clavipes did not consume small prey that accumulated on the web whereas larger, heavier prey were enveloped and stored. (3) We observed clear partitioning of prey items between N. clavipes and Argyrodes spp.; diet selection by Argyrodes did not overlap with that of N. clavipes but closely overlapped with that of L. venusta. (4) L. venusta responds very quickly to prey impact whereas N. clavipes is slower, offering a temporal window of opportunity for Argyrodes foraging. (5) The ability of L. venusta to detect and respond to small items also means that it acts aggressively to Argyrodes spp., whereas N. clavipes does not. Consequently, food-acquisition behaviours of Argyrodes were clearly less risky with N. clavipes compared with L. venusta. We conclude that when a kleptobiotic organism has a choice of various host species, it will opt for the least risky host that presents the highest rate of availability of food items. The fact that Nephila species present such characteristics explains the worldwide association with Argyrodes kleptobiotic spiders.

  8. Troponin elevation after black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sean P; Davy, J Veeran

    2015-09-01

    Black widow spider envenomation generally results in self-limiting pain that can be treated in the emergency department (ED) with analgesics and benzodiazepines, usually with no further intervention. Occasionally, a patient has to be admitted or treated with antivenom for refractory pain or a venom-induced complication. We present the case of an 84-year-old man who presented to our ED with chest pain and dyspnea after being bitten on the foot by a western black widow spider (Lactrodectus hesperus). His initial cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was elevated at 0.07 ng/ml and continued to rise to a peak of 0.17 ng/ml. He also had rhabdomyolysis, another uncommon complication of black widow envenomation. An elevated cTnI generally signifies myocardial injury and is rarely seen after black widow envenomation. We discuss the possible etiologies for an elevated cardiac biomarker, in this context, and review potentially serious complications of widow spider envenomation presenting with chest symptoms and an elevated cardiac biomarker.

  9. Nanofibre production in spiders without electric charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Baumgartner, Werner

    2017-06-15

    Technical nanofibre production is linked to high voltage, because nanofibres are typically produced by electrospinning. In contrast, spiders have evolved a way to produce nanofibres without high voltage. These spiders are called cribellate spiders and produce nanofibres within their capture thread production. It is suggested that their nanofibres become frictionally charged when brushed over a continuous area on the calamistrum, a comb-like structure at the metatarsus of the fourth leg. Although there are indications that electrostatic charges are involved in the formation of the thread structure, final proof is missing. We proposed three requirements to validate this hypothesis: (1) the removal of any charge during or after thread production has an influence on the structure of the thread; (2) the characteristic structure of the thread can be regenerated by charging; and (3) the thread is attracted to or repelled from differently charged objects. None of these three requirements were proven true. Furthermore, mathematical calculations reveal that even at low charges, the calculated structural assembly of the thread does not match the observed reality. Electrostatic forces are therefore not involved in the production of cribellate capture threads. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The embryonic development of the central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilbrant Maarten

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spider Cupiennius salei (Keyserling 1877 has become an important study organism in evolutionary and developmental biology. However, the available staging system for its embryonic development is difficult to apply to modern studies, with strong bias towards the earliest developmental stages. Furthermore, important embryonic events are poorly understood. We address these problems, providing a new description of the embryonic development of C. salei. The paper also discusses various observations that will improve our understanding of spider development. Results Conspicuous developmental events were used to define numbered stages 1 to 21. Stages 1 to 9 follow the existing staging system for the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum, and stages 10 to 21 provide a high-resolution description of later development. Live-embryo imaging shows cell movements during the earliest formation of embryonic tissue in C. salei. The imaging procedure also elucidates the encircling border between the cell-dense embryo hemisphere and the hemisphere with much lower cell density (a structure termed 'equator' in earlier studies. This border results from subsurface migration of primordial mesendodermal cells from their invagination site at the blastopore. Furthermore, our detailed successive sequence shows: 1 early differentiation of the precheliceral neuroectoderm; 2 the morphogenetic process of inversion and 3 initial invaginations of the opisthosomal epithelium for the respiratory system. Conclusions Our improved staging system of development in C. salei development should be of considerable value to future comparative studies of animal development. A dense germ disc is not evident during development in C. salei, but we show that the gastrulation process is similar to that in spider species that do have a dense germ disc. In the opisthosoma, the order of appearance of precursor epithelial invaginations provides evidence for the non-homology of the

  11. Spider hosts (Arachnida, Araneae) and wasp parasitoids (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ephialtini) matched using DNA barcodes

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jeremy; Belgers, J. Dick; Beentjes, Kevin; Zwakhals, Kees; van Helsdingen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The study of parasitoids and their hosts suffers from a lack of reliable taxonomic data. We use a combination of morphological characters and DNA sequences to produce taxonomic determinations that can be verified with reference to specimens in an accessible collection and DNA barcode sequences posted to the Barcode of Life database (BOLD). We demonstrate that DNA can be successfully extracted from consumed host spiders and the shed pupal case of a wasp using non-destructive methods. ...

  12. Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2016-01-01

    , though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...

  13. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  14. Grid diagrams and Khovanov homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droz, Jean-Marie; Wagner, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    We explain how to compute the Jones polynomial of a link from one of its grid diagrams and we observe a connection between Bigelow’s homological definition of the Jones polynomial and Kauffman’s definition of the Jones polynomial. Consequently, we prove that the Maslov grading on the Seidel–Smith...... symplectic link invariant coincides with the difference between the homological grading on Khovanov homology and the Jones grading on Khovanov homology. We give some evidence for the truth of the Seidel–Smith conjecture....

  15. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Stoltze, Per

    1997-01-01

    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign...... is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss...

  16. Towards cardinality-based service feature diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Assad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide efficient services to end-user it is essential to manage variability among services. Feature modelling is an important approach to manage variability and commonalities of a system in product line. Feature models are composed of feature diagrams. Service feature diagrams (an extended form of feature diagrams changed the basic framework of feature diagrams by proposing new feature types and their relevance. Service feature diagrams provide selection rights for variable features. In this paper we argue that it is essential to put cardinalities on service feature diagrams. That is, the selection of features should be done under some constraints, to provide a lower and upper limit for the selection of features. The use of cardinalities on service feature diagrams reduces the types of features to half, while keeping the integrity of all features.

  17. Structure–Activity Relationship Study of Spider Polyamine Toxins as Inhibitors of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Poulsen, Mette H; Hussein, Rama A

    2014-01-01

    The spider polyamine toxins Joro spider toxin-3 (JSTX-3) and Nephila polyamine toxins-1 and -8 (NPTX-1 and NPTX-8) are isolated from the venom of the orb-weaver spider Nephila clavata (Joro spider). They share a high degree of structural resemblance, their aromatic head groups being the only...

  18. Fear of spiders: The effect of real threat on the interference caused by symbolic threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the presence of a real spider on attentional biases for symbolic spider stimuli was examined in 42 low-fearful and 26 high-spider-fearful participants. They completed a word colour-naming task as well as a picture orientation-judgement task, both with versus without a spider present in

  19. Three newly recorded Linyphiid spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Yeon Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three Linyphiid spiders, Caviphantes pseudosaxetorum Wunderlich, 1979, Erigone edentata Saito and Ono, 2001, and Savignia kawachiensis Oi, 1960, are reported for the first time from Korea with taxonomic illustrations and redescription. In this study, the genus Caviphantes Oi, 1960 is also newly recorded to Korean spider fauna.

  20. Spider diversity in relation to habitat heterogeneity and an altitudinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using pitfall traps, wandering spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) were sampled in a nested design from three different localities in the mountainous arid ecosystem of South Sinai at low, middle, and high altitudes. Habitat type and altitude were clearly different among the three localities. Spider diversity per trap varied spatially ...

  1. Forest floor spiders of woodlots in an agricultural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabelis, A.

    1996-01-01

    An inventory of spiders was made in woodlots, which are situated in an agricultural landscape in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that good dispersers, like spiders, will be distributed randomly over habitat patches and consequently, that there will be

  2. Alleviation of oxidative stress induced by spider mite invasion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spider mite invasion induces oxidative stress on bean plants and increased soluble sugars, phenole, proline and peroxidase activity, but decreased catalase activity and ascorbic acid and carotenoid concentration. Application of elicitors significantly enhanced spider mite tolerance by decreasing hydrogen peroxide, ...

  3. Who is afraid of a black Spider(-Man)?

    OpenAIRE

    Ora C. McWilliams

    2013-01-01

    An Internet post asking about Spider-Man's race in a film turned into an Internet campaign about an actor that led fans to interact with each other as well as with the actor, which in turn led to the attention of media producers, which resulted in a change in Spider-Man's race in a print comic book.

  4. Who is afraid of a black Spider(-Man?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora C. McWilliams

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Internet post asking about Spider-Man's race in a film turned into an Internet campaign about an actor that led fans to interact with each other as well as with the actor, which in turn led to the attention of media producers, which resulted in a change in Spider-Man's race in a print comic book.

  5. Using Spider-Web Patterns To Determine Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Relwani, Rachna A.

    1995-01-01

    Method of determining toxicities of chemicals involves recording and analysis of spider-web patterns. Based on observation spiders exposed to various chemicals spin webs that differ, in various ways, from normal webs. Potential alternative to toxicity testing on higher animals.

  6. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-06-01

    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  7. Time-dependent motor properties of multipedal molecular spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samii, Laleh; Blab, Gerhard A; Bromley, Elizabeth H C; Linke, Heiner; Curmi, Paul M G; Zuckermann, Martin J; Forde, Nancy R

    2011-09-01

    Molecular spiders are synthetic biomolecular walkers that use the asymmetry resulting from cleavage of their tracks to bias the direction of their stepping motion. Using Monte Carlo simulations that implement the Gillespie algorithm, we investigate the dependence of the biased motion of molecular spiders, along with binding time and processivity, on tunable experimental parameters, such as number of legs, span between the legs, and unbinding rate of a leg from a substrate site. We find that an increase in the number of legs increases the spiders' processivity and binding time but not their mean velocity. However, we can increase the mean velocity of spiders with simultaneous tuning of the span and the unbinding rate of a spider leg from a substrate site. To study the efficiency of molecular spiders, we introduce a time-dependent expression for the thermodynamic efficiency of a molecular motor, allowing us to account for the behavior of spider populations as a function of time. Based on this definition, we find that spiders exhibit transient motor function over time scales of many hours and have a maximum efficiency on the order of 1%, weak compared to other types of molecular motors.

  8. Evidence for competition between carnivorous plants and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Krupa, James J; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2010-10-07

    Several studies have demonstrated that competition between disparate taxa can be important in determining community structure, yet surprisingly, to our knowledge, no quantitative studies have been conducted on competition between carnivorous plants and animals. To examine potential competition between these taxa, we studied dietary and microhabitat overlap between pink sundews (Drosera capillaris) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) in the field, and conducted a laboratory experiment examining the effects of wolf spiders on sundew fitness. In the field, we found that sundews and spiders had a high dietary overlap with each other and with the available arthropod prey. Associations between sundews and spiders depended on spatial scale: both sundews and spiders were found more frequently in quadrats with more abundant prey, but within quadrats, spiders constructed larger webs and located them further away from sundews as the total sundew trapping area increased, presumably to reduce competition. Spiders also constructed larger webs when fewer prey were available. In the laboratory, our experiment revealed that spiders can significantly reduce sundew fitness. Our findings suggest that members of the plant and animal kingdoms can and do compete.

  9. Spiders of Kerala Agricultural University Campus, Thrissur, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Adarsh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 86 species of spiders belonging to 56 genera of 20 families have been recorded from the Kerala Agricultural University (KAU campus, Thrissur, Kerala, southern India.  This represents 5.1% of the total spiders’ species and 33.33% of the total families of spiders recorded in India.  The dominant spider family at KAU campus is Araneidae with 18 species of nine genera. Salticidae is represented by 14 species of 13 genera.  Out of 252 endemic spiders of India, 16 have been reported from KAU campus.  Guild structure analysis shows spiders belonging to seven types of feeding guilds present in KAU campus.  Orb-web builders are the dominant feeding guild accounting for 34%, followed by stalkers (22%, ground runners (20%, ambushers (8%, scattered line weavers (8%, foliage runners (7% and sheet-web builders (1%. 

  10. Nutrient regulation in a predator, the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient balancing is well known in herbivores and omnivores, but has only recently been demonstrated in predators. To test how a predator might regulate nutrients when the prey varies in nutrient composition, we restricted juvenile Pardosa prativaga wolf spiders to diets of one of six fruit fly......, Drosophila melanogaster, prey types varying in lipid:protein composition during their second instar. We collected all fly remnants to estimate food and nutrient intake over each meal. The spiders adjusted their capture rate and nutrient extraction in response to prey mass and nutrient composition...... irrespective of energy intake. Intake was initially regulated to a constant lipid plus protein mass, but later spiders fed on prey with high proportions of protein increased consumption relative to spiders fed on other prey types. This pattern indicates that the spiders were prepared to overconsume vast...

  11. SPIDER: CMB Polarimetry from the Edge of Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, R.; et al.

    2017-11-28

    SPIDER is a balloon-borne instrument designed to map the polarization of the millimeter-wave sky at large angular scales. SPIDER targets the B-mode signature of primordial gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), with a focus on mapping a large sky area with high fidelity at multiple frequencies. SPIDER's first longduration balloon (LDB) flight in January 2015 deployed a total of 2400 antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) at 90 GHz and 150 GHz. In this work we review the design and in-flight performance of the SPIDER instrument, with a particular focus on the measured performance of the detectors and instrument in a space-like loading and radiation environment. SPIDER's second flight in December 2018 will incorporate payload upgrades and new receivers to map the sky at 285 GHz, providing valuable information for cleaning polarized dust emission from CMB maps.

  12. Morphological evolution of spiders predicted by pendulum mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Moya-Laraño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals have been hypothesized to benefit from pendulum mechanics during suspensory locomotion, in which the potential energy of gravity is converted into kinetic energy according to the energy-conservation principle. However, no convincing evidence has been found so far. Demonstrating that morphological evolution follows pendulum mechanics is important from a biomechanical point of view because during suspensory locomotion some morphological traits could be decoupled from gravity, thus allowing independent adaptive morphological evolution of these two traits when compared to animals that move standing on their legs; i.e., as inverted pendulums. If the evolution of body shape matches simple pendulum mechanics, animals that move suspending their bodies should evolve relatively longer legs which must confer high moving capabilities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested this hypothesis in spiders, a group of diverse terrestrial generalist predators in which suspensory locomotion has been lost and gained a few times independently during their evolutionary history. In spiders that hang upside-down from their webs, their legs have evolved disproportionately longer relative to their body sizes when compared to spiders that move standing on their legs. In addition, we show how disproportionately longer legs allow spiders to run faster during suspensory locomotion and how these same spiders run at a slower speed on the ground (i.e., as inverted pendulums. Finally, when suspensory spiders are induced to run on the ground, there is a clear trend in which larger suspensory spiders tend to run much more slowly than similar-size spiders that normally move as inverted pendulums (i.e., wandering spiders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that spiders have evolved according to the predictions of pendulum mechanics. These findings have potentially important ecological and evolutionary implications since

  13. Constraining Influence Diagram Structure by Generative Planning: An Application to the Optimization of Oil Spill Response

    OpenAIRE

    Agosta, John Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper works through the optimization of a real world planning problem, with a combination of a generative planning tool and an influence diagram solver. The problem is taken from an existing application in the domain of oil spill emergency response. The planning agent manages constraints that order sets of feasible equipment employment actions. This is mapped at an intermediate level of abstraction onto an influence diagram. In addition, the planner can apply a surveillance operator that...

  14. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  15. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...

  16. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  17. Manufacturing, assembly and tests of SPIDER Vacuum Vessel to develop and test a prototype of ITER neutral beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccaria, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.zaccaria@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Padova (Italy); Valente, Matteo; Rigato, Wladi; Dal Bello, Samuele; Marcuzzi, Diego; Agostini, Fabio Degli; Rossetto, Federico; Tollin, Marco [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Padova (Italy); Masiello, Antonio [Fusion for Energy F4E, Barcelona (Spain); Corniani, Giorgio; Badalocchi, Matteo; Bettero, Riccardo; Rizzetto, Dario [Ettore Zanon S.p.A., Schio (VI) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The SPIDER experiment aims to qualify and optimize the ion source for ITER injectors. • The large SPIDER Vacuum Vessel was built and it is under testing at the supplier. • The main working and assembly steps for production are presented in the paper. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from an RF plasma) aims to qualify and optimize the full size prototype of the negative ion source foreseen for MITICA (full size ITER injector prototype) and the ITER Heating and Current Drive Injectors. Both SPIDER and MITICA experiments are presently under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova (I), with the financial support from IO (ITER Organization), Fusion for Energy, Italian research institutions and contributions from Japan and India Domestic Agencies. The vacuum vessel hosting the SPIDER in-vessel components (Beam Source and calorimeters) has been manufactured, assembled and tested during the last two years 2013–2014. The cylindrical vessel, about 6 m long and 4 m in diameter, is composed of two cylindrical modules and two torispherical lids at the ends. All the parts are made by AISI 304 L stainless steel. The possibility of opening/closing the vessel for monitoring, maintenance or modifications of internal components is guaranteed by bolted junctions and suitable movable support structures running on rails fixed to the building floor. A large number of ports, about one hundred, are present on the vessel walls for diagnostic and service purposes. The main working steps for construction and specific technological issues encountered and solved for production are presented in the paper. Assembly sequences and tests on site are furthermore described in detail, highlighting all the criteria and requirements for correct positioning and testing of performances.

  18. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  19. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  20. Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders Læsø

    Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams: A Guide to Construction and Analysis, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive guide for practitioners who wish to understand, construct, and analyze intelligent systems for decision support based on probabilistic networks. This new edition contains six new...... sections, in addition to fully-updated examples, tables, figures, and a revised appendix. Intended primarily for practitioners, this book does not require sophisticated mathematical skills or deep understanding of the underlying theory and methods nor does it discuss alternative technologies for reasoning...... under uncertainty. The theory and methods presented are illustrated through more than 140 examples, and exercises are included for the reader to check his or her level of understanding. The techniques and methods presented on model construction and verification, modeling techniques and tricks, learning...

  1. Neighbourhood Abstraction in GROOVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    2011-01-01

    Important classes of graph grammars have infinite state spaces and therefore cannot be verified with traditional model checking techniques. One way to address this problem is to perform graph abstraction, which allows us to generate a finite abstract state space that over-approximates the original

  2. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  3. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  4. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics

  5. Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Jacobus

    This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that they are beneficial to first responders performing searches and seizures, and they speed up investigations, including those conducted by experienced personnel.

  6. Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaim, Olga Meiri; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Toma, Leny; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Gremski, Waldemiro; Dietrich, Carl Peter von; Nader, Helena B.; Sanches Veiga, Silvio

    2006-01-01

    Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from

  7. Checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonstein, Sergei; Marusik, Yuri M

    2013-01-01

    This checklist records 631 spider species and subspecies belonging to 49 families in Israel. Species distributions are given in both generalised (by main geographic areas of the country) and detailed (by localities) form. Twenty-seven records are considered as doubtful and another ten are based on misidentifications. A historical survey is provided. Each record is presented in its original combination. The list is dominated by members of the families Gnaphosidae and Salticidae (20.0% and 17.1% of total species, respectively). The level of regional endemism exceeds 37.0%.

  8. Cuticular antifungals in spiders: density- and condition dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups face a high risk of disease contagion. In many arthropod species, cuticular antimicrobials constitute the first protective barrier that prevents infections. Here we report that group-living spiders produce cuticular chemicals which inhibit fungal growth. Given that cuticular antifungals may be costly to produce, we explored whether they can be modulated according to the risk of contagion (i.e. under high densities. For this purpose, we quantified cuticular antifungal activity in the subsocial crab spider Diaea ergandros in both natural nests and experimentally manipulated nests of varying density. We quantified the body-condition of spiders to test whether antifungal activity is condition dependent, as well as the effect of spider density on body-condition. We predicted cuticular antifungal activity to increase and body-condition to decrease with high spider densities, and that antifungal activity would be inversely related to body-condition. Contrary to our predictions, antifungal activity was neither density- nor condition-dependent. However, body-condition decreased with density in natural nests, but increased in experimental nests. We suggest that pathogen pressure is so important in nature that it maintains high levels of cuticular antifungal activity in spiders, impacting negatively on individual energetic condition. Future studies should identify the chemical structure of the isolated antifungal compounds in order to understand the physiological basis of a trade-off between disease prevention and energetic condition caused by group living, and its consequences in the evolution of sociality in spiders.

  9. Probing the Impact of Acidification on Spider Silk Assembly Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dian; Guo, Chengchen; Holland, Gregory P

    2015-07-13

    Spiders utilize fine adjustment of the physicochemical conditions within its silk spinning system to regulate spidroin assembly into solid silk fibers with outstanding mechanical properties. However, the exact mechanism about which this occurs remains elusive and is still hotly debated. In this study, the effect of acidification on spider silk assembly was investigated on native spidroins from the major ampullate (MA) gland fluid excised from Latrodectus hesperus (Black Widow) spiders. Incubating the protein-rich MA silk gland fluid at acidic pH conditions results in the formation of silk fibers that are 10-100 μm in length and ∼2 μm in diameter as judged by optical and electron microscope methods. The in vitro spider silk assembly kinetics were monitored as a function of pH with a (13)C solid-state MAS NMR approach. The results confirm the importance of acidic pH in the spider silk self-assembly process with observation of a sigmoidal nucleation-elongation kinetic profile. The rates of nucleation and elongation as well as the percentage of β-sheet structure in the grown fibers depend on the pH. These results confirm the importance of an acidic pH gradient along the spinning duct for spider silk formation and provide a powerful spectroscopic approach to probe the kinetics of spider silk formation under various biochemical conditions.

  10. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergast, Amy; Roderick, George K.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host–parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens, also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure.

  11. Spider Silk-CBD-Cellulose Nanocrystal Composites: Mechanism of Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, Sigal; Shtein, Zvi; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Tamburu, Carmen; Hu, Xiao; Kluge, Jonathan A; Raviv, Uri; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-09-18

    The fabrication of cellulose-spider silk bio-nanocomposites comprised of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and recombinant spider silk protein fused to a cellulose binding domain (CBD) is described. Silk-CBD successfully binds cellulose, and unlike recombinant silk alone, silk-CBD self-assembles into microfibrils even in the absence of CNCs. Silk-CBD-CNC composite sponges and films show changes in internal structure and CNC alignment related to the addition of silk-CBD. The silk-CBD sponges exhibit improved thermal and structural characteristics in comparison to control recombinant spider silk sponges. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the silk-CBD sponge was higher than the control silk sponge and similar to native dragline spider silk fibers. Gel filtration analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that silk-CBD, but not the recombinant silk control, formed a nematic liquid crystalline phase similar to that observed in native spider silk during the silk spinning process. Silk-CBD microfibrils spontaneously formed in solution upon ultrasonication. We suggest a model for silk-CBD assembly that implicates CBD in the central role of driving the dimerization of spider silk monomers, a process essential to the molecular assembly of spider-silk nanofibers and silk-CNC composites.

  12. Spider Communities and Biological Control in Native Habitats Surrounding Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Cotes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders as a group means that increased spider diversity may facilitate complementary control actions. In this study, the interactions between spiders, the two major horticultural pests, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis, and their naturally occurring predators and parasitoids were evaluated in a mix of 21 newly planted shrubs selected for habitat management in a highly disturbed horticultural system. The effects of all factors were evaluated using redundancy analysis (RDA and the generalized additive model (GAM to assess the statistical significance of abundance of spiders and pests. The GAM showed that the abundance of both pests had a significant effect on hunter spider’s abundance, whereas the abundance of B. tabaci, but not F. occidentalis, affected web-weavers’ abundance. Ordination analysis showed that spider abundance closely correlated with that of B. tabaci but not with that of F. occidentalis, suggesting that complementarity occurs, and thereby probability of biocontrol, with respect to the targeted pest B. tabaci, although the temporal patterns of the spiders differed from those of F. occidentalis. Conservation strategies involving the establishment of these native plants around greenhouses could be an effective way to reduce pest populations outdoors.

  13. Stage line diagram: An age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  14. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777; Ooms, J.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and

  15. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  16. Inhibition of the spider heartbeat by gravity and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, A.

    1984-01-01

    The rate and vigor of the spider heartbeat is controlled by an external pacemaker. A mechanical feature of the spider cardio-vascular system is the production of high serum pressure in the prosoma and the legs. This appears to be the source for leg extension. The lyriform organ on the patella of the leg is sensitive to vibratory and kinesthetic stimuli. This sensitivity depends upon the degree of leg extension. Thus the activity of the heart and the response characteristics of the sense receptor are related. The effect of a supra-threshold vibratory or gravitational stimulus is to produce an inhibition and a tachycardia of the spider heartbeat.

  17. Spider silk reinforced by graphene or carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Emiliano; Bosia, Federico; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bruna, Matteo; Taioli, Simone; Garberoglio, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2017-09-01

    Spider silk has promising mechanical properties, since it conjugates high strength (~1.5 GPa) and toughness (~150 J g-1). Here, we report the production of silk incorporating graphene and carbon nanotubes by spider spinning, after feeding spiders with the corresponding aqueous dispersions. We observe an increment of the mechanical properties with respect to pristine silk, up to a fracture strength ~5.4 GPa and a toughness modulus ~1570 J g-1. This approach could be extended to other biological systems and lead to a new class of artificially modified biological, or ‘bionic’, materials.

  18. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest...... at an increasingly faster pace. In this review, the current knowledge of spider and scorpion venoms is presented, followed by a discussion of all published biotechnological efforts within development of spider and scorpion antitoxins based on small molecules, antibodies and fragments thereof, and next generation...

  19. Myocarditis after black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ibrahim; Zengin, Suat; Davutoglu, Vedat; Yildirim, Cuma; Gunay, Nurullah

    2008-06-01

    The black widow spider (BWS), which is a member of the arthropod family, is widely distributed on earth. Black widow spider bites can cause a wide variety of signs or symptoms in humans, but the cardiovascular manifestations are relatively rare except hypertension/hypotension and bradycardia/tachycardia. We report on a 65-year-old man who experienced myocarditis after BWS envenomation, which is extremely rare. He complained of chest pain after the BWS bite, and electrocardiography (ECG) was consistent with a 0.5-mm ST-segment elevation in leads II, aVF, and V3 through V6 and accompanying augmentation in T-wave amplitude in leads V3 through V6 without reciprocal changes. Creatine kinase-MB, troponin-I, and aspartate aminotransferase levels peaked at 98 IU/L, 6.1 ng/mL, and 62 U/L, respectively. His ECG readings and cardiac enzymes returned to normal with supportive treatment, and he was discharged with complete recovery. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the third in the literature reporting myocarditis and the first reporting ST-segment elevation and accompanying augmentation in T-wave amplitude after BWS envenomation. In addition to usual measures, we recommend ECG and cardiac-specific enzyme followup for every patient envenomated by BWS for potentially fatal cardiac involvement.

  20. Intracellular recording from a spider vibration receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Ewald; Burger, Anna-M; Barth, Friedrich G

    2006-05-01

    The present study introduces a new preparation of a spider vibration receptor that allows intracellular recording of responses to natural mechanical or electrical stimulation of the associated mechanoreceptor cells. The spider vibration receptor is a lyriform slit sense organ made up of 21 cuticular slits located on the distal end of the metatarsus of each walking leg. The organ is stimulated when the tarsus receives substrate vibrations, which it transmits to the organ's cuticular structures, reducing the displacement to about one tenth due to geometrical reasons. Current clamp recording was used to record action potentials generated by electrical or mechanical stimuli. Square pulse stimulation identified two groups of sensory cells, the first being single-spike cells which generated only one or two action potentials and the second being multi-spike cells which produced bursts of action potentials. When the more natural mechanical sinusoidal stimulation was applied, differences in adaptation rate between the two cell types remained. In agreement with prior extracellular recordings, both cell types showed a decrease in the threshold tarsus deflection with increasing stimulus frequency. Off-responses to mechanical stimuli have also been seen in the metatarsal organ for the first time.

  1. Microcirculation abnormalities provoked by Loxosceles spiders' envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina de Oliveira-Lima, Kátia; Farsky, Sandra Helena P; Lopes, Priscila Hess; de Andrade, Rute Maria Gonçalves; van den Berg, Carmen W; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2016-06-15

    Loxoscelism is caused by envenomation by spiders from Loxosceles genus. Clinical symptoms only appear a few hours after envenomation and can evolve in local reactions, such as dermonecrosis, and systemic reactions, including intravascular haemolysis, intravascular coagulation and renal failure. Considering that alterations in the microcirculatory network are involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including the inflammatory process, the aim of this study was to investigate the action of venoms of males and females of Loxosceles intermedia and Loxosceles laeta on the microcirculatory network and examine the systemic production of inflammatory mediators in a murine model of loxoscelism. We observed that during systemic envenomation, the alterations in the microcirculation include increase in the number of rolling cells, which was more intense in animals injected with female Loxosceles spider venoms. This positively correlated with increase in TNF-α and NO serum levels, induction of which was higher by female venoms when compared with male venoms. The increase of leukocytes rolling was not accompanied by increase of cell adhesion. The absence of leukocyte extravasation may explain why in mice, in contrast to humans, no cutaneous loxoscelism occurs. Thus, targeting the neutrophil adhesion and extravasation in Loxosceles envenomed patients may prevent cutaneous pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  3. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...... machines to singular, non-axiomatic and diagrammatic machines. That is: Machines which constitute becomings. This presentation gives a survey of the development of the concept of abstract machines in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guatari and the function of these abstract machines in the creation of works...... of art. From Difference and Repetition to Anti-Oedipus, the machines are conceived as binary machines based on the exclusive or inclusive use respectively of the three syntheses: conexa, disjuncta and conjuncta. The machines have a twofold embedment: In the desiring-production and in the social...

  4. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  5. Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-08-04

    Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jonathan D H

    2008-01-01

    Taking a slightly different approach from similar texts, Introduction to Abstract Algebra presents abstract algebra as the main tool underlying discrete mathematics and the digital world. It helps students fully understand groups, rings, semigroups, and monoids by rigorously building concepts from first principles. A Quick Introduction to Algebra The first three chapters of the book show how functional composition, cycle notation for permutations, and matrix notation for linear functions provide techniques for practical computation. The author also uses equivalence relations to introduc

  7. Abstract Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert; Maurer, Ueli; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be re...

  8. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  9. Building Path Diagrams for Multilevel Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Multilevel models have come to play an increasingly important role in many areas of social science research. However, in contrast to other modeling strategies, there is currently no widely used approach for graphically diagramming multilevel models. Ideally, such diagrams would serve two functions: to provide a formal structure for deriving the…

  10. CERPHASE: Computer-generated phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruys, A.J.; Sorrell, C.C.; Scott, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    CERPHASE is a collection of computer programs written in the programming language basic and developed for the purpose of teaching the principles of phase diagram generation from the ideal solution model of thermodynamics. Two approaches are used in the generation of the phase diagrams: freezing point depression and minimization of the free energy of mixing. Binary and ternary phase diagrams can be generated as can diagrams containing the ideal solution parameters used to generate the actual phase diagrams. Since the diagrams generated utilize the ideal solution model, data input required from the operator is minimal: only the heat of fusion and melting point of each component. CERPHASE is menu-driven and user-friendly, containing simple instructions in the form of screen prompts as well as a HELP file to guide the operator. A second purpose of CERPHASE is in the prediction of phase diagrams in systems for which no experimentally determined phase diagrams are available, enabling the estimation of suitable firing or sintering temperatures for otherwise unknown systems. Since CERPHASE utilizes ideal solution theory, there are certain limitations imposed on the types of systems that can be predicted reliably. 6 refs., 13 refs

  11. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses...

  12. Automatically extracting class diagrams from spreadsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of spreadsheets to capture information is widespread in industry. Spreadsheets can thus be a wealthy source of domain information. We propose to automatically extract this information and transform it into class diagrams. The resulting class diagram can be used by software engineers to

  13. Lubrication modes and the transition diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Dirk J.; de Gee, A.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between a Lubrication Mode Diagram (LMD) for concentrated contacts (LCC's) and the IRG transition diagram has been studied. In addition, scuffing results, obtained by the IRG (International Research Group) have been analysed, as well as the results of scuffing tests performed by

  14. Evolution of stenophagy in spiders (Araneae): evidence based on the comparative analysis of spider diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Coddington, Jonathan A; Blackledge, Todd A

    2012-03-01

    Stenophagy (narrow diet breadth) represents an extreme of trophic specialization in carnivores, but little is known about the forces driving its evolution. We used spiders, the most diversified group of terrestrial predators, to investigate whether stenophagy (1) promoted diversification; (2) was phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily derived state; and (3) was determined either by geographical distribution and foraging guild. We used published data on the prey of almost 600 species. Six categories of stenophagy were found: myrmecophagy, araneophagy, lepidopterophagy, termitophagy, dipterophagy, and crustaceophagy. We found that the species diversity of euryphagous genera and families was similar to stenophagous genera and families. At the family level, stenophagy evolved repeatedly and independently. Within families, the basal condition was oligophagy or euryphagy. Most types of stenophagy were clearly derived: myrmecophagy in Zodariidae; lepidopterophagy in Araneidae; dipterophagy in Theridiidae. In contrast, araneophagy was confined to basal and intermediate lineages, suggesting its ancestral condition. The diet breadth of species from the tropics and subtropics was less diverse than species from the temperate zone. Diet breadth was lower in cursorial spiders compared to web-building species. Thus, the evolution of stenophagy in spiders appears to be complex and governed by phylogeny as well as by ecological determinants. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liang; Hedhammar, My; Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus; Johansson, Jan; Habibovic, Pamela; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently,

  16. Peculiar torsion dynamical response of spider dragline silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dabiao; Yu, Longteng; He, Yuming; Peng, Kai; Liu, Jie; Guan, Juan; Dunstan, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    The torsional properties of spider dragline silks from Nephila edulis and Nephila pilipes spiders are investigated by using a torsion pendulum technique. A permanent torsional deformation is observed after even small torsional strain. This behaviour is quite different from that of the other materials tested here, i.e., carbon fiber, thin metallic wires, Kevlar fiber, and human hair. The spider dragline thus displays a strong energy dissipation upon the initial excitation (around 75% for small strains and more for a larger strain), which correspondingly reduces the amplitude of subsequent oscillations around the new equilibrium position. The variation of torsional stiffness in relaxation dynamics of spider draglines for different excitations is also determined. The experimental result is interpreted in the light of the hierarchical structure of dragline silk.

  17. [Effectiveness of a repellent paint against the spider Loxosceles laeta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Alejandro; Araya, Jorge E; Varela, Héctor; Cortés, William; Sagua, Hernán; González Cortés, Jorge

    2009-02-01

    Loxoscelism is a severe reaction to the bite of the spider Loxosceles laeta. In recent years, a paint with repellent properties has been promoted in the commerce. However, there are no reports of experiments evaluating its effectiveness. To evaluate experimentally the repellent properties of a paint against Loxosceles laeta. Males, females and nymphs of L laeta were deposited in cockpits that allow the free displacement of the spider. Half of the cockpit was covered with repellent paint. Daily observations during one week, determined how frequently the spiders occupied the space covered with repellent paint. The experiments were run in triplicate. No statistical differences in the occupancy of spaces covered with repellent paint or not covered with it were observed for nymphs (87% and 67%, respectively), males (72% and 77%, respectively) or females (91% and 84%, respectively). The tested paint does not have a repellent action against the spider Loxosceles laeta.

  18. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  19. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.M.; Bilde, T.

    2008-01-01

    used a cross-fostering design to control for genetic relatedness and group membership. Our study animal was the periodic social spider Stegodyphus lineatus, a transitional species that belongs to a genus containing both permanent social and periodic social species. In S. lineatus, the young cooperate....... Hence, in communally feeding spiders, nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group....

  20. Early events in the evolution of spider silk genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Starrett

    Full Text Available Silk spinning is essential to spider ecology and has had a key role in the expansive diversification of spiders. Silk is composed primarily of proteins called spidroins, which are encoded by a multi-gene family. Spidroins have been studied extensively in the derived clade, Orbiculariae (orb-weavers, from the suborder Araneomorphae ('true spiders'. Orbicularians produce a suite of different silks, and underlying this repertoire is a history of duplication and spidroin gene divergence. A second class of silk proteins, Egg Case Proteins (ECPs, is known only from the orbicularian species, Lactrodectus hesperus (Western black widow. In L. hesperus, ECPs bond with tubuliform spidroins to form egg case silk fibers. Because most of the phylogenetic diversity of spiders has not been sampled for their silk genes, there is limited understanding of spidroin gene family history and the prevalence of ECPs. Silk genes have not been reported from the suborder Mesothelae (segmented spiders, which diverged from all other spiders >380 million years ago, and sampling from Mygalomorphae (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders and basal araneomorph lineages is sparse. In comparison to orbicularians, mesotheles and mygalomorphs have a simpler silk biology and thus are hypothesized to have less diversity of silk genes. Here, we present cDNAs synthesized from the silk glands of six mygalomorph species, a mesothele, and a non-orbicularian araneomorph, and uncover a surprisingly rich silk gene diversity. In particular, we find ECP homologs in the mesothele, suggesting that ECPs were present in the common ancestor of extant spiders, and originally were not specialized to complex with tubuliform spidroins. Furthermore, gene-tree/species-tree reconciliation analysis reveals that numerous spidroin gene duplications occurred after the split between Mesothelae and Opisthothelae (Mygalomorphae plus Araneomorphae. We use the spidroin gene tree to reconstruct the evolution of amino acid

  1. Spiders of the Vine Plants in Southern Moravia

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Havlová; Vladimír Hula; Jana Niedobová

    2015-01-01

    Araneofauna of vineyards is relatively known in Central Europe but we have a lack of knowledge about araneofauna which occur directly on the vine plants. Our investigation was focused on spiders which live on vine plants, especially on the vine plants trunks. We investigated spiders in six vineyards in southern Moravia (Šatov, Mikulov, Popice, Morkůvky, Nosislav and Blučina). Vineyards were under different soil management, traps were placed on different parts of particular locality (terraced ...

  2. Rapid Characterization of Spider Silk Genes via Exon Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-28

    argentata (silver garden spider ), Latrodectus hesperus (Western black widow ), and Nephila clavipes (golden silk orb- weaver). A. diadematus and N...in light of sequence divergence, we also studied Parasteatoda tepidariorum (common house spider ) and Steatoda grossa (false black widow ). P...could determine the minimum number of spidroin gene copies in a black widow genome. In less well-characterized species, such as A. diadematus, our data

  3. Early events in the evolution of spider silk genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, James; Garb, Jessica E; Kuelbs, Amanda; Azubuike, Ugochi O; Hayashi, Cheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    Silk spinning is essential to spider ecology and has had a key role in the expansive diversification of spiders. Silk is composed primarily of proteins called spidroins, which are encoded by a multi-gene family. Spidroins have been studied extensively in the derived clade, Orbiculariae (orb-weavers), from the suborder Araneomorphae ('true spiders'). Orbicularians produce a suite of different silks, and underlying this repertoire is a history of duplication and spidroin gene divergence. A second class of silk proteins, Egg Case Proteins (ECPs), is known only from the orbicularian species, Lactrodectus hesperus (Western black widow). In L. hesperus, ECPs bond with tubuliform spidroins to form egg case silk fibers. Because most of the phylogenetic diversity of spiders has not been sampled for their silk genes, there is limited understanding of spidroin gene family history and the prevalence of ECPs. Silk genes have not been reported from the suborder Mesothelae (segmented spiders), which diverged from all other spiders >380 million years ago, and sampling from Mygalomorphae (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders) and basal araneomorph lineages is sparse. In comparison to orbicularians, mesotheles and mygalomorphs have a simpler silk biology and thus are hypothesized to have less diversity of silk genes. Here, we present cDNAs synthesized from the silk glands of six mygalomorph species, a mesothele, and a non-orbicularian araneomorph, and uncover a surprisingly rich silk gene diversity. In particular, we find ECP homologs in the mesothele, suggesting that ECPs were present in the common ancestor of extant spiders, and originally were not specialized to complex with tubuliform spidroins. Furthermore, gene-tree/species-tree reconciliation analysis reveals that numerous spidroin gene duplications occurred after the split between Mesothelae and Opisthothelae (Mygalomorphae plus Araneomorphae). We use the spidroin gene tree to reconstruct the evolution of amino acid compositions of

  4. Latrodectism—Effects of the Black Widow Spider Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Timms, Patrick K.; Gibbons, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    Latrodectism—envenomation by the black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans—has been reported in virtually every state. The spider is particularly prevalent in the Southwest, Southeast and California, and symptoms from its bite are painful and may be confusing to clinicians. Prompt improvement can be expected in most cases with administration of calcium and muscle relaxant, but some patients may require treatment with antivenin. No deaths occurred in our series of 11 patients, although one case ...

  5. Spider silk as a blueprint for greener materials : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Auger, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk exhibits remarkable properties, especially its well-known tensile performances. They rely on a complex nanostructured hierarchical organisation that studies progressively elucidate. Spider silk encompasses a vast range of fibres that exhibit diverse and captivating physical and biological characteristics. The full understanding of the relation between structure and properties may lead in the future to the design of a variety of high-performance, tailored materials and ...

  6. Small Molecules from Spiders Used as Chemical Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Spiders are important species in ecological systems and as major predators of insects they are endowed with a plethora of low‐molecular‐weight natural products having intriguing biological activities. The isolation and biological characterization of these entities are well established, however, o...... the area of pheromones and allomones from spiders. Herein, we recapitulate these recent results, put them into perspective with previous findings, and provide an outlook for future studies of these chemotypes....

  7. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...

  8. Visual Discrimination Learning in the Jumping Spider Phidippus regius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Agrò

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, research in comparative psychology has increasingly focused on non-vertebrate models of cognition. Jumping spiders provide excellent models for the study of visually mediated behaviors, such as associative learning or the navigation of complex environments. Here, we tested visual and memory abilities of Phidippus regius to discriminate between artificial geometrical stimuli and to generalize the learned discrimination to illusory stimuli, using the amodal completion mechanism. Spiders were first trained to associate one shape (‘X’ or ‘O’ with a reward (sugar water, whilst the other shape was associated with an aversive taste (acidic water. Spiders were then asked to choose between the two shapes in the absence of any reward or punishment. They were then presented with an occluded version of the previously rewarded shape to test for the presence of amodal completion. Spiders were able to learn the discrimination task, although the association was not transferred to the illusory stimulus. This study provides the first demonstration of shape discrimination learning in a jumping spider. The results of the test on the illusory shape are discussed considering that either the spiders' visual system may not require amodal completion or they could have the tendency to learn the shape associated with the aversive taste rather than that associated with the reward.

  9. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    -insensitive analysis. To achieve this unification, we develop a systematic method for transforming a concrete semantics into a monadically-parameterized abstract machine. Changing the monad changes the behavior of the machine. By changing the monad, we recover a spectrum of machines—from the original concrete...

  10. WWNPQFT-2013 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  11. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  12. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher formsof cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving forcethroughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rationalthought. Wending its way th...

  13. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  14. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  15. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  16. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  17. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj...

  18. Abstracts of submitted papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)

  19. Metaphors in Abstract Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Boot (Inge)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the dissertation was to investigate the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999).The CMT proposes that abstract concepts are partly structured by concrete concepts through the mechanism of metaphorical mapping. In Chapter 2 we wanted to investigate the

  20. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  1. Reflective Abstraction and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Philip

    Piaget's theory of reflective abstraction can supplement cognitive science models of representation by specifying both the act of construction and the component steps through which knowers pass as they acquire knowledge. But, while approaches suggested by cognitive science supplement Piaget by awakening researchers to the role of auxiliary factors…

  2. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no...

  3. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  4. Abstract Introduction Materials & Methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plzfg

    Abstract. Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  5. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  6. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  8. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  10. The phylogeny of fossil whip spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Russell J; Dunlop, Jason A; Knecht, Brian J; Hegna, Thomas A

    2017-04-21

    Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK. Using X-ray microtomography, our principal aim was to resolve details of the limbs and mouthparts which would allow us to test whether this fossil belongs in the extant, relict family Paracharontidae; represented today by a single, blind species Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921. Tomography reveals several novel and significant character states for G. anglicus; most notably in the chelicerae, pedipalps and walking legs. These allowed it to be scored into a phylogenetic analysis together with the recently described Paracharonopsis cambayensis Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from the Eocene (ca. 52 Ma) Cambay amber, and Kronocharon prendinii Engel & Grimaldi, 2014 from Cretaceous (ca. 99 Ma) Burmese amber. We recovered relationships of the form ((Graeophonus (Paracharonopsis + Paracharon)) + (Charinus (Stygophrynus (Kronocharon (Charon (Musicodamon + Paraphrynus)))))). This tree largely reflects Peter Weygoldt's 1996 classification with its basic split into Paleoamblypygi and Euamblypygi lineages; we were able to score several of his characters for the first time in fossils. Our analysis draws into question the monophyly of the family Charontidae. Our data suggest that Graeophonus is a crown group amblypygid, and falls within a monophyletic Paleoamblypgi clade, but outside the family Paracharontidae (= Paracharonopsis + Paracharon). Our results also suggest a new placement for the Burmese amber genus Kronocharon, a node further down from its original position. Overall, we offer a

  11. Astronomy posters. Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerden, H.

    Contents: IAU Symposia Nos. 164: Stellar populations. 165: Compact stars in binaries. 166: Astronomical and astrophysical objectives of sub-milliarcsecond optical astrometry. 167: New developments in array technology and applications. 168: Examining the Big Bang and diffuse background radiations. 169: Unsolved problems of the Milky Way. Joint Discussions Nos. 1: Gas disks in galaxies. 2: Origin and detection of planetary systems. 3: Helio- and asteroseismology. 4: Current developments in astronomy education. 5: Activity in the central parts of galaxies. 6: Sun and heliosphere - challenges for solar-terrestrial physics, magneto- and hydrodynamics. 7: History of astronomy. 8: Time scales - state of the art. 9: Women in astronomy. 10: Extragalactic planetary nebulae. 11: Stellar and interstellar lithium and primordial nucleosynthesis. 12: Accuracy of the HR diagram and related parameters. 13: Recent advances in convection theory and modelling. 14: Towards the establishment of the astronomical standards. 15: Statistical evaluation of astronomical time series. 16: Astrophysical applications of powerful new atomic databases. 17: Dust around young stars: How related to solar system dust? 18: Solar system radar observations. 19: Nutation. 20: The status of archiving astronomical data. Working Groups Nos. 1: Problems of astronomy in Africa. 2: Near-Earth objects detection. 3: International catalog projects. 4: Asteroids and comets.

  12. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  13. Microdissection of black widow spider silk-producing glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Felicia; La Mattina, Coby; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Gnesa, Eric; Zhao, Liang; Franz, Andreas; Vierra, Craig

    2011-01-11

    Modern spiders spin high-performance silk fibers with a broad range of biological functions, including locomotion, prey capture and protection of developing offspring. Spiders accomplish these tasks by spinning several distinct fiber types that have diverse mechanical properties. Such specialization of fiber types has occurred through the evolution of different silk-producing glands, which function as small biofactories. These biofactories manufacture and store large quantities of silk proteins for fiber production. Through a complex series of biochemical events, these silk proteins are converted from a liquid into a solid material upon extrusion. Mechanical studies have demonstrated that spider silks are stronger than high-tensile steel. Analyses to understand the relationship between the structure and function of spider silk threads have revealed that spider silk consists largely of proteins, or fibroins, that have block repeats within their protein sequences. Common molecular signatures that contribute to the incredible tensile strength and extensibility of spider silks are being unraveled through the analyses of translated silk cDNAs. Given the extraordinary material properties of spider silks, research labs across the globe are racing to understand and mimic the spinning process to produce synthetic silk fibers for commercial, military and industrial applications. One of the main challenges to spinning artificial spider silk in the research lab involves a complete understanding of the biochemical processes that occur during extrusion of the fibers from the silk-producing glands. Here we present a method for the isolation of the seven different silk-producing glands from the cobweaving black widow spider, which includes the major and minor ampullate glands [manufactures dragline and scaffolding silk], tubuliform [synthesizes egg case silk], flagelliform [unknown function in cob-weavers], aggregate [makes glue silk], aciniform [synthesizes prey wrapping and egg

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of the C-terminus of spider ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    . Among the types of spider silks, draglines from Nephila clavipes and Araneus diadematus have been the most intensely studied. However, the entirety of a spider silk gene has not been cloned yet, and sequence data from. Molecular cloning ...

  15. Spider Web DNA: A New Spin on Noninvasive Genetics of Predator and Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Y Xu

    Full Text Available Noninvasive genetic sampling enables biomonitoring without the need to directly observe or disturb target organisms. This paper describes a novel and promising source of noninvasive spider and insect DNA from spider webs. Using black widow spiders (Latrodectus spp. fed with house crickets (Acheta domesticus, we successfully extracted, amplified, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from spider web samples that identified both spider and prey to species. Detectability of spider DNA did not differ between assays with amplicon sizes from 135 to 497 base pairs. Spider and prey DNA remained detectable at least 88 days after living organisms were no longer present on the web. Spider web DNA as a proof-of-concept may open doors to other practical applications in conservation research, pest management, biogeography studies, and biodiversity assessments.

  16. Spider Web DNA: A New Spin on Noninvasive Genetics of Predator and Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Charles C Y; Yen, Ivy J; Bowman, Dean; Turner, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling enables biomonitoring without the need to directly observe or disturb target organisms. This paper describes a novel and promising source of noninvasive spider and insect DNA from spider webs. Using black widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) fed with house crickets (Acheta domesticus), we successfully extracted, amplified, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from spider web samples that identified both spider and prey to species. Detectability of spider DNA did not differ between assays with amplicon sizes from 135 to 497 base pairs. Spider and prey DNA remained detectable at least 88 days after living organisms were no longer present on the web. Spider web DNA as a proof-of-concept may open doors to other practical applications in conservation research, pest management, biogeography studies, and biodiversity assessments.

  17. Riparian spiders as sentinels of PCB contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the ...

  18. Spider Web DNA: A New Spin on Noninvasive Genetics of Predator and Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Charles C. Y.; Yen, Ivy J.; Bowman, Dean; Turner, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling enables biomonitoring without the need to directly observe or disturb target organisms. This paper describes a novel and promising source of noninvasive spider and insect DNA from spider webs. Using black widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) fed with house crickets (Acheta domesticus), we successfully extracted, amplified, and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from spider web samples that identified both spider and prey to species. Detectability of spider DNA did not differ between assays with amplicon sizes from 135 to 497 base pairs. Spider and prey DNA remained detectable at least 88 days after living organisms were no longer present on the web. Spider web DNA as a proof-of-concept may open doors to other practical applications in conservation research, pest management, biogeography studies, and biodiversity assessments. PMID:26606730

  19. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  20. Enhancing the Diagramming Method in Informal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale JACQUETTE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The argument diagramming method developed by Monroe C. Beardsley in his (1950 book Practical Logic, which has since become the gold standard for diagramming arguments in informal logic, makes it possible to map the relation between premises and conclusions of a chain of reasoning in relatively complex ways. The method has since been adapted and developed in a number of directions by many contemporary informal logicians and argumentation theorists. It has proved useful in practical applications and especially pedagogically in teaching basic logic and critical reasoning skills at all levels of scientific education. I propose in this essay to build on Beardsley diagramming techniques to refine and supplement their structural tools for visualizing logical relationships in a number of categories not originally accommodated by Beardsley diagramming, including circular reasoning, reductio ad absurdum arguments, and efforts to dispute and contradict arguments, with applications and analysis.

  1. A novel decision diagrams extension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shumin; Si, Shubin; Dui, Hongyan; Cai, Zhiqiang; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Binary decision diagram (BDD) is a graph-based representation of Boolean functions. It is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) based on Shannon's decomposition. Multi-state multi-valued decision diagram (MMDD) is a natural extension of BDD for the symbolic representation and manipulation of the multi-valued logic functions. This paper proposes a decision diagram extension method based on original BDD/MMDD while the scale of a reliability system is extended. Following a discussion of decomposition and physical meaning of BDD and MMDD, the modeling method of BDD/MMDD based on original BDD/MMDD is introduced. Three case studies are implemented to demonstrate the presented methods. Compared with traditional BDD and MMDD generation methods, the decision diagrams extension method is more computationally efficient as shown through the running time

  2. Astrophysics implication of dense matter phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrakian, A.

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss the ways that astrophysics can help us to understand the phase diagram of dense matter. The examples will include gravitational wave from compact stars, cooling of compact stars, and effects on vorticity on compact star dynamics. (author)

  3. Ferroelectric Phase Diagram of PVDF:PMMA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Michels, Jasper J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Asadi, Kamal; Feldman, Kirill; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the ferroelectric phase diagram of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The binary nonequilibrium temperature composition diagram was determined and melting of alpha- and beta-phase PVDF was identified. Ferroelectric beta-PVDF:PMMA blend films were made by melting, ice quenching, and subsequent annealing above the glass transition temperature of PMMA, close to the melting temperature of PVDF. Addition of PMMA suppresses the crystallizatio...

  4. Enhancing the Diagramming Method in Informal Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Dale JACQUETTE

    2011-01-01

    The argument diagramming method developed by Monroe C. Beardsley in his (1950) book Practical Logic, which has since become the gold standard for diagramming arguments in informal logic, makes it possible to map the relation between premises and conclusions of a chain of reasoning in relatively complex ways. The method has since been adapted and developed in a number of directions by many contemporary informal logicians and argumentation theorists. It has proved useful in practical applicatio...

  5. Feynmann diagrams in a finite dimensional setting

    OpenAIRE

    Neiss, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain and justify the use of Feynmann diagrams as a computational tool in physics. The integrals discussed may be seen as a toybox version of the real physical case. It starts out with the basic one-dimensional Gaussian integral and then proceeds with examples of multidimensional cases. Correlators and their solutions through generating functions and Wick's theorem are shown, as well as some examples of how to relate the computations to diagrams and the corresponding ru...

  6. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  7. Beyond Feynman Diagrams (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    For decades the central theoretical tool for computing scattering amplitudes has been the Feynman diagram. However, Feynman diagrams are just too slow, even on fast computers, to be able to go beyond the leading order in QCD, for complicated events with many jets of hadrons in the final state. Such events are produced copiously at the LHC, and constitute formidable backgrounds to many searches for new physics. Over the past few years, alternative methods that go beyond ...

  8. DEGRO 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.

  9. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  10. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  11. WWNPQFT-2011 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, E.; Bender, C.; Culetu, H.; Fried, H.; Grossmann, A.; Hofmann, R.; Le Bellac, M.; Martinetti, P.; Muller, B.; Patras, F.; Raffaeli, B.; Vitting Andersen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The object of this workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non-perturbative field theories. This year the presentations deal with quantum gravity, non-commutative geometry, fat-tailed wave-functions, strongly coupled field theories, space-times two time-like dimensions, and multiplicative renormalization. A presentation is dedicated to the construction of a nucleon-nucleon potential from an analytical, non-perturbative gauge invariant QCD. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  12. Visual syntax of UML class and package diagram constructs as an ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagrams are often studied as visual languages with an abstract and a concrete syntax (concrete syntax is often referred to as visual syntax), where the latter contains the visual representations of the concepts in the former. A formal specification...

  13. The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuntao [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); He, Song [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ, 08540 (United States); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-02-10

    We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the “momentum-twistor diagrams”. These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized “boundary measurement” directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Loxosceles laeta (Araneae, Sicariidae spider venomous gland using expressed sequence tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Diego D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bite of spiders belonging to the genus Loxosceles can induce a variety of clinical symptoms, including dermonecrosis, thrombosis, vascular leakage, haemolysis, and persistent inflammation. In order to examine the transcripts expressed in venom gland of Loxosceles laeta spider and to unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 3,008 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from a cDNA library. Results All ESTs were clustered into 1,357 clusters, of which 16.4% of the total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences, being the Sphingomyelinases D the most abundant transcript; 14.5% include "possible toxins", whose transcripts correspond to metalloproteinases, serinoproteinases, hyaluronidases, lipases, C-lectins, cystein peptidases and inhibitors. Thirty three percent of the ESTs are similar to cellular transcripts, being the major part represented by molecules involved in gene and protein expression, reflecting the specialization of this tissue for protein synthesis. In addition, a considerable number of sequences, 25%, has no significant similarity to any known sequence. Conclusion This study provides a first global view of the gene expression scenario of the venom gland of L. laeta described so far, indicating the molecular bases of its venom composition.

  17. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as 'running spiders', these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders ...

  18. Using an Ishikawa diagram as a tool to assist memory and retrieval of relevant medical cases from the medical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kam Cheong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studying medical cases is an effective way to enhance clinical reasoning skills and reinforce clinical knowledge. An Ishikawa diagram, also known as a cause-and-effect diagram or fishbone diagram, is often used in quality management in manufacturing industries. In this report, an Ishikawa diagram is used to demonstrate how to relate potential causes of a major presenting problem in a clinical setting. This tool can be used by teams in problem-based learning or in self-directed learning settings. An Ishikawa diagram annotated with references to relevant medical cases and literature can be continually updated and can assist memory and retrieval of relevant medical cases and literature. It could also be used to cultivate a lifelong learning habit in medical professionals.

  19. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species

  20. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  1. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-10

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  2. IPR 2016. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.

  3. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  4. Beyond the abstractions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

      The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...... are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies seems to neglect the fact that history and resources for lifelong learning are different across Europe, and also neglects the multiplicity of adult learners. Instead of refusing the new agendas, however, adult education research should try to dissolve...... learning. Adult education research must fulfil it's potential conversion from normative philosophy to critical and empirical social science....

  5. Parameterized Dataflow (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Duggan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dataflow networks have application in various forms of stream processing, for example for parallel processing of multimedia data. The description of dataflow graphs, including their firing behavior, is typically non-compositional and not amenable to separate compilation. This article considers a dataflow language with a type and effect system that captures the firing behavior of actors. This system allows definitions to abstract over actor firing rates, supporting the definition and safe composition of actor definitions where firing rates are not instantiated until a dataflow graph is launched.

  6. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  7. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, S.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.; Poggi, C.

    2011-12-01

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  8. SPIDER: Probing the Early Universe with a Suborbital Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, Aurélien A.; SPIDER Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    SPIDER is a balloon-borne polarimeter designed to detect a divergence-free polarization pattern ("B-modes") in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In the inflationary scenario, the spectrum of the tensor perturbations that generate this signal is proportional to that of the primordial scalar perturbations through the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. The expected level of systematic error in the SPIDER instrument is significantly below the amplitude of an interesting cosmological B-mode signal with r=0.03. An optimized scanning strategy enables us to minimize uncertainty in the reconstruction of the Stokes parameters used to characterize the CMB, while providing access to a relatively wide range of angular scales. In the SPIDER field, the polarized emission from interstellar dust is as bright or brighter than the cosmological r=0.03 B-mode signal at all SPIDER frequencies (90, 150, and 280 GHz), a situation similar to that found in the "Southern Hole." Despite this foreground contamination, two 20-day flights of the SPIDER instrument will constrain the amplitude of the B-mode signal to rAPRA-NNX07AL64G), the National Science Foundation (ANT-1043515), the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Support in Canada is provided by NSERC, the Canadian Space Agency, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and CIFAR.

  9. Recent Advances in Research on Widow Spider Venoms and Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Widow spiders have received much attention due to the frequently reported human and animal injures caused by them. Elucidation of the molecular composition and action mechanism of the venoms and toxins has vast implications in the treatment of latrodectism and in the neurobiology and pharmaceutical research. In recent years, the studies of the widow spider venoms and the venom toxins, particularly the α-latrotoxin, have achieved many new advances; however, the mechanism of action of the venom toxins has not been completely clear. The widow spider is different from many other venomous animals in that it has toxic components not only in the venom glands but also in other parts of the adult spider body, newborn spiderlings, and even the eggs. More recently, the molecular basis for the toxicity outside the venom glands has been systematically investigated, with four proteinaceous toxic components being purified and preliminarily characterized, which has expanded our understanding of the widow spider toxins. This review presents a glance at the recent advances in the study on the venoms and toxins from the Latrodectus species.

  10. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  11. Treatment effect on biases in size estimation in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Youssef; Fruth, Martina B; Pauli, Paul; Kinateder, Max; Reichenberger, Jonas; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The current study investigates biases in size estimations made by spider-phobic and healthy participants before and after treatment. Forty-one spider-phobic and 20 healthy participants received virtual reality (VR) exposure treatment and were then asked to rate the size of a real spider immediately before and, on average, 15days after the treatment. During the VR exposure treatment skin conductance response was assessed. Prior to the treatment, both groups tended to overestimate the size of the spider, but this size estimation bias was significantly larger in the phobic group than in the control group. The VR exposure treatment reduced this bias, which was reflected in a significantly smaller size rating post treatment. However, the size estimation bias was unrelated to the skin conductance response. Our results confirm the hypothesis that size estimation by spider-phobic patients is biased. This bias is not stable over time and can be decreased with adequate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  13. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  14. Classical Process diagrams and Service oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    services communicate with each other. The communication can involve either simple data or it could two or more services coordinating some activity. From the above mentioned we can pronounce a brief description of SOA. “SOA is an architectural style for consistency of business process logic and service architecture of the target software.”It is a complex of means for solution of special analysis, design, and integration of enterprise applications based on the use of enterprise services. The service solutions of the classic business process logic are, of course, based on the application of at least seven key principles of SOA (free relations, service contract, autonomy, abstraction, reusing, composition, no states. Key attributes of SOA are verbally described in (Erl, 2006. They are so important that a separate article should be devoted to their nature and formalization. On the other hand, there is also clear that each service solution of business logic should respect the principles published in SOA Manifesto, 2009, which are essentially derived from the key principles of SOA.In many publications there are given the SOA reference models usually composed of several layers (presentation layer, business process layer, composite services layer, application layer giving a meta idea of SOA implementation. Perfect knowledge of the business process logic is a necessary condition for the development of a proper service solution. The different types of business processes should be described in the necessary details and contexts.Interestingly, the SOA paradigm does not provide its own method of finding and describing business processes by giving a layered transparent business process diagram. On the other hand, the methodology provides deep understanding of not only the characteristics of services, but also their functionality and implementation of the key principles of SOA (Erl, 2006.Let us assume that the required process diagrams can be achieved by using some of the advanced

  15. People’s Republic of China Scientific Abstracts No. 158

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-23

    Shanghai TITLE: " Varicose Vein Stripper" SOURCE: Peking CHUNG-HUA I-HSUEH TSA-CHIH [CHINESE MEDICAL JOURNAL] No 6, 15 Jun 76 pp 399-400 ABSTRACT: A...modified Keeley varicose vein stripper was devised and used with good results. A diagram of the instrument was given. The instrument includes a...treatment of intracranial pressure; (4) Eli- minating pathogens; (5) Strengthening nursing care. AUTHOR: CHOU Chih-sheng [0?19 63^7 0524] LI Hsiu

  16. Interactions Between the Chilean Recluse Spider (Araneae: Sicariidae) and an Araneophagic Spitting Spider (Araneae: Scytodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Mauricio; Arriagada, Nicolás; Solís, Rigoberto

    2015-03-01

    In Chile, all necrotic arachnidism is attributed to the Chilean recluse spider, Loxosceles laeta Nicolet, a species that shares the microenvironmental habitats with the spitting spider Scytodes globula Nicolet. The latter species has been proposed as a potential predator of L. laeta. For this research, we studied the interaction between both species during individual encounters to assess the possibility of population regulation of L. laeta cohorts exposed to this potential predator. We found that in most encounters S. globula prevailed. Also, S. globula preys on spiderlings of L. laeta, with a population effect on cohorts of this species. These findings suggest that S. globula may be influencing L. laeta populations in central Chile. The population regulation of L. laeta by predation would be important because this species, in the absence of predators, has a high reproductive rate, and it can maintain populations of large size. However according to our results, although S. globula may aid in the reduction of both spiderling and adult L. laeta populations, and perhaps other Loxosceles species, it is insufficient for biological control of Loxosceles species. Its presence together with other control measures such as hygiene of the rooms can help to decrease loxoscelism incidence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prey interception drives web invasion and spider size determines successful web takeover in nocturnal orb-web spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Gan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A striking feature of web-building spiders is the use of silk to make webs, mainly for prey capture. However, building a web is energetically expensive and increases the risk of predation. To reduce such costs and still have access to abundant prey, some web-building spiders have evolved web invasion behaviour. In general, no consistent patterns of web invasion have emerged and the factors determining web invasion remain largely unexplored. Here we report web invasion among conspecifics in seven nocturnal species of orb-web spiders, and examined the factors determining the probability of webs that could be invaded and taken over by conspecifics. About 36% of webs were invaded by conspecifics, and 25% of invaded webs were taken over by the invaders. A web that was built higher and intercepted more prey was more likely to be invaded. Once a web was invaded, the smaller the size of the resident spider, the more likely its web would be taken over by the invader. This study suggests that web invasion, as a possible way of reducing costs, may be widespread in nocturnal orb-web spiders.

  18. Influence of spider silk on refugia preferences of the recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa and Loxosceles laeta (Araneae: Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    In a previous experimental study, recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae) preferred small cardboard refugia covered with conspecific silk compared with never-occupied refugia. Herein, we investigated some factors that might be responsible for this preference using similar cardboard refugia. When the two Loxosceles species were given choices between refugia previously occupied by their own and by the congeneric species, neither showed a species-specific preference; however, each chose refugia coated with conspecific silk rather than those previously inhabited by a distantly related cribellate spider, Metaltella simoni (Keyserling). When L. laeta spiders were offered refugia that were freshly removed from silk donors compared with heated, aged refugia from the same silk donor, older refugia were preferred. Solvent extracts of L. laeta silk were chosen approximately as often as control refugia when a range of solvents (methylene chloride:methanol, water, and hexane) were used. However, when acetone was used on similar silk, there was a statistical preference for the control, indicating that there might be a mildly repellent aspect to acetone-washed silk. Considering the inability to show attraction to chemical aspects of fresh silk, it seems that physical attributes may be more important for selection and that there might be repellency to silk of a recently vacated spider. These findings are discussed in regard to pest management strategies to control recluse spiders.

  19. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  20. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference

  1. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  2. ICENES 2007 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues

  3. How spiders practice aggressive and Batesian mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena J. NELSON, Robert R. JACKSON

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand communication, the interests of the sender and the receiver/s of signals should be considered separately. When our goal is to understand the adaptive significance of specific responses to specific signals by the receiver, questions about signal information are useful. However, when our goal is to understand the adaptive significance to the sender of generating a signal, it may be better to envisage the receiver’s response to signals as part of the sender’s extended phenotype. By making signals, a sender interfaces with the receiver’s model of the world and indirectly manipulates its behaviour. This is especially clear in cases of mimicry, where animals use deceptive signals that indirectly manipulate the behaviour of receivers. Many animals adopt Batesian mimicry to deceive their predators, or aggressive mimicry to deceive their prey. We review examples from the lite­rature on spiders to illustrate how these phenomena, traditionally thought of as distinct, can become entangled in a web of lies [Current Zoology 58 (4: 620–629, 2012].

  4. Multivariable control of a rolling spider drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Haifeng

    The research and application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been a hot topic recently. A UAV is dened as an aircraft which is designed not to carry a human pilot or operated with remote electronic input by the flight controller. In this thesis, the design of a control system for a quadcopter named Rolling Spider Drone is conducted. The thesis work presents the design of two kinds of controllers that can control the Drone to keep it balanced and track different kinds of input trajectories. The nonlinear mathematical model for the Drone is derived by the Newton-Euler method. The rotational subsystem and translational system are derived to describe the attitude and position motion of Drone. Techniques from linear control theory are employed to linearize the highly coupled and nonlinear quadcopter plant around equilibrium points and apply the linear feedback controller to stabilize the system. The controller is a digital tracking system that deploys LQR for system stability design. Fixed gain and adaptive gain scheduled controllers are developed and compared with different LQR weights. Step references and reference trajectories involving signicant variation for the yaw angle in the xy-plane and three-dimensional spaces are tracked in the simulation. The physical implementation and an output feedback controller are considered for future work.

  5. Efficient Journaling for the Spider Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Miller, Ross G [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL

    2003-01-01

    Journaling is a widely used technique to increase file system robustness against meta data and/or data corruptions. While the overhead of journaling can be negligible for small-scale file systems, we found that two aspects of local back-end file system journaling significantly lower the overall performance of a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre: extra head seeks and serialization of incoming client requests. Journal transactions reside on a separate area of the disk that the file data, and each commit of the journal requires a head seek. Incoming client requests become serialized and take a latency hit by waiting for a commit to occur before the reply is sent. In this paper we present two different approaches to increase the local back-end file system journaling efficiency, thus increasing the overall aggregate parallel file system efficiency. First, we present a hardware-based solution where a solid-state device is used as an external journaling device to minimize the disk head seek. Second, we introduce a software-based optimization to allow asynchronously commit multiple journal transactions on the local back-end file system to minimize the penalty of serialization. Both our solutions are experimentally tested on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's large-scale Spider storage system and our tests show that both methods nearly double the overall parallel write performance.

  6. Development of locomotion in a subsocial spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soon Kil; Kim, Kil Won

    2015-04-01

    Following consumption of their mother, the subsocial spider Amaurobius ferox remain together, exhibiting distinctive behaviours in response to intruders into the natal nest. We examined the ontogeny and characteristics of locomotory behaviours in A. ferox during this post-maternal social period. Locomotion of the spiderlings, elicited by the introduction of a cricket larva into the natal web, fell into two categories: 'abrupt locomotion' (AL) and 'ordinary locomotion' (OL). AL involved rapid and linear movement, whereas OL involved slower motion, not necessarily in a straight line. Both types of locomotion varied with spiderling age. AL appeared for only a limited period of time whereas the frequency of OL increased linearly over time. AL occurred more collectively than OL: the percentage of participants in a bout of locomotion was 18.67±17.71% vs. 10.22±9.33%. The collective tendency of AL increased up until the seventh day and then decreased, whereas that of OL progressively decreased. The direction of AL responses to the intruder did not vary over time; however, for OL, movements towards increased in frequency over time. Locomotory responses also varied with the intensity of intruder movement. Including transient behaviours, the chronology of different behaviours suggests that behavioural development in A. ferox involves maternal influences and weakens group cohesion and collective tendency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  8. Final design of thermal diagnostic system in SPIDER ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombin, M., E-mail: matteo.brombin@igi.cnr.it; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The prototype radio frequency source of the ITER heating neutral beams will be first tested in SPIDER test facility to optimize H{sup −} production, cesium dynamics, and overall plasma characteristics. Several diagnostics will allow to fully characterise the beam in terms of uniformity and divergence and the source, besides supporting a safe and controlled operation. In particular, thermal measurements will be used for beam monitoring and system protection. SPIDER will be instrumented with mineral insulated cable thermocouples, both on the grids, on other components of the beam source, and on the rear side of the beam dump water cooled elements. This paper deals with the final design and the technical specification of the thermal sensor diagnostic for SPIDER. In particular the layout of the diagnostic, together with the sensors distribution in the different components, the cables routing and the conditioning and acquisition cubicles are described.

  9. Tool use in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindshield, Stacy M; Rodrigues, Michelle A

    2009-07-01

    Tool use has been observed in a variety of primate species, including both New and Old World monkeys. However, such reports mainly address the most prodigious tool users and frequently limit discussions of tool-using behavior to a foraging framework. Here, we present observations of novel and spontaneous tool use in wild black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), where female spider monkeys used detached sticks in a self-directed manner. We introduce factors to explain Ateles tool-using abilities and limitations, and encourage the synthesis of relevant research in order to gain insight into the cognitive abilities of spider monkeys and the evolution of tool-using behaviors in primates.

  10. Adhesion modulation using glue droplet spreading in spider capture silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Orb web spiders use sticky capture spiral silk to retain prey in webs. Capture spiral silk is composed of an axial fibre of flagelliform silk covered with glue droplets that are arranged in a beads-on-a-string morphology that allows multiple droplets to simultaneously extend and resist pull off. Previous studies showed that the adhesion of capture silk is responsive to environmental humidity, increasing up to an optimum humidity that varied among different spider species. The maximum adhesion was hypothesized to occur when the viscoelasticity of the glue optimized contributions from glue spreading and bulk cohesion. In this study, we show how glue droplet shape during peeling contributes significantly to capture silk adhesion. Both overspreading and underspreading of glue droplets reduces adhesion through changes in crack propagation and failure regime. Understanding the mechanism of stimuli-responsive adhesion of spider capture silk will lead to new designs for smarter adhesives. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Vision in the nocturnal wandering spider Leucorchestris arenicola (Araneae: Sparassidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R

    2008-01-01

    At night the Namib Desert spider Leucorchestris arenicola performs long-distance homing across its sand dune habitat. By disabling all or pairs of the spiders' eight eyes we found that homing ability was severely reduced when vision was fully abolished. Vision, therefore, seems to play a key role...... in the nocturnal navigational performances of L. arenicola. After excluding two or three pairs of eyes, the spiders were found to be able to navigate successfully using only their lateral eyes or only their anterior median eyes. Measurement of the eyes' visual fields showed that the secondary eyes combined have...... a near full (panoramic) view of the surroundings. The visual fields of the principal eyes overlap almost completely with those of the anterior lateral eyes. Electroretinogram recordings indicate that each eye type contains a single photopigment with sensitivity peaking at approximately 525 nm...

  12. [The black widow spider--its appearance and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeka, Nediljko; Plenković, Jasminka

    2003-03-01

    Between 1995 and 2002, a massive appearance of black widow (Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, Rossi 1790) was recorded along the Croatia coast. This paper gives a historical review of latrodectism and observations from Istria and Dalmatia, paying particular attention to the spider's habitat. There are several reasons for the black widow to appear in a new habitat such as the introduction of leguminous plants, watermelons and melons where crops were grown earlier. Black widow can also be found near buildings and gardens. Human contacts with the spider are usually without consequences for humans, thanks to education and a relatively good visibility of the spider. The authors describe their experience in fighting black widow and emphasise the importance of education in preventing lactrodectism.

  13. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  14. Stable isotope analyses of web-spinning spider assemblages along a headwater stream in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Kelly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Web-spinning spiders that inhabit stream channels are considered specialists of aquatic ecosystems and are major consumers of emerging aquatic insects, while other spider taxa are more commonly found in riparian forests and as a result may consume more terrestrial insects. To determine if there was a difference in spider taxa abundance between riverine web-spinning spider assemblages within the stream channel and the assemblages 10 m into the riparian forest, we compared abundances for all web-spinning spiders along a headwater stream in El Yunque National Forest in northeast Puerto Rico. By using a nonmetric dimensional scaling (NMDS abundance analysis we were able to see a clear separation of the two spider assemblages. The second objective of the study was to determine if aquatic insects contributed more to the diet of the spider assemblages closest to the stream channel and therefore stable isotope analyses of δ15N and δ13C for web-spinning spiders along with their possible prey were utilized. The results of the Bayesian mixing model (SIAR however showed little difference in the diets of riverine (0 m, riparian (10 m and upland (25 m spiders. We found that aquatic insects made up ∼50% of the diet for web-spinning spiders collected at 0 m, 10 m, and 25 m from the stream. This study highlights the importance of aquatic insects as a food source for web-spinning spiders despite the taxonomic differences in assemblages at different distances from the stream.

  15. Model FORC diagrams for hybrid magnetic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaganov, M.V.; Linke, J.; Odenbach, S.; Raikher, Yu.L.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a model of hybrid magnetic elastomers filled with a mixture of magnetically soft and magnetically hard microparticles. The magnetically hard particles are described by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, the magnetically soft phase obeys the Fröhlich–Kennelly equation. The interaction between the two types of particles is described by the mean-field approach. First-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams were calculated for different values of the elastomer matrix elasticity. We demonstrate that the diagrams display specific new features, which identify the presence of both a deformable matrix and the two types of magnetic particles. - Highlights: • A model of hybrid magnetic elastomers is proposed. • The magnetically hard particles are described by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. • The magnetically soft phase obeys the Fröhlich–Kennelly equation. The interaction between the phases is described by the mean-field approach. • FORC diagrams are calculated for different values of the elastomer matrix elasticity.

  16. Tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2017-10-01

    We show how all possible one-particle reducible tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields can be constructed from one-particle irreducible constant-field diagrams. The construction procedure is essentially algebraic and involves differentiations of the latter class of diagrams with respect to the field strength tensor and contractions with derivatives of the one-particle irreducible part of the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian in constant fields. Specific examples include the two-loop addendum to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action as well as a novel one-loop correction to the charged particle propagator in constant electromagnetic fields discovered recently. As an additional example, the approach devised in the present article is adopted to derive the tadpole contribution to the two-loop photon polarization tensor in constant fields for the first time.

  17. A Logarithmic-Amplitude Polar Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Andresen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A polar diagram where the amplitude of the transfer function is on a logarithmic scale, is presented. This gives a one-size-fits-all diagram with no need for zooming in and out, and no need for additional reasoning about infinite-radius encirclements when there are poles on the imaginary axis - as opposed to what is usually neccessary with the standard polar (Nyquist- diagram. All properties needed for stability considerations are upheld, such as encirclements, gain and phase margins. The path for s in the loop transfer function is carefully chosen with regard to possible poles on the imaginary axis. Small excursions into the right half plane in the form of arcs of different-sized logarithmic spirals result in corresponding large but finite arcs that do not overlap in the logarithmic polar plots.

  18. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zheng; Pu, Geguang; Li, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way...... to specify and analyze such systems. To capture the temporal properties of periodic control systems, we provide, along with mode diagram, a property specification language based on interval logic for the description of concrete temporal requirements the engineers are concerned with. The statistical model...... checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems....

  19. A preliminary checklist of spiders (Araneae: Arachnida in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Adarsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to document spider diversity in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idukki District, Kerala State in southern India.  The study was conducted from October to November 2012.  A total of 101 species of spiders belonging to 65 genera from 29 families were identified from the sanctuary.  This accounted for 6.98% of Indian spider species, 17.81% of Indian spider genera and 48.33% of the spider families of India.  The dominant families were Lycosidae (11 species and Araneidae (10.  Two endemic genera of Indian spiders such as Annandaliella and Neoheterophrictus were found at Chinnar, each representing one species each, and belonging to the family Theraphosidae.  A guild structure analysis of the spiders revealed seven feeding guilds such as orb weavers, stalkers, ground runners, foliage runners, sheet web builders, space web builders and ambushers. 

  20. Habitat-specific effects of climate change on a low-mobility Arctic spider species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Hansen, Rikke Reisner; Olsen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    habitats. Such differences between habitats may influence the effects of climate changes on animals and this could be especially true in low-mobility species. Suitable model systems to test this idea, however, are rare. We examined how proxies of reproductive success (body size, juvenile/female ratios......Abstract Terrestrial ecosystems are heterogeneous habitat mosaics of varying vegetation types that are differentially affected by climate change. Arctic plant communities, for example, are changing faster in moist habitats than in dry habitats and abiotic changes like snowmelt vary locally among......) and sex ratios have changed in low-mobility crab spiders collected systematically over a 17-year period (1996–2012) from two distinct habitats (mesic and arid dwarf shrub heath) at Zackenberg in northeast Greenland. We identified all adults in the collection to confirm that they represented just one...

  1. User testing of an adaptation of fishbone diagrams to depict results of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Gartlehner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Summary of findings tables in systematic reviews are highly informative but require epidemiological training to be interpreted correctly. The usage of fishbone diagrams as graphical displays could offer researchers an effective approach to simplify content for readers with limited epidemiological training. In this paper we demonstrate how fishbone diagrams can be applied to systematic reviews and present the results of an initial user testing. Methods Findings from two systematic reviews were graphically depicted in the form of the fishbone diagram. To test the utility of fishbone diagrams compared with summary of findings tables, we developed and pilot-tested an online survey using Qualtrics. Respondents were randomized to the fishbone diagram or a summary of findings table presenting the same body of evidence. They answered questions in both open-ended and closed-answer formats; all responses were anonymous. Measures of interest focused on first and second impressions, the ability to find and interpret critical information, as well as user experience with both displays. We asked respondents about the perceived utility of fishbone diagrams compared to summary of findings tables. We analyzed quantitative data by conducting t-tests and comparing descriptive statistics. Results Based on real world systematic reviews, we provide two different fishbone diagrams to show how they might be used to display complex information in a clear and succinct manner. User testing on 77 students with basic epidemiological training revealed that participants preferred summary of findings tables over fishbone diagrams. Significantly more participants liked the summary of findings table than the fishbone diagram (71.8% vs. 44.8%; p < .01; significantly more participants found the fishbone diagram confusing (63.2% vs. 35.9%, p < .05 or indicated that it was difficult to find information (65.8% vs. 45%; p < .01. However, more than half

  2. Latrodectism—Effects of the Black Widow Spider Bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Patrick K.; Gibbons, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    Latrodectism—envenomation by the black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans—has been reported in virtually every state. The spider is particularly prevalent in the Southwest, Southeast and California, and symptoms from its bite are painful and may be confusing to clinicians. Prompt improvement can be expected in most cases with administration of calcium and muscle relaxant, but some patients may require treatment with antivenin. No deaths occurred in our series of 11 patients, although one case was complicated by serum sickness. PMID:3962294

  3. Learning from animal sensors: the clever "design" of spider mechanoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Friedrich G.

    2012-04-01

    Three types of spider sensors responding to different forms of mechanical energy are chosen to illustrate the power of evolutionary constraints to fine-tune the functional "design" of animal sensors to the particular roles they play in particular behavioral contexts. As demonstrated by the application of computational biomechanics and a fruitful cooperation between biologists and engineers there are remarkable "technical" tricks to be found by which spider tactile sensors, airflow sensors, and strain sensors are adjusted to their biologically relevant stimulus patterns. The application of such "tricks" to technical solutions of measuring problems similar to those animals have to cope with, seems both realistic and very promising.

  4. Operations space diagram for ECRH and ECCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.

    2004-01-01

    , the parameter range in which it is possible to achieve a given task (e.g. O-mode current drive for stabilizing a neoclassical tearing mode) appears as a region. With also the Greenwald density limit shown, this diagram condenses the information on operational possibilities, facilitating the overview required...... at the design phase. At the operations phase it may also prove useful in setting up experimental scenarios by showing operational possibilities, avoiding the need for survey type ray-tracing at the initial planning stages. The diagram may also serve the purpose of communicating operational possibilities to non...

  5. Computer generated timing diagrams to supplement simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, A W

    1981-01-01

    The ISPS computer description language has been used in a simulation study to specify the components of a high speed data acquisition system and its protocols. A facility has been developed for automatically generating timing diagrams from the specification of the data acquisition system written in the ISPS description language. Diagrams can be generated for both normal and abnormal working modes of the system. They are particularly useful for design and debugging in the prototyping stage of a project and can be later used for reference by maintenance engineers. (11 refs).

  6. State diagram of Pr-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulkhaev, V.L.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    By means of thermal differential analysis, X-ray and microstructural analysis the state diagram of Pr-Bi system was studied. Following intermetallic compounds were defined in the system: Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 , Pr Bi, PrBi 2 , Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 and PrBi 2 . The data analysis on Ln-Bi diagram allowed to determine the regularity of change of properties of intermetallic compounds in the line of rare earth elements of cerium subgroup.

  7. Manufacturing of the full size prototype of the ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector – The SPIDER beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavei, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pavei@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Boilson, Deirdre [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonicelli, Tullio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boury, Jacques [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bush, Michael [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Ceracchi, Andrea; Faso, Diego [CECOM S.r.l., Via Tiburtina – Guidonia Montecelio, Roma (Italy); Graceffa, Joseph [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Heinemann, Bernd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hemsworth, Ronald [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lievin, Christophe [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Marcuzzi, Diego [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Masiello, Antonio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sczepaniak, Bernd [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Singh, Mahendrajit [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Toigo, Vanni; Zaccaria, Pierluigi [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Negative ion sources are key components of neutral beam injectors for nuclear fusion. • The SPIDER experiment aims to optimize the negative ion source of MITICA and HNB. • The SPIDER Beam Source manufacturing is currently on-going. • Manufacturing and assembling technological issues encountered are presented. - Abstract: In ITER, each heating neutral beam injector (HNB) will deliver about 16.5 MW heating power by accelerating a 40 A deuterium negative ion beam up to the energy of 1 MeV. The ions are generated inside a caesiated negative ion source, where the injected H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} is ionized by a radio frequency electromagnetic field. The SPIDER test bed, currently being manufactured, is going to be the ion source test facility for the full size ion source of the HNBs and of the diagnostic neutral beam injector of ITER. The SPIDER beam source comprises an ion source with 8 radio-frequency drivers and a three-grid system, providing an overall acceleration up to energies of about 100 keV [1]. SPIDER represents a substantial step forward between the half ITER size ion source, which is currently being tested at the ELISE test bed in IPP-Garching, and the negative ion sources to be used on ITER, in terms of layout, dimensions and operating parameters. The SPIDER beam source will be housed inside a vacuum vessel which will be equipped with a beam dump and a graphite diagnostic calorimeter. The manufacturing design of the main parts of the SPIDER beam source has been completed and many of the tests on the prototypes have been successfully passed. The most complex parts, from the manufacturing point of view, of the ion source and the accelerator, developed by galvanic deposition of copper are being manufactured. The manufacturing phase will be completed within 2015, when the assembly of the device will start at the PRIMA site, in Padova (I). The paper describes the status of the procurement, the adaptations operated on the design of the beam

  8. Volatile compounds from leaves of the African spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) with bioactivity against spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyalala, Samuel Odeyo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Gynandropsis gynandra emits acetonitrile as a foliar volatile from intact plants and isolated leaves, and that this compound is an effective spider mite repellent. This study has used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to investigate volatile compounds...... emitted from homogenised G. gynandra leaves to evaluate their tissue acetonitrile content and to look for other compounds that might be exploited for the management of spider mites. Acetonitrile was absent from the homogenised tissues of five lines of G. gynandra, studied over two seasons. Thirteen...... volatile compounds were emitted by G. gynandra at significantly higher levels than mite-susceptible pot roses, including isothiocyanates, aldehydes, esters, alcohols and terpenes. Six representative compounds were selected to assess bioactivity. Spider mite populations were completely inactive after a 2¿h...

  9. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  10. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    ANIMMA 2013 is the third of a series of conferences devoted to endorsing and promoting scientific and technical activities based on nuclear instrumentation and measurements. The main objective of ANIMMA conference is to unite the various scientific communities not only involved in nuclear instrumentation and measurements, but also in nuclear medicine and radiation. The conference is all about getting scientists, engineers and the industry to meet, exchange cultures and identify new scientific and technical prospects to help overcome both current and future unresolved issues. The conference provides scientists and engineers with a veritable opportunity to compare their latest research and development in different areas: physics, nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, safety, security, future energies (GEN III+, GENIV, ITER, ...). The conference topics include instrumentation and measurement methods for: Fundamental physics; Fusion diagnostics and technology; Nuclear power reactors; Research reactors; Nuclear fuel cycle; Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling; Safeguards, homeland security; Severe accident monitoring; Environmental and medical sciences; Education, training and outreach. This document brings together the abstracts of the presentations. Each presentation (full paper) is analysed separately and entered in INIS

  11. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  12. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  13. Voluble: a space-time diagram of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.; SubbaRao, Mark U.

    2008-02-01

    Voluble is a dynamic space-time diagram of the solar system. Voluble is designed to help users understand the relationship between space and time in the motion of the planets around the sun. Voluble is set in virtual reality to relate these movements to our experience of immediate space. Beyond just the visual, understanding dynamic systems is naturally associated to the articulation of our bodies as we perform a number of complex calculations, albeit unconsciously, to deal with simple tasks. Such capabilities encompass spatial perception and memory. Voluble investigates the balance between the visually abstract and the spatially figurative in immersive development to help illuminate phenomena that are beyond the reach of human scale and time. While most diagrams, even computer-based interactive ones, are flat, three-dimensional real-time virtual reality representations are closer to our experience of space. The representation can be seen as if it was "really there," engaging a larger number of cues pertaining to our everyday spatial experience.

  14. Mechanism of diffusive transport in molecular spider models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Oleg; Olah, Mark J.; Stefanovic, Darko

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances in single-molecule chemistry have led to designs for artificial multipedal walkers that follow tracks of chemicals. We investigate the motion of a class of walkers, called molecular spiders, which consist of a rigid chemically inert body and several flexible enzymatic legs. The legs can reversibly bind to chemical substrates on a surface and through their enzymatic action convert them to products. The legs can also reversibly bind to products, but at a different rate. Antal and Krapivsky have proposed a model for molecular spider motion over regular one-dimensional lattices [T. Antal and P. L. Krapivsky, Phys. Rev. ENATUAS1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.76.021121 76, 021121 (2007).]. In the model the legs hop from site to site under constraints imposed by connection to a common body. The first time a leg visits a site, the site is an uncleaved substrate, and the leg hops from this site only once it has cleaved it into a product. This cleavage happens at a rate rr=1. The effect of cleavage is to slow down the hopping rate for legs that visit a site for the first time. Along with the constraints imposed on the legs, this leads to an effective bias in the direction of unvisited sites that decreases the average time needed to visit n sites. The overall motion, however, remains diffusive in the long time limit. We have reformulated the Antal-Krapivsky model as a continuous-time Markov process and simulated many traces of this process using kinetic Monte Carlo techniques. Our simulations show a previously unpredicted transient behavior wherein spiders with small r values move superdiffusively over significant distances and times. We explain this transient period of superdiffusive behavior by describing the spider process as switching between two metastates: a diffusive state D wherein the spider moves in an unbiased manner over previously visited sites, and a boundary state B wherein the spider is on the boundary between regions of visited and unvisited sites

  15. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  16. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document contains abstracts of 24 review papers, 24 invited papers, 24 oral contributions and 120 posters. 10 review papers summarize the status of laser fusion research and progress in high-power laser facilities in major world laboratories. Four papers review research programs (laser-matter interaction studies and X-ray source development) based on KrF laser systems. Other review papers discuss the problems of laser energy conversion into X-rays in laser-heated cavities, X-ray lasing at shorter wavelengths, optimization of targets for inertial fusion. Two review papers are devoted to light ion fusion. The subjects of most invited papers are special problems of current laser plasma research, such as hot electron generation, nonlinear resonance absorption, energy accumulation limits, pellet ignition, conversion of laser light into X-rays, high-pressure plasma generation. Three invited papers review laser plasma research in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Spain. One paper suggests a new method of producing muonic superdense matter. The remaining inivited papers deal with the progress in XUV lasers and with laser plasma applications for further laser development. Of the papers accepted for oral presentation 12 papers discuss various problems of laser-plasma interaction; 4 papers deal with laser targets, 4 papers with laser-initiated X-ray sources, 3 papers with the diagnostics of laser-produced plasma. The last oral contribution presents the main principles of the excimer laser theory. The largest group of posters is related to laser-plasma interaction and energy absorption problems, to laser-target interaction and various methods of laser plasma diagnostics. The other posters deal with plasma applications in laser development, plasma mirrors, Brillouin and Raman scattering, X-ray emission, harmonic generation, electron acceleration, production of high-Z plasmas and other related problems. (J.U.)

  17. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport

  18. Green material composites from renewable resources: Polymorphic transitions and phase diagram of beeswax/rosin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Yves [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Mija, Alice [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne; Felder, Eric [Mines-ParisTech., CEMEF, UMR CNRS 7635, 1 rue Claude Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas, E-mail: sbirrazz@unice.fr [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Thermokinetic Group, Laboratory of Chemistry of Organic and Metallic Materials C.M.O.M., 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} Blends of Rosin and beeswax are studied by DSC, XRD, and optical microscopy. {yields} The first phase diagram beeswax/rosin is established. {yields} Polymorphic transitions are identified and appear to be highly related to rosin content. - Abstract: Rosin and beeswax are two complex natural materials presenting numerous applications in paints, adhesives, varnishes or inks. Melted, they are particularly interesting for their adhesion properties. This paper establishes the first phase diagram beeswax/rosin blends. A systematic approach using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarised optical microscopy (POM) has been performed in order to describe the crystallographic structure and the thermal properties of two materials, beeswax and rosin, and their blends. Indeed, melting, softening and crystallisation temperatures, polymorphic transitions but also crystalline index has been investigated. The resulting phase diagram reveals a complex behaviour in terms of phase transformation and time-dependent phenomenon mainly representative of the complex composition of beeswax.

  19. Insecticidal toxins from black widow spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohou, A; Nield, J; Ushkaryov, Y A

    2007-03-15

    The biological effects of Latrodectus spider venom are similar in animals from different phyla, but these symptoms are caused by distinct phylum-specific neurotoxins (collectively called latrotoxins) with molecular masses ranging from 110 to 140 kDa. To date, the venom has been found to contain five insecticidal toxins, termed alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon-latroinsectotoxins (LITs). There is also a vertebrate-specific neurotoxin, alpha-latrotoxin (alpha-LTX), and one toxin affecting crustaceans, alpha-latrocrustatoxin (alpha-LCT). These toxins stimulate massive release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals and act (1) by binding to specific receptors, some of which mediate an exocytotic signal, and (2) by inserting themselves into the membrane and forming ion-permeable pores. Specific receptors for LITs have yet to be identified, but all three classes of vertebrate receptors known to bind alpha-LTX are also present in insects. All LTXs whose structures have been elucidated (alpha-LIT, delta-LIT, alpha-LTX and alpha-LCT) are highly homologous and have a similar domain architecture, which consists of a unique N-terminal sequence and a large domain composed of 13-22 ankyrin repeats. Three-dimensional (3D) structure analysis, so far done for alpha-LTX only, has revealed its dimeric nature and an ability to form symmetrical tetramers, a feature probably common to all LTXs. Only tetramers have been observed to insert into membranes and form pores. A preliminary 3D reconstruction of a delta-LIT monomer demonstrates the spatial similarity of this toxin to the monomer of alpha-LTX.

  20. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O'Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR)

  1. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  2. Extended sequence diagram for human system interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jong Rok; Choi, Sun Woo; Ko, Hee Ran; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a modeling language in the field of object oriented software engineering. The sequence diagram is a kind of interaction diagram that shows how processes operate with one another and in what order. It is a construct of a message sequence chart. It depicts the objects and classes involved in the scenario and the sequence of messages exchanged between the objects needed to carry out the functionality of the scenario. This paper proposes the Extended Sequence Diagram (ESD), which is capable of depicting human system interaction for nuclear power plants, as well as cognitive process of operators analysis. In the conventional sequence diagram, there is a limit to only identify the activities of human and systems interactions. The ESD is extended to describe operators' cognitive process in more detail. The ESD is expected to be used as a task analysis method for describing human system interaction. The ESD can also present key steps causing abnormal operations or failures and diverse human errors based on cognitive condition

  3. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-10-01

    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case

  4. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  5. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  6. Diagram of a LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This diagram gives a schematic representation of the superconducting radio-frequency cavities at LEP. Liquid helium is used to cool the cavity to 4.5 degrees above absolute zero so that very high electric fields can be produced, increasing the operating energy of the accelerator. Superconducting cavities were used only in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  7. Muonium and the Breit-Rabi diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter introduces the study of muonium, as opposed to that of unbound muons. The properties and behaviour of muonium are compared and contrasted with those of hydrogen and of positronium. The special significance of muonium in atomic and molecular physics is explained, and its utility as a lightweight or radioactive isotope of hydrogen in solid state physics and chemistry illustrated. The identification of atomic muonium by means of its ground state magnetic properties is described with reference to the Breit-Rabi diagram. This diagram is invaluable for interpreting or predicting MuSR observations, both in transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields, so its construction and properties are explained in some detail. The precession signals observed in transverse-field MuSR correspond to transitions allowed between the energy levels in this diagram; particular attention is paid to the spectra characteristic of the high and low field regimes. The different states of muonium observed in dielectric, semiconducting and metallic materials are introduced. The influence of the host medium on the spectral parameters, hyperfine interaction and linewidth, is considered both for atomic muonium and for muonium which is chemically bound in paramagnetic molecules, for which the Breit-Rabi diagram also applies. (orig.)

  8. Diagrams in Second or Foreign Language Learning??!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld-de Smet, Leonie; Barker-Plummer, D.; Cox, R.; Swoboda, N.

    2006-01-01

    Existing diagrams for tense use as presented in grammar surveys for foreign learners have been analyzed from a semantic theoretic point of view. The analysis reveals that the notational systems used in the diagrammatic representations of the tense rules dealt with are defective in that they can give

  9. Phase diagram distortion from traffic parameter averaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. Toorenburg, J. van & Postema, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motorway traffic congestion is a major bottleneck for economic growth. Therefore, research of traffic behaviour is carried out in many countries. Although well describing the undersaturated free flow phase as an almost straight line in a (k,q)-phase diagram, congested traffic observations and

  10. Magnetic phase diagram of a nanocone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, O; Vargas, P; Escrig, J; Landeros, P; Albir, D; Laroze, D

    2008-01-01

    In this work we analyze the magnetic properties of truncated conical nanoparticles. Based on the continuous magnetic model we find expressions for the total energy in three different magnetic configurations. Finally, we calculate the magnetic phase diagram as function of the geometrical parameters.

  11. Magnetic phase diagram of a nanocone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, O; Vargas, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa MarIa, P. O. Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Escrig, J; Landeros, P; Albir, D [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Depatamento de Fisica, Casilla 307, Correo 2, Santiago (Chile); Laroze, D [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, P. O. Box 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: omar.suarez@postgrado.usm.cl

    2008-11-01

    In this work we analyze the magnetic properties of truncated conical nanoparticles. Based on the continuous magnetic model we find expressions for the total energy in three different magnetic configurations. Finally, we calculate the magnetic phase diagram as function of the geometrical parameters.

  12. Foundations of Grothendieck duality for diagrams of schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Lipman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The first part written by Joseph Lipman, accessible to mid-level graduate students, is a full exposition of the abstract foundations of Grothendieck duality theory for schemes (twisted inverse image, tor-independent base change,...), in part without noetherian hypotheses, and with some refinements for maps of finite tor-dimension. The ground is prepared by a lengthy treatment of the rich formalism of relations among the derived functors, for unbounded complexes over ringed spaces, of the sheaf functors tensor, hom, direct and inverse image. Included are enhancements, for quasi-compact quasi-separated schemes, of classical results such as the projection and Künneth isomorphisms. In the second part, written independently by Mitsuyasu Hashimoto, the theory is extended to the context of diagrams of schemes. This includes, as a special case, an equivariant theory for schemes with group actions. In particular, after various basic operations on sheaves such as (derived) direct images and inverse images are set up, ...

  13. Radial frequency diagram (sunflower) for the analysis of diurnal cycle parameters: Solar energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Božnar, Marija Zlata; Grašič, Boštjan; Mlakar, Primož; Soares, Jacyra; Pereira de Oliveira, Amauri; Costa, Tássio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new type of graphical presentation showing diurnal cycle of solar energy forecast. The application is possible for other parameters related to weather and green energy production. - Highlights: • The diurnal cycle of solar energy is important for the management of the electrical grid. • A solar plant’s average production depends on the statistical features of solar radiation. • The new tool – the “sunflower”, is proposed for solar energy availability representation. • The sunflower identifies and quantifies information with a clear diurnal cycle. • The sunflower diagram has been developed from the “wind rose” diagram. - Abstract: Many meteorological parameters present a natural diurnal cycle because they are directly or indirectly dependent on sunshine exposure. The solar radiation diurnal pattern is important to energy production, agriculture, prognostic models, health and general climatology. This article aims at introducing a new type of radial frequency diagram – hereafter called sunflower – for the analysis of solar radiation data in connection with energy production and also for climatological studies. The diagram is based on two-dimensional data sorting. Firstly data are sorted into classes representing hours in a day. Then the data in each hourly class is sorted into classes of the observed variable values. The relative frequencies of the value classes are shown as sections on each hour’s segment in a radial diagram. The radial diagram forms a unique pattern for each analysed dataset. Therefore it enables the quick detection of features and the comparison of several such patterns belonging to the different datasets being analysed. The sunflower diagram enables a quick and comprehensive understanding of the information about diurnal cycle of the solar radiation data. It enables in a graphical form, quick screening and long-term statistics of huge data quantities when searching for their diurnal features and

  14. Spider Silk Processing for Spidroin Recovery from Crossopriza Lyoni Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, J. A.; Ooi, W. L.; Yusuf, F.

    2018-03-01

    Spider silk is a potential biomaterial that can be used in various applications for its outstanding physicomechanical properties attributed by the spidroin composition. Efforts for commercializing spider silks have been mainly focused on the characterization of spidroins from the Entelegyne spiders for exceptional fibre construction. Hence, studies on silk proteins from the Haplogyne species remain neglected. The aim of this study is to isolate spidroin from Crossopriza lyoni web. Silk processing involved the pretreatment of fibres for the shell layer removal from the surface. A screening study was conducted to analyze the effect of temperature, incubation time and agitation speed on spidroin extraction using Ajisawa’s reagent by OFAT analysis followed by statistical optimization of the extraction process via RSM for maximal protein recovery. All parameters exerted significant effect on spidroin recovery (p<0.05) in which the maximum protein concentration (451.78 ± 0.110 µg/ml) was obtained at optimal condition of 70°C, 350 rpm and 1.25 hours. The discovery of spidroin from this study provides a basic platform for engineering spider silk to meet the demand for a variety of silk-based products in the near future.

  15. variability in condensed tannins and bitterness in spider plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) contributes considerably to the nutrition and medicines of communities in southern Africa. However, its utilisation is limited by its bitterness caused by condensed tannins. Unfortunately, processing options that reduce the bitterness also remove nutritionally and medicinally useful ...

  16. Spider bite in southern Africa: diagnosis and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    older specimens the red stripes and spots may have disappeared completely. The legs are evenly black. .... Africa. (Map: Ansie Dippenaar.) Fig. 6. Brown widow spider depicting consistent orange to red hourglass .... Both cholinesterase inhibitors and α-latrotoxin give rise to an increase in acetylcholine concentration in the ...

  17. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest...

  18. Preservice Teachers' Conceptions about Animals and Particularly about Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina, Carmen Urones; Vacas, Jose Manuel; Sanchez-Barbudo, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This article explores the scientific ideas and alternative conceptions that pre-service teachers have regarding animal classification and spiders in particular. Method: The study involved 40 pre-service teachers of elementary education in Spain and the data was collected by means of questionnaires, descriptions and drawings. The…

  19. Ant-Mimicking Spiders: Strategies for Living with Social Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia Sara Ceccarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mimicry is a fascinating topic, in particular when viewed in terms of selective forces and evolutionary strategies. Mimicry is a system involving a signaller, a signal receiver, and a model and has evolved independently many times in plants and animals. There are several ways of classifying mimicry based on the interactions and cost-benefit scenarios of the parties involved. In this review, I briefly outline the dynamics of the most common types of mimicry to then apply it to some of the spider-ant associative systems known to date. In addition, this review expands on the strategies that ant-associating (in particular ant-mimicking spiders have developed to minimise the costs of living close to colonies of potentially dangerous models. The main strategy that has been noted to date is either chemical mimicry or actively avoiding contact with ants. If these strategies warrant protection for the spider (living close to potentially dangerous models, then the benefits of ant associations would outweigh the costs, and the association will prevail.

  20. Determination of PCDDs in spider webs: preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of spider webs for determination of polichlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs has been studied for the first time. The aim of the studies was to find out if spider webs are suitable for such examinations as it was proved in the previous research they are excellent indicators of air pollutants. Spiders are ubiquitous, thus collection of samples is easy and non-invasive. Studies were conducted within the city of Wrocław and surroundings, one of the biggest and at the same time heaviest polluted city in Poland. Five research sites have been chosen, where spider webs were collected after 60 days of continuous exposure time. Webs belonging to two genera Tegenaria sylvestris and Tegenaria ferruginea (family Agelenidae have been chosen as they are large and very dense, thus they are very suitable for such examinations. Webs were found to retain dioxins probably mainly by external exposure. These promising results should be continued and expanded in the future research.

  1. Trial by fire: Social spider colony demographics in periodically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nests of social spiders of the genus Stegodyphus (Eresidae) are a prominent feature of African savannas and their size and visibility make them potentially good indicators of ecological consequences of fire. The colonies are sedentary and their nests may persist for several years, although individuals have an annual life ...

  2. Central European habitats inhabited by spiders with disjunctive distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 367-380 ISSN 1505-2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : spider s * glacial relicts * boreomontane species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2011

  3. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M.J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  4. Spiders of the Vine Plants in Southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Havlová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Araneofauna of vineyards is relatively known in Central Europe but we have a lack of knowledge about araneofauna which occur directly on the vine plants. Our investigation was focused on spiders which live on vine plants, especially on the vine plants trunks. We investigated spiders in six vineyards in southern Moravia (Šatov, Mikulov, Popice, Morkůvky, Nosislav and Blučina. Vineyards were under different soil management, traps were placed on different parts of particular locality (terraced and plain and all localities were under integrated pest management. We employed two types of cardboard traps for spider collecting during whole vegetation season. Altogether, we collected 21 spider species which belong to seven families. The most important species was Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1836, which is mentioned in the Red List as vulnerable (VU and Sibianor tantulus (Simon, 1868 which had unknown distribution in the Czech Republic. The other very interesting result is that the most common species is myrmecomorph Synageles venator (Lucas, 1836, which is scarcely recorded in such huge numbers as we documented in our study.

  5. Spiders (Araneae) as polyphagous natural enemies in orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogya, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spiders (Araneae) occur in high abundance in all terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystems. They are a very heterogeneous group of animals with different hunting tactics and therefore they play very different ecological roles. At family level these tactics are rather similar thus

  6. Effects of Packaging and Storage Conditions on Quality of Spider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to increase insight into how the seed quality of spider plant is affected by different packaging containers, seed moisture content and storage temperatures, with a view to finding out the optimal method of packaging and storing of these seeds. This study was carried out using seeds dried ...

  7. Female mating strategy during precopulatory mate guarding in spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2009-01-01

    In some taxa, females choose their mates indirectly by using male combat. In the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai, adult males guard prereproductive quiescent females. In a dual choice experiment, more males first approached females already guarded by a conspecific male than approached

  8. The Spider's Web: Creativity and Survival in Dynamic Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bill

    2001-01-01

    The spider's web is presented as a model for Indigenous education and community transformation, grounded in Okanagan philosophy. Children are at the center and benefit from the influence of extended family and community. The model's relevance for language revitalization, cultural maintenance, and educational planning and assessment is discussed.…

  9. The sejugal furrow in camel spiders and acariform mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae are one of the arachnid groups characterised by a prosomal dorsal shield composed of three distinct elements: the pro-, meso- and metapeltidium. These are associated respectively with prosomal appendages one to four, five, and six. What is less well known, although noted in the historical literature, is that the coxae of the 4th and 5th prosomal segments (i.e. walking legs 2 and 3 of camel spiders are also separated ventrally by a distinct membranous region, which is absent between the coxae of the other legs. We suggest that this essentially ventral division of the prosoma specifically between coxae 2 and 3 is homologous with the so-called sejugal furrow (the sejugal interval sensu van der Hammen. This division constitutes a fundamental part of the body plan in acariform mites (Arachnida: Acariformes. If homologous, this sejugal furrow could represent a further potential synapomorphy for (Solifugae + Acariformes; a relationship with increasing morphological and molecular support. Alternatively, outgroup comparison with sea spiders (Pycnogonida and certain early Palaeozoic fossils could imply that the sejugal furrow defines an older tagma, derived from a more basal grade of organisation. In this scenario the (still divided prosoma of acariform mites and camel spiders would be plesiomorphic. This interpretation challenges the textbook arachnid character of a peltidium (or ‘carapace’ covering an undivided prosoma.

  10. Czech Republic – the type material of spiders (Araneae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Kůrka, A.; Buchar, J.; Řezáč, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 174, 1-4 (2005), s. 13-64 ISSN 0139-9543 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6007401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : spiders * type material * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. Shedding light on the optical properties of spider silk fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Desmond M.; Tow, Kenny Hey; Vollrath, Fritz; Dicaire, Isabelle; Gheysens, Tom; Thevenaz, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Optical characterisation of a Nephila edulis spider dragline silk is performed. The silk fiber transmits light up to 1400 nm with a propagation loss of ∼9 dB/cm and birefringence of 8×10−3 measured at 1302 nm.

  12. 46 SPIDER WEBS AS INDICATORS OF COBALT AND LEAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spider webs were collected from the indoor and outdoor of 120 sampling sites of 10 zones of Kano. Municipality. The samples were analysed for .... from 120 sampling sites in 10 sampling zones of. Kano municipality. Each sampling zone ... London (Fergusson and Ryan, 1984); New Zealand. (Fergusson et al., 1986); Kano ...

  13. Infrared and Raman Study of the Recluse Spider Silk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. L.; Wang, Qijue; Xing, Zhen; Schniepp, H. C.; Qazilbash, M. M.

    Spider silk exhibits remarkable mechanical properties, such as high tensile strength and toughness. We want to gain insight into the composition and structure of spider silk to discover the origin of these properties. We are especially interested in the organization of the crystalline beta sheets that are expected to contribute to the high strength of the silk from the recluse spider, Loxosceles laeta. The recluse spider produces a silk that has a unique geometry amongst arachnids. We measure the silk's optical properties, particularly the infrared-active and Raman-active vibrations. Broadband infrared transmission spectra were collected in the spectral range between 600 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1, with light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the silk. Raman micro-spectroscopy was performed in the spectral range 500 cm-1 and 4000 cm- 1 with a 514 nm laser. The infrared and Raman vibrational modes are fit with Lorentzian and pseudo-Voigt functions. The vibrational modes are assigned to specific structures and electronic bonds in the silk. This work was supported by NASA/ Virginia Space Grant Consortium.

  14. Characteristics of the first recorded spider (Arthropoda: Arachnida fauna from Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiders (order: Aranae are an important environmental indicator and play a significant role as predators in biological control of the most of the key insect pests. The present study was conducted to establish the characteristics of the first recorded spider fauna from Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan during June 2013-July 2014. Their 10 species belong to 7 families, and 10 genera (nt=123: total; ni=77: identified; nui=46: unidentified were recorded in the 6 quadrates, i.e., Daramdala, Doki, Guryaal, Samang, Shahoor and Sia-Sheringal of Sheringal. The largest family was Lycosidae (wolf spiders with respect to size and numbers of specimens collected (n=20, which contained Arctosa littorali Simon, 1897; Hippasa partita Takidar, 1970; Pardosa distincta Backwall, 1867, while the smallest family was Gnphosidae (ground spiders (n=3 with Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg, 2002; while other families Sparassidae (huntsman spiders (n=19 Halconia insignis Thorell, 1836, and Isopeda tuhogniga Barrion and Litsinger, 1995, Opilionidae (harvestmen spiders (n=12 Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall, 1833; Pholcidae (cellar spider (n=10 have Crossopriza lyoni Blackwall, 1867; Hersiliidae (two-tailed spiders (n=6 is having Harsilia savignyi Lucas, 1836; (n=5 with Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 were recorded. It was concluded that 50% of the spiders collected from the study area were venomous. A detail study is required for further exploration of spider fauna of Sheringal, KP, Pakistan with special reference to their taxonomical, physiological and ecological characteristics.

  15. Evaluating Stem Cell Response to a Spider Silk Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Katherine Lee

    Micropatterning on a surface using fibers, channels, and troughs, can act as an effective means of inducing cell attachment and alignment. These morphological and pattern changes as a response to physical cues can impact the potential that a cell has to differentiate into a different cell line. This thesis evaluated the response of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and other cell types, to spider dragline silk fibers, a potential scaffold material for tissue regeneration, and further observed the effects of morphology, orientation, and composition of silk on the adherence of cells. Several cell lines were studied in this thesis, including adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), osteoblasts (7F2s), and fibroblasts (3T3s), but DPSCs were the main cell type of interest. This is due to the fact that DPSCs are a proposed source of stem cells for nerve regeneration based on their close embryonic origin to neurons and the ease with which DPSCs can be obtained from a donor. The cells' morphologies and spread patterns were characterized after they were plated onto Nephila clavipes dragline fibers in media. The inclusion of 3T3s and 7F2s in this study allowed for both direct comparisons to prior published work and a qualitative comparison to the morphology of the DPSCs. After twelve days, the DPSCs exhibited greater relative alignment and adherence to the spider dragline fibers than the 3T3s and 7F2s when silk was wrapped in an aligned orientation rather than a random orientation. The impact of a common sterilization method (ultraviolet light) on the spider dragline fiber surface and subsequent cell response to this modified surface was also characterized. Exposure of the silk to ultraviolet light did not have a measureable effect on cell alignment, but it did eliminate bacterial growth and changed fiber surface roughness. Spiders' exposure to stressful environments did not have an effect on silk to impair cell alignment or adhesion, and synthetic recombinant protein silk

  16. A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations.

  17. A Legal Negotiatiton Support System Based on A Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Katsumi; Shibasaki, Masato; Yasumura, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ryuzo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Koshimura, Miyuki; Inoue, Katsumi; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Hiroshi

    We present an overview of a legal negotiation support system, ANS (Argumentation based Negotiation support System). ANS consists of a user interface, three inference engines, a database of old cases, and two decision support modules. The ANS users negotiates or disputes with others via a computer network. The negotiation status is managed in the form of the negotiation diagram. The negotiation diagram is an extension of Toulmin’s argument diagram, and it contains all arguments insisted by participants. The negotiation protocols are defined as operations to the negotiation diagram. By exchanging counter arguments each other, the negotiation diagram grows up. Nonmonotonic reasoning using rule priorities are applied to the negotiation diagram.

  18. Global patterns of guild composition and functional diversity of spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work are: (1 to define spider guilds for all extant families worldwide; (2 test if guilds defined at family level are good surrogates of species guilds; (3 compare the taxonomic and guild composition of spider assemblages from different parts of the world; (4 compare the taxonomic and functional diversity of spider assemblages and; (5 relate functional diversity with habitat structure. Data on foraging strategy, prey range, vertical stratification and circadian activity was collected for 108 families. Spider guilds were defined by hierarchical clustering. We searched for inconsistencies between family guild placement and the known guild of each species. Richness and abundance per guild before and after correcting guild placement were compared, as were the proportions of each guild and family between all possible pairs of sites. Functional diversity per site was calculated based on hierarchical clustering. Eight guilds were discriminated: (1 sensing, (2 sheet, (3 space, and (4 orb web weavers; (5 specialists; (6 ambush, (7 ground, and (8 other hunters. Sixteen percent of the species richness corresponding to 11% of all captured individuals was incorrectly attributed to a guild by family surrogacy; however, the correlation of uncorrected vs. corrected guilds was invariably high. The correlation of guild richness or abundances was generally higher than the correlation of family richness or abundances. Functional diversity was not always higher in the tropics than in temperate regions. Families may potentially serve as ecological surrogates for species. Different families may present similar roles in the ecosystems, with replacement of some taxa by other within the same guild. Spiders in tropical regions seem to have higher redundancy of functional roles and/or finer resource partitioning than in temperate regions. Although species and family diversity were higher in the tropics, functional diversity seems to be also

  19. SPIDERS (ARANEI OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH OSSETIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Ponomarev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Until recently, spider fauna of the Republic of South Ossetia has been the least studied among the regional araneofaunas of the Caucasus. According to the literature data, as little as 30 spider species have been known from the republic’s territory (Mkheidze, 1997, Mikhailov, 1990; Ponomarev, Dvadnenko, 2013; Trilicauscas, Komarov, 2014. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to summarize available data on the spider fauna of South Ossetia.Location. Republic of South Ossetia.Methods. The material was collected in various districts of South Ossetia in 2011-2014 by Yu.E. Komarov. Mainly, the collecting was performed in the city of Tskhinvali and its environs, and in the South Ossetian State Reserve. Spiders were sampled with pitfall traps and sweep netting. The time of traps’ exposure is April–December.Results and main conclusions. To date, the spider fauna of the Republic of South Ossetia includes 230 species from 29 families. 222 species were registered by the authors, eight species (Clubiona pseudosimilis, Gnaphosa lugubris, Linyphia hortensis, Neriene peltata, Geolycosa vultuosa, Pardosa azerifalcata, Ero aphana, and Philodromus rufus are known from the literature only. Seven species are new to the Caucasus (Clubiona pseudosimilis, Gnaphosa lugubris, Linyphia hortensis, Neriene peltata, Geolycosa vultuosa, Pardosa azerifalcata, Ero aphana, and Philodromus rufus. Of these, two species were known earlier only from Turkey (Pardosa consimilis, Ozyptila spirembolus, and one species (Tegenaria pseudolyncea only from Azerbaijan. Against the background of the widespread species predominance, the Caucasian element is small and presented by twelve species (Tegenaria pseudolyncea, Dysdera tkibuliensis, Haplodrassus caucasius, Zelotes khostensis, Mansuphantes ovalis, Sintula oseticus, Tenuiphantes teberdaensis, Pardosa azerifalcata, P. caucasica, Piratula hurkai, Trochosa cachetiensis, and Xysticus ukrainicus.

  20. Global Patterns of Guild Composition and Functional Diversity of Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Pedro; Pekár, Stano; Jocqué, Rudy; Coddington, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work are: (1) to define spider guilds for all extant families worldwide; (2) test if guilds defined at family level are good surrogates of species guilds; (3) compare the taxonomic and guild composition of spider assemblages from different parts of the world; (4) compare the taxonomic and functional diversity of spider assemblages and; (5) relate functional diversity with habitat structure. Data on foraging strategy, prey range, vertical stratification and circadian activity was collected for 108 families. Spider guilds were defined by hierarchical clustering. We searched for inconsistencies between family guild placement and the known guild of each species. Richness and abundance per guild before and after correcting guild placement were compared, as were the proportions of each guild and family between all possible pairs of sites. Functional diversity per site was calculated based on hierarchical clustering. Eight guilds were discriminated: (1) sensing, (2) sheet, (3) space, and (4) orb web weavers; (5) specialists; (6) ambush, (7) ground, and (8) other hunters. Sixteen percent of the species richness corresponding to 11% of all captured individuals was incorrectly attributed to a guild by family surrogacy; however, the correlation of uncorrected vs. corrected guilds was invariably high. The correlation of guild richness or abundances was generally higher than the correlation of family richness or abundances. Functional diversity was not always higher in the tropics than in temperate regions. Families may potentially serve as ecological surrogates for species. Different families may present similar roles in the ecosystems, with replacement of some taxa by other within the same guild. Spiders in tropical regions seem to have higher redundancy of functional roles and/or finer resource partitioning than in temperate regions. Although species and family diversity were higher in the tropics, functional diversity seems to be also influenced by

  1. Synthetic Spider Silk Production on a Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Yang; Gnesa, Eric; Pacheco, Ryan; Kohler, Kristin; Jeffery, Felicia; Vierra, Craig

    2012-01-01

    As society progresses and resources become scarcer, it is becoming increasingly important to cultivate new technologies that engineer next generation biomaterials with high performance properties. The development of these new structural materials must be rapid, cost-efficient and involve processing methodologies and products that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. Spiders spin a multitude of different fiber types with diverse mechanical properties, offering a rich source of next generation engineering materials for biomimicry that rival the best manmade and natural materials. Since the collection of large quantities of natural spider silk is impractical, synthetic silk production has the ability to provide scientists with access to an unlimited supply of threads. Therefore, if the spinning process can be streamlined and perfected, artificial spider fibers have the potential use for a broad range of applications ranging from body armor, surgical sutures, ropes and cables, tires, strings for musical instruments, and composites for aviation and aerospace technology. In order to advance the synthetic silk production process and to yield fibers that display low variance in their material properties from spin to spin, we developed a wet-spinning protocol that integrates expression of recombinant spider silk proteins in bacteria, purification and concentration of the proteins, followed by fiber extrusion and a mechanical post-spin treatment. This is the first visual representation that reveals a step-by-step process to spin and analyze artificial silk fibers on a laboratory scale. It also provides details to minimize the introduction of variability among fibers spun from the same spinning dope. Collectively, these methods will propel the process of artificial silk production, leading to higher quality fibers that surpass natural spider silks. PMID:22847722

  2. Brown Spider (Loxosceles genus Venom Toxins: Tools for Biological Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Senff-Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals use their venoms as tools for defense or predation. These venoms are complex mixtures, mainly enriched of proteic toxins or peptides with several, and different, biological activities. In general, spider venom is rich in biologically active molecules that are useful in experimental protocols for pharmacology, biochemistry, cell biology and immunology, as well as putative tools for biotechnology and industries. Spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several research groups worldwide. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus venom is enriched in low molecular mass proteins (5–40 kDa. Although their venom is produced in minute volumes (a few microliters, and contain only tens of micrograms of protein, the use of techniques based on molecular biology and proteomic analysis has afforded rational projects in the area and permitted the discovery and identification of a great number of novel toxins. The brown spider phospholipase-D family is undoubtedly the most investigated and characterized, although other important toxins, such as low molecular mass insecticidal peptides, metalloproteases and hyaluronidases have also been identified and featured in literature. The molecular pathways of the action of these toxins have been reported and brought new insights in the field of biotechnology. Herein, we shall see how recent reports describing discoveries in the area of brown spider venom have expanded biotechnological uses of molecules identified in these venoms, with special emphasis on the construction of a cDNA library for venom glands, transcriptome analysis, proteomic projects, recombinant expression of different proteic toxins, and finally structural descriptions based on crystallography of toxins.

  3. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Learning environments for object-oriented modelling in UML which offer a rich interaction usually impose, in return, strong restrictions on the range of exercises they can address. We propose to overcome this limit by including a diagnostic module that compares the student diagram with a reference diagram. This approach enables to combine the advantages of an open environment (in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size ...

  4. A Critical Appraisal of the `Day' Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Heslop, D.

    2017-12-01

    The `Day' diagram [Day et al., 1977; doi:10.1016/0031-9201(77)90108-X] is used widely to infer the mean domain state of magnetic mineral assemblages. The Day plot coordinates are the ratios of the saturation remanent magnetization to saturation magnetization (Mrs/Ms) and the coercivity of remanence to coercivity (Bcr/Bc), as determined from a major hysteresis loop and a backfield demagnetization curve. Based on theoretical and empirical arguments, Day plots are typically demarcated into stable single domain (SD), `pseudosingle domain' (`PSD'), and multidomain (MD) zones. It is a simple task to determine Mrs/Ms and Bcr/Bc for a sample and to assign a mean domain state based on the boundaries defined by Day et al. [1977]. Many other parameters contribute to variability in a Day diagram, including surface oxidation, mineral stoichiometry, stress state, magnetostatic interactions, and mixtures of magnetic particles with different sizes and shapes. Bulk magnetic measurements usually lack detailed independent evidence to constrain each free parameter, which makes the Day diagram fundamentally ambiguous. This raises questions about its usefulness for diagnosing magnetic particle size variations. The Day diagram is also used to make inferences about binary mixing of magnetic particles, where, for example, mixtures of SD and MD particles give rise to a bulk `PSD' response even though the concentration of `PSD' grains could be zero. In our assessment of thousands of hysteresis measurements of geological samples, binary mixing occurs in a tiny number of cases. Ternary, quaternary, and higher order mixing are usually observed. Also, uniaxial SD and MD end-members are nearly always inappropriate for considering mixing because uniaxial SD particles are virtually non-existent in igneous rocks. Thus, use of mixing lines in Day diagrams routinely provides unsatisfactory representations of particle size variations. We critically appraise the Day diagram and argue that its many

  5. Phylogeography of a successful aerial disperser: the golden orb spider Nephila on Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntner Matjaž

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and diversification patterns of lineages across the Indian Ocean islands are varied due to the interplay of the complex geographic and geologic island histories, the varying dispersal abilities of biotas, and the proximity to major continental landmasses. Our aim was to reconstruct phylogeographic history of the giant orbweaving spider (Nephila on western Indian Ocean islands (Madagascar, Mayotte, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, to test its origin and route of dispersal, and to examine the consequences of good dispersal abilities for colonization and diversification, in comparison with related spiders (Nephilengys inhabiting the same islands, and with other organisms known for over water dispersal. We used mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (ITS2 markers to examine phylogenetic and population genetic patterns in Nephila populations and species. We employed Bayesian and parsimony methods to reconstruct phylogenies and haplotype networks, respectively, and calculated genetic distances, fixation indices, and estimated clade ages under a relaxed clock model. Results Our results suggest an African origin of Madagascar Nephila inaurata populations via Cenozoic dispersal, and the colonization of the Mascarene islands from Madagascar. We find evidence of gene flow across Madagascar and Comoros. The Mascarene islands share a common 'ancestral' COI haplotype closely related to those found on Madagascar, but itself absent, or as yet unsampled, from Madagascar. Each island has one or more unique haplotypes related to the ancestral Mascarene haplotype. The Indian Ocean N. inaurata are genetically distinct from the African populations. Conclusions Nephila spiders colonized Madagascar from Africa about 2.5 (0.6-5.3 Ma. Our results are consistent with subsequent, recent and rapid, colonization of all three Mascarene islands. On each island, however, we detected unique haplotypes, consistent with a limited gene flow among the islands

  6. Geometry Helps to Compare Persistence Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur

    2015-11-16

    Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.

  7. Phase diagram for interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Maennel, M.; Schreiber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a modified form of the inversion method in terms of a self-energy expansion to access the phase diagram of the Bose-Einstein transition. The dependence of the critical temperature on the interaction parameter is calculated. This is discussed with the help of a condition for Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting systems which follows from the pole of the T matrix in the same way as from the divergence of the medium-dependent scattering length. A many-body approximation consisting of screened ladder diagrams is proposed, which describes the Monte Carlo data more appropriately. The specific results are that a non-self-consistent T matrix leads to a linear coefficient in leading order of 4.7, the screened ladder approximation to 2.3, and the self-consistent T matrix due to the effective mass to a coefficient of 1.3 close to the Monte Carlo data

  8. Research on Artificial Spider Web Model for Farmland Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through systematic analysis of the structural characteristics and invulnerability of spider web, this paper explores the possibility of combining the advantages of spider web such as network robustness and invulnerability with farmland wireless sensor network. A universally applicable definition and mathematical model of artificial spider web structure are established. The comparison between artificial spider web and traditional networks is discussed in detail. The simulation result shows that the networking structure of artificial spider web is better than that of traditional networks in terms of improving the overall reliability and invulnerability of communication system. A comprehensive study on the advantage characteristics of spider web has important theoretical and practical significance for promoting the invulnerability research of farmland wireless sensor network.

  9. Worldline Green functions for multiloop diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.G.; Heidelberg Univ.; Schubert, C.

    1994-03-01

    We propose a multiloop generalization of the Bern-Kosower formalism, based on Strassler's approach of evaluating worldline path integrals by worldline Green functions. Those Green functions are explicitly constructed for the basic two-loop graph, and for a loop with an arbitrary number of propagator insertions. For scalar and abelian gauge theories, the resulting integral representations allow to combine whole classes of Feynman diagrams into compact expressions. (orig.)

  10. Simple Lie algebras and Dynkin diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccella, F.

    1983-01-01

    The following theorem is studied: in a simple Lie algebra of rank p there are p positive roots such that all the other n-3p/2 positive roots are linear combinations of them with integer non negative coefficients. Dykin diagrams are built by representing the simple roots with circles and drawing a junction between the roots. Five exceptional algebras are studied, focusing on triple junction algebra, angular momentum algebra, weights of the representation, antisymmetric tensors, and subalgebras

  11. Stability diagrams for disconnected capillary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobozhanin, Lev A.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    2003-11-01

    Disconnected free surfaces (or interfaces) of a connected liquid volume (or liquid volumes) occur when the boundary of the liquid volume consists of two or more separate surface components Γi (i=1,…,m) that correspond to liquid-gas (or liquid-liquid) interfaces. We consider disconnected surfaces for which each component Γi is axisymmetric and crosses its own symmetry axis. In most cases, the stability problem for an entire disconnected equilibrium capillary surface subject to perturbations that conserve the total liquid volume reduces to the same set of problems obtained when separately considering the stability of each Γi to perturbations that satisfy a fixed pressure constraint. For fixed pressure perturbations, the stability of a given axisymmetric Γi can be found through comparison of actual and critical values of a particular boundary parameter. For zero gravity, these critical values are found analytically. For non-zero gravity, an analytical representation of the critical values is not generally possible. In such cases, a determination of stability can be accomplished by representing all possible equilibrium surface profiles on a dimensionless "height-radius" diagram. This diagram is contoured with critical values of the boundary parameter. The stability diagram can, in most cases, be used to determine the stability of a disconnected surface (subject to perturbations that conserve the total volume) that is composed of components that are represented by given equilibrium profiles on the diagram. To illustrate this approach, solutions of stability problems for systems consisting of a set of sessile or pendant drops in contact with smooth planar walls or with the edges of equidimensional perforated holes in a horizontal plate are presented.

  12. Diagram of the uranium prospection perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.

    1982-01-01

    We call diagrams to the drawn up one continuous of parameters physicists of the formation trimmed by a perforation based on the depth. The method is interesting not only for the putting in evidence of the mineralized levels but also it stops to determine the variations of lithology had by one part to the intrinsic properties of minerals (quartz, clays, carbonates) and to their variation of tenor and by another one, to variations of porosity and permeability of the formation

  13. Random matrix models for phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderheyden, B; Jackson, A D

    2011-01-01

    We describe a random matrix approach that can provide generic and readily soluble mean-field descriptions of the phase diagram for a variety of systems ranging from quantum chromodynamics to high-T c materials. Instead of working from specific models, phase diagrams are constructed by averaging over the ensemble of theories that possesses the relevant symmetries of the problem. Although approximate in nature, this approach has a number of advantages. First, it can be useful in distinguishing generic features from model-dependent details. Second, it can help in understanding the 'minimal' number of symmetry constraints required to reproduce specific phase structures. Third, the robustness of predictions can be checked with respect to variations in the detailed description of the interactions. Finally, near critical points, random matrix models bear strong similarities to Ginsburg-Landau theories with the advantage of additional constraints inherited from the symmetries of the underlying interaction. These constraints can be helpful in ruling out certain topologies in the phase diagram. In this Key Issues Review, we illustrate the basic structure of random matrix models, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and consider the kinds of system to which they can be applied.

  14. Uranium phase diagram from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanilkin, Alexey; Kruglov, Ivan; Migdal, Kirill; Oganov, Artem; Pokatashkin, Pavel; Sergeev, Oleg

    2017-06-01

    The work is devoted to the investigation of uranium phase diagram up to pressure of 1 TPa and temperature of 15 kK based on density functional theory. First of all the comparison of pseudopotential and full potential calculations is carried out for different uranium phases. In the second step, phase diagram at zero temperature is investigated by means of program USPEX and pseudopotential calculations. Stable and metastable structures with close energies are selected. In order to obtain phase diagram at finite temperatures the preliminary selection of stable phases is made by free energy calculation based on small displacement method. For remaining candidates the accurate values of free energy are obtained by means of thermodynamic integration method (TIM). For this purpose quantum molecular dynamics are carried out at different volumes and temperatures. Interatomic potentials based machine learning are developed in order to consider large systems and long times for TIM. The potentials reproduce the free energy with the accuracy 1-5 meV/atom, which is sufficient for prediction of phase transitions. The equilibrium curves of different phases are obtained based on free energies. Melting curve is calculated by modified Z-method with developed potential.

  15. Phase diagram of heteronuclear Janus dumbbells

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Patrick; Giacometti, Achille; Hudson, Toby

    Using Aggregation-Volume-Bias Monte Carlo simulations along with Successive Umbrella Sampling and Histogram Re-weighting, we study the phase diagram of a system of dumbbells formed by two touching spheres having variable sizes, as well as different interaction properties. The first sphere ($h$) interacts with all other spheres belonging to different dumbbells with a hard-sphere potential. The second sphere ($s$) interacts via a square-well interaction with other $s$ spheres belonging to different dumbbells and with a hard-sphere potential with all remaining $h$ spheres. We focus on the region where the $s$ sphere is larger than the $h$ sphere, as measured by a parameter $1\\le \\alpha\\le 2 $ controlling the relative size of the two spheres. As $\\alpha \\to 2$ a simple fluid of square-well spheres is recovered, whereas $\\alpha \\to 1$ corresponds to the Janus dumbbell limit, where the $h$ and $s$ spheres have equal sizes. Many phase diagrams falling into three classes are observed, depending on the value of $\\alpha$. The $1.8 \\le \\alpha \\le 2$ is dominated by a gas-liquid phase separation very similar to that of a pure square-well fluid with varied critical temperature and density. When $1.3 \\le \\alpha \\le 1.8$ we find a progressive destabilization of the gas-liquid phase diagram by the onset of self-assembled structures, that eventually lead to a metastability of the gas-liquid transition below $\\alpha=1.2$.

  16. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail: ning_gai@163.com, E-mail: tyk450@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2017-02-10

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  17. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodic control systems used in spacecrafts and automotives are usually period-driven and can be decomposed into different modes with each mode representing a system state observed from outside. Such systems may also involve intensive computing in their modes. Despite the fact that such control systems are widely used in the above-mentioned safety-critical embedded domains, there is lack of domain-specific formal modelling languages for such systems in the relevant industry. To address this problem, we propose a formal visual modeling framework called mode diagram as a concise and precise way to specify and analyze such systems. To capture the temporal properties of periodic control systems, we provide, along with mode diagram, a property specification language based on interval logic for the description of concrete temporal requirements the engineers are concerned with. The statistical model checking technique can then be used to verify the mode diagram models against desired properties. To demonstrate the viability of our approach, we have applied our modelling framework to some real life case studies from industry and helped detect two design defects for some spacecraft control systems.

  18. On-shell diagrams for N=8 supergravity amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslop, Paul; Lipstein, Arthur E. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Lower Mountjoy, Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-10

    We define recursion relations for N=8 supergravity amplitudes using a generalization of the on-shell diagrams developed for planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills. Although the recursion relations generically give rise to non-planar on-shell diagrams, we show that at tree-level the recursion can be chosen to yield only planar diagrams, the same diagrams occurring in the planar N=4 theory. This implies non-trivial identities for non-planar diagrams as well as interesting relations between the N=4 and N=8 theories. We show that the on-shell diagrams of N=8 supergravity obey equivalence relations analogous to those of N=4 super-Yang-Mills, and we develop a systematic algorithm for reading off Grassmannian integral formulae directly from the on-shell diagrams. We also show that the 1-loop 4-point amplitude of N=8 supergravity can be obtained from on-shell diagrams.

  19. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  20. Loss of legs: is it or not a handicap for an orb-weaving spider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Alain; Anotaux, Mylène; Leborgne, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Leg loss is a common phenomenon in spiders, and according to the species 5% to 40% of the adults can present at least one missing leg. There is no possibility of regeneration after adult moult and the animal must manage with its missing appendages until its death. With the loss of one or more legs, female orb-weaving spiders can be penalized twice: firstly, because the legs are necessary for web construction and secondly, the legs are essential for the control of the prey after its interception by the web. During development, spiders may be also penalized because regeneration has energetic costs that take away resources for survival, growth and reproduction. All these consequences should influence negatively the development of the spider and thus its fitness. We investigated the impact of leg loss in the orb-weaving spider, Zygiella x-notata by studying its frequency in a natural population and web building and prey capture behaviours in laboratory. In field populations, 9.5% to 13%, of the adult females presented the loss of one or more legs; the majority of individuals had lost only one leg (in 48% of cases, a first one). Leg loss seems to affect all the adult spiders, as there is no difference of mass between intact spiders and those with missing leg. Data obtained with laboratory-reared spiders, showed that the loss of legs due to the moult is rare (less than 1%). Considering changes in web design, spiders with missing legs decreased their silk investment, increased the distance between spiral turns but did not change the capture surface of the web. Under our laboratory experimental conditions, spiders with one or two lost legs did not present any difference in prey capture efficiency. In laboratory conditions, spiders with lost leg(s) did not show any difference in egg sac production or in longevity (adult lifespan) compared to intact spiders.

  1. Evaluation of fixative solutions for ultrastructural analysis of brown spider Loxosceles intermedia (araneae: sicariidae) tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Ayub,C. L. S.; Faraco,C. D.; Freire,C. A.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the widely varying compositions of fixative solutions used for studying spiders, five different fixative formulas were tested for fixing male brown-spider (Loxosceles intermedia) gonad tissues. The brown spider represents a public health problem in Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil). Morphological study of its gonads may aid in understanding the reproductive strategies of this species, and possibly in developing a reproduction control program. The fixatives tested contained glutaralde...

  2. On the predation of fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) by a spider, Oxyopes sp. Latreille (Oxyopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.

  3. Exploring of the first recorded spider (Arachenida: Aranae) species of Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Perveen; Numan Khan

    2015-01-01

    The spiders (Arthropoada: Arachenida) are one of the groups of grasping animals. Their carapaces are found on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax, which is an important characteristic of spiders. The present study was conducted to explore the first recorded spider species (nti=75) of Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The 10 genera with 10 species under 7 families were recorded from June 2013-July 2014. According to length of legs, th...

  4. Exploring of the first recorded spider (Arachenida: Aranae species of Sheringal, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spiders (Arthropoada: Arachenida are one of the groups of grasping animals. Their carapaces are found on the dorsal side of the cephalothorax, which is an important characteristic of spiders. The present study was conducted to explore the first recorded spider species (nti=75 of Sheringal, Dir Upper (DU, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The 10 genera with 10 species under 7 families were recorded from June 2013-July 2014. According to length of legs, the largest spider was the huntsman spider, Halconia insignis Thorell having length of the first leg was 1.9±0.20, however, the same of the last leg was 1.44±0.25 (n=9. In the same contest, the smallest spider was the ground spider, Gnaphosa eucalyptus Ghafoor and Beg having length of the first leg was 0.4±0.08, while the same of the last leg was 0.4±0.08 (n=3. According to length of cephalothorax and abdomen, the largest spider was the wolf spider, Hippasa partita Takidar having length of the cephalothorax was 1.1±0.01, however, the same of the abdomen was 0.7±0.1 (n=6. In the same contest, the smallest spider was the harvestmen, Hadrobunus grandis Sundevall having length of the cephalothorax was 0.1±0.04, while the same of the abdomen was 0.3±0.04 (n=12. During present research, 10 spider species of Sheringal with different sizes were explored. The present research will be useful to educate and create awareness about spiders in the people of Sheringal.

  5. Case report: compartment syndrome after a suspected black widow spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer; Bush, Sean

    2005-04-01

    Widow spider envenomations generally produce systemic neurologic syndromes without significant local injury. We report a patient who sustained a black widow spider bite to the left forearm and presented to the emergency department with rhabdomyolysis and compartment syndrome. We documented a decrease in symptoms and compartment pressure after administration of antivenom. No surgical intervention was performed. We believe this report to be the first documenting compartment syndrome associated with black widow spider bite.

  6. Ontogenesis, gender, and molting influence the venom yield in the spider Coremiocnemis tropix (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The demand for spider venom increases along with the growing popularity of venoms-based research. A deeper understanding of factors that influence the venom yield in spiders would therefore be of interest to both commercial venom suppliers and research facilities. The present study addresses the influence of several factors on the venom yield by systematically analyzing the data obtained from 1773 electrical milkings of the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix. Gender and ontoge...

  7. Statistical Evaluation of Classification Diagrams for Altered Igneous Rocks

    OpenAIRE

    VERMA, SURENDRA P.; RODRÍGUEZ-RÍOS, RODOLFO; GONZÁLEZ-RAMÍREZ, + & ROSALINDA

    2010-01-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has proposed recommendations for the classification of relatively fresh volcanic rocks, but with no specific instructions for altered volcanic rocks, other than discouraging the use of the total alkalis versus silica diagram. The Nb/Y-Zr/TiO2 diagram has been in use for the classification of altered rocks now for over 30 years. Recently (during 2007) another diagram (Co-Th) has been proposed to replace this old diagram, particularly for al...

  8. One-step fabrication of multifunctional composite polyurethane spider-web-like nanofibrous membrane for water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, Hem Raj, E-mail: hempant@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bio-nano System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Science and Humanities, Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu (Nepal); Kim, Han Joo [Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Jeong In [Department of Bio-nano System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bio-nano System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A single mat having varieties of performance for water treatment is simply introduced. • Cost effective Ag-doped fly ash/PU nanofibers are fabricated in one-step. • Solvent reduction of AgNO{sub 3} could produce Ag-loaded spider-web nets. • Size of Ag NPs on fiber surface can be controlled by controlling stirring time. • Fabrication of nanocomposite using pollutant material to control other pollutents. -- Abstract: A stable silver-doped fly ash/polyurathene (Ag-FA/PU) nanocomposite multifunctional membrane is prepared by a facile one-step electrospinning process using fly ash particles (FAPs). Colloidal solution of PU with FAPs and Ag metal precursor was subjected to fabricate nanocomposite spider-web-like membrane using electrospinning process. Presence of N,N-dimethylformamide (solvent of PU) led to reduce silver nitrate into Ag NPs. Incorporation of Ag NPs and FAPs through electrospun PU fibers is proven through electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Presence of these NPs on PU nanofibers introduces several potential physicochemical properties such as spider-web-like nano-neeting for NPs separation, enhanced absorption capacity to remove carcinogenic arsenic (As) and toxic organic dyes, and antibacterial properties with reduce bio-fouling for membrane filter application. Preliminary observations used for above-mentioned applications for water treatment showed that it will be an economically and environmentally friendly nonwoven matrix for water purification. This simple approach highlights new avenues about the utilization of one pollutant material to control other pollutants in scalable and inexpensive ways.

  9. One-step fabrication of multifunctional composite polyurethane spider-web-like nanofibrous membrane for water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Han Joo; Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Jeong In; Hui, K.S.; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A single mat having varieties of performance for water treatment is simply introduced. • Cost effective Ag-doped fly ash/PU nanofibers are fabricated in one-step. • Solvent reduction of AgNO 3 could produce Ag-loaded spider-web nets. • Size of Ag NPs on fiber surface can be controlled by controlling stirring time. • Fabrication of nanocomposite using pollutant material to control other pollutents. -- Abstract: A stable silver-doped fly ash/polyurathene (Ag-FA/PU) nanocomposite multifunctional membrane is prepared by a facile one-step electrospinning process using fly ash particles (FAPs). Colloidal solution of PU with FAPs and Ag metal precursor was subjected to fabricate nanocomposite spider-web-like membrane using electrospinning process. Presence of N,N-dimethylformamide (solvent of PU) led to reduce silver nitrate into Ag NPs. Incorporation of Ag NPs and FAPs through electrospun PU fibers is proven through electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. Presence of these NPs on PU nanofibers introduces several potential physicochemical properties such as spider-web-like nano-neeting for NPs separation, enhanced absorption capacity to remove carcinogenic arsenic (As) and toxic organic dyes, and antibacterial properties with reduce bio-fouling for membrane filter application. Preliminary observations used for above-mentioned applications for water treatment showed that it will be an economically and environmentally friendly nonwoven matrix for water purification. This simple approach highlights new avenues about the utilization of one pollutant material to control other pollutants in scalable and inexpensive ways

  10. Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae are an ancient and iconic lineage of basal araneomorph spiders, characterised by a specialised araneophagic ecology and unique, ‘pelican-like’ cephalic morphology. Found throughout the rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and mesic heathlands of south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern Australia, the genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick, 1984 includes a diverse assemblage of relictual, largely short-range endemic species. With recent dedicated field surveys and significant advances in our understanding of archaeid biology and ecology, numerous new species of assassin spiders have been discovered in the montane sub-tropical and warm-temperate closed forests of mid-eastern Australia, including several rare or enigmatic taxa and species of conservation concern. This fauna is revised and 17 new species are described from south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales: Austrarchaea alani sp. n., Austrarchaea aleenae sp. n., Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n., Austrarchaea christopheri sp. n., Austrarchaea clyneae sp. n., Austrarchaea cunninghami sp. n., Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n., Austrarchaea harmsi sp. n., Austrarchaea helenae sp. n., Austrarchaea judyae sp. n., Austrarchaea mascordi sp. n., Austrarchaea mcguiganae sp. n., Austrarchaea milledgei sp. n., Austrarchaea monteithi sp. n., Austrarchaea platnickorum sp. n., Austrarchaea raveni sp. n. and Austrarchaea smithae sp. n. Adult specimens of the type species, Austrarchaea nodosa (Forster, 1956) are redescribed from the Lamington Plateau, south-eastern Queensland, and distinguished from the sympatric species Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n. A key to species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of COI and COII mtDNA sequences complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:21998529

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  12. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  13. Developing Tool Support for Problem Diagrams with CPN and VDM++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing work on the development of tool support for formal description of domains found in Problem Diagrams. The purpose of the tool is to handle the generation of a CPN model based on a collection of Problem Diagrams. The Problem Diagrams are used for representing the ...

  14. The role of perceptual cues in matrix diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Jan; Amelsvoort, Marije; Anjewierden, Anjo Allert

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess whether the design of a matrix diagram influences how people study the diagram and whether this has an effect on recall of the presented information. We compared four versions of a matrix diagram on antisocial personality disorder. It consisted of four header

  15. Diet-dependent fecundity of the spiders Atypena formosana and Pardosa pseudoannulata, predators in irrigated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Toft, Søren; Villareal, Sylvia

    2001-01-01

    of Collembola and D. melanogaster had the highest quality for both spiders, the BPH-GLH-Collembola and the full mixed diets were intermediate in quality, the quality of the BPH diet was intermediate to low and quality of the GLH and BPH-GLH diets was low. There need not be a contradiction between low dietary...... value of hoppers and successful natural biological control provided that the nutritional needs of the spiders are met by sufficient alternative prey. The hopper-spider relationship is comparable to that of aphids and spiders in temperate cereals, suggesting that low dietary quality of Homopterans...

  16. Methods of assembling and disassembling spider and burnable poison rod structures for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Schluderberg, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is provided for engaging and disengaging burnable poison rods from a spider in a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. A cap on the end of each of the burnable poison rods is provided with a shank or stem that is received in a respective bore formed in the spider. A frangible flange secures the shank and rod to the spider. Pressing the shank in the direction of the bore axis by means, e.g., of a plate ruptures the frangible flange to release the rod from the spider. (author)

  17. Functional Group of Spiders in Cultivated Landscape Dominated by Paddy Fields in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUANA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of spiders in all colonized environments is limited by biotic and abiotic factors requiring adaptations with respect to, for example microhabitat choice and hunting behavior. These two factors were frequently used to group spiders into functional groups. In this study our objectives were to (i group of genera of spiders into functional group based on their microhabitat specificity, hunting behavior, and daily activity; and (ii compare the number and composition of functional group of spider at each habitat type and period of paddy growth. The study was conducted at a landscape dominated by paddy fields in Cianjur Watershed for a period of 9 months. Four different habitat types (paddy, vegetable, non-crop, and mixed garden, were sampled using five trapping techniques (pitfall traps, farmcop suction, sweep netting, yellow-pan traps, and sticky traps. The Unweighted Pair-Group Average and the Euclidean Distances were used to generate dendrogram of functional group of spider. We found 14 functional groups of spider at genus level. The number of functional group of spider at four habitat types was differing, but the composition was similar, because all habitats were closed to each other. Habitat structure diversity and disturbance level influenced the number of functional group of spider. Different architecture of vegetation and availability of differ prey during paddy growth, causing the composition of functional group of spider in each period of paddy growth was changed, although its number was unchanged.

  18. Spider Transcriptomes Identify Ancient Large-Scale Gene Duplication Event Potentially Important in Silk Gland Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas H; Garb, Jessica E; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Arensburger, Peter; Ayoub, Nadia A

    2015-06-08

    The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (order Scorpionida) and spiders (order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared with other transcripts. Thus, an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland-specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae). © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Latrodectism: case report of a katipo spider (Latrodectus katipo) bite and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Lucinda; Janes, Ron

    2012-03-09

    We describe the case of a 29-year-old man who was bitten on the leg by a katipo spider, a relative of the Australian redback and American black widow spiders, while camping in sand dunes at Mahanga Beach, Mahia (North Island of New Zealand). Symptoms of latrodectism developed within hours, and were not diminished until two doses of the antivenom had been administered. This is only the second case report of a katipo spider bite in the recent literature. The katipo spider bite produces significant symptoms, however an antivenom is available in some hospital pharmacies.

  20. Spiders do not evoke greater early posterior negativity in the event-related potential as snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongshen; Kubo, Kenta; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2014-09-10

    It has been long believed that both snakes and spiders are archetypal fear stimuli for humans. Furthermore, snakes have been assumed as stronger threat cues for nonhuman primates. However, it is still unclear whether spiders hold a special status in human perception. The current study explored to what extent spider pictures draw early visual attention [as assessed with early posterior negativity (EPN)] when compared with insects similar to spiders. To measure the EPN, participants watched a random rapid serial presentation of pictures, which consisted of two conditions: spider condition (spider, wasp, bumblebee, beetle) and snake condition (snake, bird). EPN amplitudes revealed no significant difference between spider, wasp, bumblebee, and beetle pictures, whereas EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to bird pictures. In addition, EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to spider pictures. These results suggest that the early visual attentional capture of animate objects is stronger for snakes, whereas spiders do not appear to hold special early attentional value.

  1. Grounding abstractness: Abstract concepts and the activation of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth. While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  2. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  3. Numerical insights into the phase diagram of p-atic membranes with spherical topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grønhøj; Ramakrishnan, N.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.: The properties of self-avoiding p-atic membranes restricted to spherical topology have been studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a triangulated random surface model. Spherically shaped p-atic membranes undergo a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition as expected with topology induced mutually...... of disclinations. We confirm the proposed buckling of disclinations in the p-atic ordered phase, while the expected associated disordering (crumpling) transition at low bending rigidities is absent in the phase diagram. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  4. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts

  5. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  6. Logical Full Abstraction and PCF

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, John R; Plotkin, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the concept of logical full abstraction, generalising the usual equational notion. We consider the language PCF and two extensions with “parallel” operations. The main result is that, for standard interpretations, logical full abstraction is equivalent to equational full abstraction together with universality; the proof involves constructing enumeration operators. We also consider restrictions on logical complexity and on the level of types.

  7. Diagramming Scientific Papers - A New Idea for Understanding/Teaching/Sharing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2014-12-01

    How do we best communicate scientific results? As the number of scientists and scientific papers steadily increases, one of the greatest challenges is effective and efficient sharing of science. The official repository of scientific knowledge is the peer-reviewed journal archive. However, this primary knowledge can be difficult to access and understand by anyone but a relevant specialist. We propose some new ideas for diagramming the content and significance of scientific papers using a simple and intuitive graphical approach. We propose a visual mapping that highlights four fundamental aspects of most scientific papers: Data, Methods/Models, Results/Ideas, and Implications/Importance. Each of these aspects is illustrated within boxed fields which contain one or more labeled elements positioned to reflect novelty (aka originality) and impact relative to the vertical and horizontal axes. The relative position of the boxed fields themselves indicates the relative significance of data, methods, ideas, or implications to the paper. Optional lines between boxed elements indicate the flow and dependence of data/methods/ideas within the paper. As with any graphical depiction, you need to see it to best appreciate it -- this written abstract is only meant as an introduction to the idea.We anticipate that diagramming may prove useful in both communication of scientific ideas among scientists as well as in education and outreach. For example, professors could assign diagramming of papers as a way to help students organize their thoughts about the structure and impact of scientific articles. Students could compare and defend their diagrams as a way to facilitate discussion/debate. Authors could diagram their own work as a way to efficiently summarize the importance and significance of their work. We also imagine that (in the future) automatic diagramming might be used to help summarize or facilitate the discovery of archived work.

  8. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ­E¢b

    direction, which is believed to lead to improved social life and welfare. This means that Ethiopian trade and economic ... holding better market share and customer satisfaction in their products and services. In addition, in both ...... 1995. Dominant Values and Parenting. Styles: Major Limiting Factors on the Development of.

  9. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their effective participation under different socio- ecological constraints (IDRC, 1993;Takyiwa, 1998;. Kinikanwo, 2000; Isiugo-Abanike, 1994; UNO, 1989). The general issue here is to estimate the extent of female participation in ruminant livestock operations with a view to establishing if stereotyping such operations along.

  10. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feasible and sustainable options. ... strategies, specific to the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding as a mechanism to reduce the risk of HIV transmission is urgently needed ... Joyce Beatrice Ballidawa is a lecturer in the Department of Behavioural Sciences at Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, a position she has held.

  11. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about: danger identification, caracterization, evaluation exposition, risk (CAC, 1997; FAO, 2007), European food safety authority, foodrisk organization, pathogens risk ranking, risk reduction, gubernamental responsability

  12. ABSTRACT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Efforts have also been successfully made to include the study of rock art in the school/ college curriculum so as to help develop awareness amongst the students and general public about the need to preserve this cultural heritage for the posterity and also to highlight its importance in tourism industry. rock art and their ...

  13. ABSTRACT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... school/ college curriculum so as to help develop awareness amongst the students and general public about the need to preserve this cultural heritage for the posterity and also to highlight its importance in tourism industry. rock art and their chronological sequences to more applied aspects like scientific methods of dating ...

  14. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Ficus species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 41: 71-76. Nadkarni KM (1976) Indian Materia Medica. Third edition, Vol I. Popular Prakhasan, Bombay. NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) (1999). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 9th International Supplement M100- ...

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    realistic distribution of no-show data in modeling the cost function was considered using data collected from the .... the paper models the cost function based on a realistic probability distributions based on the historical data is a .... Plot of Revenue generated vs. overbooking for two class case (at $500. Compensation Cost ...

  16. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Geographic information system; waste bin; optimal location; developing city. Introduction. Over the years, the spatial organization and existing infrastructure of cities in developing countries pose challenges for sustainable solid waste management programs. Much of the ...

  17. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATTAMAH C. O

    Differences in Climate Change Effects and Adaptation Strategies between Male and Female Livestock Entrepreneurs in ... differed from females in the adaptation strategies used in combating climate change and also on their view on ..... also make use of the same farm road whether in good or bad shape. This is in line with.

  18. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    inner forces (bending moments, shearing forces etc) are usually redistributed. Cracks that often appear within the walls of tall buildings during constructions point to this phenomenon. It has also been recognized that foundation engineering is complicated. (1). Also settlement has been accepted as stress induced and time ...

  19. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viral activity has been observed for halofantrine, amodiaquine and mepacrine.” The clinical significance of these findings is uncertain“"”-. There is some evidence that HIV protease inhibitors may alter disease outcomes of colnfected patients.

  20. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was to determine how the natural aerial connec- teracting worker ants from adjacent trees and tions affected'the viability of colonies Oro!. , observing whether fighting took~iplace :(Yar~ra,. IQffginoda in the tree crowns, in the presence of, 1992). Ants of different colonies fight aggres- inimical ants,P" megacephala, 'on the ...

  1. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . user

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF677 and selected natural hybrid of peach × almond (H1and H2, and almond vegetative rootstock (local control.In this study,EMtreatments for 60 days before stress treatments were applied so that in each irrigation, EM solution to a concentration of one percent was given to half of the experiment pots. Other pots were irrigated equally with normal water. Stress levels were applied from July as follow: full irrigation, watering after unloading 33% and 66% soil moisture availability. In order to evaluate the performance, seedling survival, plant growth, number of leaves, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight and leaves and root length were measured. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that between rootstock levels across all treatments were significantly differences at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that the highest fresh and dry weight and leaf are awere observed forGF677and H1.Rootstockannualgrowth rate was also different. Most of the growth was related to the H1 Rootstocks. Thes urvival ratewas significantly different from the Rootstocks ofGF677,andH1showedthe highestpercentage of survival. The degree of adaptation to drought in varieties of almonds is different. The results showed that changes ingrowthparametersinGF677and H1were observed less often than other rootstocks. Because of strong roots,GF677and H1continue to attract more minerals under stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that the between irrigation levels for all treatments were significantly different at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that among the study traits, the highest amount was obtained from complete irrigation, while irrigationat66 percenthad the least amount. Water stress may directly affect photosyn thesis, through leaf photochemicalprocessorindirectly,byclosing stomata, reducingleaf area and growth. The results showed that the levels of(EM on the leaf surface, leaf number, annual growth, root dry weight and volume were significantly different (p

  2. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The preservative effect of CO\\\\'pea pods. seeds, husk. and water and ethanol extracts of the seeds and ... preservation of "kindirmo" with water and ethanol extracts of seeds and husk of. CO\\\\'J)Ca for most of the ... Perhaps same may apply in the area of preservatives: plant products may be safer and biologically friendlier.

  3. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. .... women). All patients fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA. (Arnett et al. 1988). A rheumatology university fellow reviewed all clinical data. ... The rs6457617 and rs13192471 were genotyped with a TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination.

  4. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The proceedings contain 106 papers of which 2 fall under the INIS Scope. One concerns seismic risk assessment at radioactive waste repositories in the U.S., the other concerns the possibility of predicting earthquakes from changes in radon 222 levels in selected ground water springs of northern Italy. (M.D.)

  5. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstract abstract

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including 0, 500 and 1000 µl L-1 and 3 level of MeSA including 0, 0.1 and 0.2 mM. After treatment, the fruits were inoculated by Botrytis suspension and transferred to storage and quality parameters were evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days. At each sampling time, disease incidence, weight loss, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that both LEO and MeSA treatments had significant effects on inhibition of mycelium growth within in-vitro condition (p < 0.05. Inhibition rate of mycelium growth significantly improved by LEO and MeSA concentration increase of, (Table 1. At in-vivo assessment, diseases incidence of treated fruits with 500 µl L-1 LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA were 32% and 64% lower than untreated fruits, respectively (Fig. 1 and 2. During storage period, the percentage of infected fruits increased. In addition, LEO and MeSA treatments affected quality parameters of strawberry fruits including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity. Treated fruits had a high content of soluble solids, vitamin C and antioxidant activity in comparison to untreated fruits (Table 3 and 4. Probably ascorbic acid decreased through fungal infection duo to cell wall break down during storage. Any factors such as essential oil and salicylate that inhibit fungal growth can help preserving vitamin C in stored products. High level of vitamin C and antioxidant activity was observed in treated fruits with 0.1 mM MeSA and 500 µl L-1 LEO. In controlling weight loss of fruits, 0.2 mM of MeSA and 500 µl L-1 of LEO had significant effects, although MeSA was more effective than LEO treatments, possibly due to elimination of respiration rates and fungi infection (Table 4. Therefore, LEO and MeSA with fungicide effects could be replaced with synthetic fungicides in controlling fungal diseases of strawberry and maintain fruits quality during storage. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results showed that LEO and MeSA treatments could be safe and used to prevent infection of strawberry during storage, although LEO was more effective than MeSA treatments. Concentration of 500 μl L-1 of LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA could control fungal infection of fruits during storage. Also, LEO and MeSA treatments can extend shelf life for over the minimum period required to transit strawberries to foreign markets and without affecting quality, adversely. However, future studies are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms by which LEO and MeSA treatments may act as a fungicide and increase their postharvest life.

  6. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This talk deals with the geometry of Banach spaces. A non-reflexive Banach space embeds canonically in its second dual and the process continues, giving raise to a strictly increasing chain of Banach spaces. A well known example of a geometric phenomenon that is preserved in this chain, is that of being (isometric) a ...

  7. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    This software template is also of immense benefits to students of different ... connection, there is the potential to track learner's action in a ..... intelligence. This software will be a direct application of artificial intelligence to develop a special authoring system for e- learning that will have the ability to learn. Intelligent authoring ...

  8. Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafdrup, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf......Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf...

  9. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maru Shete

    of voice, power and representation. To avert this situation, poor women in the research area require equal participation in resources sharing and power of decision making, better employment, housing, education, health care and other opportunities for social service opportunities through savings and credit cooperatives.

  10. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chylous leakage is an unusual complication following anterior spinal surgery. This leakage can occur as a result of traumatic injury to the thoracic duct, the cisterna chyli, or the retroperitoneal lymphatic vessels. We report a case of a 56 year old female with thoracic spine disc prolapses with cord compression. She.

  11. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... Significant p-values were corrected (pc) by the number of alleles tested or subgroups analysed according to Bonferroni's ... LD in healthy controls between both rs13192471/rs6457617 with a value of D'=0.99 and ..... Radstake T.R., Gorlova O., Rueda B., Martin J.E., Alizadeh B.Z., Palomino-Morales R. et al.

  12. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -. 1111'. Cl". SO41-. (11-. $0}-. C1; sof-. SW' s-j'. (11; so}. New-_ Blank 'spa§cS imply rhelal levels below cleteczim. ,1 z,m1:> .Qu11>»»»: mtalive analysis _ . 1 mined for individual 1ni11cral. §_'r['§>f:é€lY.l.'.l.fi;'u'- we Table l 006%. 1 ii'!

  13. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    request made by a customer for a reservation of a certain class at time T. Although dynamic .... to both customer reaction upon denied boarding and profit loss. .... Sabanci University. http://www.optimization- online.org. Bailey, J. 2007. Bumped fliers and no plan B. The New York Times. Beckman, M.J & Bobkoski, F. 1985.

  14. ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Stefano Sabino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and to analyze the integration observed in the Sintonia project with respect to the comparison of project management processes to the model of the Stage-Gate ®. The literature addresses these issues conceptually, but lack an alignment between them that is evident in practice. As a method was used single case study. The report is as if the Sintonia project, developed by PRODESP - Data Processing Company of São Paulo. The results show the integration of project management processes with the Stage-Gate model developed during the project life cycle. The formalization of the project was defined in stages in which allowed the exploitation of economies of repetition and recombination to the development of new projects. This study contributes to the technical vision in dealing with the integration of project management processes. It was concluded that this system represents an attractive way, in terms of creating economic value and technological innovation for the organization.

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    The high cost of delivering financial services to small and widely dispersed customers as well as difficult financial terrain in rural settings characterized by high covariant risks, missing markets for risk management instruments and ... Improving the extent of access to credit for low income households is a vital part of any rural ...

  16. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    the curriculum in higher education. In a similar way, major advances in biological, health sciences, social sciences, physical and life sciences, business and economics, and technology lead to revision of courses in the field. In line, with the everlasting explosion of knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology ...

  17. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production alone cannot provide the animal protein needs of about 100 million Nigerians. This, therefore calls for ... Fish contributes about 12 percent of the total animal protein supply of the World population (Borgstorm, ..... motivation for extension personnel (7.5%), inadequate transport facilities (5.5%), absence of strong ...

  18. Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Revista, Innovar

    2011-01-01

    New approaches towards Efficiency, Productivity and Quality in Management Theory / New approaches towards Efficiency, Productivity and Quality in Management Theory / The new paradigm regarding Science and Management Theory / Game Theory as applied to Administration / A Systemic approach to Territorial Diagnosis /  A prolile 0f Technological Capacity in the Graphical Art, Printing and Publishing Industry / Colombian Industrialisation: a Heterodox Vision /Determinant factors in environmental po...

  19. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing this collaborative e-learning environment on a Linux thin-client system makes it possible for this environment to be available in most schools and companies because the Linux thin-clients are less expensive than other conventional computing systems. Developing a. Collaborative E-Learning Environment on ...

  20. abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication and institutions activities in removing constraints which impede the acceptance and continued usage .... With farmers' feedback, scientists cannot misinterpret a problem or attribute wrong causes to it. ..... Protection and Environmental Management, University of lbadan,. Ibadan. Ashby, J. (1990): Small-farmer ...

  1. Abstract ~. ,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmenf to educate dairy farmers, milli vendors and the consume~s on the importance of producing, selling and consuming respectively un-adulterated milk. Key words: Milk, water adulteration, Morogoro Municipality. Introduction. Total annual milk production in Tanzania is estimated to be at 724,000 metric tons (F AO,.

  2. A Spider That Lays Its Eggs in Rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Edwards

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The small (2.5-3.0 mm, colorful metine spider, Homalometa nigritarsis Simon 1897, Family Tetragnathidae, has previously been reported from northern Mexico, Panama and the southern islands of the Lesser Antilles (Levi 1986. In the rain forest of northeastern Puerto Rico it is most frequently found with webbing on the larger outer concave surfaces of pendulous leaves. H. nigritarsis typically makes a circular, relatively flat retreat within which the female deposits two parallel rows of naked eggs. The rows are produced at intervals; as one row hatches another replaces it shortly thereafter. Evidence of up to four generations of rows has been observed. Above the retreat, and closely aligned with it, the spider builds a nearly invisible, delicate orb web, typically from edge to edge of the leaf (Fig. 1a and b. While retaining the traditional orb-web, H. nigritarsis has adopted a unique habitat and set of life history features.

  3. Lethal intragroup aggression by adult male spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina J

    2006-12-01

    I report three cases of coalitionary aggression by adult male black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) against subadult males within their community on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Two of these cases were followed by the disappearance and presumed death of the victim. Similar behavior was recently reported by Valero et al. [in press], who suggested that this behavior may be the result of intense male reproductive competition. Like the single instance they reported, the cases I report all occurred when the operational sex ratio was approximately 1:1, which suggests that intense competition among males for access to reproductively viable females may be a contributing factor. Additionally the very low density of spider monkeys on BCI may play a significant role in the occurrence of this lethal aggression. Large numbers of adult males are not necessary to protect a territorial boundary against neighboring groups, and additional males may act merely as mating competition. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4.  “Spiders and Webs in American Literature”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Dussol

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From Jonathan Edwards to Jorie Graham, spiders are strikingly present in American literature. The purpose of this article is first to show how that theme may have become something of a national tradition as very different writers, all of them careful observers of aranae, answered one another through the years. It is very likely that the attention paid to spiders by American authors was increased by those Native American myths in which spiders are a central figure. More than occasionally, on the female side of the American counter-culture, especially among its feminist and lesbian exponents, simple activists and creative writers have harnessed the symbolic power invested in the spider by Native Americans.There may be deeper reasons accounting for American authors’ fascination with spiders. The country’s phobia of disunion is one; a nation of settlers’ acute consciousness of the precariousness of its occupation of the territory is another. In demonstrating outstanding skills for adjustment to unknown places, spiders epitomize a form of identity permanence. The predominantly positive character of spider symbols in American literature will occasionally be inverted. Following the national logic of checks and balances, any web covering the whole of the United States will tend to come under suspicion.This study ends with an inventory of cultural productions linked with spiders and webs and whose Americanness is yet to be clearly determined.De Jonathan Edwards à Jorie Graham, l’araignée apparaît dans un nombre frappant de textes littéraires américains. On a d’abord voulu tenter de montrer comment a pu se construire cette tradition thématique et faire la preuve que différents écrivains, réunis par un souci de l’observation, se sont répondus à travers elle. L’attention prêtée à l’araignée s’est certainement trouvée renforcée par les récits mythologiques des peuples premiers américains qui font de l’araignée une

  5. Comparing the rheology of native spider and silkworm spinning dope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C.; Terry, A. E.; Porter, D.; Vollrath, F.

    2006-11-01

    Silk production has evolved to be energetically efficient and functionally optimized, yielding a material that can outperform most industrial fibres, particularly in toughness. Spider silk has hitherto defied all attempts at reproduction, despite advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its superb mechanical properties. Spun fibres, natural and man-made, rely on the extrusion process to facilitate molecular orientation and bonding. Hence a full understanding of the flow characteristics of native spinning feedstock (dope) will be essential to translate natural spinning to artificial silk production. Here we show remarkable similarity between the rheologies for native spider-dragline and silkworm-cocoon silk, despite their independent evolution and substantial differences in protein structure. Surprisingly, both dopes behave like typical polymer melts. This observation opens the door to using polymer theory to clarify our general understanding of natural silks, despite the many specializations found in different animal species.

  6. Optics of the ultraviolet reflecting scales of a jumping spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael F; Horwood, Julia; Lim, Matthew L.M; Li, Daiqin

    2007-01-01

    The jumping spider Cosmophasis umbratica from Singapore is strongly sexually dimorphic. The males, but not the females, reflect ultraviolet as well as green–orange light. The scales responsible for this are composed of a chitin–air–chitin sandwich in which the chitin layers are three-quarters of a wavelength thick and the air gap a quarter wavelength (where λ=600 nm, the peak wavelength of the principal reflection maximum). It is shown that this configuration produces a second reflectance peak at approximately 385 nm, accounting for the observed reflection in the ultraviolet. Other scales have a similar thickness of chitin but lack the air gap and thus produce a dull purple reflection. This novel mechanism provides the spiders with two colour signals, both of which are important in mating displays. PMID:17456453

  7. Battre sa (super) coulpe : Spider-Man (1962)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasovic, Dick

    2016-01-01

    L’édification est l'une des grandes fonctions traditionnelles de la littérature de jeunesse. Spider-Man, héros populaire s'il en est, s'est révélé bien sûr l'ambassadeur de nombreuses valeurs sociétales américaines (le do it yourself, l'esprit d'entreprise et d'indépendance, la tolérance, la fidélité , la célébration du système éducationnel, la transmission et la solidarité intergénérationnelle, le sens des responsabilités, évidemment, etc.). Spider-Man se bat moins qu'il ne se débat. Il est ...

  8. Black widow spider envenomation, a rare cause of Horner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Scott, Blake; Walker, Francis O

    2012-06-01

    Horner's syndrome involves a triad of eyelid ptosis, miosis, and facial anhidrosis that results from disruption of the oculosympathetic pathway. Acquired Horner's syndrome is associated with a variety of medical conditions including Pancoast tumor and carotid dissection. We report the unique case of a 47-year-old man presenting with Horner's syndrome 4 weeks after black widow spider envenomation. Workup did not reveal any alternative explanatory etiology. We hypothesize that late sequelae of black widow spider envenomation secondary to autonomic nerve injury or retrograde axonal transport after mechanical inoculation may have led to an acquired defect in the oculosympathetic pathway resulting in a Horner's syndrome. This case introduces a rare cause of Horner's syndrome and highlights the importance of environmental exposures in the evaluation of these patients. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gravity Reception and Cardiac Function in the Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, A.

    1985-01-01

    The following features of the arachnid gravity system were studied. (1) the absolute threshold to hyper-gz is quite low indicating fine proprioreceptive properties of the lyriform organ, the Gz/vibration detector; (2) the neurogenic heart of the spider is a good dependent variable for assessing its behavior to Gz and other stimuli which produce mechanical effects on the exoskeleton; (3) Not only is the cardiac response useful but it is now understood to be an integral part of the system which compensates for the consequences of gravity in the spider (an hydraulic leg extension); and (4) a theoretical model was proposed in which a mechanical amplifier, the leg lever, converts a weak force (at the tarsus) to a strong force (at the patella), capable of compressing the exoskeleton and consequently the lyriform receptor.

  10. Structure to function: Spider silk and human collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.

    Nature has the ability to assemble a variety of simple molecules into complex functional structures with diverse properties. Collagens, silks and muscles fibers are some examples of fibrous proteins with self-assembling properties. One of the great challenges facing Science is to mimic these designs in Nature to find a way to construct molecules that are capable of organizing into functional supra-structures by self-assembly. In order to do so, a construction kit consisting of molecular building blocks along with a complete understanding on how to form functional materials is required. In this current research, the focus is on spider silk and collagen as fibrous protein-based biopolymers that can shed light on how to generate nanostructures through the complex process of self-assembly. Spider silk in fiber form offers a unique combination of high elasticity, toughness, and mechanical strength, along with biological compatibility and biodegrability. Spider silk is an example of a natural block copolymer, in which hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks are linked together generating polymers that organize into functional materials with extraordinary properties. Since silks resemble synthetic block copolymer systems, we adopted the principles of block copolymer design from the synthetic polymer literature to build block copolymers based on spider silk sequences. Moreover, we consider spider silk to be an important model with which to study the relationships between structure and properties in our system. Thus, the first part of this work was dedicated to a novel family of spider silk block copolymers, where we generated a new family of functional spider silk-like block copolymers through recombinant DNA technology. To provide fundamental insight into relationships between peptide primary sequence, block composition, and block length and observed morphological and structural features, we used these bioengineered spider silk block copolymers to study secondary structure

  11. Black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) envenomation in a term pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman; Groll; Gonzalez; Aerts

    2000-07-01

    Description of a black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) envenomation in a term pregnancy.Case report conducted at an Air Force tertiary care hospital of a 27-year-old primigravida at 38 1/7 weeks pregnancy.Latrodectus mactans antivenin can be given to treat symptoms of black widow envenomation.Black widow envenomations can cause symptoms associated with acute intra-abdominal processes. In pregnancy, envenomations can result in symptoms and signs similar to those seen in preeclampsia (abdominal pain, headache, hypertension, and proteinuria). Latrodectism should be considered in patients complaining of these symptoms in association with a spider bite. If latrodectism is considered to be the underlying origin for these symptoms, appropriate treatment should be administered. In cases of pregnancy, treatment should include L. mactans antivenin if believed to be clinically indicated. There is no current evidence that this antivenin is contraindicated in pregnancy. (Curr Surg 57:346-348)

  12. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-10-26

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.

  13. Sinc function representation and three-loop master diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Guralnik, Gerald; Hahn, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We test the Sinc function representation, a novel method for numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams, by using it to evaluate the three-loop master diagrams. Analytical results have been obtained for all these diagrams, and we find excellent agreement between our calculations and the exact values. The Sinc function representation converges rapidly, and it is straightforward to obtain accuracies of 1 part in 10 6 for these diagrams and with longer runs we found results better than 1 part in 10 12 . Finally, this paper extends the Sinc function representation to diagrams containing massless propagators

  14. Medicinal plants in the diet of woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides, E. Geoffroy, 1806 – a bio-rational for the search of new medicines for human use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liége M. Petroni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to compare the plant food diet of woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides inhabiting Intervales State Park in São Paulo, Brazil, with medicinal plant species used by humans in the surrounding areas of the park. The diet of a group of woolly spider monkeys living in an Atlantic forest area was recorded during 43 months of fieldwork. Fifty-three species (87 food items were recorded. Plant specimens were collected and identified at the University of São Paulo and the Botanical Institute of São Paulo State. Using semi-structured interviews, ethnomedicinal data were also collected from four preselected respondents regarding the human therapeutic value of these plants. The study showed that 24.5% (13/53 of these species are used by residents around the park for medicinal purposes. Of these thirteen, seven species also have validated pharmacological properties, and three are utilized by local residents for similar medicinal purposes. Overlap in the plant food/medicinal diet of woolly spider monkey populations elsewhere were also noted, suggesting potential overlap in their medicinal value for humans and primates. The similarities between the ingestion of plants by primates and their medicinal use by humans provide a bio-rational for the search of bioactive plants in the primate diet. Further detailed investigation of their pharmacological and phytochemical value is warranted.

  15. Traditions in Spider Monkeys Are Biased towards the Social Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Santorelli, Claire J.; Schaffner, Colleen M.; Campbell, Christina J.; Notman, Hugh; Pavelka, Mary S.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; Aureli, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. These studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. We examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) across five long-term field sites in Central America using a well established ethn...

  16. Spiders in mountain habitats of the Giant Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Vaněk, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2012), s. 341-347 ISSN 1067-4136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, Karkonosze) * spider s * anemo-orographic systems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 0.236, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/0k5g721q1155r146/fulltext.pdf

  17. Colonization of subterranean habitats by spiders in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Šmilauer, P.; Mlejnek, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2013), s. 133-140 ISSN 0392-6672 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) GAJU 04-142/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : superficial and deep subterranean habitats * caves * spider s Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 1.275, year: 2013 http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1288&context=ijs

  18. Early environmental conditions shape personality types in a jumping spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis eLiedtke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of many species across the animal kingdom are found to be less plastic than expected, even in behavioral traits. The existence of consistent behavioral differences between individuals, termed personality differences, is puzzling, since plastic behavior is considered ideal to enable animals to adaptively respond to changes in environmental conditions. In order to elucidate which mechanisms are important for the evolution of personality differences, it is crucial to understand which aspects of the environment are important for the development of personality differences. Here, we tested whether physical or social aspects of the environment during development influence individual differentiation (mean level of behavior using the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. Furthermore, we assessed whether those behaviors were repeatable, i.e. whether personalities existed. We applied a split-brood design and raised spider siblings in three different environments: a deprived environment with no enrichment, a socially and a physically enriched environment. We focused on exploratory behavior and repeatedly assessed individual behavior in a novel environment and a novel object test. Results show that the environment during development influenced spiders’ exploratory tendencies: spiders raised in enriched environments tended to be more exploratory. Most investigated behaviors were repeatable (i.e. personalities existed across all individuals tested, whereas only few behaviors were also repeatable across individuals that had experienced the same environmental condition. Taken together, our results indicate that external stimuli can influence the development of one aspect of personality, the inter-individual variation (mean level of behavior, in a jumping spider. We also found family by environment interactions on behavioral traits potentially suggesting genetic variation in developmental plasticity.

  19. Damage, Self-Healing, and Hysteresis in Spider Silks

    OpenAIRE

    De Tommasi, D.; Puglisi, G.; Saccomandi, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose a microstructure-based continuum model to describe the material behavior of spider silks. We suppose that the material is composed of a soft fraction with entropic elasticity and a hard, damageable fraction. The hard fraction models the presence of stiffer, crystal-rich, oriented regions and accounts for the effect of softening induced by the breaking of hydrogen bonds. To describe the observed presence of crystals with different size, composition, and orientation,...

  20. A Parasitoid Wasp Induces Overwintering Behaviour in Its Spider Host

    OpenAIRE

    Korenko, Stanislav; Pekár, Stano

    2011-01-01

    Parasites and parasitoids control behaviors of their hosts. However, the origin of the behavior evoked by the parasitic organism has been rarely identified. It is also not known whether the manipulation is universal or host-specific. Polysphinctine wasps, koinobiont ectoparasitoids of several spider species that manipulate host web-spinning activity for their own protection during pupation, provide an ideal system to reveal the origin of the evoked behavior. Larva of Zatypota percontatoria pe...

  1. [Neurotoxic manifestations of black widow spider envenomation in paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Cruz, N; Gómez-Rivera, N

    2016-05-01

    Envenomation by black widow spiders manifests clinically with signs of neurotoxicity in paediatric patients. Identify typical neurological signs and symptoms in paediatric patients of different ages, and describe treatment and outcomes in a paediatric hospital in northwest Mexico. We reviewed 70 clinical records of patients hospitalised due to black widow spider bite between 1978 and 2014. We divided the total into 2 groups: Group 1, infants and preschool children; and Group 2, school-age children and adolescents. The demographic variables were age, sex, birthplace, place where envenomation occurred, body part(s) affected, degree of envenomation according to signs and symptoms, treatment, clinical outcome, and statistical differences. Boys accounted for 61.4% of all cases, and infants younger than one year old made up 14.2%. Most patients (70%) were bitten by the spider at home; the anatomical areas most frequently affected were the legs, neck, thorax, and abdomen. The neurological signs and symptoms displayed by Group 1 were irritability, constant crying, sialorrhoea, nausea, tachycardia, arrhythmias, fatigue when walking, agitation, muscle spasms paraesthesia, tetany, seizures, and nystagmus. Signs in Group 2 included localized pain, headache, sialorrhoea, paraesthesia, profuse sweating, anxiety, muscle weakness, muscle spasms, and fine tremor. The predominant autonomic sign in Group 1 was sialorrhoea (P<.0001) and in Group 2, paraesthesia (P<.0001). Patients who received Fab antivenom treatment displayed better outcomes and shorter hospital stays than those who did not. No deaths were reported. The neurological signs and symptoms caused by black widow spider bite are predominantly autonomic, and identifying them permits early diagnosis and more effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual Discrimination Learning in the Jumping Spider Phidippus regius

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo De Agrò; Lucia Regolin; Enzo Moretto

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, research in comparative psychology has increasingly focused on non-vertebrate models of cognition. Jumping spiders provide excellent models for the study of visually mediated behaviors, such as associative learning or the navigation of complex environments. Here, we tested visual and memory abilities of Phidippus regius to discriminate between artificial geometrical stimuli and to generalize the learned discrimination to illusory stimuli, using the amodal completion mech...

  3. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Bersini

    Full Text Available It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE, describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

  4. Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F

    2017-10-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Confidence regions for fabric shape diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Trevor J.; Benn, Douglas I.

    1997-12-01

    Fabric shape is often quantified using the three eigenvalues from the 'orientation tensor' method applied to a sample of directions. Several studies have used eigenvalues plotted on fabric shape diagrams to distinguish sedimentary facies or strain histories. However, such studies seldom consider how well the sample eigenvalues represent the true fabric shape. In this paper, we use 'bootstrapping' techniques to define confidence regions for sample eigenvalues, and show that sample and population eigenvalues may differ substantially. Confidence regions are often very large for small sample sizes, and we recommend that sample sizes should be at least 50.

  6. The iron-niobium phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelaya Bejarano, J.M. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia); Gama, S. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin); Ribeiro, C.A. (Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin); Effenberg, G. (Materials Science International Services GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the binary Fe-Nb phase diagram, using techniques al optical metallography, X-ray diffraction. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and electron microprobe. Our results re-define the existence range for the phases Fe[sub 2]Nb and Fe[sub 21]Nb[sub 19], point out the peritectic nature of the latter phase, and indicate the metastability of the Fe[sub 2]Nb[sub 3] phase and the non-existence of a high-temperature phase with stoichiometry Fe[sub 11]Nb[sub 89] in this system. (orig.)

  7. Influence diagrams for speed profile optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Václav; Vomlel, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2017), s. 567-586 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Influence diagrams * Optimal control * Vehicle control Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/kratochvil-0476597.pdf

  8. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  9. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Stathopoulos, Andreas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Yoon, Boram [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gupta, Rajan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  10. Twistor diagrams and massless Moeller scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of twistor diagrams, as devised by Penrose, is intended to lead to a manifestly finite account of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The theory is here extended to a more general type of interaction between massless fields than has hitherto been described. It is applied to the example of first-order massless Moeller scattering in quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that earlier studies of this example have failed to render a correct account, in particular by overlooking an infrared divergency, but that the scattering data can nevertheless be represented within the twistor formalism. (author)

  11. A practical guide to Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    These lectures serve as an introduction to the basic ideas of relativistic quantum theory, perturbation theory and the Feynman diagram calculus, in the context of electromagnetic interactions. The main objective is to get the student as rapidly as possible to the point where he can calculate the lowest order cross-sections for a variety of two-body electromagnetic processes. The techniques are considered under the headings: relativistic wave equations, electrodynamics of spinless particles, and electrodynamics of spin-1/2 particles. A selection of problems and exercises is included. (U.K.)

  12. Influence Diagrams for Optimal Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Over the last two decades Bayesian networks and influence diagrams have received notable attention within the field of artificial intelligence and expert systems. During the last few years the technology has been further developed for problem solving within other engineering fields. The objective...... methods FORM/SORM. The Bayesian network model is argumented by decision and utility nodes, thus forming a full decision model for inspection planning. With the applied program package the optimal inspection plan is easily obtained. Moreover, the updating facilities allow for fast changes of the inspection...

  13. More on boundary holographic Witten diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiki

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we discuss geodesic Witten diagrams in general holographic conformal field theories with boundary or defect. In boundary or defect conformal field theory, two-point functions are nontrivial and can be decomposed into conformal blocks in two distinct ways; ambient channel decomposition and boundary channel decomposition. In our previous work [A. Karch and Y. Sato, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2017) 121., 10.1007/JHEP09(2017)121] we only consider two-point functions of same operators. We generalize our previous work to a situation where operators in two-point functions are different. We obtain two distinct decomposition for two-point functions of different operators.

  14. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  15. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  16. Applications of zero-suppressed decision diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    A zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) is a data structure to represent objects that typically contain many zeros. Applications include combinatorial problems, such as graphs, circuits, faults, and data mining. This book consists of four chapters on the applications of ZDDs. The first chapter by Alan Mishchenko introduces the ZDD. It compares ZDDs to BDDs, showing why a more compact representation is usually achieved in a ZDD. The focus is on sets of subsets and on sum-of-products (SOP) expressions. Methods to generate all the prime implicants (PIs), and to generate irredundant SOPs are show

  17. Artificial insemination in black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, L; Cerda-Molina, A L; Páez-Ponce, D L; Rojas-Maya, S; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    2007-01-15

    Artificial insemination (AI) was performed in spider monkeys; these primates are vulnerable to extinction and usually do not reproduce spontaneously in captivity. Uterine cycles were followed by daily assessment of vaginal cytology, and corroborated a posteriori by concentrations of 17-beta estradiol and progesterone, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), in fecal samples collected once daily. Five females between 13 to 27 years old were inseminated intravaginally (with fresh semen) twice each during the periovulatory phase (Days 9-12 of the menstrual cycle; Day 0, first day of menstrual bleeding), from September to the first 3 weeks of November (most fertile months). Transcervical AI was not useful in this primate because the liquid portion of the semen completely solidified instead of liquefying as in other primates. Pregnancies were apparently achieved in 5 of 14 attempts. One female became pregnant after the first round of inseminations, delivered a healthy infant, was inseminated and got pregnant again (subsequently aborted). One female aborted, apparently due to an intramural uterine leiomyoma. Another two females stopped menstruating for a few months, then restarted menstruating (these females may have been pregnant and aborted). In conclusion, in spider monkeys: (1) captivity-induced stress did not inhibit reproduction; (2) fecal steroid hormones were useful to assess cyclicity; (3) the semen coagulum, which apparently is a tightly packed and large reservoir of spermatozoa, must not be discarded but used in AI; (4) old female spider monkeys did not have cessation of reproductive function.

  18. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny, Marek

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  19. Seasonal variation of ground spiders in a Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Farcic Mineo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savanna Ecoregion (Cerrado is one of the richest biomes in the world, with a characteristic highly seasonal climate a dry season between May and September and a rainy season from October through April. Ground-dwelling spiders from three Cerrado phytophysiognomies, "campo cerrado", "cerrado" and "cerrad��o", were sampled using pitfall traps during two years, totaling 111 species and 3,529 individuals. The abundance of individuals and species richness was higher during the wet season. Fifty-eight species were captured exclusively during that period, whereas only nineteen were restricted to the dry season. Only two species were found in all samples. The number of juveniles was higher than the number of adults in all phytophysiognomies and in all species during both seasons. The highest abundance was registered in October and the lowest in April. Overall sex ratio was male-biased in all vegetation types sampled. Distinct climate variables affected the abundance of spiders depending on sex, age and vegetal physiognomy where they were sampled. This study involved the longest sampling of spider abundance and diversity on the ground of a Brazilian Savanna.

  20. A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bergman, A. S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Duivenvoorden, A. J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Freese, K.; Galloway, M.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Ganga, K.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hartley, J.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Huang, Z.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Kermish, Z. D.; Li, S.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nolta, M.; Padilla, I. L.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Ruud, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, X.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; List, J. F. Van Der; Weber, A. C.; Wehus, I. K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new upper limit on CMB circular polarization from the 2015 flight of SPIDER, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for $B$-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the non-zero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the HWP polarization modulators, data from SPIDER's 2015 Antarctic flight provides a constraint on Stokes $V$ at 95 and 150 GHz from $33<\\ell<307$. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and SPIDER improves upon the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on $\\ell (\\ell+1)C_{\\ell}^{VV}/(2\\pi)$ ranging from 141 $\\mu K ^2$ to 203 $\\mu K ^2$ at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain stronger constraints on circular polarization.