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Sample records for abstract memory object

  1. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  2. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  3. Recognition of abstract objects via neural oscillators: interaction among topological organization, associative memory and gamma band synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, Mauro; Magosso, Elisa; Cuppini, Cristiano

    2009-02-01

    Synchronization of neural activity in the gamma band is assumed to play a significant role not only in perceptual processing, but also in higher cognitive functions. Here, we propose a neural network of Wilson-Cowan oscillators to simulate recognition of abstract objects, each represented as a collection of four features. Features are ordered in topological maps of oscillators connected via excitatory lateral synapses, to implement a similarity principle. Experience on previous objects is stored in long-range synapses connecting the different topological maps, and trained via timing dependent Hebbian learning (previous knowledge principle). Finally, a downstream decision network detects the presence of a reliable object representation, when all features are oscillating in synchrony. Simulations performed giving various simultaneous objects to the network (from 1 to 4), with some missing and/or modified properties suggest that the network can reconstruct objects, and segment them from the other simultaneously present objects, even in case of deteriorated information, noise, and moderate correlation among the inputs (one common feature). The balance between sensitivity and specificity depends on the strength of the Hebbian learning. Achieving a correct reconstruction in all cases, however, requires ad hoc selection of the oscillation frequency. The model represents an attempt to investigate the interactions among topological maps, autoassociative memory, and gamma-band synchronization, for recognition of abstract objects.

  4. Abstract Object Creation in Dynamic Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grabe (Immo); F.S. de Boer (Frank); W. Ahrendt (Wolfgang); A. Cavalcanti; D.R. Dams

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give a representation of a weakest precondition calculus for abstract object creation in dynamic logic, the logic underlying the KeY theorem prover. This representation allows to both specify and verify properties of objects at the abstraction level of the

  5. Object-oriented programming with gradual abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    We describe an experimental object-oriented programming language, ASL2, that supports program development by means of a series of abstraction steps. The language allows immediate object construction, and it is possible to use the constructed objects for concrete problem solving tasks. Classes...... restrictive. As a central mechanism, weakly classified objects are allowed to borrow methods from each other. ASL2 supports class generalization, as a counterpart to class specialization and inheritance in mainstream object-oriented programming languages. The final abstraction step discussed in this paper...

  6. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Agency of Memory Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2016-01-01

    and international tourists’ photographs and notes, especially their visual encounters with the exhibition, are understood as participatory interactions in the course of memory work. The article’s aim is twofold: introducing an ANT-inspired methodology to the field of memory studies, and mapping a Sowetan memory......This article analyses the multifarious acts of cultural memory taking place in the small, almost hidden, exhibition space of the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa, home to the photographic exhibition “The Story of Soweto.” Next to the photographs (1950-2010) by well-known apartheid...... of action, examining the idea that objects, such as images, that leave a trace can act as mediators of memory. Starting from visitors’ appropriations of the exhibition space, the essay sheds light on the different life cycles of memory objects, in particular images, and their diverse mediations. Domestic...

  8. Multisensory memory for object identity and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported that audiovisual object presentation improves memory encoding of object identity in comparison to either auditory or visual object presentation. However, multisensory memory effects on retrieval, on object location, and of other multisensory combinations are yet unknown. We

  9. Semantic memory in object use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    We studied five patients with semantic memory disorders, four with semantic dementia and one with herpes simplex virus encephalitis, to investigate the involvement of semantic conceptual knowledge in object use. Comparisons between patients who had semantic deficits of different severity, as well as the follow-up, showed that the ability to use objects was largely preserved when the deficit was mild but progressively decayed as the deficit became more severe. Naming was generally more impaired than object use. Production tasks (pantomime execution and actual object use) and comprehension tasks (pantomime recognition and action recognition) as well as functional knowledge about objects were impaired when the semantic deficit was severe. Semantic and unrelated errors were produced during object use, but actions were always fluent and patients performed normally on a novel tools task in which the semantic demand was minimal. Patients with severe semantic deficits scored borderline on ideational apraxia tasks. Our data indicate that functional semantic knowledge is crucial for using objects in a conventional way and suggest that non-semantic factors, mainly non-declarative components of memory, might compensate to some extent for semantic disorders and guarantee some residual ability to use very common objects independently of semantic knowledge.

  10. Objects as closures: Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss denotational semantics of object-oriented languages, using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin, in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  11. Objects as closures - Abstract semantics of object oriented languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    The denotational semantics of object-oriented languages is discussed using the concept of closure widely used in (semi) functional programming to encapsulate side effects. It is shown that this denotational framework is adequate to explain classes, instantiation, and inheritance in the style of Simula as well as SMALLTALK-80. This framework is then compared with that of Kamin (1988), in his recent denotational definition of SMALLTALK-80, and the implications of the differences between the two approaches are discussed.

  12. A Neural Region of Abstract Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Li, Dawei; Moffitt, Amanda; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Saults, J. Scott; Christ, Shawn E.

    2011-01-01

    Over 350 years ago, Descartes proposed that the neural basis of consciousness must be a brain region in which sensory inputs are combined. Using fMRI, we identified at least one such area for working memory, the limited information held in mind, described by William James as the trailing edge of consciousness. Specifically, a region in the left…

  13. From Functions to Object-Orientation by Abstraction

    OpenAIRE

    Diertens, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we developed a framework of computational models for function and object execution. The models on an higher level of abstraction in this framework allow for concurrent execution of functions and objects. We show that the computational model for object execution complies with the fundamentals of object-orientation.

  14. Visual perspective in autobiographical memories: reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Visual perspective in autobiographical memories was examined in terms of reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance in a sample of 99 individuals. Autobiographical memories may be recalled from two visual perspectives--a field perspective in which individuals experience the memory through their own eyes, or an observer perspective in which individuals experience the memory from the viewpoint of an observer in which they can see themselves. Participants recalled nine word-cued memories that differed in emotional valence (positive, negative and neutral) and rated their memories on 18 scales. Results indicate that visual perspective was the most reliable memory characteristic overall and is consistently related to emotional intensity at the time of recall and amount of emotion experienced during the memory. Visual perspective is unrelated to memory for words, stories, abstract line drawings or faces.

  15. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  16. Auditory memory can be object based.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Benjamin J; Ishfaq, Feraz

    2008-04-01

    Identifying how memories are organized remains a fundamental issue in psychology. Previous work has shown that visual short-term memory is organized according to the object of origin, with participants being better at retrieving multiple pieces of information from the same object than from different objects. However, it is not yet clear whether similar memory structures are employed for other modalities, such as audition. Under analogous conditions in the auditory domain, we found that short-term memories for sound can also be organized according to object, with a same-object advantage being demonstrated for the retrieval of information in an auditory scene defined by two complex sounds overlapping in both space and time. Our results provide support for the notion of an auditory object, in addition to the continued identification of similar processing constraints across visual and auditory domains. The identification of modality-independent organizational principles of memory, such as object-based coding, suggests possible mechanisms by which the human processing system remembers multimodal experiences.

  17. Are subjective memory problems related to suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bergen, Saskia; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory beliefs and suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance was studied in a community sample of young and middle-aged people (N = 142). We hypothesized that people with subjective memory problems would exhibit higher suggestibility and compliance levels and would be more susceptible to false recollections than those who are optimistic about their memory. In addition, we expected a discrepancy between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance. We found that subjective memory judgments correlated significantly with compliance, with more negative memory judgments accompanying higher levels of compliance. Contrary to our expectation, subjective memory problems did not correlate with suggestibility or false recollections. Furthermore, participants were accurate in estimating their objective memory performance.

  18. Objective-C memory management essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Gibson

    2015-01-01

    If you are new to Objective-C or a veteran in iOS application development, this is the book for you. This book will ensure that you can actively learn the methods and concepts in relation to memory management in a more engaging way. Basic knowledge of iOS development is required for this book.

  19. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  20. CAM: A Collaborative Object Memory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; Kröner, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Physical design objects such as sketches, drawings, collages, storyboards and models play an important role in supporting communication and coordination in design studios. CAM (Cooperative Artefact Memory) is a mobile-tagging based messaging system that allows designers to collaboratively store

  1. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously ...

  3. Storage and binding of object features in visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Paul M; Wu, Emma Y; Husain, Masud

    2010-01-01

    An influential conception of visual working memory is of a small number of discrete memory “slots”, each storing an integrated representation of a single visual object, including all its component features. When a scene contains more objects than there are slots, visual attention controls which objects gain access to memory.

  4. Cholinergic Manipulations Bidirectionally Regulate Object Memory Destabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiver, Mikaela L.; Jacklin, Derek L.; Mitchnick, Krista A.; Vicic, Nevena; Carlin, Justine; O'Hara, Matthew; Winters, Boyer D.

    2015-01-01

    Consolidated memories can become destabilized and open to modification upon retrieval. Destabilization is most reliably prompted when novel information is present during memory reactivation. We hypothesized that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in novelty-induced memory destabilization because of its established…

  5. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Realism: An Option for China' s Grand Strategy Song Dexing (4) [ Abstract] As a non-Western emerging power, China should positively adapt its grand strategy to the strategic psychological traits in the 21st century, maintain a realist tone consistent with the national conditions of China, and avoid adventurist policies while awaring both strategic strength and weakness. In the 21st century, China' s grand strategy should be based on such core values as security, development, peace and justice, especially focusing on development in particular, which we named "strategic realism". Given the profound changes in China and the world, strategic realism encourages active foreign policy to safe- guard the long-term national interests of China. Following the self-help logic and the fun- damental values of security and prosperity, strategic realism concerns national interests as its top-priority. It advocates smart use of power, and aims to achieve its objectives by optimizing both domestic and international conditions. From the perspective of diplomatic phi- losophy, strategic realism is not a summarization of concrete policies but a description of China' s grand strategy orientations in the new century. [ Key Words] China, grand strategy, strategic realism [ Author]Song Dexing, Professor, Ph.D. Supervisor, and Director of the Center for International Strategic Studies, University of International Studies of PLA.

  6. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  7. Graphical Abstract: Publishing with Objective Charisma: Breaking Science’s Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Science, Animate Your

    2018-01-01

    Graphical abstract for Doubleday, Z. A., & Connell, S. D. (2017). Publishing with objective charisma: breaking science’s paradox. Trends in ecology & evolution, 32(11), 803-805.Graphical abstract by Animate Your Science (www.animate-science.com)

  8. Binding Objects to Locations: The Relationship between Object Files and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Rasmussen, Ian P.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between object files and visual working memory (VWM) was investigated in a new paradigm combining features of traditional VWM experiments (color change detection) and object-file experiments (memory for the properties of moving objects). Object-file theory was found to account for a key component of object-position binding in VWM:…

  9. A class Hierarchical, object-oriented approach to virtual memory management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincent F.; Campbell, Roy H.; Johnston, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    The Choices family of operating systems exploits class hierarchies and object-oriented programming to facilitate the construction of customized operating systems for shared memory and networked multiprocessors. The software is being used in the Tapestry laboratory to study the performance of algorithms, mechanisms, and policies for parallel systems. Described here are the architectural design and class hierarchy of the Choices virtual memory management system. The software and hardware mechanisms and policies of a virtual memory system implement a memory hierarchy that exploits the trade-off between response times and storage capacities. In Choices, the notion of a memory hierarchy is captured by abstract classes. Concrete subclasses of those abstractions implement a virtual address space, segmentation, paging, physical memory management, secondary storage, and remote (that is, networked) storage. Captured in the notion of a memory hierarchy are classes that represent memory objects. These classes provide a storage mechanism that contains encapsulated data and have methods to read or write the memory object. Each of these classes provides specializations to represent the memory hierarchy.

  10. Storage of features, conjunctions and objects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E K; Woodman, G F; Luck, S J

    2001-02-01

    Working memory can be divided into separate subsystems for verbal and visual information. Although the verbal system has been well characterized, the storage capacity of visual working memory has not yet been established for simple features or for conjunctions of features. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to retain information about only 3-4 colors or orientations in visual working memory at one time. Observers are also able to retain both the color and the orientation of 3-4 objects, indicating that visual working memory stores integrated objects rather than individual features. Indeed, objects defined by a conjunction of four features can be retained in working memory just as well as single-feature objects, allowing many individual features to be retained when distributed across a small number of objects. Thus, the capacity of visual working memory must be understood in terms of integrated objects rather than individual features.

  11. Object-location memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melanie; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M

    2015-10-01

    This study tested implicit and explicit spatial relational memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants were asked to study pictures of rooms and pictures of daily objects for which locations were highlighted in the rooms. Participants were later tested for their memory of the object locations either by being asked to place objects back into their original locations or into new locations. Proportions of times when participants choose the previously studied locations for the objects irrespective of the instruction were used to derive indices of explicit and implicit memory [process-dissociation procedure, Jacoby, 1991, 1998]. In addition, participants performed object and location recognition and source memory tasks where they were asked about which locations belonged to the objects and which objects to the locations. The data revealed difficulty for ASD individuals in actively retrieving object locations (explicit memory) but not in subconsciously remembering them (implicit memory). These difficulties cannot be explained by difficulties in memory for objects or locations per se (i.e., the difficulty pertains to object-location relations). Together these observations lend further support to the idea that ASD is characterised by relatively circumscribed difficulties in relational rather than item-specific memory processes and show that these difficulties extend to the domain of spatial information. They also lend further support to the idea that memory difficulties in ASD can be reduced when support is provided at test. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Primacy of memory linkage in choice among valued objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory V; Martin, Maryanne

    2006-12-01

    Three psychological levels at which an object may be processed have been characterized by Norman (2004) in terms of the object's appearance, its usability, and its capacity to elicit memories. A series of experiments was carried out to investigate participants' choices among valued objects recalled in accordance with these three criteria. It was found consistently that objects selected for their capacity to elicit memories--here termed mnemoactive objects--were valued significantly more than the other objects. Even the financial or social importance of an object was outweighed by the importance of its memory link; possible implications for the economic analysis of subjective well-being are briefly discussed. The same pattern of mnemoactive dominance was found across age and gender. Appropriate choice of objects may allow an individual to exert a degree of indirect voluntary control over the activation of involuntary autobiographical memories, providing a new perspective on Proust's approach to memory.

  13. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  14. Integrating deductive verification and symbolic execution for abstract object creation in dynamic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); F.S. de Boer (Frank); W. Ahrendt (Wolfgang); R. Bubel (Richard)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present a fully abstract weakest precondition calculus and its integration with symbolic execution. Our assertion language allows both specifying and verifying properties of objects at the abstraction level of the programming language, abstracting from a specific implementation of

  15. Object representations in visual memory: evidence from visual illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-07-26

    Human visual memory is considered to contain different levels of object representations. Representations in visual working memory (VWM) are thought to contain relatively elaborated information about object structure. Conversely, representations in iconic memory are thought to be more perceptual in nature. In four experiments, we tested the effects of two different categories of visual illusions on representations in VWM and in iconic memory. Unlike VWM that was affected by both types of illusions, iconic memory was immune to the effects of within-object contextual illusions and was affected only by illusions driven by between-objects contextual properties. These results show that iconic and visual working memory contain dissociable representations of object shape. These findings suggest that the global properties of the visual scene are processed prior to the processing of specific elements.

  16. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Western Theories of War Ethics and Contemporary Controversies Li Xiaodong U Ruijing (4) [ Abstract] In the field of international relations, war ethics is a concept with distinct westem ideological color. Due to factors of history and reality, the in

  17. Sleep Supports the Slow Abstraction of Gist from Visual Perceptual Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Nicolas D; Diekelmann, Susanne; Hinse-Stern, Patricia; Born, Jan; Rauss, Karsten

    2017-02-17

    Sleep benefits the consolidation of individual episodic memories. In the long run, however, it may be more efficient to retain the abstract gist of single, related memories, which can be generalized to similar instances in the future. While episodic memory is enhanced after one night of sleep, effective gist abstraction is thought to require multiple nights. We tested this hypothesis using a visual Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, examining gist abstraction and episodic-like memory consolidation after 20 min, after 10 hours, as well as after one year of retention. While after 10 hours, sleep enhanced episodic-like memory for single items, it did not affect gist abstraction. One year later, however, we found significant gist knowledge only if subjects had slept immediately after encoding, while there was no residual memory for individual items. These findings indicate that sleep after learning strengthens episodic-like memories in the short term and facilitates long-term gist abstraction.

  18. Retrieval Contexts and the Concreteness Effect: Dissociations in Memory of Concrete and Abstract Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Doest, L.; Semin, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Decades of research on the concreteness effect, namely better memory for concrete as compared with abstract words, suggest it is a fairly robust phenomenon. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to limiting retrieval contexts. Two experiments evaluated intentional memory for concrete and

  19. The role of nitric oxide in the object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition task (NORT) assesses recognition memory in animals. It is a non-rewarded paradigm that it is based on spontaneous exploratory behavior in rodents. This procedure is widely used for testing the effects of compounds on recognition memory. Recognition memory is a type of memory severely compromised in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease patients. Nitric oxide (NO) is sought to be an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the central nervous system and its implication in learning and memory is well documented. Here I intended to critically review the role of NO-related compounds on different aspects of recognition memory. Current analysis shows that both NO donors and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors are involved in object recognition memory and suggests that NO might be a promising target for cognition impairments. However, the potential neurotoxicity of NO would add a note of caution in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High Neuromagnetic Activation in the Left Prefrontal and Frontal Cortices Correlates with Better Memory Performance for Abstract Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the spatiotemporal characteristics of memory processing for abstract and concrete words. Neuromagnetic responses to memory encoding and recognition tasks of abstract and concrete nouns were obtained in 18 healthy adults using a whole-head neuromagnetometer. During memory encoding, abstract words elicited larger…

  1. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary Short Board: Orderly Cultivate Housing Leasing Market WANG Guangtao (Former Minister of Ministry of Construction) Abstract: In December 2016, Central Economic Work Conference proposed that to promote the steady and healthy development of the real estate market, it should adhere to the “house is used to live, not used to speculate” position. At present, the development of housing leasing market in China is lagging behind. It is urgent to improve the housing conditions of large cities and promote the urbanization of small and medium-sized cities. Therefore, it is imperative to innovate and supplement the short board to accelerate the development of housing leasing market.

  2. The Effects of Linguistic Labels Related to Abstract Scenes on Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inomata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Boundary extension is the false memory beyond the actual boundary of a picture scene. Gagnier (2011 suggested that a linguistic label has no effect on the magnitude of boundary extension. Although she controlled the timing of the presentation or information of the linguistic label, the information of stimulus was not changed. In the present study, the depiction of the main object was controlled in order to change the contextual information of a scene. In experiment, the 68 participants were shown 12 pictures. The stimulus consisted pictures that depicted the main object or did not depict the main object, and half of them were presented with linguistic description. Participants rated the object-less pictures more closely than the original pictures, when the former were presented with linguistic labels. However, when they were presented without linguistic labels, boundary extension did not occur. There was no effect of labels on the pictures that depicted the main objects. On the basis of these results, the linguistic label enhances the representation of the abstract scene like a homogeneous field or a wall. This finding suggests that boundary extension may be affected by not only visual information but also by other sensory information mediated by linguistic representation.

  3. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the incidence of post operative SSI after primary total hip arthroplasty. Design: A retrospective cohort study. ... Conclusion: The risk of post operative SSI after total hip arthroplasties is low in the African setting. Further investigation is .... knee replacements for osteoarthritis. J. Bone Joint. Surg.

  4. The Nature of Memory Objects in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles

    2006-03-01

    Our mind keeps a huge number of memories. We discuss here the number M of neurons which must be implied in one primal memory object (the smell of a rose). We find that (in a storage area which is not genetically designed) spatial and connectivity requirements impose that M be very small (of the order of 3). We then extend these considerations to associative memories (where the smell of a rose evokes the color of a rose).

  5. Abstraction ability as an indicator of success for learning object-oriented programming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens Benned; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2006-01-01

    ability is operationalized as stages of cognitive development (for which validated tests exist). Programming ability is operationalized as grade in the final assessment of a model-based objects-first CS1. The validity of the operationalizations is discussed. Surprisingly, our study shows......Computer science educators generally agree that abstract thinking is a crucial component for learning computer science in general and programming in particular. We report on a study to confirm the hypothesis that general abstraction ability has a positive impact on programming ability. Abstraction...... that there is no correlation between stage of cognitive development (abstraction ability) and final grade in CS1 (programming ability). Possible explanations are identified....

  6. Self-Stabilization of Wait-Free Shared Memory Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Papatriantafilou, Marina; Tsigas, Philippas

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a general definition of self-stabilizing wait-free shared memory objects. The definition ensures that, even in the face of processor failures, every execution after a transient memory failure is linearizable except for an a priori bounded number of actions. Shared registers have

  7. An object memory bias induced by communicative reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Davelaar, Eddy J; Csibra, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a good proportion of knowledge, including knowledge about objects and object kinds, is acquired via social learning by direct communication from others. If communicative signals raise the expectation of social learning about objects, intrinsic (permanent) features that support object recognition are relevant to store into memory, while extrinsic (accidental) object properties can be ignored. We investigated this hypothesis by instructing participants to memorise shape-colour associations that constituted either an extrinsic object property (the colour of the box that contained the object, Experiment 1) or an intrinsic one (the colour of the object, Experiment 2). Compared to a non-communicative context, communicative presentation of the objects impaired participants' performance when they recalled extrinsic object properties, while their incidental memory of the intrinsic shape-colour associations was not affected. Communicative signals had no effect on performance when the task required the memorisation of intrinsic object properties. The negative effect of communicative reference on the memory of extrinsic properties was also confirmed in Experiment 3, where this property was object location. Such a memory bias suggests that referent objects in communication tend to be seen as representatives of their kind rather than as individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paradoxical false memory for objects after brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Stephanie M; Cowell, Rosemary A; Winters, Boyer D; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2010-12-03

    Poor memory after brain damage is usually considered to be a result of information being lost or rendered inaccessible. It is assumed that such memory impairment must be due to the incorrect interpretation of previously encountered information as being novel. In object recognition memory experiments with rats, we found that memory impairment can take the opposite form: a tendency to treat novel experiences as familiar. This impairment could be rescued with the use of a visual-restriction procedure that reduces interference. Such a pattern of data can be explained in terms of a recent representational-hierarchical view of cognition.

  9. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide

  10. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Fabricio

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Methods: Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Results: Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Conclusion: Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  11. An object memory bias induced by communicative reference

    OpenAIRE

    Marno, Hanna; Davelaar, Eddy J.; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    In humans, a good proportion of knowledge, including knowledge about objects and object kinds, is acquired via social learning by direct communication from others. If communicative signals raise the expectation of social learning about objects, intrinsic (permanent) features that support object recognition are relevant to store into memory, while extrinsic (accidental) object properties can be ignored. We investigated this hypothesis by instructing participants to memorise shape-colour associ...

  12. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstract abstract

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including

  13. Model-based object classification using unification grammars and abstract representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liburdy, Kathleen A.; Schalkoff, Robert J.

    1993-04-01

    The design and implementation of a high level computer vision system which performs object classification is described. General object labelling and functional analysis require models of classes which display a wide range of geometric variations. A large representational gap exists between abstract criteria such as `graspable' and current geometric image descriptions. The vision system developed and described in this work addresses this problem and implements solutions based on a fusion of semantics, unification, and formal language theory. Object models are represented using unification grammars, which provide a framework for the integration of structure and semantics. A methodology for the derivation of symbolic image descriptions capable of interacting with the grammar-based models is described and implemented. A unification-based parser developed for this system achieves object classification by determining if the symbolic image description can be unified with the abstract criteria of an object model. Future research directions are indicated.

  14. Reconciling change blindness with long-term memory for objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katherine; Simons, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    How can we reconcile remarkably precise long-term memory for thousands of images with failures to detect changes to similar images? We explored whether people can use detailed, long-term memory to improve change detection performance. Subjects studied a set of images of objects and then performed recognition and change detection tasks with those images. Recognition memory performance exceeded change detection performance, even when a single familiar object in the postchange display consistently indicated the change location. In fact, participants were no better when a familiar object predicted the change location than when the displays consisted of unfamiliar objects. When given an explicit strategy to search for a familiar object as a way to improve performance on the change detection task, they performed no better than in a 6-alternative recognition memory task. Subjects only benefited from the presence of familiar objects in the change detection task when they had more time to view the prechange array before it switched. Once the cost to using the change detection information decreased, subjects made use of it in conjunction with memory to boost performance on the familiar-item change detection task. This suggests that even useful information will go unused if it is sufficiently difficult to extract.

  15. Trees or Grids? Indexing Moving Objects in Main Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Christiansen, Christian Winther

    2009-01-01

    New application areas, such as location-based services, rely on the efficient management of large collections of mobile objects. Maintaining accurate, up-to-date positions of these objects results in massive update loads that must be supported by spatial indexing structures and main-memory indexes...... are usually necessary to provide high update performance. Traditionally, the R-tree and its variants were used for indexing spatial data, but most of the recent research assumes that a simple, uniform grid is the best choice for managing moving objects in main memory. We perform an extensive experimental...

  16. Abstract Representations of Object-Directed Action in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Jacobs, Robert A; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2018-06-01

    Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects. Classifiers were trained and tested across task (e.g., training data: pantomime; testing data: identification), stimulus format (e.g., training data: word format; testing format: picture) and specific objects (e.g., training data: scissors vs. corkscrew; testing data: pliers vs. screwdriver). The only brain region in which action relations among objects could be decoded across task, stimulus format and objects was the inferior parietal lobule. By contrast, medial aspects of the ventral surface of the left temporal lobe represented object function, albeit not at the same level of abstractness as actions in the inferior parietal lobule. These results suggest compulsory access to abstract action information in the inferior parietal lobe even when simply identifying objects.

  17. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  18. Attention to Attributes and Objects in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Blume, Christopher L.; Saults, J. Scott

    2013-01-01

    It has been debated on the basis of change-detection procedures whether visual working memory is limited by the number of objects, task-relevant attributes within those objects, or bindings between attributes. This debate, however, has been hampered by several limitations, including the use of conditions that vary between studies and the absence…

  19. Hemispheric Specialization and Recognition Memory for Abstract and Realistic Pictures: A Comparison of Painters and Laymen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S.; Magnussen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory and hemispheric specialization were assessed for abstract colour/black and white pictures of sport situations in painters and visually naive subjects using a forced choice yes/no tachistoscopic procedure. Reaction times showed a significant three-way interaction of picture type, expertise, and visual field, indicating that…

  20. Independent effects of colour on object identification and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2009-02-01

    We examined the effects of colour on object identification and memory using a study-test priming procedure with a coloured-object decision task at test (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured). Objects were selected to have a single associated colour and were either correctly or incorrectly coloured. In addition, object shape and colour were either spatially integrated (i.e., colour fell on the object surface) or spatially separated (i.e., colour formed the background to the object). Transforming the colour of an object from study to test (e.g., from a yellow banana to a purple banana) reduced priming of response times, as compared to when the object was untransformed. This utilization of colour information in object memory was not contingent upon colour falling on the object surface or whether the resulting configuration was of a correctly or incorrectly coloured object. In addition, we observed independent effects of colour on response times, whereby coloured-object decisions were more efficient for correctly than for incorrectly coloured objects but only when colour fell on the object surface. These findings provide evidence for two distinct mechanisms of shape-colour binding in object processing.

  1. Abstract memory representations in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus support concept generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Caitlin R; Zeithamova, Dagmar

    2018-02-07

    Memory function involves both the ability to remember details of individual experiences and the ability to link information across events to create new knowledge. Prior research has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the hippocampus as important for integrating across events in service of generalization in episodic memory. The degree to which these memory integration mechanisms contribute to other forms of generalization, such as concept learning, is unclear. The present study used a concept-learning task in humans (both sexes) coupled with model-based fMRI to test whether VMPFC and hippocampus contribute to concept generalization, and whether they do so by maintaining specific category exemplars or abstract category representations. Two formal categorization models were fit to individual subject data: a prototype model that posits abstract category representations and an exemplar model that posits category representations based on individual category members. Latent variables from each of these models were entered into neuroimaging analyses to determine whether VMPFC and the hippocampus track prototype or exemplar information during concept generalization. Behavioral model fits indicated that almost three quarters of the subjects relied on prototype information when making judgments about new category members. Paralleling prototype dominance in behavior, correlates of the prototype model were identified in VMPFC and the anterior hippocampus with no significant exemplar correlates. These results indicate that the VMPFC and portions of the hippocampus play a broad role in memory generalization and that they do so by representing abstract information integrated from multiple events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whether people represent concepts as a set of individual category members or by deriving generalized concept representations abstracted across exemplars has been debated. In episodic memory, generalized memory representations have been shown

  2. Modeling recall memory for emotional objects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrøm, Martin

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether emotional memory (EM) of objects with self-reference in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be modeled with binomial logistic regression in a free recall and an object recognition test to predict EM enhancement. Twenty patients with AD and twenty healthy controls were studied. Six objects (three presented as gifts) were shown to each participant. Ten minutes later, a free recall and a recognition test were applied. The recognition test had target-objects mixed with six similar distracter objects. Participants were asked to name any object in the recall test and identify each object in the recognition test as known or unknown. The total of gift objects recalled in AD patients (41.6%) was larger than neutral objects (13.3%) and a significant EM recall effect for gifts was found (Wilcoxon: p recall and recognition but showed no EM enhancement due to a ceiling effect. A logistic regression showed that likelihood of emotional recall memory can be modeled as a function of MMSE score (p Recall memory was enhanced in AD patients for emotional objects indicating that EM in mild to moderate AD although impaired can be provoked with strong emotional load. The logistic regression model suggests that EM declines with the progression of AD rather than disrupts and may be a useful tool for evaluating magnitude of emotional load.

  3. Infants use temporal regularities to chunk objects in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melissa M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants, like adults, can maintain only a few items in working memory, but can overcome this limit by creating more efficient representations, or "chunks." Previous research shows that infants can form chunks using shared features or spatial proximity between objects. Here we asked whether infants also can create chunked representations using regularities that unfold over time. Thirteen-month old infants first were familiarized with four objects of different shapes and colors, presented in successive pairs. For some infants, the identities of objects in each pair varied randomly across familiarization (Experiment 1). For others, the objects within a pair always co-occurred, either in consistent relative spatial positions (Experiment 2a) or varying spatial positions (Experiment 2b). Following familiarization, infants saw all four objects hidden behind a screen and then saw the screen lifted to reveal either four objects or only three. Infants in Experiment 1, who had been familiarized with random object pairings, failed to look longer at the unexpected 3-object outcome; they showed the same inability to concurrently represent four objects as in other studies of infant working memory. In contrast, infants in Experiments 2a and 2b, who had been familiarized with regularly co-occurring pairs, looked longer at the unexpected outcome. These infants apparently used the co-occurrence between individual objects during familiarization to form chunked representations that were later deployed to track the objects as they were hidden at test. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the familiarization affected infants' ability to remember the occluded objects rather than merely establishing longer-term memory for object pairs. Following familiarization to consistent pairs, infants who were not shown a hiding event (but merely saw the same test outcomes as in Experiments 2a and b) showed no preference for arrays of three versus four objects. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, we asked

  4. Attention to memory: orienting attention to sound object representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Kristina C; Alain, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing acceptance that attention and memory interact, and that attention can be focused on an active internal mental representation (i.e., reflective attention), there has been a paucity of work focusing on reflective attention to 'sound objects' (i.e., mental representations of actual sound sources in the environment). Further research on the dynamic interactions between auditory attention and memory, as well as its degree of neuroplasticity, is important for understanding how sound objects are represented, maintained, and accessed in the brain. This knowledge can then guide the development of training programs to help individuals with attention and memory problems. This review article focuses on attention to memory with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroimaging studies that have begun to explore the mechanisms that mediate reflective attentional orienting in vision and more recently, in audition. Reflective attention refers to situations in which attention is oriented toward internal representations rather than focused on external stimuli. We propose four general principles underlying attention to short-term memory. Furthermore, we suggest that mechanisms involved in orienting attention to visual object representations may also apply for orienting attention to sound object representations.

  5. Manipulating Objects and Telling Words: A Study on Concrete and Abstract Words Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Cimatti, Felice; Marocco, Davide; Scorolli, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments (E1–E2–E3–E4) investigated whether different acquisition modalities lead to the emergence of differences typically found between concrete and abstract words, as argued by the words as tools (WAT) proposal. To mimic the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts, participants either manipulated novel objects or observed groups of objects interacting in novel ways (Training 1). In TEST 1 participants decided whether two elements belonged to the same category. Later they read the category labels (Training 2); labels could be accompanied by an explanation of their meaning. Then participants observed previously seen exemplars and other elements, and were asked which of them could be named with a given label (TEST 2). Across the experiments, it was more difficult to form abstract than concrete categories (TEST 1); even when adding labels, abstract words remained more difficult than concrete words (TEST 2). TEST 3 differed across the experiments. In E1 participants performed a feature production task. Crucially, the associations produced with the novel words reflected the pattern evoked by existing concrete and abstract words, as the first evoked more perceptual properties. In E2–E3–E4, TEST 3 consisted of a color verification task with manual/verbal (keyboard–microphone) responses. Results showed the microphone use to have an advantage over keyboard use for abstract words, especially in the explanation condition. This supports WAT: due to their acquisition modality, concrete words evoke more manual information; abstract words elicit more verbal information. This advantage was not present when linguistic information contrasted with perceptual one. Implications for theories and computational models of language grounding are discussed. PMID:21716582

  6. Object permanence and working memory in cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, S; Doré, F Y; Rousseau, R

    1994-10-01

    Cats (Felis catus) find an object when it is visibly moved behind a succession of screens. However, when the object is moved behind a container and is invisibly transferred from the container to the back of a screen, cats try to find the object at or near the container rather than at the true hiding place. Four experiments were conducted to study search behavior and working memory in visible and invisible displacement tests of object permanence. Experiment 1 compared performance in single and in double visible displacement trials. Experiment 2 analyzed search behavior in invisible displacement tests and in analogs using a transparent container. Experiments 3 and 4 tested predictions made from Experiment 1 and 2 in a new situation of object permanence. Results showed that only the position changes that cats have directly perceived are encoded and activated in working memory, because they are unable to represent or infer invisible movements.

  7. Individual differences in recognising involuntary autobiographical memories: impact on the reporting of abstract cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Bernas, Ronan S; Clevinger, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in the ability to recognise involuntary autobiographical memories. We hypothesised that individuals may not always recognise involuntary memories which are cued by abstract experiences (e.g., thoughts or language), while they are better able to recognise those which are cued by concrete sensory/perpetual experiences. We hypothesised that individuals without formal training in psychology would be more prone to these recognition failures than individuals with training in psychology. We tested the hypothesis by comparing the results of general first-year undergraduate students, graduate students in psychology and graduates students in other disciplines after each had participated in a two-week diary study of their naturally occurring involuntary memories. The results showed undergraduate participants and non-psychology graduate participants reporting fewer involuntary memories being triggered by abstract cues than the graduate psychology participants, while the groups did not differ in the report of memories triggered by sensory/perpetual cues. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Enriched environment effects on remote object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Riccardo; Chelini, Gabriele; Cenni, Maria Cristina; Berardi, Nicoletta

    2017-06-03

    Since Ebbinghaus' classical work on oblivion and saving effects, we know that declarative memories may become at first spontaneously irretrievable and only subsequently completely extinguished. Recently, this time-dependent path toward memory-trace loss has been shown to correlate with different patterns of brain activation. Environmental enrichment (EE) enhances learning and memory and affects system memory consolidation. However, there is no evidence on whether and how EE could affect the time-dependent path toward oblivion. We used Object Recognition Test (ORT) to assess in adult mice put in EE for 40days (EE mice) or left in standard condition (SC mice) memory retrieval of the familiar objects 9 and 21days after learning with or without a brief retraining performed the day before. We found that SC mice show preferential exploration of new object at day 9 only with retraining, while EE mice do it even without. At day 21 SC mice do not show preferential exploration of novel object, irrespective of the retraining, while EE mice are still capable to benefit from retraining, even if they were not able to spontaneously recover the trace. Analysis of c-fos expression 20days after learning shows a different pattern of active brain areas in response to the retraining session in EE and SC mice, with SC mice recruiting the same brain network as naïve SC or EE mice following de novo learning. This suggests that EE promotes formation of longer lasting object recognition memory, allowing a longer time window during which saving is present. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual Memory for Objects Following Foveal Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B.; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual…

  10. High-level cognition in phobics: Abstract anticipatory memory is associated with the attenuation of physiological reactivity to threat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.; Brosschot, J.F.; Boiten, F.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated whether the cognitive processing of threat in anxious individuals is dominated by abstract anticipatory memory, and whether this abstract memory mode is related to the incomplete activation of the fear network. Activation of the fear network was assessed during phobic exposure, as

  11. The OKS persistent in-memory object manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Soloviev, I.

    1998-01-01

    The OKS (Object Kernel Support) is a library to support a simple, active persistent in-memory object manager. It is suitable for applications which need to create persistent structured information with fast access but do not require full database functionality. It can be used as the frame of configuration databases and real-time object managers for Data Acquisition and Detector Control Systems in such fields as setup, diagnostics and general configuration description. OKS is based on an object model that supports objects, classes, associations, methods, inheritance, polymorphism, object identifiers, composite objects, integrity constraints, schema evolution, data migration and active notification. OKS stores the class definitions and their instances in portable ASCII files. It provides query facilities, including indices support. The OKS has a C++ API (Application Program Interface) and includes Motif based GUI applications to design class schema and to manipulate objects. OKS has been developed on top of the Rogue Wave Tools h++ C++ class library

  12. RTDB: A memory resident real-time object database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogiec, Jerzy M.; Desavouret, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    RTDB is a fast, memory-resident object database with built-in support for distribution. It constitutes an attractive alternative for architecting real-time solutions with multiple, possibly distributed, processes or agents sharing data. RTDB offers both direct and navigational access to stored objects, with local and remote random access by object identifiers, and immediate direct access via object indices. The database supports transparent access to objects stored in multiple collaborating dispersed databases and includes a built-in cache mechanism that allows for keeping local copies of remote objects, with specifiable invalidation deadlines. Additional features of RTDB include a trigger mechanism on objects that allows for issuing events or activating handlers when objects are accessed or modified and a very fast, attribute based search/query mechanism. The overall architecture and application of RTDB in a control and monitoring system is presented

  13. Object formation in visual working memory: Evidence from object-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jifan; Zhang, Haihang; Ding, Xiaowei; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2016-09-01

    We report on how visual working memory (VWM) forms intact perceptual representations of visual objects using sub-object elements. Specifically, when objects were divided into fragments and sequentially encoded into VWM, the fragments were involuntarily integrated into objects in VWM, as evidenced by the occurrence of both positive and negative object-based attention effects: In Experiment 1, when subjects' attention was cued to a location occupied by the VWM object, the target presented at the location of that object was perceived as occurring earlier than that presented at the location of a different object. In Experiment 2, responses to a target were significantly slower when a distractor was presented at the same location as the cued object (Experiment 2). These results suggest that object fragments can be integrated into objects within VWM in a manner similar to that of visual perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Working memory contributes to the encoding of object location associations: Support for a 3-part model of object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, M Meredith; Garcia, Sarah; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2016-09-15

    A recent model by Postma and colleagues posits that the encoding of object location associations (OLAs) requires the coordination of several cognitive processes mediated by ventral (object perception) and dorsal (spatial perception) visual pathways as well as the hippocampus (feature binding) [1]. Within this model, frontoparietal network recruitment is believed to contribute to both the spatial processing and working memory task demands. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test each step of this model in 15 participants who encoded OLAs and performed standard n-back tasks. As expected, object processing resulted in activation of the ventral visual stream. Object in location processing resulted in activation of both the ventral and dorsal visual streams as well as a lateral frontoparietal network. This condition was also the only one to result in medial temporal lobe activation, supporting its role in associative learning. A conjunction analysis revealed areas of shared activation between the working memory and object in location phase within the lateral frontoparietal network, anterior insula, and basal ganglia; consistent with prior working memory literature. Overall, findings support Postma and colleague's model and provide clear evidence for the role of working memory during OLA encoding. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Abstract recall of a happy memory to repair sad mood in dysphoria: A possible link to negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Kate; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to repair sad mood through the deliberate recall of happy memories has been found to be impaired in dysphoric individuals. Rumination, or adopting an abstract processing mode, has been proposed as a possible mechanism underpinning this effect. In low and high dysphoric participants, we examined the relative consequences of adopting an abstract or concrete processing mode during happy memory recall or engaging in distraction for (1) mood repair and (2) cognitive content. Recalling a happy memory in either an abstract or concrete way resulted in greater happiness than distraction. Engaging in abstract recall of a happy memory resulted in high dysphoric participants generating negative evaluations and negative generalisations. These findings raise the interesting possibility that abstract processing of positive memories has the potential to generate negative cognition.

  16. Visual object imagery and autobiographical memory: Object Imagers are better at remembering their personal past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Manila; Pelagatti, Claudia; Chiorri, Carlo; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined whether higher levels of object imagery, a stable characteristic that reflects the ability and preference in generating pictorial mental images of objects, facilitate involuntary and voluntary retrieval of autobiographical memories (ABMs). Individuals with high (High-OI) and low (Low-OI) levels of object imagery were asked to perform an involuntary and a voluntary ABM task in the laboratory. Results showed that High-OI participants generated more involuntary and voluntary ABMs than Low-OI, with faster retrieval times. High-OI also reported more detailed memories compared to Low-OI and retrieved memories as visual images. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on voluntary and involuntary ABMs are discussed.

  17. Visual memory for objects following foveal vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual long-term memory for objects in patients suffering from foveal vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration. We measured patients' change detection sensitivity after a period of free scene exploration monocularly with their worse eye when possible, and under binocular vision, comparing sensitivity and eye movements to matched normal-sighted controls. A highly salient cue was used to capture attention to a nontarget location before a target change occurred in half of the trials, ensuring that change detection relied on memory. Patients' monocular and binocular sensitivity to object change was comparable to controls, even after more than 4 intervening fixations, and not significantly correlated with visual impairment. We conclude that extrafoveal vision suffices for efficient encoding into visual long-term memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Cross-cultural variation of memory colors of familiar objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Lin, Yandan; Nagy, Balázs V; Németh, Zoltan; Duque-Chica, Gloria L; Quintero, Jesús M; Chen, Hung-Shing; Luo, Ronnier M; Safi, Mahdi; Hanselaer, Peter

    2014-12-29

    The effect of cross-regional or cross-cultural differences on color appearance ratings and memory colors of familiar objects was investigated in seven different countries/regions - Belgium, Hungary, Brazil, Colombia, Taiwan, China and Iran. In each region the familiar objects were presented on a calibrated monitor in over 100 different colors to a test panel of observers that were asked to rate the similarity of the presented object color with respect to what they thought the object looks like in reality (memory color). For each object and region the mean observer ratings were modeled by a bivariate Gaussian function. A statistical analysis showed significant (p culture was found to be small. In fact, the differences between the region average observers and the global average observer were found to of the same magnitude or smaller than the typical within region inter-observer variability. Thus, although statistical differences in color appearance ratings and memory between regions were found, regional impact is not likely to be of practical importance.

  19. Sensorimotor memory of object weight distribution during multidigit grasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Frederic; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M

    2009-10-09

    We studied the ability to transfer three-digit force sharing patterns learned through consecutive lifts of an object with an asymmetric center of mass (CM). After several object lifts, we asked subjects to rotate and translate the object to the contralateral hand and perform one additional lift. This task was performed under two weight conditions (550 and 950 g) to determine the extent to which subjects would be able to transfer weight and CM information. Learning transfer was quantified by measuring the extent to which force sharing patterns and peak object roll on the first post-translation trial resembled those measured on the pre-translation trial with the same CM. We found that the overall gain of fingertip forces was transferred following object rotation, but that the scaling of individual digit forces was specific to the learned digit-object configuration, and thus was not transferred following rotation. As a result, on the first post-translation trial there was a significantly larger object roll following object lift-off than on the pre-translation trial. This suggests that sensorimotor memories for weight, requiring scaling of fingertip force gain, may differ from memories for mass distribution.

  20. An unforgettable apple: memory and attention for forbidden objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Grace; Turk, David J; Handy, Todd C

    2013-12-01

    Are we humans drawn to the forbidden? From jumbo-sized soft drinks to illicit substances, the influence of prohibited ownership on subsequent demand has made this question a pressing one. We know that objects that we ourselves own have a heightened psychological saliency, relative to comparable objects that are owned by others, but do these kinds of effects extend from self-owned to "forbidden" objects? To address this question, we developed a modified version of the Turk shopping paradigm in which "purchased" items were assigned to various recipients. Participants sorted everyday objects labeled as "self-owned", "other-owned," and either "forbidden to oneself" (Experiment 1) or "forbidden to everyone" (Experiment 2). Subsequent surprise recognition memory tests revealed that forbidden objects with high (Experiment 1) but not with low (Experiment 2) self-relevance were recognized as well as were self-owned objects, and better than other-owned objects. In a third and final experiment, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether self-owned and self-forbidden objects, which showed a common memory advantage, are in fact treated the same at a neurocognitive-affective level. We found that both object types were associated with enhanced cognitive analysis, relative to other-owned objects, as measured by the P300 ERP component. However, we also found that self-forbidden objects uniquely triggered an enhanced response preceding the P300, in an ERP component (the N2) that is sensitive to more rapid, affect-related processing. Our findings thus suggest that, whereas self-forbidden objects share a common cognitive signature with self-owned objects, they are unique in being identified more quickly at a neurocognitive level.

  1. Tracking Location and Features of Objects within Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Patterson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four studies examined how color or shape features can be accessed to retrieve the memory of an object's location. In each trial, 6 colored dots (Experiments 1 and 2 or 6 black shapes (Experiments 3 and 4 were displayed in randomly selected locations for 1.5 s. An auditory cue for either the shape or the color to-be-remembered was presented either simultaneously, immediately, or 2 s later. Non-informative cues appeared in some trials to serve as a control condition. After a 4 s delay, 5/6 objects were re-presented, and participants indicated the location of the missing object either by moving the mouse (Experiments 1 and 3, or by typing coordinates using a grid (Experiments 2 and 4. Compared to the control condition, cues presented simultaneously or immediately after stimuli improved location accuracy in all experiments. However, cues presented after 2 s only improved accuracy in Experiment 1. These results suggest that location information may not be addressable within visual working memory using shape features. In Experiment 1, but not Experiments 2–4, cues significantly improved accuracy when they indicated the missing object could be any of the three identical objects. In Experiments 2–4, location accuracy was highly impaired when the missing object came from a group of identical rather than uniquely identifiable objects. This indicates that when items with similar features are presented, location accuracy may be reduced. In summary, both feature type and response mode can influence the accuracy and accessibility of visual working memory for object location.

  2. Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonne evan Polanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, the weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in

  3. FN400 and LPC memory effects for concrete and abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stróżak, Paweł; Bird, Christopher W; Corby, Krystin; Frishkoff, Gwen; Curran, Tim

    2016-11-01

    According to dual-process models, recognition memory depends on two neurocognitive mechanisms: familiarity, which has been linked to the frontal N400 (FN400) effect in studies using ERPs, and recollection, which is reflected by changes in the late positive complex (LPC). Recently, there has been some debate over the relationship between FN400 familiarity effects and N400 semantic effects. According to one view, these effects are one and the same. Proponents of this view have suggested that the frontal distribution of the FN400 could be due to stimulus concreteness: recognition memory experiments commonly use highly imageable or concrete words (or pictures), which elicit semantic ERPs with a frontal distribution. In the present study, we tested this claim using a recognition memory paradigm in which subjects memorized concrete and abstract nouns; half of the words changed font color between study and test. FN400 and LPC old/new effects were observed for abstract as well as concrete words, and were stronger over right hemisphere electrodes for concrete words. However, there was no difference in anteriority of the FN400 effect for the two word types. These findings challenge the notion that the frontal distribution of the FN400 old/new effect is fully explained by stimulus concreteness. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. FN400 and LPC memory effects for concrete and abstract words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stróżak, Paweł; Bird, Christopher W.; Corby, Krystin; Frishkoff, Gwen; Curran, Tim

    2016-01-01

    According to dual-process models, recognition memory depends on two neurocognitive mechanisms: familiarity, which has been linked to the "frontal N400" (FN400) effect in studies using event-related potentials (ERPs), and recollection, which is reflected by changes in the late positive complex (LPC). Recently, there has been some debate over the relationship between FN400 familiarity effects and N400 semantic effects. According to one view, these effects are one and the same. Proponents of this view have suggested that the frontal distribution of the FN400 could be due to stimulus concreteness: recognition memory experiments commonly use highly imageable or concrete words (or pictures), which elicit semantic ERPs with a frontal distribution. In the present study we tested this claim using a recognition memory paradigm in which subjects memorized concrete and abstract nouns; half of the words changed font color between study and test. FN400 and LPC old/new effects were observed for abstract, as well as concrete words, and were stronger over right hemisphere electrodes for concrete words. However, there was no difference in anteriority of the FN400 effect for the two word types. These findings challenge the notion that the frontal distribution of the FN400 old/new effect is fully explained by stimulus concreteness. PMID:27463978

  5. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Why does brain damage impair memory? A connectionist model of object recognition memory in perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2006-11-22

    Object recognition is the canonical test of declarative memory, the type of memory putatively impaired after damage to the temporal lobes. Studies of object recognition memory have helped elucidate the anatomical structures involved in declarative memory, indicating a critical role for perirhinal cortex. We offer a mechanistic account of the effects of perirhinal cortex damage on object recognition memory, based on the assumption that perirhinal cortex stores representations of the conjunctions of visual features possessed by complex objects. Such representations are proposed to play an important role in memory when it is difficult to solve a task using representations of only individual visual features of stimuli, thought to be stored in regions of the ventral visual stream caudal to perirhinal cortex. The account is instantiated in a connectionist model, in which development of object representations with visual experience provides a mechanism for judgment of previous occurrence. We present simulations addressing the following empirical findings: (1) that impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex (modeled by removing the "perirhinal cortex" layer of the network) are exacerbated by lengthening the delay between presentation of to-be-remembered items and test, (2) that such impairments are also exacerbated by lengthening the list of to-be-remembered items, and (3) that impairments are revealed only when stimuli are trial unique rather than repeatedly presented. This study shows that it may be possible to account for object recognition impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex within a hierarchical, representational framework, in which complex conjunctive representations in perirhinal cortex play a critical role.

  7. No Evidence for a Fixed Object Limit in Working Memory: Spatial Ensemble Representations Inflate Estimates of Working Memory Capacity for Complex Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A central question for models of visual working memory is whether the number of objects people can remember depends on object complexity. Some influential "slot" models of working memory capacity suggest that people always represent 3-4 objects and that only the fidelity with which these objects are represented is affected by object…

  8. An abstraction layer for efficient memory management of tabulated chemistry and flamelet solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Steffen; Messig, Danny; Meyer, Bernd; Hasse, Christian

    2013-06-01

    A large number of methods for simulating reactive flows exist, some of them, for example, directly use detailed chemical kinetics or use precomputed and tabulated flame solutions. Both approaches couple the research fields computational fluid dynamics and chemistry tightly together using either an online or offline approach to solve the chemistry domain. The offline approach usually involves a method of generating databases or so-called Lookup-Tables (LUTs). As these LUTs are extended to not only contain material properties but interactions between chemistry and turbulent flow, the number of parameters and thus dimensions increases. Given a reasonable discretisation, file sizes can increase drastically. The main goal of this work is to provide methods that handle large database files efficiently. A Memory Abstraction Layer (MAL) has been developed that handles requested LUT entries efficiently by splitting the database file into several smaller blocks. It keeps the total memory usage at a minimum using thin allocation methods and compression to minimise filesystem operations. The MAL has been evaluated using three different test cases. The first rather generic one is a sequential reading operation on an LUT to evaluate the runtime behaviour as well as the memory consumption of the MAL. The second test case is a simulation of a non-premixed turbulent flame, the so-called HM1 flame, which is a well-known test case in the turbulent combustion community. The third test case is a simulation of a non-premixed laminar flame as described by McEnally in 1996 and Bennett in 2000. Using the previously developed solver 'flameletFoam' in conjunction with the MAL, memory consumption and the performance penalty introduced were studied. The total memory used while running a parallel simulation was reduced significantly while the CPU time overhead associated with the MAL remained low.

  9. Object-based Encoding in Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Memory-driven Attentional Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zaifeng; Yu, Shixian; Zhu, Chengfeng; Shui, Rende; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Peng; Shen, Mowei

    2016-03-09

    Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an 'irrelevant-change distracting effect', where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants' processing manner, leading to a false-positive result. The current study conducted a strict examination of OBE in VWM, by probing whether irrelevant-features guided the deployment of attention in visual search. The participants memorized an object's colour yet ignored shape and concurrently performed a visual-search task. They searched for a target line among distractor lines, each embedded within a different object. One object in the search display could match the shape, colour, or both dimensions of the memory item, but this object never contained the target line. Relative to a neutral baseline, where there was no match between the memory and search displays, search time was significantly prolonged in all match conditions, regardless of whether the memory item was displayed for 100 or 1000 ms. These results suggest that task-irrelevant shape was extracted into VWM, supporting OBE in VWM.

  10. Objectivity, abstraction, and the individual: the influence of Søren Kierkegaard on Paul Feyerabend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the influence of Søren Kierkegaard upon Paul Feyerabend by examining their common criticisms of totalising accounts of human nature. Both complained that philosophical and scientific theories of human nature which were methodologically committed to objectivity and abstraction failed to capture the richness of human experience. Kierkegaard and Feyerabend argued that philosophy and the science were threatening to become obstacles to human development by imposing abstract theories of human nature and reality which denied the complexities of both. In both cases, this took the form of asserting an 'existential' criterion for the assessment of philosophical and scientific theories. Kierkegaard also made remarks upon the inappropriateness of applying natural scientific methods to human beings which Feyerabend later expanded and developed in his criticisms of the inability of the 'scientific world-view' to accommodate the values necessary to a flourishing human life. I conclude by noting some differences between Kierkegaard and Feyerabend's positions and by affirming the value of existential criticisms of scientific knowledge.

  11. Internal attention to features in visual short-term memory guides object learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2013-11-01

    Attending to objects in the world affects how we perceive and remember them. What are the consequences of attending to an object in mind? In particular, how does reporting the features of a recently seen object guide visual learning? In three experiments, observers were presented with abstract shapes in a particular color, orientation, and location. After viewing each object, observers were cued to report one feature from visual short-term memory (VSTM). In a subsequent test, observers were cued to report features of the same objects from visual long-term memory (VLTM). We tested whether reporting a feature from VSTM: (1) enhances VLTM for just that feature (practice-benefit hypothesis), (2) enhances VLTM for all features (object-based hypothesis), or (3) simultaneously enhances VLTM for that feature and suppresses VLTM for unreported features (feature-competition hypothesis). The results provided support for the feature-competition hypothesis, whereby the representation of an object in VLTM was biased towards features reported from VSTM and away from unreported features (Experiment 1). This bias could not be explained by the amount of sensory exposure or response learning (Experiment 2) and was amplified by the reporting of multiple features (Experiment 3). Taken together, these results suggest that selective internal attention induces competitive dynamics among features during visual learning, flexibly tuning object representations to align with prior mnemonic goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Object-Location Memory: A Lesion-Behavior Mapping Study in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Frijns, Catharina J. M.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Postma, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Object-location memory is an important form of spatial memory, comprising different subcomponents that each process specific types of information within memory, i.e. remembering objects, remembering positions and binding these features in memory. In the current study we investigated the neural correlates of binding categorical (relative) or…

  13. Memory for curvature of objects: haptic touch vs. vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Marks, Lawrence E

    2007-11-01

    The present study examined the role of vision and haptics in memory for stimulus objects that vary along the dimension of curvature. Experiment 1 measured haptic-haptic (T-T) and haptic-visual (T-V) discrimination of curvature in a short-term memory paradigm, using 30-second retention intervals containing five different interpolated tasks. Results showed poorest performance when the interpolated tasks required spatial processing or movement, thereby suggesting that haptic information about shape is encoded in a spatial-motor representation. Experiment 2 compared visual-visual (V-V) and visual-haptic (V-T) short-term memory, again using 30-second delay intervals. The results of the ANOVA failed to show a significant effect of intervening activity. Intra-modal visual performance and cross-modal performance were similar. Comparing the four modality conditions (inter-modal V-T, T-V; intra-modal V-V, T-T, by combining the data of Experiments 1 and 2), in a global analysis, showed a reliable interaction between intervening activity and experiment (modality). Although there appears to be a general tendency for spatial and movement activities to exert the most deleterious effects overall, the patterns are not identical when the initial stimulus is encoded haptically (Experiment 1) and visually (Experiment 2).

  14. Effects of syntactic structure in the memory of concrete and abstract Chinese sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C S; Chen, H C

    1993-09-01

    Smith (1981) found that concrete English sentences were better recognized than abstract sentences and that this concreteness effect was potent only when the concrete sentence was also affirmative but the effect switched to an opposite end when the concrete sentence was negative. These results were partially replicated in Experiment 1 by using materials from a very different language (i.e., Chinese): concrete-affirmative sentences were better remembered than concrete-negative and abstract sentences, but no reliable difference was found between the latter two types. In Experiment 2, the task was modified by using a visual presentation instead of an oral one as in Experiment 1. Both concrete-affirmative and concrete-negative sentences were better memorized then abstract ones in Experiment 2. The findings in the two experiments are explained by a combination of the dual-coding model and Marschark's (1985) item-specific and relational processing. The differential effects of experience with different language systems on processing verbal materials in memory are also discussed.

  15. Providing Memory Management Abstraction for Self-Reconfigurable Video Processing Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Franz Ackermann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for an SDRAM controller targeting video processing platforms with dynamically reconfigurable processing units (RPUs. A priority-arbitration algorithm provides the required QoS and supports high bit-rate data streaming of multiple clients. Conforming to common video data structures the controller organizes the memory in partitions, frames, lines, and pixels. The raised level of abstraction drastically reduces the complexity of clients' addressing logic. Its uniform interface structure facilitates instantiations in systems with various clients. In addition to SDRAM controllers for regular applications, special demands of reconfigurable platforms have to be satisfied. The aim of this work is to minimize the number of required bus macros leading to relaxed place and route constraints and reducing the number of critical design paths. A suitable interface protocol is presented, and fundamental implementation issues are outlined.

  16. Object-based Encoding in Visual Working Memory: Evidence from Memory-driven Attentional Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zaifeng; Yu, Shixian; Zhu, Chengfeng; Shui, Rende; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Peng; Shen, Mowei

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an ?irrelevant-change distracting effect?, where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants? processing manner, lea...

  17. Young Children's Representations of Groups of Objects: The Relationship between Abstraction and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiko; Kamii, Constance; Ozaki, Kyoko; Nagahiro, Mariko

    2002-01-01

    Interviews 60 Japanese children between the ages of 3 and 7 years to investigate the relationship between levels of abstraction and representation. Indicates that abstraction and representation are closely related. Implies that educators need to focus more on the mental relationships children make because the meaning children can give to…

  18. Visual Working Memory Capacity for Objects from Different Categories: A Face-Specific Maintenance Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason H.; Peterson, Matthew S.; Thompson, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The capacity of visual working memory was examined when complex objects from different categories were remembered. Previous studies have not examined how visual similarity affects object memory, though it has long been known that similar-sounding phonological information interferes with rehearsal in auditory working memory. Here, experiments…

  19. Insular Cortex Is Involved in Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the insular cortex (IC), also termed gustatory cortex, is critically involved in conditioned taste aversion and taste recognition memory. Although most studies of the involvement of the IC in memory have investigated taste, there is some evidence that the IC is involved in memory that is not based on taste. In…

  20. Cued Memory Reactivation During SWS Abolishes the Beneficial Effect of Sleep on Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennies, Nora; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Durrant, Simon J; Cousins, James N; Lewis, Penelope A

    2017-08-01

    Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established. Participants were exposed to a probabilistically determined sequence of tones and subsequently tested for recognition of novel short sequences adhering to this same statistical pattern in both immediate and delayed recall sessions. In different groups, the exposure stream was replayed during SWS in the night between the recall sessions (SWS-replay group), in wake just before sleep (presleep replay group), or not at all (control group). Surprisingly, participants who received replay in sleep performed worse in the delayed recall session than the control and the presleep replay group. They also failed to show the association between SWS and task performance that has been observed in previous studies and was present in the controls. Importantly, sleep structure and sleep quality did not differ between groups, suggesting that replay during SWS did not impair sleep but rather disrupted or interfered with sleep-dependent mechanisms that underlie the extraction of the statistical pattern. These findings raise important questions about the scope of cued memory reactivation and the mechanisms that underlie sleep-related generalization. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Making the Invisible Visible: Enhancing Students' Conceptual Understanding by Introducing Representations of Abstract Objects in a Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olympiou, Georgios; Zacharias, Zacharia; deJong, Ton

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify if complementing representations of concrete objects with representations of abstract objects improves students' conceptual understanding as they use a simulation to experiment in the domain of "Light and Color". Moreover, we investigated whether students' prior knowledge is a factor that must be considered in deciding…

  2. Making the invisible visible: Enhancing students' conceptual understanding by introducing representations of abstract objects in a simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olympiou, G.; Zacharias, Z.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify if complementing representations of concrete objects with representations of abstract objects improves students’ conceptual understanding as they use a simulation to experiment in the domain of Light and Color. Moreover, we investigated whether students’ prior knowledge

  3. Memory color of natural familiar objects: effects of surface texture and 3-D shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Milena; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2013-06-28

    Natural objects typically possess characteristic contours, chromatic surface textures, and three-dimensional shapes. These diagnostic features aid object recognition, as does memory color, the color most associated in memory with a particular object. Here we aim to determine whether polychromatic surface texture, 3-D shape, and contour diagnosticity improve memory color for familiar objects, separately and in combination. We use solid three-dimensional familiar objects rendered with their natural texture, which participants adjust in real time to match their memory color for the object. We analyze mean, accuracy, and precision of the memory color settings relative to the natural color of the objects under the same conditions. We find that in all conditions, memory colors deviate slightly but significantly in the same direction from the natural color. Surface polychromaticity, shape diagnosticity, and three dimensionality each improve memory color accuracy, relative to uniformly colored, generic, or two-dimensional shapes, respectively. Shape diagnosticity improves the precision of memory color also, and there is a trend for polychromaticity to do so as well. Differently from other studies, we find that the object contour alone also improves memory color. Thus, enhancing the naturalness of the stimulus, in terms of either surface or shape properties, enhances the accuracy and precision of memory color. The results support the hypothesis that memory color representations are polychromatic and are synergistically linked with diagnostic shape representations.

  4. Differential effects of spaced vs. massed training in long-term object-identity and object-location recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia; González-Ornelas, Nadia R; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    Here we tested whether the well-known superiority of spaced training over massed training is equally evident in both object identity and object location recognition memory. We trained animals with objects placed in a variable or in a fixed location to produce a location-independent object identity memory or a location-dependent object representation. The training consisted of 5 trials that occurred either on one day (Massed) or over the course of 5 consecutive days (Spaced). The memory test was done in independent groups of animals either 24h or 7 days after the last training trial. In each test the animals were exposed to either a novel object, when trained with the objects in variable locations, or to a familiar object in a novel location, when trained with objects in fixed locations. The difference in time spent exploring the changed versus the familiar objects was used as a measure of recognition memory. For the object-identity-trained animals, spaced training produced clear evidence of recognition memory after both 24h and 7 days, but massed-training animals showed it only after 24h. In contrast, for the object-location-trained animals, recognition memory was evident after both retention intervals and with both training procedures. When objects were placed in variable locations for the two types of training and the test was done with a brand-new location, only the spaced-training animals showed recognition at 24h, but surprisingly, after 7 days, animals trained using both procedures were able to recognize the change, suggesting a post-training consolidation process. We suggest that the two training procedures trigger different neural mechanisms that may differ in the two segregated streams that process object information and that may consolidate differently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Associative Symmetry versus Independent Associations in the Memory for Object-Location Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Tobias; Rose, Michael; Buchel, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The formation of associations between objects and locations is a vital aspect of episodic memory. More specifically, remembering the location where one experienced an object and, vice versa, the object one encountered at a specific location are both important elements for the memory of an event. Whether episodic associations are holistic…

  6. 77 FR 65603 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Inventing Abstraction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... objects at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, from on or about December 23, 2012, until on or... United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with... Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California, from on or about May 5, 2013, until on or about...

  7. Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity for Simple and Complex Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not…

  8. Effects of verbal and nonverbal interference on spatial and object visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postle, Bradley R; Desposito, Mark; Corkin, Suzanne

    2005-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a verbal coding mechanism is necessarily engaged by object, but not spatial, visual working memory tasks. We employed a dual-task procedure that paired n-back working memory tasks with domain-specific distractor trials inserted into each interstimulus interval of the n-back tasks. In two experiments, object n-back performance demonstrated greater sensitivity to verbal distraction, whereas spatial n-back performance demonstrated greater sensitivity to motion distraction. Visual object and spatial working memory may differ fundamentally in that the mnemonic representation of featural characteristics of objects incorporates a verbal (perhaps semantic) code, whereas the mnemonic representation of the location of objects does not. Thus, the processes supporting working memory for these two types of information may differ in more ways than those dictated by the "what/where" organization of the visual system, a fact more easily reconciled with a component process than a memory systems account of working memory function.

  9. Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Wen; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Zhang, Rui-San; Wang, Pei; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Deng, Ke-Yu; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was reported to be involved in the regulation of object recognition memory. As the BLA expresses high density of receptors for Neuropeptide S (NPS), we investigated whether the BLA is involved in mediating NPS's effects on object recognition memory consolidation and whether such effects require noradrenergic activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1nmol) post training facilitated 24-h memory in a mouse novel object recognition task. The memory-enhancing effect of NPS could be blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, post-training intra-BLA infusions of NPS (0.5nmol/side) improved 24-h memory for objects, which was impaired by co-administration of propranolol (0.5μg/side). Taken together, these results indicate that NPS interacts with the BLA noradrenergic system in improving object recognition memory during consolidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Object-Action Complexes: Grounded Abstractions of Sensori-motor Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Geib, Christopher; Piater, Justus

    2011-01-01

    This paper formalises Object-Action Complexes (OACs) as a basis for symbolic representations of sensorimotor experience and behaviours. OACs are designed to capture the interaction between objects and associated actions in articial cognitive systems. This paper gives a formal denition of OACs, pr......, provides examples of their use for autonomous cognitive robots, and enumerates a number of critical learning problems in terms of OACs....

  11. Conceptual distinctiveness supports detailed visual long-term memory for real-world objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude

    2010-08-01

    Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of exemplars presented from each category. At test, observers indicated which of 2 exemplars they had previously studied. Memory performance was high and remained quite high (82% accuracy) with 16 exemplars from a category in memory, demonstrating a large memory capacity for object exemplars. However, memory performance decreased as more exemplars were held in memory, implying systematic categorical interference. Object categories with conceptually distinctive exemplars showed less interference in memory as the number of exemplars increased. Interference in memory was not predicted by the perceptual distinctiveness of exemplars from an object category, though these perceptual measures predicted visual search rates for an object target among exemplars. These data provide evidence that observers' capacity to remember visual information in long-term memory depends more on conceptual structure than perceptual distinctiveness. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates glucocorticoid hormones in the regulation of memory consolidation and memory retrieval. The present experiments investigated whether the influence of these hormones on memory depends on the level of emotional arousal induced by the training experience. We investigated this issue in male Sprague–Dawley rats by examining the effects of immediate posttraining systemic injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on object recognition memory under two condition...

  13. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  14. Object location and object recognition memory impairments, motivation deficits and depression in a model of Gulf War illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shuai, Bing; Rao, Xiolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an antinerve gas drug), permethrin (PM, an insecticide) and DEET (a mosquito repellant) encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals PB, PM, and DEET with or without 5-min of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm) causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test (WMT) and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test (FST). In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a WMT is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test (OLT). We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test (NORT), and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT) demonstrated decreased motivation levels and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory

  15. Understanding women's experience of memory over the menopausal transition: subjective and objective memory in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkenstein, Anne E; Bryant, Christina A; Judd, Fiona K; Ong, Ben; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-12-01

    Many women complain of forgetfulness during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to examine women's subjective perception of memory and their objective memory performance across the menopausal transition. One hundred thirty women, aged 40 to 60 years were recruited from outpatient Menopause and Gynaecological clinics at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Women were divided into menopausal stage groups according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria based on menstrual patterns. All women completed self-report measures of depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms; attitude to menopause; and various aspects of memory, including memory contentment, frequency of forgetting, sense of control over memory, and use of memory strategies. Women also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation assessing memory and executive function. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment showed no difference between premenopausal (n = 36), perimenopausal (n = 54), and postmenopausal (n = 40) groups in performance on memory and executive tasks. Perimenopausal women, however, reported significantly more frequent forgetting (η = 0.09, P memory (η = 0.08, P memory. During the menopausal transition women with a more negative attitude to menopause and more intense depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms are more vulnerable to feeling less content with their memory.

  16. Memory Performance for Everyday Motivational and Neutral Objects Is Dissociable from Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1 and visual contrast (Experiment 2 had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions.

  17. Memory Performance for Everyday Motivational and Neutral Objects Is Dissociable from Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Wittmann, Bianca C.

    2017-01-01

    Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1) and visual contrast (Experiment 2) had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions. PMID:28694774

  18. Memory Performance for Everyday Motivational and Neutral Objects Is Dissociable from Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2017-01-01

    Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1) and visual contrast (Experiment 2) had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions.

  19. The (Spatial) Memory Game: Testing the Relationship Between Spatial Language, Object Knowledge, and Spatial Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudde, Harmen B; Griffiths, Debra; Coventry, Kenny R

    2018-02-19

    The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly. Key to the development of the method was the need to collect data on language use (e.g., spatial demonstratives: "this/that") and spatial memory data under strictly controlled conditions, while retaining a degree of ecological validity. The language version (section 3.1) of the memory game tests how conditions affect language use. Participants refer verbally to objects placed at different locations (e.g., using spatial demonstratives: "this/that red circle"). Different parameters can be experimentally manipulated: the distance from the participant, the position of a conspecific, and for example whether the participant owns, knows, or sees the object while referring to it. The same parameters can be manipulated in the memory version of the memory game (section 3.2). This version tests the effects of the different conditions on object-location memory. Following object placement, participants get 10 seconds to memorize the object's location. After the object and location cues are removed, participants verbally direct the experimenter to move a stick to indicate where the object was. The difference between the memorized and the actual location shows the direction and strength of the memory error, allowing comparisons between the influences of the respective parameters.

  20. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 ...

  1. Information Memory Processing and Retrieval: Relationships of Concrete Learning and Concrete and Abstract Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bonnie L.

    Reported is a study related to the Project on an Information Memory Model and designed to encompass the claims of Piaget and Inhelder on differences of kinds of cognition and recall done on figural sorting task cognition at the Project on an Information Memory Model. The work of Piaget and Inhelder has defined learning information flow and related…

  2. Associative recognition and the hippocampus: differential effects of hippocampal lesions on object-place, object-context and object-place-context memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Rosamund F; Wood, Emma R

    2010-10-01

    The hippocampus is thought to be required for the associative recognition of objects together with the spatial or temporal contexts in which they occur. However, recent data showing that rats with fornix lesions perform as well as controls in an object-place task, while being impaired on an object-place-context task (Eacott and Norman (2004) J Neurosci 24:1948-1953), suggest that not all forms of context-dependent associative recognition depend on the integrity of the hippocampus. To examine the role of the hippocampus in context-dependent recognition directly, the present study tested the effects of large, selective, bilateral hippocampus lesions in rats on performance of a series of spontaneous recognition memory tasks: object recognition, object-place recognition, object-context recognition and object-place-context recognition. Consistent with the effects of fornix lesions, animals with hippocampus lesions were impaired only on the object-place-context task. These data confirm that not all forms of context-dependent associative recognition are mediated by the hippocampus. Subsequent experiments suggested that the object-place task does not require an allocentric representation of space, which could account for the lack of impairment following hippocampus lesions. Importantly, as the object-place-context task has similar spatial requirements, the selective deficit in object-place-context recognition suggests that this task requires hippocampus-dependent neural processes distinct from those required for allocentric spatial memory, or for object memory, object-place memory or object-context memory. Two possibilities are that object, place, and context information converge only in the hippocampus, or that recognition of integrated object-place-context information requires a hippocampus-dependent mode of retrieval, such as recollection. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Conceptual Distinctiveness Supports Detailed Visual Long-Term Memory for Real-World Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Talia; Brady, Timothy F.; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-01

    Humans have a massive capacity to store detailed information in visual long-term memory. The present studies explored the fidelity of these visual long-term memory representations and examined how conceptual and perceptual features of object categories support this capacity. Observers viewed 2,800 object images with a different number of exemplars…

  4. Hippocampal NMDA receptors are involved in rats' spontaneous object recognition only under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Manami; Yamada, Kazuo; Iguchi, Natsumi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-10-22

    The possible involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in spontaneous object recognition was investigated in rats under different memory load conditions. We first estimated rats' object memory span using 3-5 objects in "Different Objects Task (DOT)" in order to confirm the highest memory load condition in object recognition memory. Rats were allowed to explore a field in which 3 (3-DOT), 4 (4-DOT), or 5 (5-DOT) different objects were presented. After a delay period, they were placed again in the same field in which one of the sample objects was replaced by another object, and their object exploration behavior was analyzed. Rats could differentiate the novel object from the familiar ones in 3-DOT and 4-DOT but not in 5-DOT, suggesting that rats' object memory span was about 4. Then, we examined the effects of hippocampal AP5 infusion on performance in both 2-DOT (2 different objects were used) and 4-DOT. The drug treatment before the sample phase impaired performance only in 4-DOT. These results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors play a critical role in spontaneous object recognition only when the memory load is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct neuronal interactions in anterior inferotemporal areas of macaque monkeys during retrieval of object association memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Keita; Takeuchi, Daigo; Takeda, Masaki; Koyano, Kenji W; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2014-07-09

    In macaque monkeys, the anterior inferotemporal cortex, a region crucial for object memory processing, is composed of two adjacent, hierarchically distinct areas, TE and 36, for which different functional roles and neuronal responses in object memory tasks have been characterized. However, it remains unknown how the neuronal interactions differ between these areas during memory retrieval. Here, we conducted simultaneous recordings from multiple single-units in each of these areas while monkeys performed an object association memory task and examined the inter-area differences in neuronal interactions during the delay period. Although memory neurons showing sustained activity for the presented cue stimulus, cue-holding (CH) neurons, interacted with each other in both areas, only those neurons in area 36 interacted with another type of memory neurons coding for the to-be-recalled paired associate (pair-recall neurons) during memory retrieval. Furthermore, pairs of CH neurons in area TE showed functional coupling in response to each individual object during memory retention, whereas the same class of neuron pairs in area 36 exhibited a comparable strength of coupling in response to both associated objects. These results suggest predominant neuronal interactions in area 36 during the mnemonic processing, which may underlie the pivotal role of this brain area in both storage and retrieval of object association memory. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349377-12$15.00/0.

  6. Infliximab ameliorates AD-associated object recognition memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Seong-Min; Jho, Jihoon; Park, Man-Seok; Kang, Jisu; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Byeong C

    2016-09-15

    Dysfunctions in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) are associated with visual recognition memory deficit, which is frequently detected in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent long-term depression (mAChR-LTD) of synaptic transmission is known as a key pathway in eliciting this type of memory, and Tg2576 mice expressing enhanced levels of Aβ oligomers are found to have impaired mAChR-LTD in this brain area at as early as 3 months of age. We found that the administration of Aβ oligomers in young normal mice also induced visual recognition memory impairment and perturbed mAChR-LTD in mouse PRh slices. In addition, when mice were treated with infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-α, visual recognition memory impaired by pre-administered Aβ oligomers dramatically improved and the detrimental Aβ effect on mAChR-LTD was annulled. Taken together, these findings suggest that Aβ-induced inflammation is mediated through TNF-α signaling cascades, disturbing synaptic transmission in the PRh, and leading to visual recognition memory deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of object relative size on priming and explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Siegenthaler, Amy L

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects displayed in large vs. small size at test. Our findings of substantial size-specific influences on priming with common objects under some but not other conditions are consistent with instance views of object perception and priming but inconsistent with structural description views.

  8. The influence of object relative size on priming and explicit memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects displayed in large vs. small size at test. Our findings of substantial size-specific influences on priming with common objects under some but not other conditions are consistent with instance views of object perception and priming but inconsistent with structural description views.

  9. The effects of eye movements on emotional memories: using an objective measure of cognitive load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. van Veen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The working memory (WM theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversive memory and making eye movements (EM both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM resources reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality. The present study tested several predictions from WM theory. Objective: We hypothesized that 1 recall of an aversive autobiographical memory loads WM compared to no recall, and 2 recall with EM reduces the vividness, emotionality, and cognitive load of recalling the memory more than only recall or only cognitive effort (i.e., recall of an irrelevant memory with EM. Method: Undergraduates (N=108 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1 recall relevant memory with EM, 2 recall relevant memory without EM, and 3 recall irrelevant memory with EM. We used a random interval repetition task to measure the cognitive load of recalling the memory. Participants responded to randomly administered beeps, with or without recalling the memory. The degree to which participants slow down during recall provides an index of cognitive load. We measured the cognitive load and self-reported vividness and emotionality before, halfway through (8×24 s, and after (16×24 s the intervention. Results: Reaction times slowed down during memory recall compared to no recall. The recall relevant with EM condition showed a larger decrease in self-reported vividness and emotionality than the control conditions. The cognitive load of recalling the memory also decreased in this condition but not consistently more than in the control conditions. Conclusions: Recall of an aversive memory loads WM, but drops in vividness and emotionality do not immediately reduce the cognitive load of recalling the memory. More research is needed to find objective measures that could capture changes in the quality of the memory.

  10. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they...

  11. Toward self-stabilizing wait-free shared memory objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Hoepman (Jaap-Henk); M. Papatriantafilou (Marina); P. Tsigas (Philippas)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPast research on fault tolerant distributed systems has focussed on either processor failures, ranging from benign crash failures to the malicious byzantine failure types, or on transient memory failures, which can suddenly corrupt the state of the system. An interesting question in the

  12. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Timothy F.; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A.; Oliva, Aude

    2008-01-01

    One of the major lessons of memory research has been that human memory is fallible, imprecise, and subject to interference. Thus, although observers can remember thousands of images, it is widely assumed that these memories lack detail. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of objects with details from the image. Participants viewed pictures of 2,500 objects over the course of 5.5 h. Afterward, they were shown pairs of images an...

  13. Human Memory Limitations in Multi-Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    processing concepts of Norman (1968) and Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), and from the " levels of processing " formulation of Craik and Lockhart ...distinct memory representations that result from different levels of processing . Craik and Lockhart (1972) have argued convincingly for a process -oriented...learning and motivation (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 1968, pp. 89-105. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing

  14. Forms of Memory for Representation of Visual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-15

    neuropsychological syndromes that involve disruption of perceptual representation systems should pay rich dividends for implicit memory research (Schacter et al...BLACKORDi. 1988b. Deficits in the implicit retention of new associations by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Brain and Cognition 7: 145-156. COFER, C. C...MOREINES & N. BUTTERS. 1973. Retrieving information from Korsakoff patients: Effects of categorical cues and reference to the task. Cortex 9: 165

  15. Sexual Orientation and Spatial Position Effects on Selective Forms of Object Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object…

  16. The effects of eye movements on emotional memories: using an objective measure of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Suzanne C; Engelhard, Iris M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The working memory (WM) theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversive memory and making eye movements (EM) both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM resources reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality. The present study tested several predictions from WM theory. We hypothesized that 1) recall of an aversive autobiographical memory loads WM compared to no recall, and 2) recall with EM reduces the vividness, emotionality, and cognitive load of recalling the memory more than only recall or only cognitive effort (i.e., recall of an irrelevant memory with EM). Undergraduates (N=108) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) recall relevant memory with EM, 2) recall relevant memory without EM, and 3) recall irrelevant memory with EM. We used a random interval repetition task to measure the cognitive load of recalling the memory. Participants responded to randomly administered beeps, with or without recalling the memory. The degree to which participants slow down during recall provides an index of cognitive load. We measured the cognitive load and self-reported vividness and emotionality before, halfway through (8×24 s), and after (16×24 s) the intervention. Reaction times slowed down during memory recall compared to no recall. The recall relevant with EM condition showed a larger decrease in self-reported vividness and emotionality than the control conditions. The cognitive load of recalling the memory also decreased in this condition but not consistently more than in the control conditions. Recall of an aversive memory loads WM, but drops in vividness and emotionality do not immediately reduce the cognitive load of recalling the memory. More research is needed to find objective measures that could capture changes in the quality of the memory.

  17. Preserving objects, preserving memories: Repair professionals and object owners on the relation between traces on personal possessions and memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, A.F.; van den Hoven, E.A.W.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Bakker, C.; Mugge, R.

    2017-01-01

    Traces of ageing and use on the material of products, and memories associated with products, have been found to contribute to product attachment and can stimulate product longevity. We present findings of a qualitative study that focused on the relation between traces of ageing and use on personal

  18. Dopamine D1 receptor activation leads to object recognition memory in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Tresguerres, Martin; Kline, David I

    2017-07-01

    Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish ( Stegastes partitus ) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition. This study used a novel object recognition test in which fish were first presented two identical objects, then after a retention interval of 10 min with no objects, the fish were presented with a novel object and one of the objects they had previously encountered in the first trial. We demonstrate that the dopamine D 1 -receptor agonist (SKF 38393) induces the formation of object recognition memories in these fish. Thus, our results suggest that dopamine-receptor mediated enhancement of spatial memory formation in fish represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in vertebrates. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Kana Okada; Kayo Nishizawa; Tomoko Kobayashi; Shogo Sakata; Kazuto Kobayashi

    2015-01-01

    Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remai...

  20. PKMzeta maintains 1-day- and 6-day-old long-term object location but not object identity memory in dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Oliver; Migues, Paola V; Hastings, Margaret; Wong, Jacinda; Nader, Karim

    2010-06-01

    Continuous activity of the atypical protein kinase C isoform M zeta (PKMzeta) is necessary for maintaining long-term memory acquired in aversively or appetitively motivated associative learning tasks, such as active avoidance, aversive taste conditioning, auditory and contextual fear conditioning, radial arm maze, and watermaze. Whether unreinforced, nonassociative memory will also require PKMzeta for long-term maintenance is not known. Using recognition memory for object location and object identity, we found that inactivating PKMzeta in dorsal hippocampus abolishes 1-day and 6-day-old long-term recognition memory for object location, while recognition memory for object identity was not affected by this treatment. Memory for object location persisted for no more than 35 days after training. These results suggest that the dorsal hippocampus mediates long-term memory for where, but not what things have been encountered, and that PKMzeta maintains this type of spatial knowledge as long as the memory exists.

  1. Effects of grasp compatibility on long-term memory for objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canits, Ivonne; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown action potentiation during conceptual processing of manipulable objects. In four experiments, we investigated whether these motor actions also play a role in long-term memory. Participants categorized objects that afforded either a power grasp or a precision grasp as natural or artifact by grasping cylinders with either a power grasp or a precision grasp. In all experiments, responses were faster when the affordance of the object was compatible with the type of grasp response. However, subsequent free recall and recognition memory tasks revealed no better memory for object pictures and object names for which the grasp affordance was compatible with the grasp response. The present results therefore do not support the hypothesis that motor actions play a role in long-term memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of knowledge of APOE genotype on subjective and objective memory performance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Bondi, Mark W; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

    2014-02-01

    The knowledge that one carries the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele risk factor for Alzheimer's disease was recently found to have little short-term psychological risk. The authors investigated the impact of knowledge of carrying the risk allele on subjective ratings of memory and objective memory test performance of older adults. Using a nested case-control design, the authors administered objective verbal and visual memory tests and self-rating scales of memory function to 144 cognitively normal older adults (ages 52-89) with known APOE genotype who knew (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=49) or did not know (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=45) their genotype and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease prior to neuropsychological evaluation. Significant genotype-by-disclosure interaction effects were observed on several memory rating scales and tests of immediate and delayed verbal recall. Older adults who knew their ε4+ genotype judged their memory more harshly and performed worse on an objective verbal memory test than did ε4+ adults who did not know. In contrast, older adults who knew their ε4- genotype judged their memory more positively than did ε4- adults who did not know, but these groups did not differ in objective memory test performance. Informing older adults that they have an APOE genotype associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease can have adverse consequences on their perception of their memory abilities and their performance on objective memory tests. The patient's knowledge of his or her genotype and risk of Alzheimer's disease should be considered when evaluating cognition in the elderly.

  3. Nicotine enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaowen; Pan, Si; You, Yong

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there are only few studies that have evaluated the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Days 1 and 2), sample (Day 3), reactivation (Day 4) and test (Day 6). Rats were injected with saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) immediately or 6h after reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring on the novel and familiar objects. Results showed that nicotine administration immediately but not 6 h after reactivation significantly enhanced memory performance of rats. Further results showed that the enhancing effect of nicotine on memory performance was dependent on memory reactivation, and was not attributed to the changes of the nonspecific responses (locomotor activity and anxiety level) 48 h after nicotine administration. The results suggest that post-reactivation nicotine administration enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory. Our present finding extends previous research on the nicotinic effects on learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane de C; Schmidt, Bianca E; Zinn, Carolina G; Peixoto, Patricia B; Pereira, Luiza D; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    For decades there has been a consensus that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory. A second round of protein synthesis has been described for both extinction and reconsolidation following an unreinforced test session. Recently, it was shown that consolidation and reconsolidation depend not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a major mechanism responsible for protein turnover. However, the involvement of UPS on consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory remains unknown. Here we investigate in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus the involvement of UPS-mediated protein degradation in consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Animals with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, were exposed to an object recognition task. The UPS inhibitor β-Lactacystin did not affect the consolidation and the reconsolidation of object recognition memory at doses known to affect other forms of memory (inhibitory avoidance, spatial learning in a water maze) while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired the consolidation and the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. However, β-Lactacystin was able to reverse the impairment caused by anisomycin on the reconsolidation process in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a direct link between protein degradation and protein synthesis during the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areg eBarsegyan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory, a low-arousing training task assessing episodic-like memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to two identical objects in one context for either 3 or 10 min, immediately followed by exposure to two other identical objects in a distinctly different context. Immediately after the training they received bilateral intra-BLA infusions of norepinephrine (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 μg or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 μg. On the 24-h retention test, rats were placed back into one of the training contexts with one copy of each of the two training objects. Thus, although both objects were familiar, one of the objects had not previously been encountered in this particular test context. Hence, if the animal generated a long-term memory for the association between an object and its context, it would spend significantly more time exploring the object that was not previously experienced in this context. Saline-infused control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention when given 3 min of training and good retention when given 10 min of training. Norepinephrine administered after 3 min of object-in-context training induced a dose-dependent memory enhancement, whereas propranolol administered after 10 min of training produced memory impairment. These findings provide evidence that posttraining noradrenergic activation of the BLA also enhances the consolidation of memory of object-in-context recognition training, enabling accuracy of episodic-like memories.

  6. Object Selection Costs in Visual Working Memory: A Diffusion Model Analysis of the Focus of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K.; Lilburn, Simon D.; Smith, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can…

  7. Effects of testosterone administration on selective aspects of object-location memory in healthy young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A; Tuiten, A; van Honk, J; Kessels, RPC; Thijssen, J

    Previous work has indicated that object-location memory is sensitive to sex differences as well as variations in the menstrual cycle. The goal of the present study was to further examine the hormonal basis of human spatial memory by assessing the effects of a single dose of exogenous testosterone in

  8. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript…

  9. Grasping an object comfortably: orientation information is held in memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roche, K; Verheij, R.; Voudouris, D.; Chainay, H.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that memorized information can influence real-time visuomotor control. For instance, a previously seen object (prime) influences grasping movements toward a target object. In this study, we examined how general the priming effect is: does it depend on the orientation of the target

  10. Evidence of a modality-dependent role of the cerebellum in working memory? An fMRI study comparing verbal and abstract n-back tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautzel, Hubertus; Mottaghy, Felix M; Specht, Karsten; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Krause, Bernd J

    2009-10-01

    In working memory (WM), functional imaging studies demonstrate cerebellar involvement indicating a cognitive role of the cerebellum. These cognitive contributions were predominantly interpreted as part of the phonological loop within the Baddeley model of WM. However, those underlying investigations were performed in the context of visual verbal WM which could pose a bias when interpreting the results. The aim of this fMRI study was to address the question of whether the cerebellum supports additional aspects of WM in the context of higher cognitive functions. Furthermore, laterality effects were investigated to further disentangle the cerebellar role in the context of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. A direct comparison of verbal and abstract visual WM was performed in 17 young volunteers by applying a 2-back paradigm and extracting the % change in BOLD signal from the fMRI data. To minimize potential verbal strategies, Attneave and Arnoult shapes of non-nameable objects were chosen for the abstract condition. The analyses revealed no significant differences in verbal vs. abstract WM. Moreover, no laterality effects were demonstrated in both verbal and abstract WM. These results provide further evidence of a broader cognitive involvement of the cerebellum in WM that is not only confined to the phonological loop but also supports central executive subfunctions. The fact that no lateralization effects are found might be attributed to the characteristics of the n-back paradigm which emphasizes central executive subfunctions over the subsidiary slave systems.

  11. The role of object categories in hybrid visual and memory search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    In hybrid search, observers (Os) search for any of several possible targets in a visual display containing distracting items and, perhaps, a target. Wolfe (2012) found that responses times (RT) in such tasks increased linearly with increases in the number of items in the display. However, RT increased linearly with the log of the number of items in the memory set. In earlier work, all items in the memory set were unique instances (e.g. this apple in this pose). Typical real world tasks involve more broadly defined sets of stimuli (e.g. any “apple” or, perhaps, “fruit”). The present experiments show how sets or categories of targets are handled in joint visual and memory search. In Experiment 1, searching for a digit among letters was not like searching for targets from a 10-item memory set, though searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary alphanumeric characters was like searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary objects. In Experiment 2, Os searched for any instance of N sets or categories held in memory. This hybrid search was harder than search for specific objects. However, memory search remained logarithmic. Experiment 3 illustrates the interaction of visual guidance and memory search when a subset of visual stimuli are drawn from a target category. Furthermore, we outline a conceptual model, supported by our results, defining the core components that would be necessary to support such categorical hybrid searches. PMID:24661054

  12. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Local and Distal Landmarks in the Development of Object Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Jessie; Klugkist, Irene; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    To locate objects in the environment, animals and humans use visual and nonvisual information. We were interested in children's ability to relocate an object on the basis of self-motion and local and distal color cues for orientation. Five- to 9-year-old children were tested on an object location memory task in which, between presentation and…

  14. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: Six-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. This study extended this work to examine…

  15. A Visual Short-Term Memory Advantage for Objects of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Kim M.; Glazek, Kuba; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited, especially for complex objects. Its capacity, however, is greater for faces than for other objects; this advantage may stem from the holistic nature of face processing. If the holistic processing explains this advantage, object expertise--which also relies on holistic processing--should endow experts…

  16. Semantic and functional relationships among objects increase the capacity of visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan E; Clement, Andrew; Brockmole, James R

    2018-04-12

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity of approximately 3-4 visual objects. Current theories of VWM propose that a limited pool of resources can be flexibly allocated to objects, allowing them to be represented at varying levels of precision. Factors that influence the allocation of these resources, such as the complexity and perceptual grouping of objects, can thus affect the capacity of VWM. We sought to identify whether semantic and functional relationships between objects could influence the grouping of objects, thereby increasing the functional capacity of VWM. Observers viewed arrays of 8 to-be-remembered objects arranged into 4 pairs. We manipulated both the semantic association and functional interaction between the objects, then probed participants' memory for the arrays. When objects were semantically related, participants' memory for the arrays improved. Participants' memory further improved when semantically related objects were positioned to interact with each other. However, when we increased the spacing between the objects in each pair, the benefits of functional but not semantic relatedness were eliminated. These findings suggest that action-relevant properties of objects can increase the functional capacity of VWM, but only when objects are positioned to directly interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Retrospective Cues Based on Object Features Improve Visual Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were either presented with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an u...

  18. Fragile visual short-term memory is an object-based and location-specific store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yaïr; Sligte, Ilja G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-08-01

    Fragile visual short-term memory (FM) is a recently discovered form of visual short-term memory. Evidence suggests that it provides rich and high-capacity storage, like iconic memory, yet it exists, without interference, almost as long as visual working memory. In the present study, we sought to unveil the functional underpinnings of this memory storage. We found that FM is only completely erased when the new visual scene appears at the same location and consists of the same objects as the to-be-recalled information. This result has two important implications: First, it shows that FM is an object- and location-specific store, and second, it suggests that FM might be used in everyday life when the presentation of visual information is appropriately designed.

  19. Tet1 Oxidase Regulates Neuronal Gene Transcription, Active DNA Hydroxy-methylation, Object Location Memory, and Threat Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Aggarwal, Milan; Kaas, Garrett A; Lewis, John; Wang, Jing; Ross, Daniel L; Zhong, Chun; Kennedy, Andrew; Song, Hongjun; Sweatt, J David

    2015-10-01

    A dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation of neuronal activity-regulated genes is crucial for memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this equilibrium remain elusive. Tet1 oxidase has been shown to play a key role in the active DNA demethylation in the CNS. In this study, we used Tet1 gene knockout (Tet1KO) mice to examine the involvement of Tet1 in memory consolidation and storage in the adult brain. We found that Tet1 ablation leads to: altered expression of numerous neuronal activity-regulated genes, compensatory upregulation of active demethylation pathway genes, and upregulation of various epigenetic modifiers. Moreover, Tet1KO mice showed an enhancement in the consolidation and storage of threat recognition (cued and contextual fear conditioning) and object location memories. We conclude that Tet1 plays a critical role in regulating neuronal transcription and in maintaining the epigenetic state of the brain associated with memory consolidation and storage.

  20. Tet1 oxidase regulates neuronal gene transcription, active DNA hydroxymethylation, object location memory, and threat recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation of neuronal activity-regulated genes is crucial for memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this equilibrium remain elusive. Tet1 oxidase has been shown to play a key role in the active DNA demethylation in the central nervous system. In this study, we used Tet1 gene knockout (Tet1KO mice to examine the involvement of Tet1 in memory consolidation and storage in the adult brain. We found that Tet1 ablation leads to altered expression of numerous neuronal activity-regulated genes, compensatory upregulation of active demethylation pathway genes, and upregulation of various epigenetic modifiers. Moreover, Tet1KO mice showed an enhancement in the consolidation and storage of threat recognition (cued and contextual fear conditioning and object location memories. We conclude that Tet1 plays a critical role in regulating neuronal transcription and in maintaining the epigenetic state of the brain associated with memory consolidation and storage.

  1. Ensemble coding remains accurate under object and spatial visual working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael L; Emmanouil, Tatiana A

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have provided evidence that the visual system statistically summarizes large amounts of information that would exceed the limitations of attention and working memory (ensemble coding). However the necessity of working memory resources for ensemble coding has not yet been tested directly. In the current study, we used a dual task design to test the effect of object and spatial visual working memory load on size averaging accuracy. In Experiment 1, we tested participants' accuracy in comparing the mean size of two sets under various levels of object visual working memory load. Although the accuracy of average size judgments depended on the difference in mean size between the two sets, we found no effect of working memory load. In Experiment 2, we tested the same average size judgment while participants were under spatial visual working memory load, again finding no effect of load on averaging accuracy. Overall our results reveal that ensemble coding can proceed unimpeded and highly accurately under both object and spatial visual working memory load, providing further evidence that ensemble coding reflects a basic perceptual process distinct from that of individual object processing.

  2. Visual-Spatial Attention Aids the Maintenance of Object Representations in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melonie; Pouget, Pierre; Boucher, Leanne; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Theories have proposed that the maintenance of object representations in visual working memory is aided by a spatial rehearsal mechanism. In this study, we used two different approaches to test the hypothesis that overt and covert visual-spatial attention mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of object representations in visual working memory. First, we tracked observers’ eye movements while remembering a variable number of objects during change-detection tasks. We observed that during the blank retention interval, participants spontaneously shifted gaze to the locations that the objects had occupied in the memory array. Next, we hypothesized that if attention mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of object representations, then drawing attention away from the object locations during the retention interval would impair object memory during these change-detection tasks. Supporting this prediction, we found that attending to the fixation point in anticipation of a brief probe stimulus during the retention interval reduced change-detection accuracy even on the trials in which no probe occurred. These findings support models of working memory in which visual-spatial selection mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of object representations. PMID:23371773

  3. The Object Context-place-location Paradigm for Testing Spatial Memory in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesburguères, Edith; Tsokas, Panayiotis; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Fenton, André Antonio

    2017-04-20

    This protocol was originally designed to examine long-term spatial memory in PKMζ knockout ( i.e ., PKMζ-null) mice (Tsokas et al ., 2016). Our main goal was to test whether the ability of these animals to maintain previously acquired spatial information was sensitive to the type and complexity of the spatial information that needs to be remembered. Accordingly, we modified and combined into a single protocol, three novelty-preference tests, specifically the object-in-context, object-in-place and object-in-location tests, adapted from previous studies in rodents (Mumby et al ., 2002; Langston and Wood, 2010; Barker and Warburton, 2011). During the training (learning) phase of the procedure, mice are repeatedly exposed to three different environments in which they learn the spatial arrangement of an environment-specific set of non-identical objects. After this learning phase is completed, each mouse receives three different memory tests configured as environment mismatches, in which the previously learned objects-in-space configurations have been modified from the original training situation. The mismatch tests differ in their cognitive demands due to the type of spatial association that is manipulated, specifically evaluating memory for object-context and object-place associations. During each memory test, the time differential spent exploring the novel (misplaced) and familiar objects is computed as an index of novelty discrimination. This index is the behavioral measure of memory recall of the previously acquired spatial associations.

  4. Bias effects of short- and long-term color memory for unique objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloj, Marina; Weiß, David; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-04-01

    Are objects remembered with a more saturated color? Some of the evidence supporting this statement comes from research using "memory colors"-the typical colors of particular objects, for example, the green of grass. The problematic aspect of these findings is that many different exemplars exist, some of which might exhibit a higher saturation than the one measured by the experimenter. Here we avoid this problem by using unique personal items and comparing long- and short-term color memory matches (in hue, value, and chroma) with those obtained with the object present. Our results, on average, confirm that objects are remembered as more saturated than they are.

  5. Visual working memory for global, object, and part-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D; Bly, Benjamin Martin; Porcelli, Anthony J; Rypma, Bart

    2007-06-01

    We investigated visual working memory for novel objects and parts of novel objects. After a delay period, participants showed strikingly more accurate performance recognizing a single whole object than the parts of that object. This bias to remember whole objects, rather than parts, persisted even when the division between parts was clearly defined and the parts were disconnected from each other so that, in order to remember the single whole object, the participants needed to mentally combine the parts. In addition, the bias was confirmed when the parts were divided by color. These experiments indicated that holistic perceptual-grouping biases are automatically used to organize storage in visual working memory. In addition, our results suggested that the bias was impervious to top-down consciously directed control, because when task demands were manipulated through instruction and catch trials, the participants still recognized whole objects more quickly and more accurately than their parts. This bias persisted even when the whole objects were novel and the parts were familiar. We propose that visual working memory representations depend primarily on the global configural properties of whole objects, rather than part-based representations, even when the parts themselves can be clearly perceived as individual objects. This global configural bias beneficially reduces memory load on a capacity-limited system operating in a complex visual environment, because fewer distinct items must be remembered.

  6. Glucose improves object-location binding in visual-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollery, Brian; Christian, Leonie

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence that glucose temporarily enhances cognition and that processes dependent on the hippocampus may be particularly sensitive. As the hippocampus plays a key role in binding processes, we examined the influence of glucose on memory for object-location bindings. This study aims to study how glucose modifies performance on an object-location memory task, a task that draws heavily on hippocampal function. Thirty-one participants received 30 g glucose or placebo in a single 1-h session. After seeing between 3 and 10 objects (words or shapes) at different locations in a 9 × 9 matrix, participants attempted to immediately reproduce the display on a blank 9 × 9 matrix. Blood glucose was measured before drink ingestion, mid-way through the session, and at the end of the session. Glucose significantly improves object-location binding (d = 1.08) and location memory (d = 0.83), but not object memory (d = 0.51). Increasing working memory load impairs object memory and object-location binding, and word-location binding is more successful than shape-location binding, but the glucose improvement is robust across all difficulty manipulations. Within the glucose group, higher levels of circulating glucose are correlated with better binding memory and remembering the locations of successfully recalled objects. The glucose improvements identified are consistent with a facilitative impact on hippocampal function. The findings are discussed in the context of the relationship between cognitive processes, hippocampal function, and the implications for glucose's mode of action.

  7. Single-trial multisensory memories affect later auditory and visual object discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Antonia; Talsma, Durk; Murray, Micah M

    2015-05-01

    Multisensory memory traces established via single-trial exposures can impact subsequent visual object recognition. This impact appears to depend on the meaningfulness of the initial multisensory pairing, implying that multisensory exposures establish distinct object representations that are accessible during later unisensory processing. Multisensory contexts may be particularly effective in influencing auditory discrimination, given the purportedly inferior recognition memory in this sensory modality. The possibility of this generalization and the equivalence of effects when memory discrimination was being performed in the visual vs. auditory modality were at the focus of this study. First, we demonstrate that visual object discrimination is affected by the context of prior multisensory encounters, replicating and extending previous findings by controlling for the probability of multisensory contexts during initial as well as repeated object presentations. Second, we provide the first evidence that single-trial multisensory memories impact subsequent auditory object discrimination. Auditory object discrimination was enhanced when initial presentations entailed semantically congruent multisensory pairs and was impaired after semantically incongruent multisensory encounters, compared to sounds that had been encountered only in a unisensory manner. Third, the impact of single-trial multisensory memories upon unisensory object discrimination was greater when the task was performed in the auditory vs. visual modality. Fourth, there was no evidence for correlation between effects of past multisensory experiences on visual and auditory processing, suggestive of largely independent object processing mechanisms between modalities. We discuss these findings in terms of the conceptual short term memory (CSTM) model and predictive coding. Our results suggest differential recruitment and modulation of conceptual memory networks according to the sensory task at hand. Copyright

  8. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais; Yasir Saad Almukhaizeem

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and...

  9. Radioactivity: risk and hope. Workshop in memory of Maria Sklodowska-Curie. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts presented in this booklet show accomplishments of the participants in radiobiology and neutron cancer therapy. Subject of many works is cellular response to ionizing radiations (apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, aberrations, mutations, carcinogenesis). Radiation induced DNA damages (monitored using micronucleus assay, comet assay and counting of chromosome aberrations) and DNA repair in human lymphocytes was investigated. Several works concerned application of neutrons in the therapy of neoplasms

  10. Radioactivity: risk and hope. Workshop in memory of Maria Sklodowska-Curie. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The abstracts presented in this booklet show accomplishments of the participants in radiobiology and neutron cancer therapy. Subject of many works is cellular response to ionizing radiations (apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, aberrations, mutations, carcinogenesis). Radiation induced DNA damages (monitored using micronucleus assay, comet assay and counting of chromosome aberrations) and DNA repair in human lymphocytes was investigated. Several works concerned application of neutrons in the therapy of neoplasms

  11. Object properties and cognitive load in the formation of associative memory during precision lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Randerath, Jennifer; Bauer, Hans; Marquardt, Christian; Goldenberg, Georg; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2009-01-03

    When we manipulate familiar objects in our daily life, our grip force anticipates the physical demands right from the moment of contact with the object, indicating the existence of a memory for relevant object properties. This study explores the formation and consolidation of the memory processes that associate either familiar (size) or arbitrary object features (color) with object weight. In the general task, participants repetitively lifted two differently weighted objects (580 and 280 g) in a pseudo-random order. Forty young healthy adults participated in this study and were randomly distributed into four groups: Color Cue Single task (CCS, blue and red, 9.8(3)cm(3)), Color Cue Dual task (CCD), No Cue (NC) and Size Cue (SC, 9.8(3) and 6(3)cm(3)) group. All groups performed a repetitive precision grasp-lift task and were retested with the same protocol after a 5-min pause. The CCD group was also required to simultaneously perform a memory task during each lift of differently weighted objects coded by color. The results show that groups lifting objects with arbitrary or familiar features successfully formed the association between object weight and manipulated object features and incorporated this into grip force programming, as observed in the different scaling of grip force and grip force rate for different object weights. An arbitrary feature, i.e., color, can be sufficiently associated with object weight, however with less strength than the familiar feature of size. The simultaneous memory task impaired anticipatory force scaling during repetitive object lifting but did not jeopardize the learning process and the consolidation of the associative memory.

  12. The fate of object memory traces under change detection and change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Niko A

    2013-07-03

    Observers often fail to detect substantial changes in a visual scene. This so-called change blindness is often taken as evidence that visual representations are sparse and volatile. This notion rests on the assumption that the failure to detect a change implies that representations of the changing objects are lost all together. However, recent evidence suggests that under change blindness, object memory representations may be formed and stored, but not retrieved. This study investigated the fate of object memory representations when changes go unnoticed. Participants were presented with scenes consisting of real world objects, one of which changed on each trial, while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were first asked to localize where the change had occurred. In an additional recognition task, participants then discriminated old objects, either from the pre-change or the post-change scene, from entirely new objects. Neural traces of object memories were studied by comparing ERPs for old and novel objects. Participants performed poorly in the detection task and often failed to recognize objects from the scene, especially pre-change objects. However, a robust old/novel effect was observed in the ERP, even when participants were change blind and did not recognize the old object. This implicit memory trace was found both for pre-change and post-change objects. These findings suggest that object memories are stored even under change blindness. Thus, visual representations may not be as sparse and volatile as previously thought. Rather, change blindness may point to a failure to retrieve and use these representations for change detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of memory strategies among younger and older adults: Results from objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio, Aline Teixeira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Memory plays a fundamental role in the identity of people and in human life, as it enables us to interpret our surroundings and make decisions. It is known that the aging process can be accompanied by cognitive decline in some memory sub systems. However, the use of memory strategies can help encoding and retrieval of new information. The aim of this study was to identify and compare, using objective and subjective measures, which recall strategies are used spontaneously by young and older adults. Twenty-six first-year college students, and thirty-three seniors enrolled at the Third Age University of the same campus, completed a visual memory test including 18 black and white pictures, memorized a short story, and completed an open question about memory strategies, a memory check list to indicate strategies used, and a memory self-efficacy scale. The Bousfield categorization measure was also calculated from the recall protocol. Young adults demonstrated better performance than the older adults on the memory tasks, and were also more confident. Both groups reported using similar strategies. Young and older adults seem to tackle memory tasks in similar ways but young adults outperform seniors.

  14. Transfer after process-based object-location memory training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; von Bastian, Claudia C; Röcke, Christina; Martin, Mike; Eschen, Anne

    2016-11-01

    A substantial part of age-related episodic memory decline has been attributed to the decreasing ability of older adults to encode and retrieve associations among simultaneously processed information units from long-term memory. In addition, this ability seems to share unique variance with reasoning. In this study, we therefore examined whether process-based training of the ability to learn and remember associations has the potential to induce transfer effects to untrained episodic memory and reasoning tasks in healthy older adults (60-75 years). For this purpose, the experimental group (n = 36) completed 30 sessions of process-based object-location memory training, while the active control group (n = 31) practiced visual perception on the same material. Near (spatial episodic memory), intermediate (verbal episodic memory), and far transfer effects (reasoning) were each assessed with multiple tasks at four measurements (before, midway through, immediately after, and 4 months after training). Linear mixed-effects models revealed transfer effects on spatial episodic memory and reasoning that were still observed 4 months after training. These results provide first empirical evidence that process-based training can enhance healthy older adults' associative memory performance and positively affect untrained episodic memory and reasoning abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduais, Ahmed Mohammed Saleh; Almukhaizeem, Yasir Saad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first…

  16. Object selection costs in visual working memory: A diffusion model analysis of the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2016-11-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can occur. The need to orient the focus of attention implies that single-object accounts typically predict response time costs associated with object selection even when working memory is not full (i.e., memory load is less than 4 items). For other theories that assume storage of multiple items in the focus of attention, predictions depend on specific assumptions about the way resources are allocated among items held in the focus, and how this affects the time course of retrieval of items from the focus. These broad theoretical accounts have been difficult to distinguish because conventional analyses fail to separate components of empirical response times related to decision-making from components related to selection and retrieval processes associated with accessing information in working memory. To better distinguish these response time components from one another, we analyze data from a probed visual working memory task using extensions of the diffusion decision model. Analysis of model parameters revealed that increases in memory load resulted in (a) reductions in the quality of the underlying stimulus representations in a manner consistent with a sample size model of visual working memory capacity and (b) systematic increases in the time needed to selectively access a probed representation in memory. The results are consistent with single-object theories of the focus of attention. The results are also consistent with a subset of theories that assume a multiobject focus of attention in which resource allocation diminishes both the quality and accessibility of the underlying representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016

  17. Early Working Memory in Children Born With Extremely Low Birth Weight: Assessed by Object Permanence

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Watterberg, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic...

  18. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    OpenAIRE

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in...

  19. Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: red and yellow stick better than blue and green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object's importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow) and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words vs. pictures), task complexity (single objects vs. multiple objects in visual scenes), and intentionality of encoding (intentional vs. incidental learning). Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on color type and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers' confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a uniform process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into unitary memory representations. Rather, memory binding seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that object features are stored in memory rather independently from

  20. Metacognition of visual short-term memory: Dissociation between objective and subjective components of VSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.

  1. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Alvarez, George A; Oliva, Aude

    2008-09-23

    One of the major lessons of memory research has been that human memory is fallible, imprecise, and subject to interference. Thus, although observers can remember thousands of images, it is widely assumed that these memories lack detail. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of objects with details from the image. Participants viewed pictures of 2,500 objects over the course of 5.5 h. Afterward, they were shown pairs of images and indicated which of the two they had seen. The previously viewed item could be paired with either an object from a novel category, an object of the same basic-level category, or the same object in a different state or pose. Performance in each of these conditions was remarkably high (92%, 88%, and 87%, respectively), suggesting that participants successfully maintained detailed representations of thousands of images. These results have implications for cognitive models, in which capacity limitations impose a primary computational constraint (e.g., models of object recognition), and pose a challenge to neural models of memory storage and retrieval, which must be able to account for such a large and detailed storage capacity.

  2. Differential Binding of Colors to Objects in Memory: Red and Yellow Stick Better Than Blue and Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eKuhbandner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words versus pictures, task complexity (single objects versus multiple objects in visual scenes, and intentionality of encoding (intentional versus incidental learning. Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on type of color and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers’ confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a purely automatic process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into a unitary memory representation. Rather, binding in memory seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that features of objects

  3. Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: red and yellow stick better than blue and green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow) and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object. Across experiments, we varied the type of objects (words vs. pictures), task complexity (single objects vs. multiple objects in visual scenes), and intentionality of encoding (intentional vs. incidental learning). Memory for the presence of an object was not influenced by color. However, in all four experiments, memory for the color of an object depended on color type and was particularly high for red and yellow-colored objects and particularly low for green-colored objects, indicating that the binding of colors into object memory representations varies as a function of color type. Analyzing the observers’ confidence in their color memories revealed that color not only influenced objective memory performance but also subjective confidence. Subjective confidence judgments differentiated well between correct and incorrect color memories for red-colored objects, but poorly for green-colored objects. Our findings reveal a previously unknown color effect which may be of considerable interest for both basic color research and applied settings like eyewitness testimony in which memory for color features is relevant. Furthermore, our results indicate that feature binding in memory is not a uniform process by which any attended feature is automatically bound into unitary memory representations. Rather, memory binding seems to vary across different subtypes of features, a finding that supports recent research showing that object features are stored in memory rather independently

  4. Post-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Hippocampus Enhances Novel Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory…

  5. Guidance of Attention to Objects and Locations by Long-Term Memory of Natural Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W.; Rasmussen, Ian P.

    2008-01-01

    Four flicker change-detection experiments demonstrate that scene-specific long-term memory guides attention to both behaviorally relevant locations and objects within a familiar scene. Participants performed an initial block of change-detection trials, detecting the addition of an object to a natural scene. After a 30-min delay, participants…

  6. The Consolidation of Object and Context Recognition Memory Involve Different Regions of the Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Salgado-Tonda, Paloma; Chavez-Hurtado, Julio; McGaugh, James L.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2008-01-01

    These experiments investigated the involvement of several temporal lobe regions in consolidation of recognition memory. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, was infused into the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, insular cortex, or basolateral amygdala of rats immediately after the sample phase of object or object-in-context recognition memory…

  7. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues.

  8. Communicative Signals Promote Object Recognition Memory and Modulate the Right Posterior STS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Ludlum, Ruth S; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Kanwal, Simren

    2016-01-01

    Detection of communicative signals is thought to facilitate knowledge acquisition early in life, but less is known about the role these signals play in adult learning or about the brain systems supporting sensitivity to communicative intent. The current study examined how ostensive gaze cues and communicative actions affect adult recognition memory and modulate neural activity as measured by fMRI. For both the behavioral and fMRI experiments, participants viewed a series of videos of an actress acting on one of two objects in front of her. Communicative context in the videos was manipulated in a 2 × 2 design in which the actress either had direct gaze (Gaze) or wore a visor (NoGaze) and either pointed at (Point) or reached for (Reach) one of the objects (target) in front of her. Participants then completed a recognition memory task with old (target and nontarget) objects and novel objects. Recognition memory for target objects in the Gaze conditions was greater than NoGaze, but no effects of gesture type were seen. Similarly, the fMRI video-viewing task revealed a significant effect of Gaze within right posterior STS (pSTS), but no significant effects of Gesture. Furthermore, pSTS sensitivity to Gaze conditions was related to greater memory for objects viewed in Gaze, as compared with NoGaze, conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the ostensive, communicative signal of direct gaze preceding an object-directed action enhances recognition memory for attended items and modulates the pSTS response to object-directed actions. Thus, establishment of a communicative context through ostensive signals remains an important component of learning and memory into adulthood, and the pSTS may play a role in facilitating this type of social learning.

  9. Self-initiated object-location memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Mandelbaum, Anat; Magen, Hagit

    2017-11-20

    The present study explored self-initiated object-location memory in ecological contexts, as aspect of memory that is largely absent from the research literature. Young and older adults memorized objects-location associations they selected themselves or object-location associations provided to them, and elaborated on the strategy they used when selecting the locations themselves. Retrieval took place 30 min and 1 month after encoding. The results showed an age-related decline in self-initiated and provided object-location memory. Older adults benefited from self-initiation more than young adults when tested after 30 min, while the benefit was equal when tested after 1 month. Furthermore, elaboration enhanced memory only in older adults, and only after 30 min. Both age groups used deep encoding strategies on the majority of the trials, but their percentage was lower in older adults. Overall, the study demonstrated the processes involved in self-initiated object-location memory, which is an essential part of everyday functioning.

  10. The effect of memory and context changes on color matches to real objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Olkkonen, Maria

    2015-07-01

    Real-world color identification tasks often require matching the color of objects between contexts and after a temporal delay, thus placing demands on both perceptual and memory processes. Although the mechanisms of matching colors between different contexts have been widely studied under the rubric of color constancy, little research has investigated the role of long-term memory in such tasks or how memory interacts with color constancy. To investigate this relationship, observers made color matches to real study objects that spanned color space, and we independently manipulated the illumination impinging on the objects, the surfaces in which objects were embedded, and the delay between seeing the study object and selecting its color match. Adding a 10-min delay increased both the bias and variability of color matches compared to a baseline condition. These memory errors were well accounted for by modeling memory as a noisy but unbiased version of perception constrained by the matching methods. Surprisingly, we did not observe significant increases in errors when illumination and surround changes were added to the 10-minute delay, although the context changes alone did elicit significant errors.

  11. Virtual memory support for distributed computing environments using a shared data object model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Bacon, J.; Mapp, G.

    1995-12-01

    Conventional storage management systems provide one interface for accessing memory segments and another for accessing secondary storage objects. This hinders application programming and affects overall system performance due to mandatory data copying and user/kernel boundary crossings, which in the microkernel case may involve context switches. Memory-mapping techniques may be used to provide programmers with a unified view of the storage system. This paper extends such techniques to support a shared data object model for distributed computing environments in which good support for coherence and synchronization is essential. The approach is based on a microkernel, typed memory objects, and integrated coherence control. A microkernel architecture is used to support multiple coherence protocols and the addition of new protocols. Memory objects are typed and applications can choose the most suitable protocols for different types of object to avoid protocol mismatch. Low-level coherence control is integrated with high-level concurrency control so that the number of messages required to maintain memory coherence is reduced and system-wide synchronization is realized without severely impacting the system performance. These features together contribute a novel approach to the support for flexible coherence under application control.

  12. Surface feature congruency effects in the object-reviewing paradigm are dependent on task memory demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2014-08-01

    Perception of object continuity depends on establishing correspondence between objects viewed across disruptions in visual information. The role of spatiotemporal information in guiding object continuity is well documented; the role of surface features, however, is controversial. Some researchers have shown an object-specific preview benefit (OSPB)-a standard index of object continuity-only when correspondence could be based on an object's spatiotemporal information, whereas others have found color-based OSPB, suggesting that surface features can also guide object continuity. This study shows that surface feature-based OSPB is dependent on the task memory demands. When the task involved letters and matching just one target letter to the preview ones, no color congruency effect was found under spatiotemporal discontinuity and spatiotemporal ambiguity (Experiments 1-3), indicating that the absence of feature-based OSPB cannot be accounted for by salient spatiotemporal discontinuity. When the task involved complex shapes and matching two target shapes to the preview ones, color-based OSPB was obtained. Critically, however, when a visual working memory task was performed concurrently with the matching task, the presence of a nonspatial (but not a spatial) working memory load eliminated the color-based OSPB (Experiments 4 and 5). These results suggest that the surface feature congruency effects that are observed in the object-reviewing paradigm (with the matching task) reflect memory-based strategies that participants use to solve a memory-demanding task; therefore, they are not reliable measures of online object continuity and cannot be taken as evidence for the role of surface features in establishing object correspondence.

  13. Role of early visual cortex in trans-saccadic memory of object features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pankhuri; Dessing, Joost C; Crawford, J Douglas

    2015-08-01

    Early visual cortex (EVC) participates in visual feature memory and the updating of remembered locations across saccades, but its role in the trans-saccadic integration of object features is unknown. We hypothesized that if EVC is involved in updating object features relative to gaze, feature memory should be disrupted when saccades remap an object representation into a simultaneously perturbed EVC site. To test this, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over functional magnetic resonance imaging-localized EVC clusters corresponding to the bottom left/right visual quadrants (VQs). During experiments, these VQs were probed psychophysically by briefly presenting a central object (Gabor patch) while subjects fixated gaze to the right or left (and above). After a short memory interval, participants were required to detect the relative change in orientation of a re-presented test object at the same spatial location. Participants either sustained fixation during the memory interval (fixation task) or made a horizontal saccade that either maintained or reversed the VQ of the object (saccade task). Three TMS pulses (coinciding with the pre-, peri-, and postsaccade intervals) were applied to the left or right EVC. This had no effect when (a) fixation was maintained, (b) saccades kept the object in the same VQ, or (c) the EVC quadrant corresponding to the first object was stimulated. However, as predicted, TMS reduced performance when saccades (especially larger saccades) crossed the remembered object location and brought it into the VQ corresponding to the TMS site. This suppression effect was statistically significant for leftward saccades and followed a weaker trend for rightward saccades. These causal results are consistent with the idea that EVC is involved in the gaze-centered updating of object features for trans-saccadic memory and perception.

  14. Any effects of social orientation priming on object-location memory are smaller than initially reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Héloïse; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2015-12-01

    It has previously been reported that priming a collectivistic social orientation (compared with an individualistic one) boosts object-location memory (Kühnen & Oyserman, 2002; Oyserman, Sorensen, Reber, & Chen, 2009). We conducted 4 experiments to replicate this reported effect, using the same methods as in those initial reports. In Experiment 1 (n = 145), we found a hint of a priming effect on object-location memory, but also an unanticipated interaction between priming and gender. In Experiment 2 (n = 90), we included gender as a formal factor and doubled the "dosage" of the priming, yet did not see any priming effects on memory. In Experiment 3 (n = 101), we octupled the priming "dosage" and again saw no significant effects on memory. Finally, in Experiment 4 (n = 102), we performed an exact replication of the methods of the original reports and again found no priming effects on memory. Any effects of this type of social orientation priming on object-location memory appear to be smaller and/or less robust than initially thought. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Neural basis for dynamic updating of object representation in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Sachiko; Miyauchi, Satoru; Saiki, Jun

    2010-02-15

    In real world, objects have multiple features and change dynamically. Thus, object representations must satisfy dynamic updating and feature binding. Previous studies have investigated the neural activity of dynamic updating or feature binding alone, but not both simultaneously. We investigated the neural basis of feature-bound object representation in a dynamically updating situation by conducting a multiple object permanence tracking task, which required observers to simultaneously process both the maintenance and dynamic updating of feature-bound objects. Using an event-related design, we separated activities during memory maintenance and change detection. In the search for regions showing selective activation in dynamic updating of feature-bound objects, we identified a network during memory maintenance that was comprised of the inferior precentral sulcus, superior parietal lobule, and middle frontal gyrus. In the change detection period, various prefrontal regions, including the anterior prefrontal cortex, were activated. In updating object representation of dynamically moving objects, the inferior precentral sulcus closely cooperates with a so-called "frontoparietal network", and subregions of the frontoparietal network can be decomposed into those sensitive to spatial updating and feature binding. The anterior prefrontal cortex identifies changes in object representation by comparing memory and perceptual representations rather than maintaining object representations per se, as previously suggested. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of object categories in hybrid visual and memory search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-08-01

    In hybrid search, observers search for any of several possible targets in a visual display containing distracting items and, perhaps, a target. Wolfe (2012) found that response times (RTs) in such tasks increased linearly with increases in the number of items in the display. However, RT increased linearly with the log of the number of items in the memory set. In earlier work, all items in the memory set were unique instances (e.g., this apple in this pose). Typical real-world tasks involve more broadly defined sets of stimuli (e.g., any "apple" or, perhaps, "fruit"). The present experiments show how sets or categories of targets are handled in joint visual and memory search. In Experiment 1, searching for a digit among letters was not like searching for targets from a 10-item memory set, though searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary alphanumeric characters was like searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary objects. In Experiment 2, observers searched for any instance of N sets or categories held in memory. This hybrid search was harder than search for specific objects. However, memory search remained logarithmic. Experiment 3 illustrates the interaction of visual guidance and memory search when a subset of visual stimuli are drawn from a target category. Furthermore, we outline a conceptual model, supported by our results, defining the core components that would be necessary to support such categorical hybrid searches. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Cortical mechanisms for trans-saccadic memory and integration of multiple object features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Steven L.; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Constructing an internal representation of the world from successive visual fixations, i.e. separated by saccadic eye movements, is known as trans-saccadic perception. Research on trans-saccadic perception (TSP) has been traditionally aimed at resolving the problems of memory capacity and visual integration across saccades. In this paper, we review this literature on TSP with a focus on research showing that egocentric measures of the saccadic eye movement can be used to integrate simple object features across saccades, and that the memory capacity for items retained across saccades, like visual working memory, is restricted to about three to four items. We also review recent transcranial magnetic stimulation experiments which suggest that the right parietal eye field and frontal eye fields play a key functional role in spatial updating of objects in TSP. We conclude by speculating on possible cortical mechanisms for governing egocentric spatial updating of multiple objects in TSP. PMID:21242142

  18. Hippocampal Activation of Rac1 Regulates the Forgetting of Object Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Du, Shuwen; Lv, Li; Lei, Bo; Shi, Wei; Tang, Yikai; Wang, Lianzhang; Zhong, Yi

    2016-09-12

    Forgetting is a universal feature for most types of memories. The best-defined and extensively characterized behaviors that depict forgetting are natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting [1, 2]. Molecular mechanisms underlying the active forgetting remain to be determined for memories in vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to unravel such mechanisms underlying the active forgetting [3-11] that is induced through the behavior-dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, training-induced activation of the small G protein Rac1 mediates natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting of aversive conditioning memory [3]. In mice, the activation of photoactivable-Rac1 in recently potentiated spines in a motor learning task erases the motor memory [12]. These lines of evidence prompted us to investigate a role for Rac1 in time-based natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting in mice. The inhibition of Rac1 activity in hippocampal neurons through targeted expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 form extended object recognition memory from less than 72 hr to over 72 hr, whereas Rac1 activation accelerated memory decay within 24 hr. Interference-induced forgetting of this memory was correlated with Rac1 activation and was completely blocked by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Electrophysiological recordings of long-term potentiation provided independent evidence that further supported a role for Rac1 activation in forgetting. Thus, Rac1-dependent forgetting is evolutionarily conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of attention during encoding on sex differences in object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Efrat

    2018-04-16

    Attention plays a key role in memory processes and has been widely studied in various memory tasks. The role of attention in sex differences in object location memory is not clearly understood. In the present study, two experiments involving 186 participants and using an object array presented on paper were conducted to examine two encoding conditions: incidental and intentional. In each experiment, the participants were randomly assigned to divided versus full attention conditions. In the first experiment, which involved incidental encoding, women outperformed men in memorising location-exchanged objects in both the full and in the divided attention condition. In the second experiment, which involved intentional encoding, women outperformed men in memorising location-exchanged objects in the full attention condition, but not the divided attention condition. These findings deepen our knowledge regarding the role of attention in object location memory, specifically in terms of the conditions under which females have an advantage for detecting changes in an array of objects. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. The neural basis of precise visual short-term memory for complex recognisable objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldsman, Michele; Mitchell, Daniel J; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity estimated using simple objects, such as colours and oriented bars, may not generalise well to more naturalistic stimuli. More visual detail can be stored in VSTM when complex, recognisable objects are maintained compared to simple objects. It is not yet known if it is recognisability that enhances memory precision, nor whether maintenance of recognisable objects is achieved with the same network of brain regions supporting maintenance of simple objects. We used a novel stimulus generation method to parametrically warp photographic images along a continuum, allowing separate estimation of the precision of memory representations and the number of items retained. The stimulus generation method was also designed to create unrecognisable, though perceptually matched, stimuli, to investigate the impact of recognisability on VSTM. We adapted the widely-used change detection and continuous report paradigms for use with complex, photographic images. Across three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, we demonstrated greater precision for recognisable objects in VSTM compared to unrecognisable objects. This clear behavioural advantage was not the result of recruitment of additional brain regions, or of stronger mean activity within the core network. Representational similarity analysis revealed greater variability across item repetitions in the representations of recognisable, compared to unrecognisable complex objects. We therefore propose that a richer range of neural representations support VSTM for complex recognisable objects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The objects of visuospatial short-term memory: Perceptual organization and change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Atanaska; Macken, Bill

    2016-01-01

    We used a colour change-detection paradigm where participants were required to remember colours of six equally spaced circles. Items were superimposed on a background so as to perceptually group them within (a) an intact ring-shaped object, (b) a physically segmented but perceptually completed ring-shaped object, or (c) a corresponding background segmented into three arc-shaped objects. A nonpredictive cue at the location of one of the circles was followed by the memory items, which in turn were followed by a test display containing a probe indicating the circle to be judged same/different. Reaction times for correct responses revealed a same-object advantage; correct responses were faster to probes on the same object as the cue than to equidistant probes on a segmented object. This same-object advantage was identical for physically and perceptually completed objects, but was only evident in reaction times, and not in accuracy measures. Not only, therefore, is it important to consider object-level perceptual organization of stimulus elements when assessing the influence of a range of factors (e.g., number and complexity of elements) in visuospatial short-term memory, but a more detailed picture of the structure of information in memory may be revealed by measuring speed as well as accuracy.

  2. The time course of activation of object shape and shape+colour representations during memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby J Lloyd-Jones

    Full Text Available Little is known about the timing of activating memory for objects and their associated perceptual properties, such as colour, and yet this is important for theories of human cognition. We investigated the time course associated with early cognitive processes related to the activation of object shape and object shape+colour representations respectively, during memory retrieval as assessed by repetition priming in an event-related potential (ERP study. The main findings were as follows: (1 we identified a unique early modulation of mean ERP amplitude during the N1 that was associated with the activation of object shape independently of colour; (2 we also found a subsequent early P2 modulation of mean amplitude over the same electrode clusters associated with the activation of object shape+colour representations; (3 these findings were apparent across both familiar (i.e., correctly coloured - yellow banana and novel (i.e., incorrectly coloured - blue strawberry objects; and (4 neither of the modulations of mean ERP amplitude were evident during the P3. Together the findings delineate the timing of object shape and colour memory systems and support the notion that perceptual representations of object shape mediate the retrieval of temporary shape+colour representations for familiar and novel objects.

  3. The time course of activation of object shape and shape+colour representations during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Roberts, Mark V; Leek, E Charles; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Truchanowicz, Ewa G

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of activating memory for objects and their associated perceptual properties, such as colour, and yet this is important for theories of human cognition. We investigated the time course associated with early cognitive processes related to the activation of object shape and object shape+colour representations respectively, during memory retrieval as assessed by repetition priming in an event-related potential (ERP) study. The main findings were as follows: (1) we identified a unique early modulation of mean ERP amplitude during the N1 that was associated with the activation of object shape independently of colour; (2) we also found a subsequent early P2 modulation of mean amplitude over the same electrode clusters associated with the activation of object shape+colour representations; (3) these findings were apparent across both familiar (i.e., correctly coloured - yellow banana) and novel (i.e., incorrectly coloured - blue strawberry) objects; and (4) neither of the modulations of mean ERP amplitude were evident during the P3. Together the findings delineate the timing of object shape and colour memory systems and support the notion that perceptual representations of object shape mediate the retrieval of temporary shape+colour representations for familiar and novel objects.

  4. Evidence of gradual loss of precision for simple features and complex objects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; Park, Young Eun; Sack, Alexander T; Tong, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that people can maintain prioritized items in visual working memory for many seconds, with negligible loss of information over time. Such findings imply that working memory representations are robust to the potential contaminating effects of internal noise. However, once visual information is encoded into working memory, one might expect it to inevitably begin degrading over time, as this actively maintained information is no longer tethered to the original perceptual input. Here, we examined this issue by evaluating working memory for single central presentations of an oriented grating, color patch, or face stimulus, across a range of delay periods (1, 3, 6, or 12 s). We applied a mixture-model analysis to distinguish changes in memory precision over time from changes in the frequency of outlier responses that resemble random guesses. For all 3 types of stimuli, participants exhibited a clear and consistent decline in the precision of working memory as a function of temporal delay, as well as a modest increase in guessing-related responses for colored patches and face stimuli. We observed a similar loss of precision over time while controlling for temporal distinctiveness. Our results demonstrate that visual working memory is far from lossless: while basic visual features and complex objects can be maintained in a quite stable manner over time, these representations are still subject to noise accumulation and complete termination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Examining the Effect of Interference on Short-term Memory Recall of Arabic Abstract and Concrete Words Using Free, Cued, and Serial Recall Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Saleh Alduais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To see if there is a correlation between interference and short-term memory recall and to examine interference as a factor affecting memory recalling of Arabic and abstract words through free, cued, and serial recall tasks. Method: Four groups of undergraduates in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia participated in this study. The first group consisted of 9 undergraduates who were trained to perform three types of recall for 20 Arabic abstract and concrete words. The second, third and fourth groups consisted of 27 undergraduates where each group was trained only to perform one recall type: free recall, cued recall and serial recall respectively. Interference (short-term memory interruption was the independent variable and a number of recalled abstract and concrete words was the dependent variable. The used materials in this study were: abstract and concrete words classification form based on four factors was distributed to the participants (concreteness, imageability, meaningfulness, and age of acquisition, three oral recall forms, three written recall forms, and observation sheets for each type of recall. Also, three methods were used: auditory, visual, and written methods. Results: Findings indicated that interference effect on short-term memory recall of Arabic abstract and concrete words was not significant especially in the case of free and serial recall paradigms. The difference between the total number of recalled Arabic abstract and concrete words was also very slight. One other the hand, we came to the conclusion that Pearson’s correlation between interference at these memory recall paradigms (M: 1.66, SD= .47 and the short-term memory recall (M: 1.75, SD= .43 supported the research hypothesis that those participants with oral interruptions tended to recall slightly less Arabic abstract and concrete words, whereas those participants with no oral interruptions would tend to recall slightly more Arabic abstract and concrete

  6. Top-down attention based on object representation and incremental memory for knowledge building and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ban, Sang-Woo; Lee, Minho

    2013-10-01

    Humans can efficiently perceive arbitrary visual objects based on an incremental learning mechanism with selective attention. This paper proposes a new task specific top-down attention model to locate a target object based on its form and color representation along with a bottom-up saliency based on relativity of primitive visual features and some memory modules. In the proposed model top-down bias signals corresponding to the target form and color features are generated, which draw the preferential attention to the desired object by the proposed selective attention model in concomitance with the bottom-up saliency process. The object form and color representation and memory modules have an incremental learning mechanism together with a proper object feature representation scheme. The proposed model includes a Growing Fuzzy Topology Adaptive Resonance Theory (GFTART) network which plays two important roles in object color and form biased attention; one is to incrementally learn and memorize color and form features of various objects, and the other is to generate a top-down bias signal to localize a target object by focusing on the candidate local areas. Moreover, the GFTART network can be utilized for knowledge inference which enables the perception of new unknown objects on the basis of the object form and color features stored in the memory during training. Experimental results show that the proposed model is successful in focusing on the specified target objects, in addition to the incremental representation and memorization of various objects in natural scenes. In addition, the proposed model properly infers new unknown objects based on the form and color features of previously trained objects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory require training-associated emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L

    2004-01-20

    Considerable evidence implicates glucocorticoid hormones in the regulation of memory consolidation and memory retrieval. The present experiments investigated whether the influence of these hormones on memory depends on the level of emotional arousal induced by the training experience. We investigated this issue in male Sprague-Dawley rats by examining the effects of immediate posttraining systemic injections of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on object recognition memory under two conditions that differed in their training-associated emotional arousal. In rats that were not previously habituated to the experimental context, corticosterone (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) administered immediately after a 3-min training trial enhanced 24-hr retention performance in an inverted-U shaped dose-response relationship. In contrast, corticosterone did not affect 24-hr retention of rats that received extensive prior habituation to the experimental context and, thus, had decreased novelty-induced emotional arousal during training. Additionally, immediate posttraining administration of corticosterone to nonhabituated rats, in doses that enhanced 24-hr retention, impaired object recognition performance at a 1-hr retention interval whereas corticosterone administered after training to well-habituated rats did not impair 1-hr retention. Thus, the present findings suggest that training-induced emotional arousal may be essential for glucocorticoid effects on object recognition memory.

  8. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-06

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... characters. On the contrary expertise or word frequency may reflect what could be termed subjective complexity, as this relate directly to the individual mental categories established. This study will be able to uncover more details on how we should define complexity of objects to be encoded into short-term....... & Cavanagh, 2004). But the term complexity is often not clearly defined. Sørensen (2008; see also Dall, Katsumi, & Sørensen, 2016) suggested that complexity can be related to two different types; objective and subjective complexity. This distinction is supported by a number of studies on the influence...

  10. Activity in human visual and parietal cortex reveals object-based attention in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin; Kaiser, Jochen; Rahm, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2015-02-25

    Visual attention enables observers to select behaviorally relevant information based on spatial locations, features, or objects. Attentional selection is not limited to physically present visual information, but can also operate on internal representations maintained in working memory (WM) in service of higher-order cognition. However, only little is known about whether attention to WM contents follows the same principles as attention to sensory stimuli. To address this question, we investigated in humans whether the typically observed effects of object-based attention in perception are also evident for object-based attentional selection of internal object representations in WM. In full accordance with effects in visual perception, the key behavioral and neuronal characteristics of object-based attention were observed in WM. Specifically, we found that reaction times were shorter when shifting attention to memory positions located on the currently attended object compared with equidistant positions on a different object. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analysis of visuotopic activity in visual (areas V1-V4) and parietal cortex revealed that directing attention to one position of an object held in WM also enhanced brain activation for other positions on the same object, suggesting that attentional selection in WM activates the entire object. This study demonstrated that all characteristic features of object-based attention are present in WM and thus follows the same principles as in perception. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353360-10$15.00/0.

  11. Memory consolidation and expression of object recognition are susceptible to retroactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, María Eugenia; Martinez, María Cecilia; Lopes da Cunha, Pamela; Ballarini, Fabricio; Viola, Haydee

    2017-02-01

    With the aim of analyzing if object recognition long-term memory (OR-LTM) formation is susceptible to retroactive interference (RI), we submitted rats to sequential sample sessions using the same arena but changing the identity of a pair of objects placed in it. Separate groups of animals were tested in the arena in order to evaluate the LTM for these objects. Our results suggest that OR-LTM formation was retroactively interfered within a critical time window by the exploration of a new, but not familiar, object. This RI acted on the consolidation of the object explored in the first sample session because its OR-STM measured 3h after training was not affected, whereas the OR-LTM measured at 24h was impaired. This sample session also impaired the expression of OR memory when it took place before the test. Moreover, local inactivation of the dorsal Hippocampus (Hp) or the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) previous to the exploration of the second pair of objects impaired their consolidation restoring the LTM for the objects explored in the first session. This data suggests that both brain regions are involved in the processing of OR-memory and also that if those regions are engaged in another process before finishing the first consolidation process its LTM will be impaired by RI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A memory efficient method for fully three-dimensional object reconstruction with HAADF STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, W.; Rosenauer, A.; Van Aert, S.; Sijbers, J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2014-01-01

    The conventional approach to object reconstruction through electron tomography is to reduce the three-dimensional problem to a series of independent two-dimensional slice-by-slice reconstructions. However, at atomic resolution the image of a single atom extends over many such slices and incorporating this image as prior knowledge in tomography or depth sectioning therefore requires a fully three-dimensional treatment. Unfortunately, the size of the three-dimensional projection operator scales highly unfavorably with object size and readily exceeds the available computer memory. In this paper, it is shown that for incoherent image formation the memory requirement can be reduced to the fundamental lower limit of the object size, both for tomography and depth sectioning. Furthermore, it is shown through multislice calculations that high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy can be sufficiently incoherent for the reconstruction of single element nanocrystals, but that dynamical diffraction effects can cause classification problems if more than one element is present. - Highlights: • The full 3D approach to atomic resolution object retrieval has high memory load. • For incoherent imaging the projection process is a matrix–vector product. • Carrying out this product implicitly as Fourier transforms reduces memory load. • Reconstructions are demonstrated from HAADF STEM and depth sectioning simulations

  13. Memory for Object Locations: Priority Effect and Sex Differences in Associative Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinan, Sevtap; Atalay, Deniz; Sisman, Simge; Basbug, Gokce; Dervent-Ozbek, Sevinc; Teoman, Dalga D.; Karagoz, Ayca; Karadeniz, A. Yezdan; Beykurt, Sinem; Suleyman, Hediye; Memis, H. Ozge; Yurtsever, Ozgur D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports two experiments conducted to examine priority effects and sex differences in object location memory. A new task of paired position-learning was designed, based on the A-B A-C paradigm, which was used in paired word learning. There were three different paired position-learning conditions: (1) positions of several different…

  14. Persistent spatial information in the frontal eye field during object-based short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey L; Noudoost, Behrad; Moore, Tirin

    2012-08-08

    Spatial attention is known to gate entry into visual short-term memory, and some evidence suggests that spatial signals may also play a role in binding features or protecting object representations during memory maintenance. To examine the persistence of spatial signals during object short-term memory, the activity of neurons in the frontal eye field (FEF) of macaque monkeys was recorded during an object-based delayed match-to-sample task. In this task, monkeys were trained to remember an object image over a brief delay, regardless of the locations of the sample or target presentation. FEF neurons exhibited visual, delay, and target period activity, including selectivity for sample location and target location. Delay period activity represented the sample location throughout the delay, despite the irrelevance of spatial information for successful task completion. Furthermore, neurons continued to encode sample position in a variant of the task in which the matching stimulus never appeared in their response field, confirming that FEF maintains sample location independent of subsequent behavioral relevance. FEF neurons also exhibited target-position-dependent anticipatory activity immediately before target onset, suggesting that monkeys predicted target position within blocks. These results show that FEF neurons maintain spatial information during short-term memory, even when that information is irrelevant for task performance.

  15. Individual variation in human spatial ability: differences between men and women in object location memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, M. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Postma, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in the area of cognitive sex differences is that males outperform females on many spatial tasks. One exception seems to be object location memory. On this task, females tend to perform better than males. However, the existing studies have provided quite mixed

  16. Early working memory in children born with extremely low birth weight: assessed by object permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C; Shaffer, Michele L; Watterberg, Kristi

    2009-04-01

    Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic/racial differences would be found, as this is considered a culturally unbiased task. Attainment of object permanence had a significant positive association with emotional and attention regulation, even after controlling the medical severity and socioeconomic factors. More girls than boys passed the object permanence items. There was no ethnic/racial difference on object permanence. Our findings indicate that object permanence may be a culturally fair way of assessing development, and emotional and attention regulation are potential avenues of intervention for such skill.

  17. Brain activity related to working memory for temporal order and object information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brooke M; Libby, Laura A; Inhoff, Marika C; Ranganath, Charan

    2017-06-08

    Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail. To address these questions, participants were scanned while completing 3 working memory task conditions (Group, Position and Item) that were matched in terms of difficulty and the number of items to be actively maintained. Group and Position trials probed temporal working memory processes, requiring the maintenance of hierarchically organized coarse and fine temporal information, respectively. To isolate activation related to temporal working memory, Group and Position trials were contrasted against Item trials, which required detailed working memory maintenance of visual objects. Results revealed that working memory encoding and maintenance of temporal information relative to visual information was associated with increased activation in dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and perirhinal cortex (PRC). In contrast, maintenance of visual details relative to temporal information was characterized by greater activation of parahippocampal cortex (PHC), medial and anterior PFC, and retrosplenial cortex. In the hippocampus, a dissociation along the longitudinal axis was observed such that the anterior hippocampus was more active for working memory encoding and maintenance of visual detail information relative to temporal information, whereas the posterior hippocampus displayed the opposite effect. Posterior parietal cortex was the only region to show sensitivity to temporal

  18. Sexual orientation and spatial position effects on selective forms of object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary

    2011-04-01

    Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object exchanges, object shifts, and novel objects) relative to veridical center (left compared to right side of the arrays) in a sample of 35 heterosexual men, 35 heterosexual women, and 35 homosexual men. Relative to heterosexual men, heterosexual women showed better location recovery in the right side of the array during object exchanges and homosexual men performed better in the right side during novel objects. However, the difference between heterosexual and homosexual men disappeared after controlling for IQ. Heterosexual women and homosexual men did not differ significantly from each other in location change detection with respect to task or side of array. These data suggest that visual space biases in processing categorical spatial positions may enhance aspects of object location memory in heterosexual women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated cross-domain object storage in working memory: evidence from a verbal-spatial memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Candice C

    2009-11-01

    Working-memory theories often include domain-specific verbal and visual stores (e.g., the phonological and visuospatial buffers of Baddeley, 1986), and some also posit more general stores thought to be capable of holding verbal or visuospatial materials (Baddeley, 2000; Cowan, 2005). However, it is currently unclear which type of store is primarily responsible for maintaining objects that include components from multiple domains. In these studies, a spatial array of letters was followed by a single probe identical to an item in the array or differing systematically in spatial location, letter identity, or their combination. Concurrent verbal rehearsal suppression impaired memory in each of these trial types in a task that required participants to remember verbal-spatial binding, but did not impair memory for spatial locations if the task did not require verbal-spatial binding for a correct response. Thus, spatial information might be stored differently when it must be bound to verbal information. This suggests that a cross-domain store such as the episodic buffer of Baddeley (2000) or the focus of attention of Cowan (2001) might be used for integrated object storage, rather than the maintenance of associations between features stored in separate domain-specific buffers.

  20. Remembering the color of objects: an ERP investigation of source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycowicz, Y M; Friedman, D; Snodgrass, J G

    2001-04-01

    Subjects studied pictures of common objects outlined in either red or green and were asked to memorize the objects and their associated colors. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during subsequent inclusion (i.e. item) and exclusion (i.e. source) memory tasks. The main goal of the experiment was to determine if brain signatures for familiarity and recollection, two behavioral processes thought to account for episodic memory performance, would be observed in the pattern of ERP results. For correctly recognized items, early, posterior old/new effects were recorded (approximately 300--600 ms) that did not differ in magnitude or scalp distribution between item and source memory tasks. A subsequent long-duration occipitally focused negativity (approximately 800 ms peak) was evident in the source but not the item memory task. The ERPs associated with 'source errors' in the source memory task also showed robust early old/new effects. However, 'source error' ERPs lacked frontal scalp activity compared to those associated with correct source attribution. The data suggest that a recollective response may require frontal involvement whereas a decision based on familiarity may not.

  1. How does aging affect the types of error made in a visual short-term memory 'object-recall' task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how normal aging affects the occurrence of different types of incorrect responses in a visual short-term memory (VSTM) object-recall task. Seventeen young (Mean = 23.3 years, SD = 3.76), and 17 normally aging older (Mean = 66.5 years, SD = 6.30) adults participated. Memory stimuli comprised two or four real world objects (the memory load) presented sequentially, each for 650 ms, at random locations on a computer screen. After a 1000 ms retention interval, a test display was presented, comprising an empty box at one of the previously presented two or four memory stimulus locations. Participants were asked to report the name of the object presented at the cued location. Errors rates wherein participants reported the names of objects that had been presented in the memory display but not at the cued location (non-target errors) vs. objects that had not been presented at all in the memory display (non-memory errors) were compared. Significant effects of aging, memory load and target recency on error type and absolute error rates were found. Non-target error rate was higher than non-memory error rate in both age groups, indicating that VSTM may have been more often than not populated with partial traces of previously presented items. At high memory load, non-memory error rate was higher in young participants (compared to older participants) when the memory target had been presented at the earliest temporal position. However, non-target error rates exhibited a reversed trend, i.e., greater error rates were found in older participants when the memory target had been presented at the two most recent temporal positions. Data are interpreted in terms of proactive interference (earlier examined non-target items interfering with more recent items), false memories (non-memory items which have a categorical relationship to presented items, interfering with memory targets), slot and flexible resource models, and spatial coding deficits.

  2. HDAC inhibition modulates hippocampus-dependent long-term memory for object location in a CBP-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Multani, Monica L.; Figueroa, Dario X.; McQuown, Susan C.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation required for long-term memory. Several studies have shown that CBP and histone acetylation are necessary for hippocampus-dependent long-term memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Importantly, every genetically modified Cbp mutant mouse exhibits long-term memory impairments in object recognition. However, the role of the hippocampus in object recognition is controversial. To better understand how chromatin-modifying enzymes modulate long-term memory for object recognition, we first examined the role of the hippocampus in retrieval of long-term memory for object recognition or object location. Muscimol inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus prior to retrieval had no effect on long-term memory for object recognition, but completely blocked long-term memory for object location. This was consistent with experiments showing that muscimol inactivation of the hippocampus had no effect on long-term memory for the object itself, supporting the idea that the hippocampus encodes spatial information about an object (such as location or context), whereas cortical areas (such as the perirhinal or insular cortex) encode information about the object itself. Using location-dependent object recognition tasks that engage the hippocampus, we demonstrate that CBP is essential for the modulation of long-term memory via HDAC inhibition. Together, these results indicate that HDAC inhibition modulates memory in the hippocampus via CBP and that different brain regions utilize different chromatin-modifying enzymes to regulate learning and memory. PMID:21224411

  3. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: Positional versus object-location recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been Studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while Studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  4. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  5. A neural network model of semantic memory linking feature-based object representation and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppini, C; Magosso, E; Ursino, M

    2009-06-01

    Recent theories in cognitive neuroscience suggest that semantic memory is a distributed process, which involves many cortical areas and is based on a multimodal representation of objects. The aim of this work is to extend a previous model of object representation to realize a semantic memory, in which sensory-motor representations of objects are linked with words. The model assumes that each object is described as a collection of features, coded in different cortical areas via a topological organization. Features in different objects are segmented via gamma-band synchronization of neural oscillators. The feature areas are further connected with a lexical area, devoted to the representation of words. Synapses among the feature areas, and among the lexical area and the feature areas are trained via a time-dependent Hebbian rule, during a period in which individual objects are presented together with the corresponding words. Simulation results demonstrate that, during the retrieval phase, the network can deal with the simultaneous presence of objects (from sensory-motor inputs) and words (from acoustic inputs), can correctly associate objects with words and segment objects even in the presence of incomplete information. Moreover, the network can realize some semantic links among words representing objects with shared features. These results support the idea that semantic memory can be described as an integrated process, whose content is retrieved by the co-activation of different multimodal regions. In perspective, extended versions of this model may be used to test conceptual theories, and to provide a quantitative assessment of existing data (for instance concerning patients with neural deficits).

  6. Do object refixations during scene viewing indicate rehearsal in visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinsky, Gregory J; Loschky, Lester C; Dickinson, Christopher A

    2011-05-01

    Do refixations serve a rehearsal function in visual working memory (VWM)? We analyzed refixations from observers freely viewing multiobject scenes. An eyetracker was used to limit the viewing of a scene to a specified number of objects fixated after the target (intervening objects), followed by a four-alternative forced choice recognition test. Results showed that the probability of target refixation increased with the number of fixated intervening objects, and these refixations produced a 16% accuracy benefit over the first five intervening-object conditions. Additionally, refixations most frequently occurred after fixations on only one to two other objects, regardless of the intervening-object condition. These behaviors could not be explained by random or minimally constrained computational models; a VWM component was required to completely describe these data. We explain these findings in terms of a monitor-refixate rehearsal system: The activations of object representations in VWM are monitored, with refixations occurring when these activations decrease suddenly.

  7. Incidental memory of younger and older adults for objects encountered in a real world context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Qin

    Full Text Available Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults' incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals' attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults' reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the

  8. How high is visual short-term memory capacity for object layout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sellers, Eric; Mittelstadt, Jeff; Sulman, Noah

    2010-05-01

    Previous research measuring visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that the capacity for representing the layout of objects is fairly high. In four experiments, we further explored the capacity of VSTM for layout of objects, using the change detection method. In Experiment 1, participants retained most of the elements in displays of 4 to 8 elements. In Experiments 2 and 3, with up to 20 elements, participants retained many of them, reaching a capacity of 13.4 stimulus elements. In Experiment 4, participants retained much of a complex naturalistic scene. In most cases, increasing display size caused only modest reductions in performance, consistent with the idea of configural, variable-resolution grouping. The results indicate that participants can retain a substantial amount of scene layout information (objects and locations) in short-term memory. We propose that this is a case of remote visual understanding, where observers' ability to integrate information from a scene is paramount.

  9. Effects of Memory Colour on Colour Constancy for Unknown Coloured Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J M Granzier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug. All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  10. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination-colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes-one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  11. Where vision meets memory: prefrontal-posterior networks for visual object constancy during categorization and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendan, Haline E; Stern, Chantal E

    2008-07-01

    Objects seen from unusual relative to more canonical views require more time to categorize and recognize, and, according to object model verification theories, additionally recruit prefrontal processes for cognitive control that interact with parietal processes for mental rotation. To test this using functional magnetic resonance imaging, people categorized and recognized known objects from unusual and canonical views. Canonical views activated some components of a default network more on categorization than recognition. Activation to unusual views showed that both ventral and dorsal visual pathways, and prefrontal cortex, have key roles in visual object constancy. Unusual views activated object-sensitive and mental rotation (and not saccade) regions in ventrocaudal intraparietal, transverse occipital, and inferotemporal sulci, and ventral premotor cortex for verification processes of model testing on any task. A collateral-lingual sulci "place" area activated for mental rotation, working memory, and unusual views on correct recognition and categorization trials to accomplish detailed spatial matching. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and object-sensitive lateral occipital sulcus activated for mental rotation and unusual views on categorization more than recognition, supporting verification processes of model prediction. This visual knowledge framework integrates vision and memory theories to explain how distinct prefrontal-posterior networks enable meaningful interactions with objects in diverse situations.

  12. Excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miki; Fujise, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Yuka; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells is nonessential for dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) and the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) dynamics is unknown in the dentate gyrus. Excess increase in extracellular Zn(2+) in the hippocampal CA1, which is induced with excitation of zincergic neurons, induces memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells. In the present study, it was examined whether extracellular Zn(2+) induces object recognition memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells. KCl (100 mM, 2 µl) was locally injected into the dentate gyrus. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) in dentate granule cells induced with high K(+) was blocked by co-injection of CaEDTA and CNQX, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator and an AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively, suggesting that high K(+) increases the influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation. Dentate gyrus LTP induction was attenuated 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also attenuated when KCl was injected 5 min after the induction. Memory deficit was induced when training of object recognition test was performed 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also induced when KCl was injected 5 min after the training. High K(+)-induced impairments of LTP and memory were rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA. These results indicate that excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP induction. Even in the dentate gyrus where is scarcely innervated by zincergic neurons, it is likely that extracellular Zn(2+) homeostasis is strictly regulated for cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Differences in Memory for Objects and Their Locations: A Study on Automatic versus Controlled Encoding and Retrieval Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Maartje; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Object-location memory is the only spatial task where female subjects have been shown to outperform males. This result is not consistent across all studies, and may be due to the combination of the multi-component structure of object location memory with the conditions under which different studies were done. Possible gender differences in object…

  14. What Three-Year-Olds Remember from Their Past: Long-Term Memory for Persons, Objects, and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirte, Monika; Graf, Frauke; Kim, Ziyon; Knopf, Monika

    2017-01-01

    From birth on, infants show long-term recognition memory for persons. Furthermore, infants from six months onwards are able to store and retrieve demonstrated actions over long-term intervals in deferred imitation tasks. Thus, information about the model demonstrating the object-related actions is stored and recognition memory for the objects as…

  15. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  16. A short cut to the past: Cueing via concrete objects improves autobiographical memory retrieval in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Marie; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2018-02-01

    Older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have difficulties accessing autobiographical memories. However, this deficit tends to spare memories dated to earlier parts of their lives, and may partially reflect retrieval deficits rather than complete memory loss. Introducing a novel paradigm, the present study examines whether autobiographical memory recall can be improved in AD by manipulating the sensory richness, concreteness and cultural dating of the memory cues. Specifically, we examine whether concrete everyday objects historically dated to the participants' youth (e.g., a skipping rope), relative to verbal cues (i.e., the verbal signifiers for the objects) facilitate access to autobiographical memories. The study includes 49 AD patients, and 50 healthy, older matched control participants, all tested on word versus object-cued recall. Both groups recalled significantly more memories, when cued by objects relative to words, but the advantage was significantly larger in the AD group. In both groups, memory descriptions were longer and significantly more episodic in nature in response to object-cued recall. Together these findings suggest that the multimodal nature of the object cues (i.e. vision, olfaction, audition, somatic sensation) along with specific cue characteristics, such as time reference, texture, shape, may constrain the retrieval search, potentially minimizing executive function demands, and hence strategic processing requirements, thus easing access to autobiographical memories in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in retrieval of spontaneous object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Etsushi; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the retrieval process of spontaneous object recognition memory was investigated. The spontaneous object recognition test consisted of three phases. In the sample phase, rats were exposed to two identical objects several (2-5) times in the arena. After the sample phase, various lengths of delay intervals (24h-6 weeks) were inserted (delay phase). In the test phase in which both the familiar and the novel objects were placed in the arena, rats' novel object exploration behavior under the hippocampal treatment of NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5, or vehicle was observed. With 5 exposure sessions in the sample phase (experiment 1), AP5 treatment in the test phase significantly decreased discrimination ratio when the delay was 3 weeks but not when it was one week. On the other hand, with 2 exposure sessions in the sample phase (experiment 2) in which even vehicle-injected control animals could not discriminate the novel object from the familiar one with a 3 week delay, AP5 treatment significantly decreased discrimination ratio when the delay was one week, but not when it was 24h. Additional experiment (experiment 3) showed that the hippocampal treatment of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist, NBQX, decreased discrimination ratio with all delay intervals tested (24h-3 weeks). Results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in the retrieval of spontaneous object recognition memory especially when the memory trace weakens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Dentate gyrus supports slope recognition memory, shades of grey-context pattern separation and recognition memory, and CA3 supports pattern completion for object memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Raymond P; Kirk, Ryan A; Yu, Zhenghui; Polansky, Caitlin; Musso, Nick D

    2016-03-01

    In order to examine the role of the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) in slope (vertical space) recognition and possible pattern separation, various slope (vertical space) degrees were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in slope (vertical space) recognition memory and slope memory pattern separation in Experiment 1. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a slope recognition memory function with a pattern separation process for slope memory that is dependent upon the magnitude of change in slope between study and test phases. In contrast, the dDG lesioned rats displayed an impairment in slope recognition memory, though because there was no significant interaction between the two groups and slope memory, a reliable pattern separation impairment for slope could not be firmly established in the DG lesioned rats. In Experiment 2, in order to determine whether, the dDG plays a role in shades of grey spatial context recognition and possible pattern separation, shades of grey were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in the shades of grey context environment. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a shades of grey-context pattern separation effect across levels of separation of context (shades of grey). In contrast, the DG lesioned rats displayed a significant interaction between the two groups and levels of shades of grey suggesting impairment in a pattern separation function for levels of shades of grey. In Experiment 3 in order to determine whether the dorsal CA3 (dCA3) plays a role in object pattern completion, a new task requiring less training and using a choice that was based on choosing the correct set of objects on a two-choice discrimination task was used. The results indicated that control rats displayed a pattern completion function based on the availability of one, two, three or four cues. In contrast, the dCA3 lesioned rats

  19. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-05

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  20. The Neural Correlates of Spatial and Object Working Memory in Elderly and Parkinson's Disease Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Caminiti, Silvia P.; Siri, Chiara; Guidi, Lucia; Antonini, Angelo; Perani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This fMRI study deals with the neural correlates of spatial and objects working memory (SWM and OWM) in elderly subjects (ESs) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Normal aging and IPD can be associated with a WM decline. In IPD population, some studies reported similar SWM and OWM deficits; others reported a greater SWM than OWM impairment. In the present fMRI research, we investigated whether compensated IPD patients and elderly subjects with comparable performance during the execution...

  1. Standard object recognition memory and "what" and "where" components: Improvement by post-training epinephrine in highly habituated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Berbel, Patricia; Costa-Miserachs, David; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2010-02-11

    The present work examined whether post-training systemic epinephrine (EPI) is able to modulate short-term (3h) and long-term (24 h and 48 h) memory of standard object recognition, as well as long-term (24 h) memory of separate "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition. Although object recognition training is associated to low arousal levels, all the animals received habituation to the training box in order to further reduce emotional arousal. Post-training EPI improved long-term (24 h and 48 h), but not short-term (3 h), memory in the standard object recognition task, as well as 24 h memory for both object identity and object location. These data indicate that post-training epinephrine: (1) facilitates long-term memory for standard object recognition; (2) exerts separate facilitatory effects on "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition; and (3) is capable of improving memory for a low arousing task even in highly habituated rats.

  2. Intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Ogawa, Taisuke; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Ando, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The role of perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses in cognitive behavior was examined focusing on synaptic Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired when extracellular Zn(2+) levels were decreased by injection of clioquinol and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylendediamine. To pursue the effect of the loss and/or blockade of Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells, ZnAF-2DA (100 pmol, 0.1 mM/1 µl), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, was locally injected into the dentate molecular layer of rats. ZnAF-2DA injection, which was estimated to chelate intracellular Zn(2+) signaling only in the dentate gyrus, affected object recognition memory 1 h after training without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the dentate molecular layer. In vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was affected under the local perfusion of the recording region (the dentate granule cell layer) with 0.1 mM ZnAF-2DA, but not with 1-10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that the blockade of intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells affects dentate gyrus LTP. The present study demonstrates that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory, probably via dentate gyrus LTP expression. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Exciting perspectives for Translational Myology in the Abstracts of the 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays: Giovanni Salviati Memorial – Chapter II - Abstracts of March 15, 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myologists working in Padua (Italy were able to continue a half-century tradition of studies of skeletal muscles, that started with a research on fever, specifically if and how skeletal muscle contribute to it by burning bacterial toxin. Beside main publications in high-impact-factor journals by Padua myologists, I hope to convince readers (and myself of the relevance of the editing Basic and Applied Myology (BAM, retitled from 2010 European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM, of the institution of the Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology of the University of Padova (CIR-Myo, and of a long series of International Conferences organized in Euganei Hills and Padova, that is, the PaduaMuscleDays. The 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays (2018SpPMD, were held in Euganei Hills and Padua (Italy, in March 14-17, and were dedicated to Giovanni Salviati. The main event of the “Giovanni Salviati Memorial”, was held in the Aula Guariento, Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti of Padua to honor a beloved friend and excellent scientist 20 years after his premature passing. Using the words of Prof. Nicola Rizzuto, we all share his believe that Giovanni “will be remembered not only for his talent and originality as a biochemist, but also for his unassuming and humanistic personality, a rare quality in highly successful people like Giovanni. The best way to remember such a person is to gather pupils and colleagues, who shared with him the same scientific interests and ask them to discuss recent advances in their own fields, just as Giovanni have liked to do”. Since Giovanni’s friends sent many abstracts still influenced by their previous collaboration with him, all the Sessions of the 2018SpPMD reflect both to the research aims of Giovanni Salviati and the traditional topics of the PaduaMuscleDays, that is, basics and applications of physical, molecular and cellular strategies to maintain or recover functions of skeletal muscles. The

  4. Exciting perspectives for Translational Myology in the Abstracts of the 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays: Giovanni Salviati Memorial – Chapter III - Abstracts of March 16, 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myologists working in Padua (Italy were able to continue a half-century tradition of studies of skeletal muscles, that started with a research on fever, specifically if and how skeletal muscle contribute to it by burning bacterial toxin. Beside main publications in high-impact-factor journals by Padua myologists, I hope to convince readers (and myself of the relevance of the editing Basic and Applied Myology (BAM, retitled from 2010 European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM, of the institution of the Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology of the University of Padova (CIR-Myo, and of a long series of International Conferences organized in Euganei Hills and Padova, that is, the PaduaMuscleDays. The 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays (2018SpPMD, were held in Euganei Hills and Padua (Italy, in March 14-17, and were dedicated to Giovanni Salviati. The main event of the “Giovanni Salviati Memorial”, was held in the Aula Guariento, Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti of Padua to honor a beloved friend and excellent scientist 20 years after his premature passing. Using the words of Prof. Nicola Rizzuto, we all share his believe that Giovanni “will be remembered not only for his talent and originality as a biochemist, but also for his unassuming and humanistic personality, a rare quality in highly successful people like Giovanni. The best way to remember such a person is to gather pupils and colleagues, who shared with him the same scientific interests and ask them to discuss recent advances in their own fields, just as Giovanni have liked to do”. Since Giovanni’s friends sent many abstracts still influenced by their previous collaboration with him, all the Sessions of the 2018SpPMD reflect both to the research aims of Giovanni Salviati and the traditional topics of the PaduaMuscleDays, that is, basics and applications of physical, molecular and cellular strategies to maintain or recover functions of skeletal muscles. The

  5. Encoding of faces and objects into visual working memory: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Berti, Stefan

    2013-09-11

    Visual working memory (VWM) is an important prerequisite for cognitive functions, but little is known on whether the general perceptual processing advantage for faces also applies to VWM processes. The aim of the present study was (a) to test whether there is a general advantage for face stimuli in VWM and (b) to unravel whether this advantage is related to early sensory processing stages. To address these questions, we compared encoding of faces and complex nonfacial objects into VWM within a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. In detail, we tested whether the N170 ERP component - which is associated with face-specific holistic processing - is affected by memory load for faces or whether it might be involved in WM encoding of any complex object. Participants performed a same-different task with either face or watch stimuli and with two different levels of memory load. Behavioral measures show an advantage for faces on the level of VWM, mirrored in higher estimated VWM capacity (i.e. Cowan's K) for faces compared with watches. In the ERP, the N170 amplitude was enhanced for faces compared with watches. However, the N170 was not modulated by working memory load either for faces or for watches. In contrast, the P3b component was affected by memory load irrespective of the stimulus category. Taken together, the results suggest that the VWM advantage for faces is not reflected at the sensory stages of stimulus processing, but rather at later higher-level processes as reflected by the P3b component.

  6. One-single physical exercise session after object recognition learning promotes memory persistence through hippocampal noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Neves, Ben-Hur Souto das; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2017-06-30

    Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The neurokinin-3 receptor agonist senktide facilitates the integration of memories for object, place and temporal order into episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Nikolaus, Susanne; Huston, Joseph P; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2014-10-01

    Senktide, a potent neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3-R) agonist, has been shown to have promnestic effects in adult and aged rodents and to facilitate episodic-like memory (ELM) in mice when administrated before the learning trial. In the present study we assessed the effects of senktide on memory consolidation by administering it post-trial (after the learning trial) in adult rats. We applied an ELM test, based on the integrated memory for object, place and temporal order, which we developed (Kart-Teke, de Souza Silva, Huston, & Dere, 2006). This test involves two learning trials and one test trial. We examined intervals of 1h and 23 h between the learning and test trials (experiment 1) in untreated animals and found that they exhibited intact ELM after a delay of 1 h, but not 23 h. In another test for ELM performed 7 days later, vehicle or senktide (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) was applied immediately after the second learning trial and the test was conducted 23 h later (experiment 2). Senktide treatment recovered components of ELM (memory for place and object) compared with vehicle-treated animals. After one more week, vehicle or senktide (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) was applied post-trial and the test conducted 6h later (experiment 3). The senktide-treated group exhibited intact ELM, unlike the vehicle-treated group. Finally, animals received post-trial treatment with either vehicle or SR142801, a selective NK3-R antagonist (6 mg/kg, i.p.), 1 min before senktide injection (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) in the ELM paradigm and were tested 6h later (experiment 4). The vehicle+senktide group showed intact ELM, while the SR142801+senktide group did not. The results indicate that senktide facilitated the consolidation or the expression of ELM and that the senktide effect was NK3-R dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Scene grammar shapes the way we interact with objects, strengthens memories, and speeds search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2017-11-28

    Predictions of environmental rules (here referred to as "scene grammar") can come in different forms: seeing a toilet in a living room would violate semantic predictions, while finding a toilet brush next to the toothpaste would violate syntactic predictions. The existence of such predictions has usually been investigated by showing observers images containing such grammatical violations. Conversely, the generative process of creating an environment according to one's scene grammar and its effects on behavior and memory has received little attention. In a virtual reality paradigm, we either instructed participants to arrange objects according to their scene grammar or against it. Subsequently, participants' memory for the arrangements was probed using a surprise recall (Exp1), or repeated search (Exp2) task. As a result, participants' construction behavior showed strategic use of larger, static objects to anchor the location of smaller objects which are generally the goals of everyday actions. Further analysis of this scene construction data revealed possible commonalities between the rules governing word usage in language and object usage in naturalistic environments. Taken together, we revealed some of the building blocks of scene grammar necessary for efficient behavior, which differentially influence how we interact with objects and what we remember about scenes.

  9. Exciting perspectives for Translational Myology in the Abstracts of the 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays: Giovanni Salviati Memorial – Chapter IV - Abstracts of March 17, 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myologists working in Padua (Italy were able to continue a half-century tradition of studies of skeletal muscles, that started with a research on fever, specifically if and how skeletal muscle contribute to it by burning bacterial toxin. Beside main publications in high-impact-factor journals by Padua myologists, I hope to convince readers (and myself of the relevance of the editing Basic and Applied Myology (BAM, retitled from 2010 European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM, of the institution of the Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology of the University of Padova (CIR-Myo, and of a long series of International Conferences organized in Euganei Hills and Padova, that is, the PaduaMuscleDays. The 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays (2018SpPMD, were held in Euganei Hills and Padua (Italy, in March 14-17, and were dedicated to Giovanni Salviati. The main event of the “Giovanni Salviati Memorial”, was held in the Aula Guariento, Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti of Padua to honor a beloved friend and excellent scientist 20 years after his premature passing. Using the words of Prof. Nicola Rizzuto, we all share his believe that Giovanni “will be remembered not only for his talent and originality as a biochemist, but also for his unassuming and humanistic personality, a rare quality in highly successful people like Giovanni. The best way to remember such a person is to gather pupils and colleagues, who shared with him the same scientific interests and ask them to discuss recent advances in their own fields, just as Giovanni have liked to do”. Since Giovanni’s friends sent many abstracts still influenced by their previous collaboration with him, all the Sessions of the 2018SpPMD reflect both to the research aims of Giovanni Salviati and the traditional topics of the PaduaMuscleDays, that is, basics and applications of physical, molecular and cellular strategies to maintain or recover functions of skeletal muscles. The

  10. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  11. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors enhance object memory independent of cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Van Donkelaar, Eva L; Ferrington, Linda; Blokland, Arjan; Bollen, Eva; Steinbusch, Harry Wm; Kelly, Paul At; Prickaerts, Jos Hhj

    2009-07-01

    Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors prevent the breakdown of the second messengers, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP), and are currently studied as possible targets for cognitive enhancement. Earlier studies indicated beneficial effects of PDE inhibitors in object recognition. In this study we tested the effects of three PDE inhibitors on spatial memory as assessed in a place and object recognition task. Furthermore, as both cAMP and cGMP are known vasodilators, the effects of PDE inhibition on cognitive functions could be explained by enhancement of cerebrovascular function. We examined this possibility by measuring the effects of PDE5 and PDE4 inhibitor treatment on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in rats using [14C]-iodoantipyrine and [14C]-2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, respectively. In the spatial location task, PDE5 inhibition (cGMP) with vardenafil enhanced only early phase consolidation, PDE4 inhibition (cAMP) with rolipram enhanced only late phase consolidation, and PDE2 inhibition (cAMP and cGMP) with Bay 60-7550 enhanced both consolidation processes. Furthermore, PDE5 inhibition had no cerebrovascular effects in hippocampal or rhinal areas. PDE4 inhibition increased rhinal, but not hippocampal blood flow, whereas it decreased glucose utilization in both areas. In general, PDE5 inhibition decreased the ratio between blood flow and glucose utilization, indicative of general oligaemia; whereas PDE4 inhibition increased this ratio, indicative of general hyperemia. Both oligaemic and hyperemic conditions are detrimental for brain function and do not explain memory enhancement. These results underscore the specific effects of cAMP and cGMP on memory consolidation (object and spatial memory) and provide evidence that the underlying mechanisms of PDE inhibition on cognition are independent of cerebrovascular effects.

  12. Effects of physical exercise on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan FANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate effects of physical exercise (PE on object recognition memory in adult rats of postnatal isoflurane (Iso exposures. Methods One hundred and ten postnatal 7-day SD rats (P7 were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Naive, Naive+PE group (received physical exercise in P21: a treadmill exercise 30min each day, 5 times/week, for 6 weeks, Iso group (three times of 2-hour Iso exposure in P7, P9, and P11, and Iso+PE group (received PE in P21 after postnatal Iso exposures. In P67, behavioral testing was conducted including open field and object recognition task (ORT, recording the time (Discrimination Ratios, DR that rats spent on exploring each object, evaluating effects of PE on object recognition memory. Results There was no significant difference in influence of PE on open field testing in all of the groups (P>0.05. Compared with Naive, there was no group difference in DR (P>0.05 for all groups, but the DR of Iso male rats was significantly higher than that of Naive female rats in P67, with significant difference (P=0.034. Compared with non-PE groups, whether or not postnatal Iso exposures, the DR of PE male groups was significantly higher (compared with Naive and Iso group: P67, P=0.050, P=0.017; P95, P=0.037, P=0.019; in female rats, the DR for ISO+PE group was lower than that of Iso group in P67 (P=0.036, but the DR of Naive+PE group was higher than that of Naive group in P95 (P=0.004. Compared with male rats, the DR of non-PE female rats was significantly higher in P67 (vis. Naive and Iso group: P=0.022, P=0.011; but in P95, the DR of non- Iso female groups was significantly higher than that of male groups (vis. Naive and Naive+PE: P=0.008, P=0.017. Conclusions There is no obvious impact of postnatal Iso exposures on object recognition memory of adult rats. These results also indicate that postnatal PE could improve object recognition memory of non-spatial learning in adult rats. In addition, exercise

  13. Attention and perceptual implicit memory: effects of selective versus divided attention and number of visual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2002-08-01

    Extant research presents conflicting results on whether manipulations of attention during encoding affect perceptual priming. Two suggested mediating factors are type of manipulation (selective vs divided) and whether attention is manipulated across multiple objects or within a single object. Words printed in different colors (Experiment 1) or flanked by colored blocks (Experiment 2) were presented at encoding. In the full-attention condition, participants always read the word, in the unattended condition they always identified the color, and in the divided-attention conditions, participants attended to both word identity and color. Perceptual priming was assessed with perceptual identification and explicit memory with recognition. Relative to the full-attention condition, attending to color always reduced priming. Dividing attention between word identity and color, however, only disrupted priming when these attributes were presented as multiple objects (Experiment 2) but not when they were dimensions of a common object (Experiment 1). On the explicit test, manipulations of attention always affected recognition accuracy.

  14. Neurophysiological indices of perceptual object priming in the absence of explicit recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill D; Cutmore, Tim R H; O'Gorman, John; Finnigan, Simon; Shum, David

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify ERP correlates of perceptual object priming that are insensitive to factors affecting explicit, episodic memory. EEG was recorded from 21 participants while they performed a visual object recognition test on a combination of unstudied items and old items that were previously encountered during either a 'deep' or 'shallow' levels-of-processing (LOP) study task. The results demonstrated a midline P150 old/new effect which was sensitive only to objects' old/new status and not to the accuracy of recognition responses to old items, or to the LOP manipulation. Similar outcomes were observed for the subsequent P200 and N400 effects, the former of which had a parietal scalp maximum and the latter, a broadly distributed topography. In addition an LPC old/new effect typical of those reported in past ERP recognition studies was observed. These outcomes support the proposal that the P150 effect is reflective of perceptual object priming and moreover, provide novel evidence that this and the P200 effect are independent of explicit recognition memory process(es).

  15. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scott Swartzwelder

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30 received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g. or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  16. Children's Comprehension of Object Relative Sentences: It's Extant Language Knowledge That Matters, Not Domain-General Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Yazmin Ahmad; Montgomery, James W

    2017-10-17

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extant language (lexical) knowledge or domain-general working memory is the better predictor of comprehension of object relative sentences for children with typical development. We hypothesized that extant language knowledge, not domain-general working memory, is the better predictor. Fifty-three children (ages 9-11 years) completed a word-level verbal working-memory task, indexing extant language (lexical) knowledge; an analog nonverbal working-memory task, representing domain-general working memory; and a hybrid sentence comprehension task incorporating elements of both agent selection and cross-modal picture-priming paradigms. Images of the agent and patient were displayed at the syntactic gap in the object relative sentences, and the children were asked to select the agent of the sentence. Results of general linear modeling revealed that extant language knowledge accounted for a unique 21.3% of variance in the children's object relative sentence comprehension over and above age (8.3%). Domain-general working memory accounted for a nonsignificant 1.6% of variance. We interpret the results to suggest that extant language knowledge and not domain-general working memory is a critically important contributor to children's object relative sentence comprehension. Results support a connectionist view of the association between working memory and object relative sentence comprehension. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5404573.

  17. An object location memory paradigm for older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Kerti, Lucia; Witte, Veronica A; Kopp, Ute; Breitenstein, Caterina; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-11-30

    Object-location memory is critical in every-day life and known to deteriorate early in the course of neurodegenerative disease. We adapted the previously established learning paradigm "LOCATO" for use in healthy older adults and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Pictures of real-life buildings were associated with positions on a two-dimensional street map by repetitions of "correct" object-location pairings over the course of five training blocks, followed by a recall task. Correct/incorrect associations were indicated by button presses. The original two 45-item sets were reduced to 15 item-sets, and tested in healthy older adults and MCI for learning curve, recall, and re-test effects. The two 15-item versions showed comparable learning curves and recall scores within each group. While learning curves increased linearly in both groups, MCI patients performed significantly worse on learning and recall compared to healthy controls. Re-testing after 6 month showed small practice effects only. LOCATO is a simple standardized task that overcomes several limitation of previously employed visuospatial task by using real-life stimuli, minimizing verbal encoding, avoiding fine motor responses, combining explicit and implicit statistical learning, and allowing to assess learning curve in addition to recall. Results show that the shortened version of LOCATO meets the requirements for a robust and ecologically meaningful assessment of object-location memory in older adults with and without MCI. It can now be used to systematically assess acquisition of object-location memory and its modulation through adjuvant therapies like pharmacological or non-invasive brain stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential binding of colors to objects in memory: red and yellow stick better than blue and green

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhbandner, Christof; Spitzer, Bernhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Both evolutionary considerations and recent research suggest that the color red serves as a signal indicating an object’s importance. However, until now, there is no evidence that this signaling function of red is also reflected in human memory. To examine the effect of red on memory, we conducted four experiments in which we presented objects colored in four different colors (red, green, blue, and yellow) and measured later memory for the presence of an object and for the color of an object....

  19. When do objects become landmarks? A VR study of the effect of task relevance on spatial memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    Full Text Available We investigated how objects come to serve as landmarks in spatial memory, and more specifically how they form part of an allocentric cognitive map. Participants performing a virtual driving task incidentally learned the layout of a virtual town and locations of objects in that town. They were subsequently tested on their spatial and recognition memory for the objects. To assess whether the objects were encoded allocentrically we examined pointing consistency across tested viewpoints. In three experiments, we found that spatial memory for objects at navigationally relevant locations was more consistent across tested viewpoints, particularly when participants had more limited experience of the environment. When participants' attention was focused on the appearance of objects, the navigational relevance effect was eliminated, whereas when their attention was focused on objects' locations, this effect was enhanced, supporting the hypothesis that when objects are processed in the service of navigation, rather than merely being viewed as objects, they engage qualitatively distinct attentional systems and are incorporated into an allocentric spatial representation. The results are consistent with evidence from the neuroimaging literature that when objects are relevant to navigation, they not only engage the ventral "object processing stream", but also the dorsal stream and medial temporal lobe memory system classically associated with allocentric spatial memory.

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  2. A Temporally Distinct Role for Group I and Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm Watson; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    Recognition memory, involving the ability to discriminate between a novel and familiar object, depends on the integrity of the perirhinal cortex (PRH). Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the cortex, is essential for many types of memory processes. Of the subtypes of glutamate receptor, metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) have received…

  3. The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory is Robust to Verbalizability and Mode of Presentation of Test Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejbak, Lisa; Vrbancic, Mirna; Crossley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study extends Duff and Hampson's [Duff, S., & Hampson, E. (2001). A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. "Brain and Cognition, 47," 470-493] finding of a sex-related difference in favor of females for an object location memory task. Twenty female and 20 male undergraduate students performed both manual and…

  4. Memory for faces and objects by deaf and hearing signers and hearing nonsigners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, P; Murray, C

    1998-07-01

    The memory of 11 deaf and 11 hearing British Sign Language users and 11 hearing nonsigners for pictures of faces of and verbalizable objects was measured using the game Concentration. The three groups performed at the same level for the objects. In contrast the deaf signers were better for faces than the hearing signers, who in turn were superior to the hearing nonsigners, who were the worst. Three hypotheses were made: That there would be no significant difference in terms of the number of attempts between the three groups on the verbalizable object task, that the hearing and deaf signers would demonstrate superior performance to that of the hearing nonsigners on the matching faces task, and that the hearing and deaf signers would exhibit similar performance levels on the matching faces task. The first two hypotheses were supported, but the third was not. Deaf signers were found to be superior for memory for faces to hearing signers and hearing nonsigners. Possible explanations for the findings are discussed, including the possibility that deafness and the long use of sign language have additive effects.

  5. Eye movement during recall reduces objective memory performance: An extended replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M; Lenaert, Bert; Struyf, Dieter; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance. Experiment I involved a stimulus discrimination task. Findings were that EM during stimulus recall not only reduces self-reported memory vividness, but also slows down reaction time in a task that requires participants to discriminate the stimulus from perceptually similar stimuli. Experiment II involved a fear conditioning paradigm. It was shown that EM during recall of a threatening stimulus intensifies fearful responding to a perceptually similar yet non-threat-related stimulus, as evidenced by increases in danger expectancies and skin conductance responses. The latter result was not corroborated by startle EMG data. Together, the findings suggest that the EM manipulation renders stimulus attributes less accessible for future recall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory for objects and startle responsivity in the immediate aftermath of exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, Nadja; Pomrehn, Dennis; Wolf, Oliver T

    2017-05-30

    Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST). Further, memory for this odour was also assumed to be increased in the stress group. We tested 70 male (35) and female participants using the TSST involving objects and an ambient odour. After stress induction, a startle paradigm including olfactory and visual stimuli was conducted. Indeed, memory for central objects was significantly enhanced in immediate aftermath of the stressor. Startle responsivity increased at a trend level, particularly with regard to the odour involved in the stressful episode. Moreover, the stress group descriptively tended towards a better recognition of the odour involved. The study shows that stress enhances memory for central aspects of a stressful situation before consolidation processes come into play. In addition, results preliminarily suggest that the impact of stress on startle responsivity increases in strength but decreases in specificity during the first 24h after stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does visual working memory represent the predicted locations of future target objects? An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2015-11-11

    During the maintenance of task-relevant objects in visual working memory, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is elicited over the hemisphere opposite to the visual field where these objects are presented. The presence of this lateralised CDA component demonstrates the existence of position-dependent object representations in working memory. We employed a change detection task to investigate whether the represented object locations in visual working memory are shifted in preparation for the known location of upcoming comparison stimuli. On each trial, bilateral memory displays were followed after a delay period by bilateral test displays. Participants had to encode and maintain three visual objects on one side of the memory display, and to judge whether they were identical or different to three objects in the test display. Task-relevant memory and test stimuli were located in the same visual hemifield in the no-shift task, and on opposite sides in the horizontal shift task. CDA components of similar size were triggered contralateral to the memorized objects in both tasks. The absence of a polarity reversal of the CDA in the horizontal shift task demonstrated that there was no preparatory shift of memorized object location towards the side of the upcoming comparison stimuli. These results suggest that visual working memory represents the locations of visual objects during encoding, and that the matching of memorized and test objects at different locations is based on a comparison process that can bridge spatial translations between these objects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A reduction in hippocampal GABAA receptor alpha5 subunits disrupts the memory for location of objects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prut, L; Prenosil, G; Willadt, S; Vogt, K; Fritschy, J-M; Crestani, F

    2010-07-01

    The memory for location of objects, which binds information about objects to discrete positions or spatial contexts of occurrence, is a form of episodic memory particularly sensitive to hippocampal damage. Its early decline is symptomatic for elderly dementia. Substances that selectively reduce alpha5-GABA(A) receptor function are currently developed as potential cognition enhancers for Alzheimer's syndrome and other dementia, consistent with genetic studies implicating these receptors that are highly expressed in hippocampus in learning performance. Here we explored the consequences of reduced GABA(A)alpha5-subunit contents, as occurring in alpha5(H105R) knock-in mice, on the memory for location of objects. This required the behavioral characterization of alpha5(H105R) and wild-type animals in various tasks examining learning and memory retrieval strategies for objects, locations, contexts and their combinations. In mutants, decreased amounts of alpha5-subunits and retained long-term potentiation in hippocampus were confirmed. They exhibited hyperactivity with conserved circadian rhythm in familiar actimeters, and normal exploration and emotional reactivity in novel places, allocentric spatial guidance, and motor pattern learning acquisition, inhibition and flexibility in T- and eight-arm mazes. Processing of object, position and context memories and object-guided response learning were spared. Genotype difference in object-in-place memory retrieval and in encoding and response learning strategies for object-location combinations manifested as a bias favoring object-based recognition and guidance strategies over spatial processing of objects in the mutants. These findings identify in alpha5(H105R) mice a behavioral-cognitive phenotype affecting basal locomotion and the memory for location of objects indicative of hippocampal dysfunction resulting from moderately decreased alpha5-subunit contents.

  9. Object-based attention underlies the rehearsal of feature binding in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mowei; Huang, Xiang; Gao, Zaifeng

    2015-04-01

    Feature binding is a core concept in many research fields, including the study of working memory (WM). Over the past decade, it has been debated whether keeping the feature binding in visual WM consumes more visual attention than the constituent single features. Previous studies have only explored the contribution of domain-general attention or space-based attention in the binding process; no study so far has explored the role of object-based attention in retaining binding in visual WM. We hypothesized that object-based attention underlay the mechanism of rehearsing feature binding in visual WM. Therefore, during the maintenance phase of a visual WM task, we inserted a secondary mental rotation (Experiments 1-3), transparent motion (Experiment 4), or an object-based feature report task (Experiment 5) to consume the object-based attention available for binding. In line with the prediction of the object-based attention hypothesis, Experiments 1-5 revealed a more significant impairment for binding than for constituent single features. However, this selective binding impairment was not observed when inserting a space-based visual search task (Experiment 6). We conclude that object-based attention underlies the rehearsal of binding representation in visual WM. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eBlaser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models.

  11. A Larger Social Network Enhances Novel Object Location Memory and Reduces Hippocampal Microgliosis in Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryon M.; Yao, Xinyue; Chen, Kelly S.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa. Even in animal studies of environmental enrichment in aging, the focus typically falls on physical enrichment such as a rotating cast of toys, rather than the role of social interactions. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that a greater number of social ties in aging mice would lead to improved hippocampal function. Aged, female C57/Bl6 mice were housed for 3 months in pairs or large groups (7 mice per cage). Group-housed mice showed greater novel object location memory and stronger preference for a spatial navigation strategy in the Barnes maze, though no difference in escape latency, compared to pair-housed mice. Group-housed mice did not differ from pair-housed mice in basal corticosterone levels or adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Group-housed mice did, however, show reduced numbers of Iba1/CD68+ microglia in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that group housing led to better memory function and reduced markers of neuroinflammation in aged mice. More broadly, they support a causative link between social ties and hippocampal function, suggesting that merely having a larger social network can positively influence the aging brain. Future research should address the molecular mechanisms by which a greater number of social ties alters hippocampal function. PMID:29904345

  12. Object Permanence After a 24-Hr Delay and Leaving the Locale of Disappearance: The Role of Memory, Space, and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen-month-old infants saw an object hidden inside a container and were removed from the disappearance locale for 24 hr. Upon their return, they searched correctly for the hidden object, demonstrating object permanence and long-term memory. Control infants who saw no disappearance did not search. In Experiment 2, infants returned to see the…

  13. The interaction between hippocampal GABA-B and cannabinoid receptors upon spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Alaghmandan-Motlagh, Niyousha; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have postulated functional links between GABA and cannabinoid systems in the hippocampus. The aim of the present study was to investigate any possible interaction between these systems in spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory consolidation in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) of NMRI mice. Assessment of the spatial change and object novelty discrimination memory function was carried out in a non-associative task. The experiment comprised mice exposure to an open field containing five objects followed by the examination of their reactivity to object displacement (spatial change) and object substitution (object novelty) after three sessions of habituation. Our results showed that the post-training intraperitoneal administration of the higher dose of ACPA (0.02 mg/kg) impaired both spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions. Meanwhile, the higher dose of GABA-B receptor agonist, baclofen, impaired the spatial change memory by itself. Moreover, the post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of a subthreshold dose of baclofen increased the ACPA effect on spatial change and novelty discrimination memory at a lower and higher dose, respectively. On the other hand, the lower and higher but not mid-level doses of GABA-B receptor antagonist, phaclofen, could reverse memory deficits induced by ACPA. However, phaclofen at its mid-level dose impaired the novelty discrimination memory and whereas the higher dose impaired the spatial change memory. Based on our findings, GABA-B receptors in the CA1 region appear to modulate the ACPA-induced cannabinoid CB1 signaling upon spatial change and novelty discrimination memory functions.

  14. Feature-based and object-based attention orientation during short-term memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yixuan

    2015-12-01

    Top-down attention biases the short-term memory (STM) processing at multiple stages. Orienting attention during the maintenance period of STM by a retrospective cue (retro-cue) strengthens the representation of the cued item and improves the subsequent STM performance. In a recent article, Backer et al. (Backer KC, Binns MA, Alain C. J Neurosci 35: 1307-1318, 2015) extended these findings from the visual to the auditory domain and combined electroencephalography to dissociate neural mechanisms underlying feature-based and object-based attention orientation. Both event-related potentials and neural oscillations explained the behavioral benefits of retro-cues and favored the theory that feature-based and object-based attention orientation were independent. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Estimated capacity of object files in visual short-term memory is not improved by retrieval cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Jun; Miyatsuji, Hirofumi

    2009-03-23

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been claimed to maintain three to five feature-bound object representations. Some results showing smaller capacity estimates for feature binding memory have been interpreted as the effects of interference in memory retrieval. However, change-detection tasks may not properly evaluate complex feature-bound representations such as triple conjunctions in VSTM. To understand the general type of feature-bound object representation, evaluation of triple conjunctions is critical. To test whether interference occurs in memory retrieval for complete object file representations in a VSTM task, we cued retrieval in novel paradigms that directly evaluate the memory for triple conjunctions, in comparison with a simple change-detection task. In our multiple object permanence tracking displays, observers monitored for a switch in feature combination between objects during an occlusion period, and we found that a retrieval cue provided no benefit with the triple conjunction tasks, but significant facilitation with the change-detection task, suggesting that low capacity estimates of object file memory in VSTM reflect a limit on maintenance, not retrieval.

  16. Embodied memory allows accurate and stable perception of hidden objects despite orientation change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing Samantha; Bingham, Ned; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2017-07-01

    Rotating a scene in a frontoparallel plane (rolling) yields a change in orientation of constituent images. When using only information provided by static images to perceive a scene after orientation change, identification performance typically decreases (Rock & Heimer, 1957). However, rolling generates optic flow information that relates the discrete, static images (before and after the change) and forms an embodied memory that aids recognition. The embodied memory hypothesis predicts that upon detecting a continuous spatial transformation of image structure, or in other words, seeing the continuous rolling process and objects undergoing rolling observers should accurately perceive objects during and after motion. Thus, in this case, orientation change should not affect performance. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments and found that (a) using combined optic flow and image structure, participants identified locations of previously perceived but currently occluded targets with great accuracy and stability (Experiment 1); (b) using combined optic flow and image structure information, participants identified hidden targets equally well with or without 30° orientation changes (Experiment 2); and (c) when the rolling was unseen, identification of hidden targets after orientation change became worse (Experiment 3). Furthermore, when rolling was unseen, although target identification was better when participants were told about the orientation change than when they were not told, performance was still worse than when there was no orientation change. Therefore, combined optic flow and image structure information, not mere knowledge about the rolling, enables accurate and stable perception despite orientation change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The influence of object and background color manipulations on the electrophysiological indices of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Ullrich K H; Zimmer, Hubert D; Groh-Bordin, Christian

    2007-12-14

    In a recognition memory experiment, the claim was tested that intrinsic object features contribute to familiarity, whereas extrinsic context features do not. We used the study-test manipulation of color to investigate the perceptual specificity of ERP old-new effects associated with familiarity and recollection. Color was either an intrinsic surface feature of the object or a feature of the surrounding context (a frame encasing the object); thus, the same feature was manipulated across intrinsic/extrinsic conditions. Subjects performed a threefold (same color/different color/new object) decision, making feature information task-relevant. Results suggest that the intrinsic manipulation of color affected the mid-frontal old-new effect associated with familiarity, while this effect was not influenced by extrinsic manipulation. This ERP pattern could not be explained by basic behavioral performance differences. It is concluded that familiarity can be perceptually specific with regard to intrinsic information belonging to the object. The putative electrophysiological signature of recollection - a late parietal old-new effect - was not present in the data, and reasons for this null effect are discussed.

  18. Differential cortical c-Fos and Zif-268 expression after object and spatial memory processing in a standard or episodic-like object recognition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F Barbosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory reflects the capacity to recollect what, where and when a specific event happened in an integrative manner. Animal studies have suggested that the medial temporal lobe and the medial pre-frontal cortex are important for episodic-like memory formation. The goal of present study was to evaluate whether there are different patterns of expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Zif-268 in these cortical areas after rats are exposed to object recognition tasks with different cognitive demands. Male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: home cage control (CTR-HC, empty open field (CTR-OF, open field with one object (CTR-OF + Obj, novel object recognition task (OR and episodic-like memory task (ELM and were killed one hour after the last behavioral procedure. Rats were able to discriminate the objects in the OR task. In the ELM task, rats showed spatial (but not temporal discrimination of the objects. We found an increase in the c-Fos expression in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG and in the perirhinal cortex (PRh in the OR and ELM groups. The OR group also presented an increase of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Additionally, the OR and ELM groups had increased expression of Zif-268 in the mPFC. Moreover, Zif-268 was increased in the dorsal CA1 and perirhinal cortex only in the ELM group. In conclusion, the pattern of activation was different in tasks with different cognitive demands. Accordingly, correlation tests suggest the engagement of different neural networks in the object recognition tasks used. Specifically, perirhinal-dentate gyrus co-activation was detected after the what-where memory retrieval, but not after the novel object recognition task. Both regions correlated with the respective behavioral outcome. These findings can be helpful in the understanding of the neural networks underlying memory tasks with different cognitive demands.

  19. How you ask matters: an experimental investigation of the influence of mood on memory self-perceptions and their relationship with objective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Brolsma, Jessica W

    2014-01-01

    Stronger relationships often emerge between mood and memory self-efficacy (MSE) than between MSE and memory abilities. We examined how social desirability, mood congruency and framing influence the mood-MSE relationship. Social desirability correlated with all self-report measures, and covarying social desirability diminished the mood-MSE relationship while enhancing the relationship between MSE and objective memory. Participants rated their memory more harshly on positively than neutrally or negatively worded MSE items. Current mood state did not affect MSE overall or when items were worded positively or neutrally. However, on negatively worded items, participants in a negative mood exhibited lower MSE than participants in a positive mood. Thus, both MSE and the mood-MSE relationship depended upon question wording. These results indicate that controlling social desirability and item framing on MSE questionnaires may reduce their confounding influence on memory self-perceptions and the influence of mood on self-reported abilities, allowing subjective memory to more accurately reflect objective memory in healthy and clinical populations.

  20. 5-HT2a receptor in mPFC influences context-guided reconsolidation of object memory in perirhinal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Miranda, Magdalena; Gallo, Francisco Tomás; Zanoni, Belén; Bekinschtein, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Context-dependent memories may guide adaptive behavior relaying in previous experience while updating stored information through reconsolidation. Retrieval can be triggered by partial and shared cues. When the cue is presented, the most relevant memory should be updated. In a contextual version of the object recognition task, we examined the effect of medial PFC (mPFC) serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) blockade during retrieval in reconsolidation of competing objects memories. We found that mPFC 5-HT2aR controls retrieval and reconsolidation of object memories in the perirhinal cortex (PRH), but not in the dorsal hippocampus in rats. Also, reconsolidation of objects memories in PRH required a functional interaction between the ventral hippocampus and the mPFC. Our results indicate that in the presence of conflicting information at retrieval, mPFC 5-HT2aR may facilitate top-down context-guided control over PRH to control the behavioral response and object memory reconsolidation. PMID:29717980

  1. Fragile visual short-term memory is an object-based and location-specific store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Sligte, I.G.; Shapiro, K.L.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile visual short-term memory (FM) is a recently discovered form of visual short-term memory. Evidence suggests that it provides rich and high-capacity storage, like iconic memory, yet it exists, without interference, almost as long as visual working memory. In the present study, we sought to

  2. Effects of selective activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors on object recognition memory performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Claire R; Lebois, Evan P; Shagarabi, Shezza L; Hernandez, Norma A; Manns, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic receptors has been shown to benefit memory performance in some conditions, but pan-muscarinic activation also frequently leads to peripheral side effects. Drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 muscarinic receptors could potentially improve memory while minimizing side effects mediated by the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The ability of three recently developed drugs that selectively activate M1 or M4 receptors to improve recognition memory was tested by giving Long-Evans rats subcutaneous injections of three different doses of the M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA or the M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 before performing an object recognition memory task. VU0364572 at 0.1 mg/kg, BQCA at 1.0 mg/kg and VU0152100 at 3.0 and 30.0 mg/kg improved the memory performance of rats that performed poorly at baseline, yet the improvements in memory performance were the most statistically robust for VU0152100 at 3.0 mg/kg. The results suggested that selective M1 and M4 receptor activation each improved memory but that the likelihood of obtaining behavioral efficacy at a given dose might vary between subjects even in healthy groups depending on baseline performance. These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory.

  3. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  4. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  5. Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F

    2015-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bindings in working memory: The role of object-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zaifeng; Wu, Fan; Qiu, Fangfang; He, Kaifeng; Yang, Yue; Shen, Mowei

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, it has been debated whether retaining bindings in working memory (WM) requires more attention than retaining constituent features, focusing on domain-general attention and space-based attention. Recently, we proposed that retaining bindings in WM needs more object-based attention than retaining constituent features (Shen, Huang, & Gao, 2015, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, doi: 10.1037/xhp0000018 ). However, only unitized visual bindings were examined; to establish the role of object-based attention in retaining bindings in WM, more emperical evidence is required. We tested 4 new bindings that had been suggested requiring no more attention than the constituent features in the WM maintenance phase: The two constituent features of binding were stored in different WM modules (cross-module binding, Experiment 1), from auditory and visual modalities (cross-modal binding, Experiment 2), or temporally (cross-time binding, Experiments 3) or spatially (cross-space binding, Experiments 4-6) separated. In the critical condition, we added a secondary object feature-report task during the delay interval of the change-detection task, such that the secondary task competed for object-based attention with the to-be-memorized stimuli. If more object-based attention is required for retaining bindings than for retaining constituent features, the secondary task should impair the binding performance to a larger degree relative to the performance of constituent features. Indeed, Experiments 1-6 consistently revealed a significantly larger impairment for bindings than for the constituent features, suggesting that object-based attention plays a pivotal role in retaining bindings in WM.

  7. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Lee, David R; Goyarzu, Pilar; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Ennis, Lalanya J; Beckett, Elizabeth; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, 4 mo of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aging rats. Experiment 1 determined whether 1- and 2-mo BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the diets. Experiment 2 determined whether a 1-mo BB diet could subsequently reverse existing object memory impairment in aging rats. In experiment 1, Fischer-344 rats were maintained on an appropriate control diet or on 1 or 2 mo of the BB diet before testing object memory at 19 mo postnatally. In experiment 2, rats were tested for object recognition memory at 19 mo and again at 20 mo after 1 mo of maintenance on a 2% BB or control diet. In experiment 1, the control group performed no better than chance, whereas the 1- and 2-mo BB diet groups performed similarly and significantly better than controls. The 2-mo BB-diet group, but not the 1-mo group, maintained its performance over a subsequent month on a standard laboratory diet. In experiment 2, the 19-mo-old rats performed near chance. At 20 mo of age, the rats subsequently maintained on the BB diet significantly increased their object memory scores, whereas the control diet group exhibited a non-significant decline. The change in object memory scores differed significantly between the two diet groups. These results suggest that a considerable degree of age-related object memory decline can be prevented and reversed by brief maintenance on BB diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Memory and representation in young children with Down syndrome: Exploring deferred imitation and object permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Mechthild; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    1995-01-01

    Deferred imitation and object permanence (OP) were tested in 48 young children with Down syndrome (DS), ranging from 20 to 43 months of age. Deferred imitation and high-level OP (invisible displacements) have long been held to be synchronous developments during sensory-motor "Stage 6" (18-24 months of age in unimpaired children). The results of the current study demonstrate deferred imitation in young children with DS, showing they can learn novel behaviors from observation and retain multiple models in memory. This is the first demonstration of deferred imitation in young children with DS. The average OP level passed in this sample was A-not-B, a task passed at 8-12 months of age in normally developing infants. Analyses showed that individual children who failed high-level OP (invisible displacements) could still perform deferred imitation. This indicates that deferred imitation and OP invisible displacements are not synchronous developments in children with DS. This asynchrony is compatible with new data from unimpaired children suggesting that deferred imitation and high-level OP entail separate and distinctive kinds of memory and representation.

  9. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis integrity is required for the expression of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaroni, Thiago L N; Raslan, Ana Cláudia S; Fontes, Walkiria R P; de Oliveira, Marilene L; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Moraes, Márcio F D; Dos Santos, Robson A; Pereira, Grace S

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the brain has its own intrinsic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) is particularly interesting, because it appears to counterbalance most of the Ang II effects. Ang-(1-7) exerts its biological function through activation of the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas. Interestingly, hippocampus is one of the regions with higher expression of Mas. However, the role of Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in hippocampus-dependent memories is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that Mas ablation, as well as the blockade of Mas in the CA1-hippocampus, impaired object recognition memory (ORM). We also demonstrated that the blockade of Ang II receptors AT1, but not AT2, recovers ORM impairment of Mas-deficient mice. Considering that high concentrations of Ang-(1-7) may activate AT1 receptors, nonspecifically, we evaluate the levels of Ang-(1-7) and its main precursors Ang I and Ang II in the hippocampus of Mas-deficient mice. The Ang I and Ang II levels are unaltered in the whole hipocampus of MasKo. However, Ang-(1-7) concentration is increased in the whole hippocampus of MasKo mice, as well as in the CA1 area. Taken together, our findings suggest that the functionality of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is essential for normal ORM processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation modulates the formation and retrieval of novel object recognition memory: Role of the prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, Marie A; Marshall, Hayley J; Fone, Kevin C F; Cassaday, Helen J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impair novel object recognition memory but the effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 on acquisition and retrieval in the novel object recognition task in male Wistar rats. SKF81297 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg s.c.) given 15 min before the sampling phase impaired novel object recognition evaluated 10 min or 24 h later. The same treatments also reduced novel object recognition memory tested 24 h after the sampling phase and when given 15 min before the choice session. These data indicate that D1 receptor stimulation modulates both the encoding and retrieval of object recognition memory. Microinfusion of SKF81297 (0.025 or 0.05 μg/side) into the prelimbic sub-region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this case 10 min before the sampling phase also impaired novel object recognition memory, suggesting that the mPFC is one important site mediating the effects of D1 receptor stimulation on visual recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Blockade of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the basolateral amygdala affects object recognition memory via attenuation of dentate gyrus LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Yuki; Kubota, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Miki; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Hippocampus-dependent memory is modulated by the amygdala. However, it is unknown whether intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in the amygdala is involved in hippocampus-dependent memory. On the basis of the evidence that intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in dentate granule cells (DGC) is necessary for object recognition memory via LTP at medial perforant pathway (PP)-DGC synapses, the present study examined whether intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in the amygdala influences object recognition memory via modulation of LTP at medial PP-DGC synapses. When ZnAF-2DA (100 μM, 2 μl) was injected into the basolateral amygdala (BLA), intracellular ZnAF-2 locally chelated intracellular Zn 2+ in the amygdala. Recognition memory was affected when training of object recognition test was performed 20 min after ZnAF-2DA injection into the BLA. Twenty minutes after injection of ZnAF-2DA into the BLA, LTP induction at medial PP-DGC synapses was attenuated, while LTP induction at PP-BLA synapses was potentiated and LTP induction at BLA-DGC synapses was attenuated. These results suggest that intracellular Zn 2+ signaling in the BLA is involved in BLA-associated LTP and modulates LTP at medial PP-DGC synapses, followed by modulation of object recognition memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct roles of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in GABAA receptor blockade-induced enhancement of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Younghwan; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-03-13

    It is well known that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial and contextual memory, and that spatial information is tightly regulated by the hippocampus. However, it is still highly controversial whether the hippocampus plays a role in object recognition memory. In a pilot study, the administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhanced memory in the passive avoidance task, but not in the novel object recognition task. In the present study, we hypothesized that these different results are related to the characteristics of each task and the different roles of hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. A region-specific drug-treatment model was employed to clarify the role of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in object recognition memory. After a single habituation in the novel object recognition task, intra-perirhinal cortical injection of bicuculline increased and intra-hippocampal injection decreased the exploration time ratio to novel object. In addition, when animals were repeatedly habituated to the context, intra-perirhinal cortical administration of bicuculline still increased exploration time ratio to novel object, but the effect of intra-hippocampal administration disappeared. Concurrent increases of c-Fos expression and ERK phosphorylation were observed in the perirhinal cortex of the object with context-exposed group either after single or repeated habituation to the context, but no changes were noted in the hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that object recognition memory formation requires the perirhinal cortex but not the hippocampus, and that hippocampal activation interferes with object recognition memory by the information encoding of unfamiliar environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parallel main-memory indexing for moving-object query and update workloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    of supporting the location-related query and update workloads generated by very large populations of such moving objects. This paper presents a main-memory indexing technique that aims to support such workloads. The technique, called PGrid, uses a grid structure that is capable of exploiting the parallelism...... offered by modern processors. Unlike earlier proposals that maintain separate structures for updates and queries, PGrid allows both long-running queries and rapid updates to operate on a single data structure and thus offers up-to-date query results. Because PGrid does not rely on creating snapshots...... on the same current data-store state, PGrid outperforms snapshot-based techniques in terms of both query freshness and CPU cycle-wise efficiency....

  14. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Roy P C; Rijken, Stefan; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, Liesbeth W A; Van Schuylenborgh-VAN Es, Nelleke; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the Location Learning Test (LLT) in MCI patients (n = 30), AD patients (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 40). Two scoring methods were compared, aimed at disentangling positional recall (location irrespective of object identity) and object-location binding. The results showed that AD patients performed worse than the MCI patients on the LLT, both on recall of positional information and on recall of the locations of different objects. In addition, both measures could validly discriminate between AD and MCI patients. These findings are in agreement with the notion that visual cued-recall tests may have better diagnostic value than traditional (verbal) free-recall tests in the assessment of patients with suspected MCI or AD.

  15. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  16. Contralateral delay activity tracks object identity information in visual short term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zaifeng; Xu, Xiaotian; Chen, Zhibo; Yin, Jun; Shen, Mowei; Shui, Rende

    2011-08-11

    Previous studies suggested that ERP component contralateral delay activity (CDA) tracks the number of objects containing identity information stored in visual short term memory (VSTM). Later MEG and fMRI studies implied that its neural source lays in superior IPS. However, since the memorized stimuli in previous studies were displayed in distinct spatial locations, hence possibly CDA tracks the object-location information instead. Moreover, a recent study implied the activation in superior IPS reflected the location load. The current research thus explored whether CDA tracks the object-location load or the object-identity load, and its neural sources. Participants were asked to remember one color, four identical colors or four distinct colors. The four-identical-color condition was the critical one because it contains the same amount of identity information as that of one color while the same amount of location information as that of four distinct colors. To ensure the participants indeed selected four colors in the four-identical-color condition, we also split the participants into two groups (low- vs. high-capacity), analyzed late positive component (LPC) in the prefrontal area, and collected participant's subjective-report. Our results revealed that most of the participants selected four identical colors. Moreover, regardless of capacity-group, there was no difference on CDA between one color and four identical colors yet both were lower than 4 distinct colors. Besides, the source of CDA was located in the superior parietal lobule, which is very close to the superior IPS. These results support the statement that CDA tracks the object identity information in VSTM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Eroh, Justin; Spence, Jeffrey S; Motes, Michael A; Maguire, Mandy J; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N=48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1-4Hz, theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-19Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Do you remember where sounds, pictures and words came from? The role of the stimulus format in object location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Lilla, Christopher C

    2017-11-01

    Contrasting results in visual and auditory spatial memory stimulate the debate over the role of sensory modality and attention in identity-to-location binding. We investigated the role of sensory modality in the incidental/deliberate encoding of the location of a sequence of items. In 4 separated blocks, 88 participants memorised sequences of environmental sounds, spoken words, pictures and written words, respectively. After memorisation, participants were asked to recognise old from new items in a new sequence of stimuli. They were also asked to indicate from which side of the screen (visual stimuli) or headphone channel (sounds) the old stimuli were presented in encoding. In the first block, participants were not aware of the spatial requirement while, in blocks 2, 3 and 4 they knew that their memory for item location was going to be tested. Results show significantly lower accuracy of object location memory for the auditory stimuli (environmental sounds and spoken words) than for images (pictures and written words). Awareness of spatial requirement did not influence localisation accuracy. We conclude that: (a) object location memory is more effective for visual objects; (b) object location is implicitly associated with item identity during encoding and (c) visual supremacy in spatial memory does not depend on the automaticity of object location binding.

  19. The right hippocampus participates in short-term memory maintenance of object-location associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piekema, C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Mars, R.B.; Petersson, K.M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been cast on the strict dissociation between short- and long-term memory systems. Specifically, several neuroimaging studies have shown that the medial temporal lobe, a region almost invariably associated with long-term memory, is involved in active short-term memory maintenance.

  20. The right hippocampus participates in short-term memory maintenance of object-location associations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piekema, C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Mars, R.B.; Petersson, K.M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    Doubts have been cast on the strict dissociation between short- and long-term memory systems. Specifically, several neuroimaging studies have shown that the medial temporal lobe, a region almost invariably associated with long-term memory, is involved in active short-term memory maintenance.

  1. Retrieval Is Not Necessary to Trigger Reconsolidation of Object Recognition Memory in the Perirhinal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo-Zedillo, Marianela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Chavez-Marchetta, Gianfranco; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Balderas, Israela

    2014-01-01

    Memory retrieval has been considered as requisite to initiate memory reconsolidation; however, some studies indicate that blocking retrieval does not prevent memory from undergoing reconsolidation. Since N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors in the perirhinal cortex have…

  2. Real-world spatial regularities affect visual working memory for objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, D.; Stein, T.; Peelen, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on measuring and modeling the capacity of visual working memory for simple stimuli such as geometric shapes or colored disks. Although these studies have provided important insights, it is unclear how their findings apply to memory for more naturalistic

  3. The Role of Shape in Semantic Memory Organization of Objects: An Experimental Study Using PI-Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weelden, Lisanne; Schilperoord, Joost; Swerts, Marc; Pecher, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Visual information contributes fundamentally to the process of object categorization. The present study investigated whether the degree of activation of visual information in this process is dependent on the contextual relevance of this information. We used the Proactive Interference (PI-release) paradigm. In four experiments, we manipulated the information by which objects could be categorized and subsequently be retrieved from memory. The pattern of PI-release showed that if objects could be stored and retrieved both by (non-perceptual) semantic and (perceptual) shape information, then shape information was overruled by semantic information. If, however, semantic information could not be (satisfactorily) used to store and retrieve objects, then objects were stored in memory in terms of their shape. The latter effect was found to be strongest for objects from identical semantic categories.

  4. ERP correlates of object recognition memory in Down syndrome: Do active and passive tasks measure the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoogmoed, A H; Nadel, L; Spanò, G; Edgin, J O

    2016-02-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) can help to determine the cognitive and neural processes underlying memory functions and are often used to study populations with severe memory impairment. In healthy adults, memory is typically assessed with active tasks, while in patient studies passive memory paradigms are generally used. In this study we examined whether active and passive continuous object recognition tasks measure the same underlying memory process in typically developing (TD) adults and in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), a population with known hippocampal impairment. We further explored how ERPs in these tasks relate to behavioral measures of memory. Data-driven analysis techniques revealed large differences in old-new effects in the active versus passive task in TD adults, but no difference between these tasks in DS. The group with DS required additional processing in the active task in comparison to the TD group in two ways. First, the old-new effect started 150 ms later. Second, more repetitions were required to show the old-new effect. In the group with DS, performance on a behavioral measure of object-location memory was related to ERP measures across both tasks. In total, our results suggest that active and passive ERP memory measures do not differ in DS and likely reflect the use of implicit memory, but not explicit processing, on both tasks. Our findings highlight the need for a greater understanding of the comparison between active and passive ERP paradigms before they are inferred to measure similar functions across populations (e.g., infants or intellectual disability). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Object Permanence After a 24-Hr Delay and Leaving the Locale of Disappearance: The Role of Memory, Space, and Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, M. Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2004-01-01

    Fourteen-month-old infants saw an object hidden inside a container and were removed from the disappearance locale for 24 hr. Upon their return, they searched correctly for the hidden object, demonstrating object permanence and long-term memory. Control infants who saw no disappearance did not search. In Experiment 2, infants returned to see the container either in the same or a different room. Performance by room-change infants dropped to baseline levels, suggesting that infant search for hid...

  6. Supervised guiding long-short term memory for image caption generation based on object classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Qi, Xinyuan

    2018-03-01

    The present models of image caption generation have the problems of image visual semantic information attenuation and errors in guidance information. In order to solve these problems, we propose a supervised guiding Long Short Term Memory model based on object classes, named S-gLSTM for short. It uses the object detection results from R-FCN as supervisory information with high confidence, and updates the guidance word set by judging whether the last output matches the supervisory information. S-gLSTM learns how to extract the current interested information from the image visual se-mantic information based on guidance word set. The interested information is fed into the S-gLSTM at each iteration as guidance information, to guide the caption generation. To acquire the text-related visual semantic information, the S-gLSTM fine-tunes the weights of the network through the back-propagation of the guiding loss. Complementing guidance information at each iteration solves the problem of visual semantic information attenuation in the traditional LSTM model. Besides, the supervised guidance information in our model can reduce the impact of the mismatched words on the caption generation. We test our model on MSCOCO2014 dataset, and obtain better performance than the state-of-the- art models.

  7. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Visual Short-Term Memory Gain for Temporally Distinct Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Linden, David E J; Miller, Claire E; Shapiro, Kimron L

    2015-08-01

    Recent research has shown that visual short-term memory (VSTM) can substantially be improved when the to-be-remembered objects are split in 2 half-arrays (i.e., sequenced) or the entire array is shown twice (i.e., repeated), rather than presented simultaneously. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sequencing and repeating displays overcomes attentional "bottlenecks" during simultaneous encoding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that sequencing and repeating displays increased brain activation in extrastriate and primary visual areas, relative to simultaneous displays (Study 1). Passively viewing identical stimuli did not increase visual activation (Study 2), ruling out a physical confound. Importantly, areas of the frontoparietal attention network showed increased activation in repetition but not in sequential trials. This dissociation suggests that repeating a display increases attentional control by allowing attention to be reallocated in a second encoding episode. In contrast, sequencing the array poses fewer demands on control, with competition from nonattended objects being reduced by the half-arrays. This idea was corroborated by a third study in which we found optimal VSTM for sequential displays minimizing attentional demands. Importantly these results provide support within the same experimental paradigm for the role of stimulus-driven and top-down attentional control aspects of biased competition theory in setting constraints on VSTM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in encoding and consolidation, but not retrieval, processes of spontaneous object location memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Arai, Misaki; Suenaga, Toshiko; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-07-28

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in object location recognition memory, yet the contribution of hippocampal NMDA receptors to the memory processes, such as encoding, retention and retrieval, is unknown. First, we confirmed that hippocampal infusion of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), impaired performance of spontaneous object location recognition test but not that of novel object recognition test in Wistar rats. Next, the effects of hippocampal AP5 treatment on each process of object location recognition memory were examined with three different injection times using a 120min delay-interposed test: 15min before the sample phase (Time I), immediately after the sample phase (Time II), and 15min before the test phase (Time III). The blockade of hippocampal NMDA receptors before and immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, markedly impaired performance of object location recognition test, suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in encoding and consolidation/retention, but not retrieval, of spontaneous object location memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs recency-dependent object recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J.; Hindley, Emma; Smeaton, Emily; Denny, Nick; Taylor, Amy; Barkus, Chris; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs short-term spatial recognition memory. It has been suggested that short-term recognition depends upon memory caused by the recent presentation of a stimulus that is independent of contextual–retrieval processes. The aim of the present set of experiments was to test whether the role of GluA1 extends to nonspatial recognition memory. Wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice were tested on the standard object recognition task and a context-independent recognition task that required recency-dependent memory. In a first set of experiments it was found that GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on either of the object recognition or recency-dependent tasks. However, GluA1 knockout mice displayed increased levels of exploration of the objects in both the sample and test phases compared to controls. In contrast, when the time that GluA1 knockout mice spent exploring the objects was yoked to control mice during the sample phase, it was found that GluA1 deletion now impaired performance on both the object recognition and the recency-dependent tasks. GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on a context-dependent recognition task regardless of whether object exposure in knockout mice was yoked to controls or not. These results demonstrate that GluA1 is necessary for nonspatial as well as spatial recognition memory and plays an important role in recency-dependent memory processes. PMID:21378100

  10. Subjective cognitive concerns are associated with objective memory performance in Caucasian but not African-American persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Rentz, Dorene M; Aghjayan, Sarah L; Buckley, Rachel F; Meneide, Tamy-Fee; Sperling, Reisa A; Amariglio, Rebecca E

    2017-11-01

    subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) have been proposed as a means of identifying individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the utility of SCCs has not been well-explored for African-Americans, who are twice as likely to develop AD dementia as Caucasians. We investigated whether race affects the association between SCCs and objective memory performance. we used a composite of three SCC questionnaires, and three challenging episodic memory tests. We studied 289 (61% female; African-American n = 47) clinically normal older individuals. Two hierarchical linear regressions assessed the modifying role of race on the association between SCC and objective memory performance. The first regression was conducted on the full sample, while the second matched the racial groups on age, estimated verbal IQ and socioeconomic status. in the full sample, both groups reported similar levels of SCCs, P = 0.10, although African-Americans performed worse on the memory tasks, P memory among Caucasians, r = -0.401, the correlation was not found among African-Americans, r = -0.052. results suggest that the dissociation between SCCs and memory performance in African-Americans may indicate qualitative differences in how diverse groups endorse cognitive concerns, even after considering socioeconomic and educational factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Caffeine prevents disruption of memory consolidation in the inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks by scopolamine in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Paulo Henrique; Costa, Marcelo S; Ardais, Ana Paula; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Souza, Diogo O; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2010-12-25

    Caffeine is a psychostimulant with positive effects on cognition. Recent studies have suggested the participation of the cholinergic system in the effects of caffeine on wakefulness. However, there are few studies assessing the contribution of cholinergic system in the cognitive enhancer properties of caffeine. In the present study, the effects of a dose and schedule of administration of caffeine that improved memory recognition were investigated on scopolamine-induced impairment of memory in adult mice. Inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks were used to assess learning and memory. Caffeine (10mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during 4 consecutive days, and the treatment was interrupted 24h before scopolamine administration (2mg/kg, i.p.). Scopolamine was administered prior to or immediately after training. Short-term and long-term memory was evaluated in both tasks. In the novel object recognition task, pre treatment with caffeine prevented the disruption of short- and long-term memory by scopolamine. In the inhibitory avoidance task, caffeine prevented short- but not long-term memory disruption by pre training administration of scopolamine. Caffeine prevented short- and long-term memory disruption by post training administration of scopolamine. Both treatments did not affect locomotor activity of the animals. These findings suggest that acute treatment with caffeine followed by its withdrawal may be effective against cholinergic-induced disruption of memory assessed in an aversive and non-aversive task. Finally, our results revealed that the cholinergic system is involved in the positive effects of caffeine on cognitive functions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Shiang Chu

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  13. Integrated cross-domain object storage in working memory : Evidence from a verbal-spatial memory task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morey, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Working-memory theories often include domain-specific verbal and visual stores (e.g., the phonological and visuospatial buffers of Baddeley, 1986), and some also posit more general stores thought to be capable of holding verbal or visuospatial materials (Baddeley, 2000; Cowan, 2005). However, it is

  14. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  15. Object-based encoding in visual working memory: a life span study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shen, Mowei; Tang, Ning; Zhao, Guohua; Gao, Zaifeng

    2013-08-20

    Recent studies on development of visual working memory (VWM) predominantly focus on VWM capacity and spatial-based information filtering in VWM. Here we explored another new aspect of VWM development: object-based encoding (OBE), which refers to the fact that even if one feature dimension is required to be selected into VWM, the other irrelevant dimensions are also extracted. We explored the OBE in children, young adults, and old adults, by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect" in which a change of stored irrelevant feature dramatically affects the performance of task-relevant features in a change-detection task. Participants were required to remember two or four simple colored shapes, while color was used as the relevant dimension. We found that changes to irrelevant shapes led to a significant distracting effect across the three age groups in both load conditions; however, children showed a greater degree of OBE than did young and old adults. These results suggest that OBE exists in VWM over the life span (6-67 years), yet continues to develop along with VWM.

  16. Transgenic miR132 alters neuronal spine density and impairs novel object recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin F Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression plays a central role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory, and dysfunction of the underlying molecular events can lead to severe neuronal disorders. In addition to coding transcripts (mRNAs, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs appear to play a role in these processes. For instance, the CREB-regulated miRNA miR132 has been shown to affect neuronal structure in an activity-dependent manner, yet the details of its physiological effects and the behavioral consequences in vivo remain unclear. To examine these questions, we employed a transgenic mouse strain that expresses miR132 in forebrain neurons. Morphometric analysis of hippocampal neurons revealed that transgenic miR132 triggers a marked increase in dendritic spine density. Additionally, miR132 transgenic mice exhibited a decrease in the expression of MeCP2, a protein implicated in Rett Syndrome and other disorders of mental retardation. Consistent with these findings, miR132 transgenic mice displayed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Together, these data support a role for miR132 as a regulator of neuronal structure and function, and raise the possibility that dysregulation of miR132 could contribute to an array of cognitive disorders.

  17. Role of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Retrieval of Novel Object Recognition Memory after a Long Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, Marie A.; Marshall, Hayley J.; Fone, Kevin C. F.; Cassaday, Helen J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous in vivo electrophysiological studies suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACgx) is an important substrate of novel object recognition (NOR) memory. However, intervention studies are needed to confirm this conclusion and permanent lesion studies cannot distinguish effects on encoding and retrieval. The interval between encoding and…

  18. The protective effect of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on object recognition memory in animal model of Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hesperetin (Hst, aglycone form of hesperidin, is reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. On the other hand, the latest nanoparticle technology can help to improve the bioavailability of Hst, which is affected by the final particle size and stability. Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized by loss of the cognitive abilities, including memory, speech, emotions, and personality. Oxidative stress, a condition that occurs due to the imbalance in oxidant and antioxidant status, has been known to play a vital role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the protective effects of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on memory disorder in the brains of Alzheimer’s animal models. Methods: Forty nine male rats were divided into 7 groups: control, vehicle, STZ group (rats were injected with STZ, treatment groups receiving 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin. Then 3 μgr/rat of (STZ was injected to the cerebroventricular of rats of all groups except the control and vehicle groups. The 4 treatment groups were gavaged by, respectively 10, 20 mg/Kg of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin for 30 days. After three weeks, recognition memory was examined by novel object recognition test. Results: The results showed that injection of STZ increased memory disorders (p≤0.001 and treatment of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin effectively decreased memory disorders (p

  19. How does aging affect the types of error made in a visual short-term memoryobject-recall’ task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju P Sapkota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how normal aging affects the occurrence of different types of incorrect responses in a visual short-term memory object-recall task. Seventeen young (Mean = 23.3 years, SD = 3.76, and 17 normally aging older (Mean = 66.5 years, SD = 6.30 adults participated. Memory stimuli comprised 2 or 4 real world objects (the memory load presented sequentially, each for 650ms, at random locations on a computer screen. After a 1000ms retention interval, a test display was presented, comprising an empty box at one of the previously presented 2 or 4 memory stimulus locations. Participants were asked to report the name of the object presented at the cued location. Errors rates wherein participants reported the names of objects that had been presented in the memory display but not at the cued location (non-target errors vs. objects that had not been presented at all in the memory display (non-memory errors were compared. Significant effects of aging, memory load and target recency on error type and absolute error rates were found. Non-target error rate was higher than non-memory error rate in both age groups, indicating that VSTM may have been more often than not populated with partial traces of previously presented items. At high memory load, non-memory error rate was higher in young participants (compared to older participants when the memory target had been presented at the earliest temporal position. However, non-target error rates exhibited a reversed trend, i.e., greater error rates were found in older participants when the memory target had been presented at the two most recent temporal positions. Data are interpreted in terms of proactive interference (earlier examined non-target items interfering with more recent items, false memories (non-memory items which have a categorical relationship to presented items, interfering with memory targets, slot and flexible resource models, and spatial coding deficits.

  20. Performance of four different rat strains in the autoshaping, two-object discrimination, and swim maze tests of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J S; Jansen, J H; Linders, S; Princen, A; Broekkamp, C L

    1995-04-01

    The performance of four strains of rats commonly used in behavioural research was assessed in three different tests of learning and memory. The four strains included three outbred lines (Long-Evans, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar) and one inbred strain (S3). Learning and memory were tested using three different paradigms: autoshaping of a lever press, a two-object discrimination test, and performance in a two-island swim maze task. The pigmented strains showed better performance in the autoshaping procedure: the majority of the Long-Evans and the S3 rats acquired the response, and the majority of the Wistar and Sprague-Dawley failed to acquire the response in the set time. The albino strains were slightly better in the swim maze than the pigmented strains. There appeared to be a speed/accuracy trade-off in the strategy used to solve the task. This was also evident following treatment with the cholinergic-depleting agent hemicholinium-3. The performance of the Long-Evans rats was most affected by the treatment in terms of accuracy and the Wistar and Sprague-Dawleys in terms of speed. In the two-object discrimination test only the Long-Evans showed satisfactory performance and were able to discriminate a novel from a known object a short interval after initial exposure. These results show large task- and strain-dependent differences in performance in tests of learning and memory. Some of the performance variation may be due to emotional differences between the strains and may be alleviated by extra training. However, the response to pharmacological manipulation may require more careful evaluation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The association between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive function in older people with previous major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-Shiang; Sun, I-Wen; Begum, Aysha; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chang, Ching-Jui; Chiu, Wei-Che; Chen, Chin-Hsin; Tang, Hwang-Shen; Yang, Chia-Li; Lin, Ying-Chin; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%). Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scorememory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.

  2. A single night of sleep loss impairs objective but not subjective working memory performance in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rångtell, Frida H; Karamchedu, Swathy; Andersson, Peter; Liethof, Lisanne; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Lampola, Lauri; Schiöth, Helgi B; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Benedict, Christian

    2018-01-31

    Acute sleep deprivation can lead to judgement errors and thereby increases the risk of accidents, possibly due to an impaired working memory. However, whether the adverse effects of acute sleep loss on working memory are modulated by auditory distraction in women and men are not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether sleep loss alters the way in which men and women perceive their working memory performance. Thus, 24 young adults (12 women using oral contraceptives at the time of investigation) participated in two experimental conditions: nocturnal sleep (scheduled between 22:30 and 06:30 hours) versus one night of total sleep loss. Participants were administered a digital working memory test in which eight-digit sequences were learned and retrieved in the morning after each condition. Learning of digital sequences was accompanied by either silence or auditory distraction (equal distribution among trials). After sequence retrieval, each trial ended with a question regarding how certain participants were of the correctness of their response, as a self-estimate of working memory performance. We found that sleep loss impaired objective but not self-estimated working memory performance in women. In contrast, both measures remained unaffected by sleep loss in men. Auditory distraction impaired working memory performance, without modulation by sleep loss or sex. Being unaware of cognitive limitations when sleep-deprived, as seen in our study, could lead to undesirable consequences in, for example, an occupational context. Our findings suggest that sleep-deprived young women are at particular risk for overestimating their working memory performance. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  3. A configural effect in visual short-term memory for features from different parts of an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvenne, Jean-François; Bruyer, Raymond

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that change detection performance is improved when the visual display holds features (e.g., a colour and an orientation) that are grouped into different parts of the same object compared to when they are all spatially separated (Xu, 2002a, 2002b). These findings indicate that visual short-term memory (VSTM) encoding can be "object based". Recently, however, it has been demonstrated that changing the orientation of an item could affect the spatial configuration of the display (Jiang, Chun, & Olson, 2004), which may have an important influence on change detection. The perceptual grouping of features into an object obviously reduces the amount of distinct spatial relations in a display and hence the complexity of the spatial configuration. In the present study, we ask whether the object-based encoding benefit observed in previous studies may reflect the use of configural coding rather than the outcome of a true object-based effect. The results show that when configural cues are removed, the object-based encoding benefit remains for features (i.e., colour and orientation) from different parts of an object, but is significantly reduced. These findings support the view that memory for features from different parts of an object can benefit from object-based encoding, but the use of configural coding significantly helps enlarge this effect.

  4. Automatic frame-centered object representation and integration revealed by iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; He, Sheng

    2012-10-25

    Object identities ("what") and their spatial locations ("where") are processed in distinct pathways in the visual system, raising the question of how the what and where information is integrated. Because of object motions and eye movements, the retina-based representations are unstable, necessitating nonretinotopic representation and integration. A potential mechanism is to code and update objects according to their reference frames (i.e., frame-centered representation and integration). To isolate frame-centered processes, in a frame-to-frame apparent motion configuration, we (a) presented two preceding or trailing objects on the same frame, equidistant from the target on the other frame, to control for object-based (frame-based) effect and space-based effect, and (b) manipulated the target's relative location within its frame to probe frame-centered effect. We show that iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking depend on objects' relative frame locations, orthogonal of the retinotopic coordinate. These findings not only reveal that iconic memory, visual priming, and backward masking can be nonretinotopic but also demonstrate that these processes are automatically constrained by contextual frames through a frame-centered mechanism. Thus, object representation is robustly and automatically coupled to its reference frame and continuously being updated through a frame-centered, location-specific mechanism. These findings lead to an object cabinet framework, in which objects ("files") within the reference frame ("cabinet") are orderly coded relative to the frame.

  5. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  6. Persistent spatial information in the FEF during object-based short-term memory does not contribute to task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kelsey L; Noudoost, Behrad; Moore, Tirin

    2014-06-01

    We previously reported the existence of a persistent spatial signal in the FEF during object-based STM. This persistent activity reflected the location at which the sample appeared, irrespective of the location of upcoming targets. We hypothesized that such a spatial signal could be used to maintain or enhance object-selective memory activity elsewhere in cortex, analogous to the role of a spatial signal during attention. Here, we inactivated a portion of the FEF with GABAa agonist muscimol to test whether the observed activity contributes to object memory performance. We found that, although RTs were slowed for saccades into the inactivated portion of retinotopic space, performance for samples appearing in that region was unimpaired. This contrasts with the devastating effects of the same FEF inactivation on purely spatial working memory, as assessed with the memory-guided saccade task. Thus, in a task in which a significant fraction of FEF neurons displayed persistent, sample location-based activity, disrupting this activity had no impact on task performance.

  7. Altered Neural Activity during Semantic Object Memory Retrieval in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Spence, Jeffrey S; Womack, Kyle B; Cullum, C Munro; Tanner, Jeremy A; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in semantic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been previously reported, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 16 individuals with aMCI as compared to 17 normal controls using the Semantic Object Retrieval Task (EEG SORT). In this task, subjects judged whether pairs of words (object features) elicited retrieval of an object (retrieval trials) or not (non-retrieval trials). Behavioral findings revealed that aMCI subjects had lower accuracy scores and marginally longer reaction time compared to controls. We used a multivariate analytical technique (STAT-PCA) to investigate similarities and differences in ERPs between aMCI and control groups. STAT-PCA revealed a left fronto-temporal component starting at around 750 ms post-stimulus in both groups. However, unlike controls, aMCI subjects showed an increase in the frontal-parietal scalp potential that distinguished retrieval from non-retrieval trials between 950 and 1050 ms post-stimulus negatively correlated with the performance on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Thus, individuals with aMCI were not only impaired in their behavioral performance on SORT relative to controls, but also displayed alteration in the corresponding ERPs. The altered neural activity in aMCI compared to controls suggests a more sustained and effortful search during object memory retrieval, which may be a potential marker indicating disease processes at the pre-dementia stage.

  8. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Object Recognition Memory and Induces Chromatin Remodeling in the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba eBeldjoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC, a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 µg or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  9. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory

  10. A bilateral advantage for maintaining objects in visual short term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, JL; Delvenne, JFCM

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that attentional pre-cues can subsequently influence the transfer of information into visual short term memory (VSTM) (Schmidt, B., Vogel, E., Woodman, G., & Luck, S. (2002). Voluntary and automatic attentional control of visual working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 64(5), 754–763). However, studies also suggest that those effects are constrained by the hemifield alignment of the pre-cues (Holt, J. L., & Delvenne, J.-F. (2014). A bilateral advantage in controlling acc...

  11. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePedale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.

  12. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  13. Copula Regression Analysis of Simultaneously Recorded Frontal Eye Field and Inferotemporal Spiking Activity during Object-Based Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Clark, Kelsey L.; Gong, Xiajing; Noudoost, Behrad; Li, Mingyao; Moore, Tirin

    2015-01-01

    Inferotemporal (IT) neurons are known to exhibit persistent, stimulus-selective activity during the delay period of object-based working memory tasks. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons show robust, spatially selective delay period activity during memory-guided saccade tasks. We present a copula regression paradigm to examine neural interaction of these two types of signals between areas IT and FEF of the monkey during a working memory task. This paradigm is based on copula models that can account for both marginal distribution over spiking activity of individual neurons within each area and joint distribution over ensemble activity of neurons between areas. Considering the popular GLMs as marginal models, we developed a general and flexible likelihood framework that uses the copula to integrate separate GLMs into a joint regression analysis. Such joint analysis essentially leads to a multivariate analog of the marginal GLM theory and hence efficient model estimation. In addition, we show that Granger causality between spike trains can be readily assessed via the likelihood ratio statistic. The performance of this method is validated by extensive simulations, and compared favorably to the widely used GLMs. When applied to spiking activity of simultaneously recorded FEF and IT neurons during working memory task, we observed significant Granger causality influence from FEF to IT, but not in the opposite direction, suggesting the role of the FEF in the selection and retention of visual information during working memory. The copula model has the potential to provide unique neurophysiological insights about network properties of the brain. PMID:26063909

  14. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning Is Better with the Hands Free: The Role of Posture in the Memory of Manipulable Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutriaux, Léo; Gyselinck, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition proposes that memory shares processing resources with sensorimotor systems. The aim of the present study was to show that motor simulation participates in the conceptual representation of manipulable objects in long-term memory. In two experiments, lists of manipulable and nonmanipulable objects were presented. Participants were instructed to memorize the items while adopting different postures. In the control condition, they had to keep their hands at rest in front of them. In the interference condition, participants had to keep their hands crossed behind their back to make their hands less free for action. After each list, participants had to perform first a distractive task, and then an oral free recall. The results showed that the interfering posture produced a specific decrease in the recall of manipulable objects, but not of nonmanipulable ones. This decrease was similar when the items were presented as pictures (Experiment 1) or as words (Experiment 2), thus excluding a purely visual effect. These results provide strong evidence that the motor simulation plays a role in the memory trace of the object.

  16. Adult age differences in memory for schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in the inconsistency effect, in which memory is enhanced for schema-inconsistent information compared to schema-consistent information. Young and older adults studied schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in an academic office under either intentional or incidental encoding instructions, and were given two recognition tests either immediately or after 48 hr: A yes/no item recognition test that included modified remember/know judgments and a token recognition test that required determining whether an original object was replaced with a different object with the same name. Young and older adults showed equivalent inconsistency effects in both item and token recognition tests, although older adults reported phenomenologically less rich memories of schema-inconsistent objects relative to young adults. These findings run counter to previous reports suggesting that aging is associated with processing declines at encoding that impair memory for details of schema-inconsistent or distinctive events. The results are consistent with a retrieval-based account in which age-related difficulties in retrieving contextual details can be offset by environmental support.

  17. Learning Is Better with the Hands Free: The Role of Posture in the Memory of Manipulable Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo Dutriaux

    Full Text Available Grounded cognition proposes that memory shares processing resources with sensorimotor systems. The aim of the present study was to show that motor simulation participates in the conceptual representation of manipulable objects in long-term memory. In two experiments, lists of manipulable and nonmanipulable objects were presented. Participants were instructed to memorize the items while adopting different postures. In the control condition, they had to keep their hands at rest in front of them. In the interference condition, participants had to keep their hands crossed behind their back to make their hands less free for action. After each list, participants had to perform first a distractive task, and then an oral free recall. The results showed that the interfering posture produced a specific decrease in the recall of manipulable objects, but not of nonmanipulable ones. This decrease was similar when the items were presented as pictures (Experiment 1 or as words (Experiment 2, thus excluding a purely visual effect. These results provide strong evidence that the motor simulation plays a role in the memory trace of the object.

  18. How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A

    2016-12-01

    The "shape bias" describes the phenomenon that, after a certain point in development, children and adults generalize object categories based on shape to a greater degree than other perceptual features. The focus of research on the shape bias has been to examine the types of information that learners attend to in one moment in time. The current work takes a different approach by examining whether learners' categorical biases are related to their retention of information across time. In three experiments, children's (N=72) and adults' (N=240) memory performance for features of objects was examined in relation to their categorical biases. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the number of shape matches chosen during the shape bias task significantly predicted shape memory. Moreover, children and adults with a shape bias were more likely to remember the shape of objects than the color and size of objects. Taken together, this work suggests that the development of a shape bias may engender better memory for shape information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A.

    2016-01-01

    The “shape bias” describes the phenomenon that, after a certain point in development, children and adults generalize object categories based upon shape to a greater degree than other perceptual features. The focus of research on the shape bias has been to examine the types of information that learners attend to in one moment in time. The current work takes a different approach by examining whether learners' categorical biases are related to their retention of information across time. In three experiments, children's (N = 72) and adults' (N = 240) memory performance for features of objects was examined in relation to their categorical biases. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the number of shape matches chosen during the shape bias task significantly predicted shape memory. Moreover, children and adults with a shape bias were more likely to remember the shape of objects than they were the color and size of objects. Taken together, this work suggests the development of a shape bias may engender better memory for shape information. PMID:27454236

  20. Orbital prefrontal cortex is required for object-in-place scene memory but not performance of a strategy implementation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark G; Gaffan, David; Kyriazis, Diana A; Mitchell, Anna S

    2007-10-17

    The orbital prefrontal cortex is thought to be involved in behavioral flexibility in primates, and human neuroimaging studies have identified orbital prefrontal activation during episodic memory encoding. The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether deficits in strategy implementation and episodic memory that occur after ablation of the entire prefrontal cortex can be ascribed to damage to the orbital prefrontal cortex. Rhesus monkeys were preoperatively trained on two behavioral tasks, the performance of both of which is severely impaired by the disconnection of frontal cortex from inferotemporal cortex. In the strategy implementation task, monkeys were required to learn about two categories of objects, each associated with a different strategy that had to be performed to obtain food reward. The different strategies had to be applied flexibly to optimize the rate of reward delivery. In the scene memory task, monkeys learned 20 new object-in-place discrimination problems in each session. Monkeys were tested on both tasks before and after bilateral ablation of orbital prefrontal cortex. These lesions impaired new scene learning but had no effect on strategy implementation. This finding supports a role for the orbital prefrontal cortex in memory but places limits on the involvement of orbital prefrontal cortex in the representation and implementation of behavioral goals and strategies.

  1. Regionally Selective Requirement for D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] Dopaminergic Neurotransmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Object-in-Place Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Bashir, Zafar I.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2015-01-01

    Object-in-place (OiP) memory is critical for remembering the location in which an object was last encountered and depends conjointly on the medial prefrontal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Here we examined the role of dopamine D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] receptor neurotransmission within these brain regions for OiP memory. Bilateral…

  2. Neural system for updating object working memory from different sources: sensory stimuli or long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jennifer K; Courtney, Susan M

    2007-11-15

    Working memory (WM) is the active maintenance of currently relevant information so that it is available for use. A crucial component of WM is the ability to update the contents when new information becomes more relevant than previously maintained information. New information can come from different sources, including from sensory stimuli (SS) or from long-term memory (LTM). Updating WM may involve a single neural system regardless of source, distinct systems for each source, or a common network with additional regions involved specifically in sensory or LTM processes. The current series of experiments indicates that a single fronto-parietal network (including supplementary motor area, parietal, left inferior frontal junction, middle frontal gyrus) is active in updating WM regardless of the source of information. Bilateral cuneus was more active during updating WM from LTM than updating from SS, but the activity in this region was attributable to recalling information from LTM regardless of whether that information was to be entered into WM for future use or not. No regions were found to be more active during updating from SS than updating from LTM. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that different regions within this common update network were differentially more correlated with visual processing regions when participants updated from SS, and more correlated with LTM processing regions when participants updated from the contents of LTM. These results suggest that a single neural mechanism is responsible for controlling the contents of WM regardless of whether that information originates from a sensory stimulus or from LTM. This network of regions involved in updating WM interacts with the rest of the brain differently depending on the source of newly relevant information.

  3. Mental Objects in Working Memory: Development of Basic Capacity or of Cognitive Completion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson

    2018-01-01

    Working memory is the small amount of information that we hold in mind and use to carry out cognitive processes such as language comprehension and production, problem-solving, and decision-making. In order to understand cognitive development, it would be helpful to know whether working memory increases in capacity with development and, if so, how and why. I will focus on two major stumbling blocks toward understanding working memory development, namely that (1) many potentially relevant aspects of the mind change in parallel during development, obscuring the role of any one change; and (2) one cannot use the same test procedure from infancy to adulthood, complicating comparisons across age groups. With regard to the first stumbling block, the parallel development of different aspects of the mind, we discuss research in which attempts were made to hold constant some factors (knowledge, strategies, direction of attention) to investigate whether developmental differences remain. With regard to the second stumbling block, procedural differences in tests at different age groups, I suggest ways in which the results might be reconciled across procedures. I highlight the value of pursuing research that could distinguish between two different key hypotheses that emerge: that there is a developmental increase in the number of working memory slots (or in a basic resource that holds items in working memory), and that there is a developmental increase in the amount of detail that each of these slots can hold. PMID:28215289

  4. Mental Objects in Working Memory: Development of Basic Capacity or of Cognitive Completion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, N

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is the small amount of information that we hold in mind and use to carry out cognitive processes such as language comprehension and production, problem solving, and decision making. In order to understand cognitive development, it would be helpful to know whether working memory increases in capacity with development and, if so, how and why. I will focus on two major stumbling blocks toward understanding working memory development, namely that (1) many potentially relevant aspects of the mind change in parallel during development, obscuring the role of any one change; and (2) one cannot use the same test procedure from infancy to adulthood, complicating comparisons across age groups. With regard to the first stumbling block, the parallel development of different aspects of the mind, we discuss research in which attempts were made to hold constant some factors (knowledge, strategies, direction of attention) to investigate whether developmental differences remain. With regard to the second stumbling block, procedural differences in tests for different age groups, I suggest ways in which the results might be reconciled across procedures. I highlight the value of pursuing research that could distinguish between two different key hypotheses that emerge: that there is a developmental increase in the number of working memory slots (or in a basic resource that holds items in working memory), and that there is a developmental increase in the amount of detail that each of these slots can hold. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eye movement suppression interferes with construction of object-centered spatial reference frames in working memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager

    2011-01-01

    The brain's frontal eye fields (FEF), responsible for eye movement control, are known to be involved in spatial working memory (WM). In a previous fMRI experiment (Wallentin, Roepstorff & Burgess, Neuropsychologia, 2008) it was found that FEF activation was primarily related to the formation...

  6. Eye movement during recall reduces objective memory performance : An extended replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M.; Lenaert, Bert; Struyf, Dieter; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these

  7. Lateralized Spatial and Object Memory Encoding in Entorhinal and Perirhinal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgowan, Patrick S. F.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.; Bodurka, Jerzy; Martin, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The perirhinal and entorhinal cortices are critical components of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) declarative memory system. Study of their specific functions using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), however, has suffered from severe magnetic susceptibility signal dropout resulting in poor…

  8. Memory for Complex Visual Objects but Not for Allocentric Locations during the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Although human infants demonstrate early competence to retain visual information, memory capacities during infancy remain largely undocumented. In three experiments, we used a Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task to examine abilities to encode identity (Experiment 1) and spatial properties (Experiments 2a and 2b) of unfamiliar complex visual…

  9. Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala modulates the consolidation of object-in-context recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsegyan, Areg; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is well known to enhance the consolidation of long-term memory of highly emotionally arousing training experiences. The present study investigated whether such noradrenergic activation of the BLA also influences the

  10. The Role of Visual Working Memory in Attentive Tracking of Unique Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2009-01-01

    When tracking moving objects in space humans usually attend to the objects' spatial locations and update this information over time. To what extent do surface features assist attentive tracking? In this study we asked participants to track identical or uniquely colored objects. Tracking was enhanced when objects were unique in color. The benefit…

  11. Suppressing memories of words and familiar objects results in their affective devaluation: Evidence from Think/No-think tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, David; Fenske, Mark J

    2017-05-01

    Potentially distracting or otherwise-inappropriate stimuli, thoughts, or actions often must be inhibited to prevent interference with goal-directed behaviour. Growing evidence suggests that the impact of inhibition is not limited to reduced neurocognitive processing, but also includes negative affective consequences for any associated stimuli. The link between inhibition and aversive response has primarily been studied using tasks involving attentional- or response-related inhibition of external sensory stimuli. Here we show that affective devaluation also occurs when inhibition is applied to fully-encoded stimulus representations in memory. We first replicated prior findings of increased forgetting of words whose memories were suppressed in a Think/No-think procedure (Experiment 1). Incorporating a stimulus-evaluation task within this procedure revealed that suppressing memories of words (Experiment 2) and visual objects (Experiment 3) also results in their affective devaluation. Given the critical role of memory for guiding thoughts and actions, these results suggest that the affective consequences of inhibition may occur across a far broader range of situations than previously understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Edler

    Full Text Available Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids, provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000 further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy. It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information.

  13. How Fast Do Objects Fall in Visual Memory? Uncovering the Temporal and Spatial Features of Representational Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Visual memory for the spatial location where a moving target vanishes has been found to be systematically displaced downward in the direction of gravity. Moreover, it was recently reported that the magnitude of the downward error increases steadily with increasing retention intervals imposed after object's offset and before observers are allowed to perform the spatial localization task, in a pattern where the remembered vanishing location drifts downward as if following a falling trajectory. This outcome was taken to reflect the dynamics of a representational model of earth's gravity. The present study aims to establish the spatial and temporal features of this downward drift by taking into account the dynamics of the motor response. The obtained results show that the memory for the last location of the target drifts downward with time, thus replicating previous results. Moreover, the time taken for completion of the behavioural localization movements seems to add to the imposed retention intervals in determining the temporal frame during which the visual memory is updated. Overall, it is reported that the representation of spatial location drifts downward by about 3 pixels for each two-fold increase of time until response. The outcomes are discussed in relation to a predictive internal model of gravity which outputs an on-line spatial update of remembered objects' location.

  14. Limitless capacity: A dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill eMacken

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems – ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally – that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes.

  15. Limitless capacity: a dynamic object-oriented approach to short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Bill; Taylor, John; Jones, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The notion of capacity-limited processing systems is a core element of cognitive accounts of limited and variable performance, enshrined within the short-term memory construct. We begin with a detailed critical analysis of the conceptual bases of this view and argue that there are fundamental problems - ones that go to the heart of cognitivism more generally - that render it untenable. In place of limited capacity systems, we propose a framework for explaining performance that focuses on the dynamic interplay of three aspects of any given setting: the particular task that must be accomplished, the nature and form of the material upon which the task must be performed, and the repertoire of skills and perceptual-motor functions possessed by the participant. We provide empirical examples of the applications of this framework in areas of performance typically accounted for by reference to capacity-limited short-term memory processes.

  16. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  17. Acute tryptophan depletion dose dependently impairs object memory in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Jans, L A W; Korte-Bouws, G A H; Korte, S M; Deen, P M T; Cools, A R; Ellenbroek, B A; Blokland, A

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) transiently lowers central serotonin levels and can induce depressive mood states and cognitive defects. Previous studies have shown that ATD impairs object recognition in rats. OBJECTIVES: As individual differences exist in central serotonin

  18. Collectors practices and the preserving of their memories: Objects of the First World War in Nord Pas de Calais and west Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka SMOLCZEWSKA-TONA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the preserving of the memory shared by collectors and mediators of objects from the Great War in the context of museum mediation. The notion of the memory is understood in this article as the body of knowledge acquired, held and shared by these collectors within the framework of their practice of collection and mediation. We look firstly at the informational and communicative dimension of these collectors’ memory. We show that the collector’s memory relating to the objects collected takes a variety of different forms and that it is primarily communicated in oral and gestural form. The results of our analysis lead us to the conclusion that, today, only audiovisual recording techniques allow preserving a precise copy of memories for the long term. The second part of our analysis presents an audiovisual protocol for preparing, recording and storage of these memory traces.

  19. Discrete capacity limits and neuroanatomical correlates of visual short-term memory for objects and spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Constantinidou, Fofi; Kanai, Ryota

    2017-02-01

    Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM. Behavioral capacity estimates were calculated separately for spatial and object information using a novel adaptive staircase procedure and were found to be unrelated, supporting domain-specific VSTM capacity limits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed dissociable neuroanatomical correlates of spatial versus object VSTM. Interindividual variability in spatial VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, object VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the left insula. These dissociable findings highlight the importance of considering domain-specific estimates of VSTM capacity and point to the crucial brain regions that limit VSTM capacity for different types of visual information. Hum Brain Mapp 38:767-778, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Integration of Distinct Objects in Visual Working Memory Depends on Strong Objecthood Cues Even for Different-Dimension Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-05-01

    What makes an integrated object in visual working memory (WM)? Past evidence suggested that WM holds all features of multidimensional objects together, but struggles to integrate color-color conjunctions. This difficulty was previously attributed to a challenge in same-dimension integration, but here we argue that it arises from the integration of 2 distinct objects. To test this, we examined the integration of distinct different-dimension features (a colored square and a tilted bar). We monitored the contralateral delay activity, an event-related potential component sensitive to the number of objects in WM. The results indicated that color and orientation belonging to distinct objects in a shared location were not integrated in WM (Experiment 1), even following a common fate Gestalt cue (Experiment 2). These conjunctions were better integrated in a less demanding task (Experiment 3), and in the original WM task, but with a less individuating version of the original stimuli (Experiment 4). Our results identify the critical factor in WM integration at same- versus separate-objects, rather than at same- versus different-dimensions. Compared with the perfect integration of an object's features, the integration of several objects is demanding, and depends on an interaction between the grouping cues and task demands, among other factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  2. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. A bilateral advantage for maintaining objects in visual short term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jessica L; Delvenne, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that attentional pre-cues can subsequently influence the transfer of information into visual short term memory (VSTM) (Schmidt, B., Vogel, E., Woodman, G., & Luck, S. (2002). Voluntary and automatic attentional control of visual working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 64(5), 754-763). However, studies also suggest that those effects are constrained by the hemifield alignment of the pre-cues (Holt, J. L., & Delvenne, J.-F. (2014). A bilateral advantage in controlling access to visual short-term memory. Experimental Psychology, 61(2), 127-133), revealing better recall when distributed across hemifields relative to within a single hemifield (otherwise known as a bilateral field advantage). By manipulating the duration of the retention interval in a colour change detection task (1s, 3s), we investigated whether selective pre-cues can also influence how information is later maintained in VSTM. The results revealed that the pre-cues influenced the maintenance of the colours in VSTM, promoting consistent performance across retention intervals (Experiments 1 & 4). However, those effects were only shown when the pre-cues were directed to stimuli displayed across hemifields relative to stimuli within a single hemifield. Importantly, the results were not replicated when participants were required to memorise colours (Experiment 2) or locations (Experiment 3) in the absence of spatial pre-cues. Those findings strongly suggest that attentional pre-cues have a strong influence on both the transfer of information in VSTM and its subsequent maintenance, allowing bilateral items to better survive decay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Processing of extreme moving-object update and query workloads in main memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    traditional transaction processing in the context of our target domain and propose new semantics that enable a high degree of parallelism and ensure up-to-date query results. We define the new semantics for range and k-nearest neighbor queries. Then, we present a main-memory indexing technique called parallel...... grid that implements the proposed semantics as well as two other variants supporting different semantics. This enables us to quantify the effects that different degrees of consistency have on performance. We also present an alternative time-partitioning approach. Empirical studies with the above...

  5. Children's Comprehension of Object Relative Sentences: It's Extant Language Knowledge That Matters, Not Domain-General Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Yazmin Ahmad; Montgomery, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether extant language (lexical) knowledge or domain-general working memory is the better predictor of comprehension of object relative sentences for children with typical development. We hypothesized that extant language knowledge, not domain-general working memory, is the better predictor. Method:…

  6. A Virtual Object-Location Task for Children: Gender and Videogame Experience Influence Navigation; Age Impacts Memory and Completion Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Andres, David; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena; Juan, M-Carmen; Perez-Hernandez, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5-12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city. The virtual task environment was presented using a 3D application consisting of a 120″ stereoscopic screen and a gamepad interface. Measures of learning and displacement indicators in the virtual environment, 3D perception, satisfaction, and usability were obtained. We assessed the children's videogame experience, their visuospatial span, their ability to build blocks, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. The results indicate that learning improved with age. Significant effects on the speed of navigation were found favoring boys and those more experienced with videogames. Visuospatial skills correlated mainly with ability to recall object positions, but the correlation was weak. Longer paths were related with higher scores of withdrawal behavior, attention problems, and a lower visuospatial span. Aggressiveness and experience with the device used for interaction were related with faster navigation. However, the correlations indicated only weak associations among these variables.

  7. MM-MDS: a multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 object categories from the Massive Memory picture database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Hout

    Full Text Available Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets and lures in recognition memory. Quantifying similarity, however, is challenging when everyday items are the desired stimulus set, particularly when researchers require several different pictures from the same category. In this article, we document a new multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 categories, each containing color photographs of 16-17 exemplar objects. We collected similarity ratings using the spatial arrangement method. Reports include: the multidimensional scaling solutions for each category, up to five dimensions, stress and fit measures, coordinate locations for each stimulus, and two new classifications. For each picture, we categorized the item's prototypicality, indexed by its proximity to other items in the space. We also classified pairs of images along a continuum of similarity, by assessing the overall arrangement of each MDS space. These similarity ratings will be useful to any researcher that wishes to control the similarity of experimental stimuli according to an objective quantification of "sameness."

  8. A Virtual Object-Location Task for Children: Gender and Videogame Experience Influence Navigation; Age Impacts Memory and Completion Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Andres, David; Mendez-Lopez, Magdalena; Juan, M.-Carmen; Perez-Hernandez, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5–12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city. The virtual task environment was presented using a 3D application consisting of a 120″ stereoscopic screen and a gamepad interface. Measures of learning and displacement indicators in the virtual environment, 3D perception, satisfaction, and usability were obtained. We assessed the children’s videogame experience, their visuospatial span, their ability to build blocks, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. The results indicate that learning improved with age. Significant effects on the speed of navigation were found favoring boys and those more experienced with videogames. Visuospatial skills correlated mainly with ability to recall object positions, but the correlation was weak. Longer paths were related with higher scores of withdrawal behavior, attention problems, and a lower visuospatial span. Aggressiveness and experience with the device used for interaction were related with faster navigation. However, the correlations indicated only weak associations among these variables. PMID:29674988

  9. A Virtual Object-Location Task for Children: Gender and Videogame Experience Influence Navigation; Age Impacts Memory and Completion Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodriguez-Andres

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5–12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city. The virtual task environment was presented using a 3D application consisting of a 120″ stereoscopic screen and a gamepad interface. Measures of learning and displacement indicators in the virtual environment, 3D perception, satisfaction, and usability were obtained. We assessed the children’s videogame experience, their visuospatial span, their ability to build blocks, and emotional and behavioral outcomes. The results indicate that learning improved with age. Significant effects on the speed of navigation were found favoring boys and those more experienced with videogames. Visuospatial skills correlated mainly with ability to recall object positions, but the correlation was weak. Longer paths were related with higher scores of withdrawal behavior, attention problems, and a lower visuospatial span. Aggressiveness and experience with the device used for interaction were related with faster navigation. However, the correlations indicated only weak associations among these variables.

  10. MM-MDS: a multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 object categories from the Massive Memory picture database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D; Brady, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive theories in visual attention and perception, categorization, and memory often critically rely on concepts of similarity among objects, and empirically require measures of "sameness" among their stimuli. For instance, a researcher may require similarity estimates among multiple exemplars of a target category in visual search, or targets and lures in recognition memory. Quantifying similarity, however, is challenging when everyday items are the desired stimulus set, particularly when researchers require several different pictures from the same category. In this article, we document a new multidimensional scaling database with similarity ratings for 240 categories, each containing color photographs of 16-17 exemplar objects. We collected similarity ratings using the spatial arrangement method. Reports include: the multidimensional scaling solutions for each category, up to five dimensions, stress and fit measures, coordinate locations for each stimulus, and two new classifications. For each picture, we categorized the item's prototypicality, indexed by its proximity to other items in the space. We also classified pairs of images along a continuum of similarity, by assessing the overall arrangement of each MDS space. These similarity ratings will be useful to any researcher that wishes to control the similarity of experimental stimuli according to an objective quantification of "sameness."

  11. The development of object recognition memory in rhesus macaques with neonatal lesions of the perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Zeamer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the perirhinal cortex on the development of recognition measured by the visual paired-comparison (VPC task, infant monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions and sham-operated controls were tested at 1.5, 6, 18, and 48 months of age on the VPC task with color stimuli and intermixed delays of 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal lesions showed an increase in novelty preference between 1.5 and 6 months of age similar to controls, although at these two ages, performance remained significantly poorer than that of control animals. With age, performance in animals with neonatal perirhinal lesions deteriorated as compared to that of controls. In contrast to the lack of novelty preference in monkeys with perirhinal lesions acquired in adulthood, novelty preference in the neonatally operated animals remained above chance at all delays and all ages. The data suggest that, although incidental recognition memory processes can be supported by the perirhinal cortex in early infancy, other temporal cortical areas may support these processes in the absence of a functional perirhinal cortex early in development. The neural substrates mediating incidental recognition memory processes appear to be more widespread in early infancy than in adulthood.

  12. When Does Repeated Search in Scenes Involve Memory? Looking at versus Looking for Objects in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L. -H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    One might assume that familiarity with a scene or previous encounters with objects embedded in a scene would benefit subsequent search for those items. However, in a series of experiments we show that this is not the case: When participants were asked to subsequently search for multiple objects in the same scene, search performance remained…

  13. The role of landmarks in the development of object location memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    In order to locate objects in an enclosed environment animals and humans use visual and non-visual distance and direction cues. In the present study, we were interested in children’s ability to relocate an object on the basis of self-motion cues and local and distal color cues for orientation. Five

  14. Cyclic GMP-mediated memory enhancement in the object recognition test by inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, Lindsay M; Zhan, Chang-Guo; O'Donnell, James M

    2016-02-01

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Using the object recognition test (ORT), this study assessed the effects of two PDE2 inhibitors, Bay 60-7550 and ND7001, on learning and memory, and examined underlying mechanisms. To assess the role of PDE2 inhibition on phases of memory, Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) was administered: 30 min prior to training; 0, 1, or 3 h after training; or 30 min prior to recall testing. To assess cyclic nucleotide involvement in PDE2 inhibitor-enhanced memory consolidation, either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg; intraperitoneal (IP)), soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[-1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 mg/kg; IP), protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823 (2.5 μg; intracerebroventricular (ICV)), or protein kinase A inhibitor H89 (1 μg; ICV) was administered 30 min prior to the PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) or ND7001 (3 mg/kg). Changes in the phosphorylation of 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser-133 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) at Ser-239 were determined to confirm activation of cAMP and 3'5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling. Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) enhanced memory of mice in the ORT when given 30 min prior to training, immediately after training, or 30 min prior to recall. Inhibitors of the cGMP pathway blocked the memory-enhancing effects of both Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) and ND7001 (3 mg/kg) on early consolidation processes. Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) enhanced phosphorylation of CREB and VASP, both targets of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). These results confirm a potential of PDE2, or components of its signaling pathway, as a therapeutic target for drug discovery focused on restoring memory function.

  15. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Awake, long-term intranasal insulin treatment does not affect object memory, odor discrimination, or reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Genevieve A; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2017-05-15

    Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm. Herein, we investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of chronic insulin IND. Adult, male C57BL6/J mice were intranasally treated with 5μg/μl of insulin twice daily for 30 and 60days. Metabolic assessment indicated no change in body weight, caloric intake, or energy expenditure following chronic insulin IND, but an increase in the frequency of meal bouts selectively in the dark cycle. Unlike acute insulin IND, which has been shown to cause enhanced performance in odor habituation/dishabituation and two-odor discrimination tasks in mice, chronic insulin IND did not enhance olfactometry-based odorant discrimination or olfactory reversal learning. In an object memory recognition task, insulin IND-treated mice did not perform differently than controls, regardless of task duration. Biochemical analyses of the olfactory bulb revealed a modest 1.3 fold increase in IR kinase phosphorylation but no significant increase in Kv1.3 phosphorylation. Substrate phosphorylation of IR kinase downstream effectors (MAPK/ERK and Akt signaling) proved to be highly variable. These data indicate that chronic administration of insulin IND in mice fails to enhance olfactory ability, object memory recognition, or a majority of systems physiology metabolic factors - as reported to

  17. Brain regions involved in subprocesses of small-space episodic object-location memory: a systematic review of lesion and functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kathrin; Eschen, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) enables us to keep track of the locations of objects in our environment. The neurocognitive model of OLM (Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2004). The neuropsychology of object-location memory. In G. L. Allen (Ed.), Human spatial memory: Remembering where (pp. 143-160). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Postma, A., Kessels, R. P. C., & Van Asselen, M. (2008). How the brain remembers and forgets where things are: The neurocognition of object-location memory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1339-1345. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.05.001 ) proposes that distinct brain regions are specialised for different subprocesses of OLM (object processing, location processing, and object-location binding; categorical and coordinate OLM; egocentric and allocentric OLM). It was based mainly on findings from lesion studies. However, recent episodic memory studies point to a contribution of additional or different brain regions to object and location processing within episodic OLM. To evaluate and update the neurocognitive model of OLM, we therefore conducted a systematic literature search for lesion as well as functional neuroimaging studies contrasting small-space episodic OLM with object memory or location memory. We identified 10 relevant lesion studies and 8 relevant functional neuroimaging studies. We could confirm some of the proposals of the neurocognitive model of OLM, but also differing hypotheses from episodic memory research, about which brain regions are involved in the different subprocesses of small-space episodic OLM. In addition, we were able to identify new brain regions as well as important research gaps.

  18. The role of auditory cortices in the retrieval of single-trial auditory-visual object memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Pawel J; Thelen, Antonia; Amrein, Sarah; Geiser, Eveline; Anken, Jacques; Murray, Micah M

    2015-03-01

    Single-trial encounters with multisensory stimuli affect both memory performance and early-latency brain responses to visual stimuli. Whether and how auditory cortices support memory processes based on single-trial multisensory learning is unknown and may differ qualitatively and quantitatively from comparable processes within visual cortices due to purported differences in memory capacities across the senses. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as healthy adults (n = 18) performed a continuous recognition task in the auditory modality, discriminating initial (new) from repeated (old) sounds of environmental objects. Initial presentations were either unisensory or multisensory; the latter entailed synchronous presentation of a semantically congruent or a meaningless image. Repeated presentations were exclusively auditory, thus differing only according to the context in which the sound was initially encountered. Discrimination abilities (indexed by d') were increased for repeated sounds that were initially encountered with a semantically congruent image versus sounds initially encountered with either a meaningless or no image. Analyses of ERPs within an electrical neuroimaging framework revealed that early stages of auditory processing of repeated sounds were affected by prior single-trial multisensory contexts. These effects followed from significantly reduced activity within a distributed network, including the right superior temporal cortex, suggesting an inverse relationship between brain activity and behavioural outcome on this task. The present findings demonstrate how auditory cortices contribute to long-term effects of multisensory experiences on auditory object discrimination. We propose a new framework for the efficacy of multisensory processes to impact both current multisensory stimulus processing and unisensory discrimination abilities later in time. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Anodal-tDCS over the human right occipital cortex enhances the perception and memory of both faces and objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Marica; Negrini, Marcello; Nitsche, Michael A; Rivolta, Davide

    2016-01-29

    Accurate face processing skills are pivotal for typical social cognition, and impairments in this ability characterise various clinical conditions (e.g., prosopagnosia). No study to date has investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can causally enhance face processing. In addition, the category- and the process-specificity of tDCS effects, as well as the role of the timing of neuromodulation with respect to the execution of cognitive tasks are still unknown. In this single-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether the administration of anodal-tDCS (a-tDCS) over the right occipital cortex of healthy volunteers (N=64) enhances performance on perceptual and memory tasks involving both face and object stimuli. Neuromodulation was delivered in two conditions: online (a-tDCS during task execution) and offline (a-tDCS before task execution). The results demonstrate that offline a-tDCS enhances the perception and memory performance of both faces and objects. There was no effect of online a-tDCS on behaviour. Furthermore, the offline effect was site-specific since a-tDCS over the sensory-motor cortex did not lead to behavioural changes. Our results add relevant information about the breadth of cognitive processes and visual stimuli that can be modulated by tDCS, and about the design of effective neuromodulation protocols, which have implications for advancing theories in cognitive neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting changes in real-world objects: The relationship between visual long-term memory and change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude; Alvarez, George A

    2009-01-01

    A large body of literature has shown that observers often fail to notice significant changes in visual scenes, even when these changes happen right in front of their eyes. For instance, people often fail to notice if their conversation partner is switched to another person, or if large background objects suddenly disappear.1,2 These 'change blindness' studies have led to the inference that the amount of information we remember about each item in a visual scene may be quite low.1 However, in recent work we have demonstrated that long-term memory is capable of storing a massive number of visual objects with significant detail about each item.3 In the present paper we attempt to reconcile these findings by demonstrating that observers do not experience 'change blindness' with the real world objects used in our previous experiment if they are given sufficient time to encode each item. The results reported here suggest that one of the major causes of change blindness for real-world objects is a lack of encoding time or attention to each object (see also refs. 4 and 5).

  1. The use of the Emotional-Object Recognition as an assay to assess learning and memory associated to an aversive stimulus in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Anna; Lavanco, Gianluca; Cavallaro, Angela; Plescia, Fulvio; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Emotionally salient experiences induce the formation of explicit memory traces, besides eliciting automatic or implicit emotional memory in rodents. This study aims at investigating the implementation of a novel task for studying the formation of limbic memory engrams as a result of the acquisition- and retrieval- of fear-conditioning - biased declarative memory traces, measured by animal discrimination of an "emotional-object". Moreover, by using this new method we investigated the potential interactions between stimulation of cannabinoid transmission and integration of emotional information and cognitive functioning. The Emotional-Object Recognition task is composed of 3 following sessions: habituation; cued fear-conditioned learning; emotional recognition. Rats are exposed to Context "B chamber" for habituation and cued fear-conditioning, and tested in Context "A chamber" for emotional-object recognition. Cued fear-conditioning induces a reduction in emotional-object exploration time during the Emotional-Object Recognition task in controls. The activation of cannabinoid signalling impairs limbic memory formation, with respect to vehicle. The Emotional-Object Recognition test overcomes several limitations of commonly employed methods that explore declarative-, spatial memory and fear-conditioning in a non-integrated manner. It allows the assessment of unbiased cognitive indicators of emotional learning and memory. The Emotional-Object Recognition task is a valuable tool for investigating whether, and at what extent, specific drugs or pathological conditions that interfere with the individual affective/emotional homeostasis, can modulate the formation of emotionally salient explicit memory traces, thus jeopardizing control and regulation of animal behavioural strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Explaining impossible phenomena: object permanence beliefs and memory failures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotsky, E V

    1996-03-01

    In three experiments, adult subjects' explanations of the observed nonpermanence of a physical object and their recollections of the order of the events during the experiment were obtained and analysed. The data showed that in order to conserve their strong beliefs in object permanence subjects systematically distorted the real temporal succession of events preceding the phenomenon. The frequency of the distortions depended on the salience of the nonpermanence phenomenon ("disappearance" versus "appearance" of the physical object) and on the time interval between the events whose temporal order was reversed, but not on subjects' nationality (English versus German), gender, type of reproduction (immediate versus delayed), role in the experiment (subject versus observer), and degree of prompting in questioning.

  3. Object representations in visual working memory change according to the task context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether an item's representation in visual working memory (VWM) can be updated according to changes in the global task context. We used a modified change detection paradigm, in which the items moved before the retention interval. In all of the experiments, we presented identical color-color conjunction items that were arranged to provide a common fate Gestalt grouping cue during their movement. Task context was manipulated by adding a condition highlighting either the integrated interpretation of the conjunction items or their individuated interpretation. We monitored the contralateral delay activity (CDA) as an online marker of VWM. Experiment 1 employed only a minimal global context; the conjunction items were integrated during their movement, but then were partially individuated, at a late stage of the retention interval. The same conjunction items were perfectly integrated in an integration context (Experiment 2). An individuation context successfully produced strong individuation, already during the movement, overriding Gestalt grouping cues (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, a short priming of the individuation context managed to individuate the conjunction items immediately after the Gestalt cue was no longer available. Thus, the representations of identical items changed according to the task context, suggesting that VWM interprets incoming input according to global factors which can override perceptual cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BALWOIS: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    BALWOIS 2004 is supported by the European Commission, Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Macedonia, French Embassy in Macedonia and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences. BALWOIS Conference is prepared by l'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD - Montpellier - France) and the Meteorological Association of the Republic of Macedonia (METEO MAK) with the kind support of the Hydro meteorological Services of Macedonia, Hydro biological Institute of Ohrid, National Hydro meteorological Institutes of Albania and Bulgaria, and the Municipality of Ohrid as well. Its international shared waters (rivers, lakes and groundwater tables) make this area an earth of challenges to apply the well known concept of Integrated Water Resources Management in a context of regional climate changes and anthropogenic pressures on environment. The role of a water observation and information system for decision support is to enhance the links between research institutions and operational centres, to help the decision makers and all water actors as well as to disseminate to large public useful information on related water issues. The main objectives of BALWOIS are to encourage scientific exchanges between researchers coming from Balkan institutions and to offer them opportunities to improve their networking at European and global level. Ohrid is one of the most welcoming towns of Republic of Macedonia with a very significant cultural heritage. Nobody would contest that Ohrid Lake - 358 km 2 , several millions years old and surrounded by splendid Macedonian and Albanian mountains - is among the most beautiful lakes of Europe. Together Ohrid and Prespa lakes and their environments offer a large biodiversity with endemic species. The location of the conference on the shore of Ohrid lake is particularly well chosen to work on topics linked with climate change which already affects the balance of the lakes, protection of the biodiversity against increasing

  5. Working memory units are all in your head: Factors that influence whether features or objects are the favored units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Cowan, Nelson

    2015-09-01

    We compared two contrasting hypotheses of how multifeatured objects are stored in visual working memory (vWM); as integrated objects or as independent features. A new procedure was devised to examine vWM representations of several concurrently held objects and their features and our main measure was reaction time (RT), allowing an examination of the real-time search through features and/or objects in an array in vWM. Response speeds to probes with color, shape, or both were studied as a function of the number of memorized colored shapes. Four testing groups were created by varying the instructions and the way in which probes with both color and shape were presented. The instructions explicitly either encouraged or discouraged the use of binding information and the task-relevance of binding information was further suggested by presenting probes with both color and shapes as either integrated objects or independent features. Our results show that the unit used for retrieval from vWM depends on the testing situation. Search was fully object-based only when all factors support that basis of search, in which case retrieving 2 features took no longer than retrieving a single feature. Otherwise, retrieving 2 features took longer than retrieving a single feature. Additional analyses of change detection latency suggested that, even though different testing situations can result in a stronger emphasis on either the feature dimension or the object dimension, neither one disappears from the representation and both concurrently affect change detection performance. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Reframing transitions and contesting memories: The archive and the archival object in Peruvian cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the stories behind the production and screening of two very different Peruvian films that both reveal much about the way the archive, the archival object and archival fragment have worked to disrupt and force a reconsideration of key moments in Peruvian political history of the twentieth century. One, a feature film by Francisco Lombardi, Ojos que no ven/Eyes that don’t see (2003), provides a provocative perspective on the impact of the televisual revelations of the corru...

  7. Cortical activation patterns during long-term memory retrieval of visually or haptically encoded objects and locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Oliver; Röder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n=10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n=10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily presented words and either meaningless objects or locations in a 3-D space. During the retrieval phase one day later, participants had to decide whether two auditorily presented words shared an association with a common object or location. Thus, perceptual stimulation during retrieval was always equivalent, whereas either visually or haptically encoded object or location associations had to be reactivated. Moreover, the number of associations fanning out from each word varied systematically, enabling a parametric increase of the number of reactivated representations. Recall of visual objects predominantly activated the left superior frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex, whereas visually learned locations activated the superior parietal cortex of both hemispheres. Retrieval of haptically encoded material activated the left medial frontal gyrus and the intraparietal cortex in the object condition, and the bilateral superior parietal cortex in the location condition. A direct test for modality-specific effects showed that visually encoded material activated more vision-related areas (BA 18/19) and haptically encoded material more motor and somatosensory-related areas. A conjunction analysis identified supramodal and material-unspecific activations within the medial and superior frontal gyrus and the superior parietal lobe including the intraparietal sulcus. These activation patterns strongly support the idea that code-specific representations are consolidated and reactivated within anatomically distributed cell assemblies that comprise sensory and motor processing systems.

  8. Perirhinal cortical inactivation impairs object-in-place memory and disrupts task-dependent firing in hippocampal CA1, but not in CA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah eLee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objects and their locations can associatively define an event and a conjoint representation of object-place can form an event memory. Remembering how to respond to a certain object in a spatial context is dependent on both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PER. However, the relative functional contributions of the two regions are largely unknown in object-place associative memory. We investigated the PER influence on hippocampal firing in a goal-directed object-place memory task by comparing the firing patterns of CA1 and CA3 of the dorsal hippocampus between conditions of PER muscimol inactivation and vehicle control infusions. Rats were required to choose one of the two objects in a specific spatial context (regardless of the object positions in the context, which was shown to be dependent on both hippocampus and PER. Inactivation of PER with muscimol (MUS severely disrupted performance of well-trained rats, resulting in response bias (i.e., choosing any object on a particular side. MUS did not significantly alter the baseline firing rates of hippocampal neurons. We measured the similarity in firing patterns between two trial conditions in which the same target objects were chosen on opposite sides within the same arm (object-in-place strategy and compared the results with the similarity in firing between two trial conditions in which the rat chose any object encountered on a particular side (response-in-place strategy. We found that the similarity in firing patterns for object-in-place trials was significantly reduced with MUS compared to control conditions. Importantly, this was largely because MUS injections affected the object-in-place firing patterns in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3. The results suggest that PER is critical for goal-directed organization of object-place associative memory in the hippocampus presumably by influencing how object information is associated with spatial information in CA1 according to task demand.

  9. Article Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.

  10. Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Choi, Harry M C; Brown, Laurence A; Jagannath, Aarti; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2017-03-29

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light ( r LL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1 and Period2 ( Per1 and Per2 ), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under r LL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under r LL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by

  11. Constant Light Desynchronizes Olfactory versus Object and Visuospatial Recognition Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K.E.; Hasan, Sibah; Brown, Laurence A.; Jagannath, Aarti; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight. However, under repeated exposure to constant light (rLL), recognition performance becomes desynchronized, with object and visuospatial performance better at subjective midday and olfactory performance better at subjective midnight. This desynchrony in behavioral performance is mirrored by changes in expression of the canonical clock genes Period1 and Period2 (Per1 and Per2), as well as the immediate-early gene Fos in the SCN, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. Under rLL, rhythmic Per1 and Fos expression is attenuated in the SCN. In contrast, hippocampal gene expression remains rhythmic, mirroring object and visuospatial performance. Strikingly, Per1 and Fos expression in the olfactory bulb is reversed, mirroring the inverted olfactory performance. Temporal desynchrony among these regions does not result in arrhythmicity because core body temperature and exploratory activity rhythms persist under rLL. Our data provide the first demonstration that abnormal lighting conditions can give rise to temporal desynchrony between autonomous circadian oscillators in different regions, with different consequences for performance across different sensory domains. Such a dispersed network of dissociable circadian oscillators may provide greater flexibility when faced with conflicting environmental signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates physiology and behavior across the 24 h day by

  12. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  13. Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wager, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...

  14. Perirhinal cortical inactivation impairs object-in-place memory and disrupts task-dependent firing in hippocampal CA1, but not in CA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inah; Park, Seong-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Objects and their locations can associatively define an event and a conjoint representation of object-place can form an event memory. Remembering how to respond to a certain object in a spatial context is dependent on both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PER). However, the relative functional contributions of the two regions are largely unknown in object-place associative memory. We investigated the PER influence on hippocampal firing in a goal-directed object-place memory task by comparing the firing patterns of CA1 and CA3 of the dorsal hippocampus between conditions of PER muscimol inactivation and vehicle control infusions. Rats were required to choose one of the two objects in a specific spatial context (regardless of the object positions in the context), which was shown to be dependent on both hippocampus and PER. Inactivation of PER with muscimol (MUS) severely disrupted performance of well-trained rats, resulting in response bias (i.e., choosing any object on a particular side). MUS did not significantly alter the baseline firing rates of hippocampal neurons. We measured the similarity in firing patterns between two trial conditions in which the same target objects were chosen on opposite sides within the same arm [object-in-place (O-P) strategy] and compared the results with the similarity in firing between two trial conditions in which the rat chose any object encountered on a particular side [response-in-place (R-P) strategy]. We found that the similarity in firing patterns for O-P trials was significantly reduced with MUS compared to control conditions (CTs). Importantly, this was largely because MUS injections affected the O-P firing patterns in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3. The results suggest that PER is critical for goal-directed organization of object-place associative memory in the hippocampus presumably by influencing how object information is associated with spatial information in CA1 according to task demand.

  15. Out of Place, Out of Mind: Schema-Driven False Memory Effects for Object-Location Bindings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Adina R.; Howe, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Events consist of diverse elements, each processed in specialized neocortical networks, with temporal lobe memory systems binding these elements to form coherent event memories. We provide a novel theoretical analysis of an unexplored consequence of the independence of memory systems for elements and their bindings, 1 that raises the paradoxical…

  16. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  17. Distinct contributions of explicit and implicit memory processes to weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights: an aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Kevin M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2016-09-01

    Weight predictions used to scale lifting forces adapt quickly when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects and are readily updated by explicit information provided about weight. In contrast, weight predictions used when making perceptual judgments about weight are more resistant to change and are largely unaffected by explicit information about weight. These observations suggest that distinct memory systems underlie weight prediction when lifting objects and judging their weights. Here we examined whether these weight predictions differ in their reliance on declarative and nondeclarative memory resources by comparing the adaptability of these predictions in older adults, who exhibit relatively impaired declarative memory processes, to those in younger adults. In the size condition, we measured lift forces as participants repeatedly lifted a pair of size-weight inverted objects in alternation. To assess weight judgments, we measured the size-weight illusion every 10 lifts. The material condition was similar, except that we used material-weight inverted objects and measured the material-weight illusion. The strengths of these illusions prior to lifting, and the attenuation of the illusions that arise when lifting inverted objects, were similar for both groups. The magnitude of the change in the illusions was positively correlated with implicit memory performance in both groups, suggesting that predictions used when judging weight rely on nondeclarative memory resources. Updating of lifting forces also did not differ between groups. However, within the older group the success with which lifting forces were updated was positively correlated with working memory performance, suggesting that weight predictions used when lifting rely on declarative memory resources. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Inventory Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M and O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because

  19. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000e for/ICN--02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M andO 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release

  20. Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  1. Impairment of object recognition memory by maternal bisphenol A exposure is associated with inhibition of Akt and ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway in the male offspring hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Li, Zhihui; Han, Haijun; Luo, Guangying; Zhou, Bingrui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-03

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used endocrine-disrupting chemical used as a component of polycarbonates plastics that has potential adverse effects on human health. Exposure to BPA during development has been implicated in memory deficits, but the mechanism of action underlying the effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal exposure to BPA on object recognition memory and the expressions of proteins important for memory, especially focusing on the ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley female rats were orally treated with either vehicle or BPA (0.05, 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg BW/day) during days 9-20 of gestation. Male offspring were tested on postnatal day 21 with the object recognition task. Recognition memory was assessed using the object recognition index (index=the time spent exploring the novel object/(the time spent exploring the novel object+the time spent exploring the familiar object)). In the test session performed 90 min after the training session, BPA-exposed male offspring not only spent more time in exploring the familiar object at the highest dose than the control, but also displayed a significantly decreased the object recognition index at the doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day. During the test session performed 24h after the training session, BPA-treated males did not change the time spent exploring the familiar object, but had a decreased object recognition index at 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day, when compared to control group. These findings indicate that object recognition memory was susceptible to maternal BPA exposure. Western blot analysis of hippocampi from BPA-treated male offspring revealed a decrease in Akt, phospho-Akt, p44/42 MAPK and phospho-p44/42 MAPK protein levels, compared to controls. In addition, BPA significantly inhibited the levels of phosphorylation of CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus. Our results show that maternal BPA exposure may full impair object recognition memory, and that

  2. The role of auditory cortices in the retrieval of single-trial auditory-visual object memories.

    OpenAIRE

    Matusz, P.J.; Thelen, A.; Amrein, S.; Geiser, E.; Anken, J.; Murray, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Single-trial encounters with multisensory stimuli affect both memory performance and early-latency brain responses to visual stimuli. Whether and how auditory cortices support memory processes based on single-trial multisensory learning is unknown and may differ qualitatively and quantitatively from comparable processes within visual cortices due to purported differences in memory capacities across the senses. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as healthy adults (n = 18) performed a ...

  3. Memory in humans is unaffected by central H1-antagonism, while objectively and subjectively measured sedation is increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ruitenbeek, P; Vermeeren, A; Riedel, W J

    2010-04-01

    Animal literature suggests an important role for histamine in memory. In humans, this hypothesis has been scarcely tested and results from studies that have addressed this are conflicting. Second, impaired memory performance may be secondary to sedation. This study aimed to determine whether a centrally active antihistamine impairs memory performance and to dissociate such effects from sedation. Eighteen healthy volunteers received single oral doses of dexchlorpheniramine 4 mg, lorazepam 1mg and placebo in a 3-way, double blind, crossover designed study. The active control lorazepam impaired episodic- and working memory performance and increased sedation, while dexchlorpheniramine only increased sedation. 2009 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Objective instrumental memory and performance tests for evaluation of patients with brain damage: a search for a behavioral diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, B Z; Bental, E; Carmon, A

    1976-03-01

    Cognition and performance of patients with localized and diffuse brain damage was evaluated through the application of objective perceptual testing. A series of visual perceptual and verbal tests, memory tests, as well as reaction time tasks were administered to the patients by logic programming equipment. In order to avoid a bias due to communicative disorders, all responses were motor, and achievement was scored in terms of correct identification and latencies of response. Previously established norms based on a large sample of non-brain-damaged hospitalized patients served to standardize the performance of the brain-damaged patient since preliminary results showed that age and educational level constitute an important variable affecting performance of the control group. The achievement of brain-damaged patients, corrected for these factors, was impaired significantly in all tests with respect to both recognition and speed of performance. Lateralized effects of brain damage were not significantly demonstrated. However, when the performance was analyzed with respect to the locus of visual input, it was found that patients with right hemispheric lesions showed impairment mainly on perception of figurative material, and that this deficit was more apparent in the left visual field. Conversely, patients with left hemispheric lesions tended to show impairment on perception of visually presented verbal material when the input was delivered to the right visual field.

  5. Short-term treatment with flumazenil restores long-term object memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Damien; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Garner, Craig C; Heller, H Craig

    2017-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABA A receptor (GABA A R) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABA A R antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval. Long-term memory was assessed by the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) testing in Ts65Dn mice after acute or short-term chronic treatment with FLUM. Short-term, low, chronic dose regimens of FLUM elicit long-lasting (>1week) normalization of cognitive function in both young and aged mice. FLUM at low dosages produces long lasting cognitive improvements and has the potential of fulfilling an unmet therapeutic need in DS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Neural Correlates of Spatial and Object Working Memory in Elderly and Parkinson’s Disease Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. Caminiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study deals with the neural correlates of spatial and objects working memory (SWM and OWM in elderly subjects (ESs and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD. Normal aging and IPD can be associated with a WM decline. In IPD population, some studies reported similar SWM and OWM deficits; others reported a greater SWM than OWM impairment. In the present fMRI research, we investigated whether compensated IPD patients and elderly subjects with comparable performance during the execution of SWM and OWM tasks would present differences in WM-related brain activations. We found that the two groups recruited a prevalent left frontoparietal network when performing the SWM task and a bilateral network during OWM task execution. More specifically, the ESs showed bilateral frontal and subcortical activations in SWM, at difference with the IPD patients who showed a strict left lateralized network, consistent with frontostriatal degeneration in IPD. The overall brain activation in the IPD group was more extended as number of voxels with respect to ESs, suggesting underlying compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, notwithstanding comparable WM performance, the two groups showed consistencies and differences in the WM activated networks. The latter underline the compensatory processes of normal typical and pathological aging.

  7. One-trial memory for object-place associations after separate lesions of hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal region in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkova, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-03-01

    In earlier studies of one-trial spatial memory in monkeys (Parkinson et al., 1988; Angeli et al., 1993), severe and chronic memory impairment for both object-place association and place alone was found after ablation of the hippocampal formation. The results appeared to provide the first clear-cut evidence in the monkey of the essential role of the hippocampus in spatial memory, but that interpretation neglected the inclusion in the lesion of the underlying posterior parahippocampal region. To determine the separate contributions of the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal region to these spatial forms of one-trial memory, we trained 10 rhesus monkeys, as before, to remember the spatial positions of either two different trial-unique objects overlying two of the wells in a three-well test tray (object-place trials) or simply two of the three wells (place trials). Six of the monkeys then received ibotenic acid lesions restricted to the hippocampal formation (group H), and the four others received selective ablations of the posterior parahippocampal region (group P), comprising mainly parahippocampal cortex, parasubiculum, and presubiculum. Group H was found to be completely unaffected postoperatively on both types of trials, whereas group P sustained an impairment on both types equal in magnitude to that observed after the combined lesions in the original studies. Thus, contrary to the previous interpretation, one-trial memory for object-place association and, perhaps more fundamentally, one-trial memory for two different places appear to be critically dependent not on the hippocampal formation but rather on the posterior parahippocampal region.

  8. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no......Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...

  9. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of prolonged administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on long-term potentiation in dentate gyrus, and on tests of spatial and object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Susan G; Milway, J Stephen; Ingram, Matthew; Lau, Catherine; Morrison, Gillian; Martin, Gerard M

    2016-02-01

    Phasic norepinephrine (NE) release events are involved in arousal, novelty detection and in plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in mammalian systems. Although the effects of phasic NE release events on plasticity and memory are prevalently documented, it is less understood what effects chronic NE reuptake inhibition and sustained increases in noradrenergic tone, might have on plasticity and cognitive processes in rodent models of learning and memory. This study investigates the effects of chronic NE reuptake inhibition on hippocampal plasticity and memory in rats. Rats were administered NE reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) desipramine (DMI; 0, 3, or 7.5mg/kg/day) or nortriptyline (NTP; 0, 10 or 20mg/kg/day) in drinking water. Long-term potentiation (LTP; 200 Hz) of the perforant path-dentate gyrus evoked potential was examined in urethane anesthetized rats after 30-32 days of DMI treatment. Short- (4-h) and long-term (24-h) spatial memory was tested in separate rats administered 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI (25-30 days) using a two-trial spatial memory test. Additionally, the effects of chronically administered DMI and NTP were tested in rats using a two-trial, Object Recognition Test (ORT) at 2- and 24-h after 45 and 60 days of drug administration. Rats administered 3 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI had attenuated LTP of the EPSP slope but not the population spike at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse. Short- and long-term memory for objects is differentially disrupted in rats after prolonged administration of DMI and NTP. Rats that were administered 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed decreased memory for a two-trial spatial task when tested at 4-h. In the novel ORT, rats receiving 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed a preference for the arm containing a Novel object when tested at both 2- and 24-h demonstrating both short- and long-term memory retention of the Familiar object. Rats that received either dose of NTP or 3mg/kg/day DMI showed impaired memory at 2-h, however this

  11. Photography as object and resource of memory A fotografia como objeto e recurso de memória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Samain

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of digital photography, its ease, potentials and weaknesses, we have become more and more liable to the iconographic forgetting of our own memory, our photographic memory. This essay intends to discuss the value and the use of photography as one of the great memory-bearing instruments, own memory, memory to be clarified, interpreted, remembered. Com o advento da fotografia digital, suas facilidades, potencialidades e fragilidades, ficamos suscetíveis ao esquecimento iconográfico de nossa própria memória, nossa memória fotográfica. Este ensaio pretende discutir o valor e o uso da fotografia como um dos grandes instrumentos portadores de memória, memória própria, memória a ser elucidada, interpretada, rememorada.

  12. Unifying Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads

    This thesis presents the RUNE language, a semantic construction of related and tightly coupled programming constructs presented in the shape of a programming language. The major contribution is the succesfull design of a highly unified and general programming model, capable of expressing some of ...... a unified name declaration mechanism. The resulting expressiveness allows for argument covariance, dependent types and module types, plus a solution to the so-called expression problem of two way extensibility in object-oriented languages....... of the most complex type relations put forth in type systems research, without compromising such fundamental qualities as conceptuality, modularity and static typing. While many new constructs and unifications are put forth  to substantiate their conceptual validity, type rules are given to support...

  13. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  14. WWNPQFT-2013 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  15. Object recognition as a measure of memory in 1–2 years old transgenic minipigs carrying the APPsw mutation for Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Ladewig, Jan; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disabling, fatal disease, where animal models potentially can enable investigation of aetiology and treatment. The first litter of Göttingen minipigs carrying a mutation for human AD was born in 2007, showing transgene expression. In human AD patients, memory...... impairment is the most striking and consistent feature. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of the APPsw transgene on memory of AD minipigs compared with non-transgenic controls at two ages (1–2 years) using the spontaneous object recognition test (SORT), which is based on behavioural...... using the SORT, we were not able to show memory impairment in APPsw carrying minipigs. Being an age-dependent disease, the transgene is expected to cause AD-like symptoms in this porcine model, and the SORT should be repeated at older ages...

  16. Amyloid beta 25-35 impairs reconsolidation of object recognition memory in rats and this effect is prevented by lithium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ruíz, Yarummy; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies in transgenic mice models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have demonstrated an age dependent memory reconsolidation failure, suggesting that this may be an additional mechanism that contributes to the memory impairment observed in AD. However, so far it is unknown whether this effect can be caused by exogenous administration of amyloid beta (Aβ). The purpose was to determine the effects of soluble Aβ 25-35 on reconsolidation of object recognition memory (ORM) in rats, and assess whether these effects can be prevented by lithium carbonate (LiCa). In this study, male Wistar rats were used and the following groups were formed (N=6-13): (a) control, given saline solution; (b) [NMDA antagonist] MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg); (c) LiCa (350 mg/kg); (d) Aβ 25-35 (100 μM) injected into both hippocampi; and (e) Aβ 25-35+LiCa. In all cases, treatments were administered with or without reactivation of memory. The results showed that soluble Aβ 25-35 produces ORM impairment similar to MK-801 when given shortly after memory reactivation, and this effect is prevented by prior administration of LiCa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exciting perspectives for Translational Myology in the Abstracts of the 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays: Giovanni Salviati Memorial – Chapter I - Foreword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Carraro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myologists working in Padua (Italy were able to continue a half-century tradition of studies of skeletal muscles, that started with a research on fever, specifically if and how skeletal muscle contribute to it by burning bacterial toxin. Beside main publications in high-impact-factor journals by Padua myologists, I hope to convince readers (and myself of the relevance of the editing Basic and Applied Myology (BAM, retitled from 2010 European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM, of the institution of the Interdepartmental Research Center of Myology of the University of Padova (CIR-Myo, and of a long series of International Conferences organized in Euganei Hills and Padova, that is, the PaduaMuscleDays. The 2018Spring PaduaMuscleDays (2018SpPMD, were held in Euganei Hills and Padua (Italy, in March 14-17, and were dedicated to Giovanni Salviati. The main event of the “Giovanni Salviati Memorial”, was held in the Aula Guariento, Accademia Galileiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti of Padua to honor a beloved friend and excellent scientist 20 years after his premature passing. Using the words of Prof. Nicola Rizzuto, we all share his believe that Giovanni “will be remembered not only for his talent and originality as a biochemist, but also for his unassuming and humanistic personality, a rare quality in highly successful people like Giovanni. The best way to remember such a person is to gather pupils and colleagues, who shared with him the same scientific interests and ask them to discuss recent advances in their own fields, just as Giovanni have liked to do”. Since Giovanni’s friends sent many abstracts still influenced by their previous collaboration with him, all the Sessions of the 2018SpPMD reflect both to the research aims of Giovanni Salviati and the traditional topics of the PaduaMuscleDays, that is, basics and applications of physical, molecular and cellular strategies to maintain or recover functions of skeletal muscles. The

  18. Dentate Gyrus-Specific Knockdown of Adult Neurogenesis Impairs Spatial and Object Recognition Memory in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessberger, Sebastian; Clark, Robert E.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clemenson, Gregory D., Jr.; Consiglio, Antonella; Lie, D. Chichung; Squire, Larry R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    New granule cells are born throughout life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Given the fundamental role of the hippocampus in processes underlying certain forms of learning and memory, it has been speculated that newborn granule cells contribute to cognition. However, previous strategies aiming to causally link newborn neurons…

  19. A Male Advantage for Spatial and Object but Not Verbal Working Memory Using the N-Back Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejbak, Lisa; Crossley, Margaret; Vrbancic, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    Sex-related differences have been reported for performance and neural substrates on some working memory measures that carry a high cognitive load, including the popular n-back neuroimaging paradigm. Despite some evidence of a sex effect on the task, the influence of sex on performance represents a potential confound in neuroimaging research. The…

  20. HDAC Inhibition Modulates Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory for Object Location in a CBP-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Multani, Monica L.; Figueroa, Dario X.; McQuown, Susan C.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation…

  1. The Perceptual Root of Object-Based Storage: An Interactive Model of Perception and Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Gao, Zaifeng; Li, Jie; Sun, Zhongqiang; Shen, Mowei

    2011-01-01

    Mainstream theories of visual perception assume that visual working memory (VWM) is critical for integrating online perceptual information and constructing coherent visual experiences in changing environments. Given the dynamic interaction between online perception and VWM, we propose that how visual information is processed during visual…

  2. Effects of Zaprinast and Rolipram on Olfactory and Visual Memory in the Social Transmission of Food Preference and Novel Object Recognition Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuzan Akar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors in central nervous system has been investigated and shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer patients. The aim of this study is to investigate effect of PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram on visual memory in novel object recognition (NOR test, on olfactory memory in social transmission of food preference (STFP test, and also on locomotion and anxiety in open field test in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg, rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, or physiological saline. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg significantly increased cued/non-cued food eaten compared to control group, while rolipram had a partial effect on retention trial of STFP test. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg significantly increased ratio index (RI compared to control group in retention trial of NOR test. There was no significant effect of zaprinast and rolipram on total distance moved, speed, and center zone duration in open field test. Results of this study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced visual memory in NOR test, however zaprinast exerted a significant memory-enhancing effect compared to rolipram in STFP test in mice.

  3. WWNPQFT-2011 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, E.; Bender, C.; Culetu, H.; Fried, H.; Grossmann, A.; Hofmann, R.; Le Bellac, M.; Martinetti, P.; Muller, B.; Patras, F.; Raffaeli, B.; Vitting Andersen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The object of this workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non-perturbative field theories. This year the presentations deal with quantum gravity, non-commutative geometry, fat-tailed wave-functions, strongly coupled field theories, space-times two time-like dimensions, and multiplicative renormalization. A presentation is dedicated to the construction of a nucleon-nucleon potential from an analytical, non-perturbative gauge invariant QCD. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  4. Construct Abstraction for Automatic Information Abstraction from Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-30

    objects and features and the names of objects of objects and features. For example, in Figure 15 the parts of the fish could be named the ‘mouth... fish -1 fish -2 fish -3 tennis shoe tennis racquet...of abstraction and generality. For example, an algorithm might usefully find a polygon ( blob ) in an image and calculate numbers such as the

  5. Context-specific activation of hippocampus and SN/VTA by reward is related to enhanced long-term memory for embedded objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eleanor; Kumaran, Dharshan; Koster, Raphael; Berron, David; Dolan, Ray; Duzel, Emrah

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies indicate that hippocampal representations of environmental context modulate reward-related processing in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), a major origin of dopamine in the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, we investigated the neural specificity of context-reward associations under conditions where the presence of perceptually similar neutral contexts imposed high demands on a putative hippocampal function, pattern separation. The design also allowed us to investigate how contextual reward enhances long-term memory for embedded neutral objects. SN/VTA activity underpinned specific context-reward associations in the face of perceptual similarity. A reward-related enhancement of long-term memory was restricted to the condition where the rewarding and the neutral contexts were perceptually similar, and in turn was linked to co-activation of the hippocampus (subfield DG/CA3) and SN/VTA. Thus, an ability of contextual reward to enhance memory for focal objects is closely linked to context-related engagement of hippocampal-SN/VTA circuitry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Semantic memory impairment for biological and man-made objects in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brandy L; Joubert, Sven; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Macoir, Joël; Belleville, Sylvie; Rousseau, François; Bouchard, Rémi W; Verret, Louis; Hudon, Carol

    2015-06-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and late-life depression (LLD) both increase the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Very little is known about the similarities and differences between these syndromes. The present study addresses this issue by examining the nature of semantic memory impairment (more precisely, object-based knowledge) in patients at risk of developing AD. Participants were 17 elderly patients with aMCI, 18 patients with aMCI plus depressive symptoms (aMCI/D+), 15 patients with LLD, and 29 healthy controls. All participants were aged 55 years or older and were administered a semantic battery designed to assess semantic knowledge for 16 biological and 16 man-made items. Overall performance of aMCI/D+ participants was significantly worse than the 3 other groups, and performance for questions assessing knowledge for biological items was poorer than for questions relating to man-made items. This study is the first to show that aMCI/D+ is associated with object-based semantic memory impairment. These results support the view that semantic deficits in aMCI are associated with concomitant depressive symptoms. However, depressive symptoms alone do not account exclusively for semantic impairment, since patients with LLD showed no semantic memory deficit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Spatial and visuospatial working memory tests predict performance in classic multiple-object tracking in young adults, but nonspatial measures of the executive do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Lana M; Mutreja, Rachna; Hunt, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    An individual-differences approach was used to investigate the roles of visuospatial working memory and the executive in multiple-object tracking. The Corsi Blocks and Visual Patterns Tests were used to assess visuospatial working memory. Two relatively nonspatial measures of the executive were used: operation span (OSPAN) and reading span (RSPAN). For purposes of comparison, the digit span test was also included (a measure not expected to correlate with tracking). The tests predicted substantial amounts of variance (R (2) = .33), and the visuospatial measures accounted for the majority (R (2) = .30), with each making a significant contribution. Although the executive measures correlated with each other, the RSPAN did not correlate with tracking. The correlation between OSPAN and tracking was similar in magnitude to that between digit span and tracking (p < .05 for both), and when regression was used to partial out shared variance between the two tests, the remaining variance predicted by the OSPAN was minimal (sr ( 2 ) = .029). When measures of spatial memory were included in the regression, the unique variance predicted by the OSPAN became negligible (sr ( 2 ) = .000004). This suggests that the executive, as measured by tests such as the OSPAN, plays little role in explaining individual differences in multiple-object tracking.

  8. Memory transition between communicating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fell, Elena Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: What happens to a memory when it has been externalised and embodied but has not reached its addressee yet? A letter that has been written but has not been read, a monument before it is unveiled or a Neolithic tool buried in the ground – all these objects harbour human memories engrained in their physicality; messages intended for those who will read the letter, admire the monument and hold the tool. According to Ilyenkov’s theory of objective idealism, the conscious and wilful input...

  9. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....

  10. Ghana Science Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, C.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the Ghana Science Abstracts combines in one publication all the country's bibliographic output in science and technology. The objective is to provide a quick reference source to facilitate the work of information professionals, research scientists, lecturers and policy makers. It is meant to give users an idea of the depth and scope and results of the studies and projects carried out. The scope and coverage comprise research outputs, conference proceedings and periodical articles published in Ghana. It does not capture those that were published outside Ghana. Abstracts reported have been grouped under the following subject areas: Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biodiversity conservation, biological sciences, biotechnology, chemistry, dentistry, engineering, environmental management, forestry, information management, mathematics, medicine, physics, nuclear science, pharmacy, renewable energy and science education

  11. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  12. Developmental Profiles for Multiple Object Tracking and Spatial Memory: Typically Developing Preschoolers and People with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Hoffman, James E.; Landau, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The ability to track moving objects, a crucial skill for mature performance on everyday spatial tasks, has been hypothesized to require a specialized mechanism that may be available in infancy (i.e. indexes). Consistent with the idea of specialization, our previous work showed that object tracking was more impaired than a matched spatial memory…

  13. Types: A data abstraction package in FORTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, S.

    1990-01-01

    TYPES is a collection of Fortran programs which allow the creation and manipulation of abstract ''data objects'' without the need for a preprocessor. Each data object is assigned a ''type'' as it is created which implies participation in a set of characteristic operations. Available types include scalars, logicals, ordered sets, stacks, queues, sequences, trees, arrays, character strings, block text, histograms, virtual and allocatable memories. A data object may contain integers, reals, or other data objects in any combination. In addition to the type specific operations, a set of universal utilities allows for copying input/output to disk, naming, editing, displaying, user input, interactive creation, tests for equality of contents or structure, machine to machine translation or source code creation for and data object. TYPES is available on VAX/VMS, SUN 3, SPARC, DEC/Ultrix, Silicon Graphics 4D and Cray/Unicos machines. The capabilities of the package are discussed together with characteristic applications and experience in writing the GVerify package

  14. No Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation on Multiple Sessions of Object-Location-Memory Training in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külzow, Nadine; Cavalcanti de Sousa, Angelica Vieira; Cesarz, Magda; Hanke, Julie-Marie; Günsberg, Alida; Harder, Solvejg; Koblitz, Swantje; Grittner, Ulrike; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Object-location memory (OLM) is known to decline with normal aging, a process accelerated in pathological conditions like mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In order to maintain cognitive health and to delay the transition from healthy to pathological conditions, novel strategies are being explored. Tentative evidence suggests that combining cognitive training and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), both reported to induce small and often inconsistent behavioral improvements, could generate larger or more consistent improvements or both, compared to each intervention alone. Here, we explored the combined efficacy of these techniques on OLM. In a subject-blind sham-controlled cross-over design 32 healthy older adults underwent a 3-day visuospatial training paired with either anodal (20 min) or sham (30 s) atDCS (1 mA, temporoparietal). Subjects were asked to learn the correct object-location pairings on a street map, shown over five learning blocks on each training day. Acquisition performance was assessed by accuracy on a given learning block in terms of percentage of correct responses. Training success (performance on last training day) and delayed memory after 1-month were analyzed by mixed model analysis and were controlled for gender, age, education, sequence of stimulation and baseline performance. Exploratory analysis of atDCS effects on within-session (online) and between-session (offline) memory performance were conducted. Moreover, transfer effects on similar trained (visuospatial) and less similar (visuo-constructive, verbal) untrained memory tasks were explored, both immediately after training, and on follow-up. We found that atDCS paired with OLM-training did not enhance success in training or performance in 1-month delayed memory or transfer tasks. In sum, this study did not support the notion that the combined atDCS-training approach improves immediate or delayed OLM in older adults. However, specifics of the experimental design, and

  15. No Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation on Multiple Sessions of Object-Location-Memory Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Külzow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Object-location memory (OLM is known to decline with normal aging, a process accelerated in pathological conditions like mild cognitive impairment (MCI. In order to maintain cognitive health and to delay the transition from healthy to pathological conditions, novel strategies are being explored. Tentative evidence suggests that combining cognitive training and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS, both reported to induce small and often inconsistent behavioral improvements, could generate larger or more consistent improvements or both, compared to each intervention alone. Here, we explored the combined efficacy of these techniques on OLM. In a subject-blind sham-controlled cross-over design 32 healthy older adults underwent a 3-day visuospatial training paired with either anodal (20 min or sham (30 s atDCS (1 mA, temporoparietal. Subjects were asked to learn the correct object-location pairings on a street map, shown over five learning blocks on each training day. Acquisition performance was assessed by accuracy on a given learning block in terms of percentage of correct responses. Training success (performance on last training day and delayed memory after 1-month were analyzed by mixed model analysis and were controlled for gender, age, education, sequence of stimulation and baseline performance. Exploratory analysis of atDCS effects on within-session (online and between-session (offline memory performance were conducted. Moreover, transfer effects on similar trained (visuospatial and less similar (visuo-constructive, verbal untrained memory tasks were explored, both immediately after training, and on follow-up. We found that atDCS paired with OLM-training did not enhance success in training or performance in 1-month delayed memory or transfer tasks. In sum, this study did not support the notion that the combined atDCS-training approach improves immediate or delayed OLM in older adults. However, specifics of the experimental

  16. Loss of object recognition memory produced by extended access to methamphetamine self-administration is reversed by positive allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Carmela M; Schwendt, Marek; McGinty, Jacqueline F; Olive, M Foster; See, Ronald E

    2011-03-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse can lead to persisting cognitive deficits. Here, we utilized a long-access meth self-administration (SA) protocol to assess recognition memory and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) expression, and the possible reversal of cognitive impairments with the mGluR5 allosteric modulator, 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl) benzamide (CDPPB). Male, Long-Evans rats self-administered i.v. meth (0.02 mg/infusion) on an FR1 schedule of reinforcement or received yoked-saline infusions. After seven daily 1-h sessions, rats were switched to 6-h daily sessions for 14 days, and then underwent drug abstinence. Rats were tested for object recognition memory at 1 week after meth SA at 90 min and 24 h retention intervals. In a separate experiment, rats underwent the same protocol, but received either vehicle or CDPPB (30 mg/kg) after familiarization. Rats were killed on day 8 or 14 post-SA and brain tissue was obtained. Meth intake escalated over the extended access period. Additionally, meth-experienced rats showed deficits in both short- and long-term recognition memory, demonstrated by a lack of novel object exploration. The deficit at 90 min was reversed by CDPPB treatment. On day 8, meth intake during SA negatively correlated with mGluR expression in the perirhinal and prefrontal cortex, and mGluR5 receptor expression was decreased 14 days after discontinuation of meth. This effect was specific to mGluR5 levels in the perirhinal cortex, as no differences were identified in the hippocampus or in mGluR2/3 receptors. These results from a clinically-relevant animal model of addiction suggest that mGluR5 receptor modulation may be a potential treatment of cognitive dysfunction in meth addiction.

  17. Caffeine and modafinil given during 48 h sleep deprivation modulate object recognition memory and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, M; Sahu, S; Kumari, P; Kauser, H; Ray, K; Panjwani, U

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine/modafinil on sleep deprivation (SD) induced alterations in recognition memory and synaptic proteins. The data revealed a beneficial effect of caffeine/modafinil against deficit in the familiar object retrieval performance and object exploration ratio after 48 h SD. Caffeine treatment prevented the SD induced down-regulation of synaptophysin and synapsin I proteins with no change in PSD-95 protein in hippocampus. However, modafinil administration improved the down-regulation of synaptophysin, synapsin I and PSD-95 proteins in hippocampus. Hence, caffeine/modafinil can serve as counter measures in amelioration of SD induced consequences at behavioural and protein levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early malnutrition results in long-lasting impairments in pattern-separation for overlapping novel object and novel location memories and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-02-17

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that malnutrition during in utero development and/or childhood induces long-lasting learning disabilities and enhanced susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies aimed to address this question have yielded inconsistent results due to the use of learning tasks involving negative or positive reinforces that interfere with the enduring changes in emotional reactivity and motivation produced by in utero and neonatal malnutrition. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying the learning deficits associated with malnutrition in early life remain unknown. Here we implemented a behavioural paradigm based on the combination of the novel object recognition and the novel object location tasks to define the impact of early protein-restriction on the behavioural, cellular and molecular basis of memory processing. Adult rats born to dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, exhibited impaired encoding and consolidation of memory resulting from impaired pattern separation. This learning deficit was associated with reduced production of newly born hippocampal neurons and down regulation of BDNF gene expression. These data sustain the existence of a causal relationship between early malnutrition and impaired learning in adulthood and show that decreased adult neurogenesis is associated to the cognitive deficits induced by childhood exposure to poor nutrition.

  19. Working memory capacity accounts for the ability to switch between object-based and location-based allocation of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckley, M Kathryn; Foster, Jeffrey L; Engle, Randall W

    2015-04-01

    Bleckley, Durso, Crutchfield, Engle, and Khanna (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 884-889, 2003) found that visual attention allocation differed between groups high or low in working memory capacity (WMC). High-span, but not low-span, subjects showed an invalid-cue cost during a letter localization task in which the letter appeared closer to fixation than the cue, but not when the letter appeared farther from fixation than the cue. This suggests that low-spans allocated attention as a spotlight, whereas high-spans allocated their attention to objects. In this study, we tested whether utilizing object-based visual attention is a resource-limited process that is difficult for low-span individuals. In the first experiment, we tested the uses of object versus location-based attention with high and low-span subjects, with half of the subjects completing a demanding secondary load task. Under load, high-spans were no longer able to use object-based visual attention. A second experiment supported the hypothesis that these differences in allocation were due to high-spans using object-based allocation, whereas low-spans used location-based allocation.

  20. The Role of Shape in Semantic Memory Organization of Objects : An Experimental Study Using PI-Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weelden, L.; Schilperoord, J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Pecher, D.

    2015-01-01

    Visual information contributes fundamentally to the process of object categorization. The present study investigated whether the degree of activation of visual information in this process is dependent on the contextual relevance of this information. We used the Proactive Interference (PI-release)

  1. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  2. Short exposure to a diet rich in both fat and sugar or sugar alone impairs place, but not object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Jessica E; Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-03-01

    High energy diets have been shown to impair cognition however, the rapidity of these effects, and the dietary component/s responsible are currently unclear. We conducted two experiments in rats to examine the effects of short-term exposure to a diet rich in sugar and fat or rich in sugar on object (perirhinal-dependent) and place (hippocampal-dependent) recognition memory, and the role of inflammatory mediators in these responses. In Experiment 1, rats fed a cafeteria style diet containing chow supplemented with lard, cakes, biscuits, and a 10% sucrose solution performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task, than chow fed control rats when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. In Experiment 2, rats fed the cafeteria style diet either with or without sucrose and rats fed chow supplemented with sucrose also performed worse on the place, but not the object recognition task when tested after 5, 11, and 20 days. Rats fed the cafeteria diets consumed five times more energy than control rats and exhibited increased plasma leptin, insulin and triglyceride concentrations; these were not affected in the sucrose only rats. Rats exposed to sucrose exhibited both increased hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA) and oxidative stress, as indicated by an upregulation of NRF1 mRNA compared to control rats. In contrast, these markers were not significantly elevated in rats that received the cafeteria diet without added sucrose. Hippocampal BDNF and neuritin mRNA were similar across all groups. These results show that relatively short exposures to diets rich in both fat and sugar or rich in sugar, impair hippocampal-dependent place recognition memory prior to the emergence of weight differences, and suggest a role for oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in this impairment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of spatial organization of targets and distractors on the capacity to selectively memorize objects in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Aymen Ben; Gavault, Emmanuelle; Ripoll, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to explore how the spatial configuration of objects influences the selection and the processing of these objects in a visual short-term memory task. We designed a new experiment in which participants had to memorize 4 targets presented among 4 distractors. Targets were cued during the presentation of distractor objects. Their locations varied according to 4 spatial configurations. From the first to the last configuration, the distance between targets' locations was progressively increased. The results revealed a high capacity to select and memorize targets embedded among distractors even when targets were extremely distant from each other. This capacity is discussed in relation to the unitary conception of attention, models of split attention, and the competitive interaction model. Finally, we propose that the spatial dispersion of objects has different effects on attentional allocation and processing stages. Thus, when targets are extremely distant from each other, attentional allocation becomes more difficult while processing becomes easier. This finding implicates that these 2 aspects of attention need to be more clearly distinguished in future research.

  4. Effects of 7-NI and ODQ on memory in the passive avoidance, novel object recognition, and social transmission of food preference tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2014-03-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger that plays a critical role in learning and memory processes. Effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a GC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on different aspects of memory in passive avoidance (PA), novel object recognition (NOR), and social transmission of food preference (STFP) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3,10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency in PA test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ratio index in the NOR test. 7-NI and ODQ (10 mg/kg) decreased cued/non-cued food eaten in STFP test. Amount of time spent in center zone significantly increased in ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) groups in open field test, but there was no effect on total distance moved and speed of animals. ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased number of entries into new compartments in exploratory activity apparatus, while 7-NI had no effect. Administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) before 7-NI reversed 7-NI-induced effects, supporting the role of NO in cognition. Our results confirm that inhibition of NO/cGMP/GS pathway might disturb emotional, visual, and olfactory memory in mice. Also, 7-NI and ODQ had anxiolytic effects in open field test, and ODQ also enhanced exploratory activity.

  5. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  6. T-Tau is Associated with Objective Memory Decline Over Two Years in Persons Seeking Help for Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Report from the Gothenburg-Oslo MCI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Nordlund, Arto; Stålhammar, Jacob; Eckerström, Marie; Bjerke, Maria; Eckerström, Carl; Göthlin, Mattias; Fladby, Tormod; Reinvang, Ivar; Wallin, Anders

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to find very early markers for pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease as interventions early in the disease process are thought to be most effective. The present study aimed to address the potential relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and reduced cognitive function in a relatively young cohort of memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive decline. 122 patients (mean age 63 years) with subjective cognitive decline were recruited from two university memory clinics and followed for two years. The main finding was that the subgroup with objective memory decline during the study period had significantly higher T-tau at baseline than the group with improved memory. Baseline CSF variables showed a trend toward more pathological values in the patients with memory decline compared to those who improved or remained stable. The baseline memory score of those who declined was significantly better than the baseline score of those who improved over two years. The general trend for the whole group was improved memory and executive test scores. There were no differences in cognitive scores based on CSF quartiles at baseline, nor were there differences in cognitive outcome for patients with early amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus average cognitive function at baseline. The main finding that T-tau rather than amyloid-β was associated with memory decline do not support the prevailing opinion about the chain of events assumed to take place in Alzheimer's disease. In addition, memory decline was not associated with poor baseline memory score. Thus, a memory cut-off indicating low baseline memory would not would have identified the declining group.

  7. Cross-modal and intra-modal binding between identity and location in spatial working memory: The identity of objects does not help recalling their locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gatto, Claudia; Brunetti, Riccardo; Delogu, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In this study we tested incidental feature-to-location binding in a spatial task, both in unimodal and cross-modal conditions. In Experiment 1 we administered a computerised version of the Corsi Block-Tapping Task (CBTT) in three different conditions: the first one analogous to the original CBTT test; the second one in which locations were associated with unfamiliar images; the third one in which locations were associated with non-verbal sounds. Results showed no effect on performance by the addition of identity information. In Experiment 2, locations on the screen were associated with pitched sounds in two different conditions: one in which different pitches were randomly associated with locations and the other in which pitches were assigned to match the vertical position of the CBTT squares congruently with their frequencies. In Experiment 2 we found marginal evidence of a pitch facilitation effect in the spatial memory task. We ran a third experiment to test the same conditions of Experiment 2 with a within-subject design. Results of Experiment 3 did not confirm the pitch-location facilitation effect. We concluded that the identity of objects does not affect recalling their locations. We discuss our results within the framework of the debate about the mechanisms of "what" and "where" feature binding in working memory.

  8. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples....

  9. The Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing and facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and object identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  10. Visual long-term memory and change blindness: Different effects of pre- and post-change information on one-shot change detection using meaningless geometric objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Megumi; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the relationship between visual long-term memory (VLTM) and online visual processing, we investigated whether and how VLTM involuntarily affects the performance of a one-shot change detection task using images consisting of six meaningless geometric objects. In the study phase, participants observed pre-change (Experiment 1), post-change (Experiment 2), or both pre- and post-change (Experiment 3) images appearing in the subsequent change detection phase. In the change detection phase, one object always changed between pre- and post-change images and participants reported which object was changed. Results showed that VLTM of pre-change images enhanced the performance of change detection, while that of post-change images decreased accuracy. Prior exposure to both pre- and post-change images did not influence performance. These results indicate that pre-change information plays an important role in change detection, and that information in VLTM related to the current task does not always have a positive effect on performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemic L-Kynurenine sulfate administration disrupts object recognition memory, alters open field behavior and decreases c-Fos immunopositivity in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Dániel; Herédi, Judit; Kánvási, Zita; Ruszka, Marian; Kis, Zsolt; Ono, Etsuro; Iwamori, Naoki; Iwamori, Tokuko; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József; Gellért, Levente

    2015-01-01

    L-Kynurenine (L-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway (KP). The systemic administration of L-KYN sulfate (L-KYNs) leads to a rapid elevation of the neuroactive KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). An elevated level of KYNA may have multiple effects on the synaptic transmission, resulting in complex behavioral changes, such as hypoactivity or spatial working memory deficits. These results emerged from studies that focused on rats, after low-dose L-KYNs treatment. However, in several studies neuroprotection was achieved through the administration of high-dose L-KYNs. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the systemic administration of a high dose of L-KYNs (300 mg/bwkg; i.p.) would produce alterations in behavioral tasks (open field or object recognition) in C57Bl/6j mice. To evaluate the changes in neuronal activity after L-KYNs treatment, in a separate group of animals we estimated c-Fos expression levels in the corresponding subcortical brain areas. The L-KYNs treatment did not affect the general ambulatory activity of C57Bl/6j mice, whereas it altered their moving patterns, elevating the movement velocity and resting time. Additionally, it seemed to increase anxiety-like behavior, as peripheral zone preference of the open field arena emerged and the rearing activity was attenuated. The treatment also completely abolished the formation of object recognition memory and resulted in decreases in the number of c-Fos-immunopositive-cells in the dorsal part of the striatum and in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. We conclude that a single exposure to L-KYNs leads to behavioral disturbances, which might be related to the altered basal c-Fos protein expression in C57Bl/6j mice.

  12. ICENES 2007 Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, S [Gazi University, Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues.

  13. ICENES 2007 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues

  14. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds......Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  15. Cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA

  16. False memories in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA DE CAMARGO PALMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memories are memories of events that never occurred or that occurred, but not exactly as we recall. Events with emotional content are subject to false memories production similar to neutral events. However, individual differences, such as the level of maladjustment and emotional instability characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, may interfere in the production of false memories. Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of emotion in memory performance for an event witnessed by participants with and without SAD. Methods Participants were 61 young adults with SAD and 76 without any symptoms of SAD who were randomly assigned to watch a story with or without emotional arousal. Participants answered a subjective scale of emotion about the story and a recognition memory test. Results Participants with SAD recovered more true memories and more false memories for the non-emotional version compared to the emotional version of the story. Overall, participants with SAD produced fewer false memories compared to those without SAD. Discussion This finding suggests that social anxiety may have a significant impact on emotional memory accuracy, which may assist in the development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Silberstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion.

  18. Laminar Module Cascade from Layer 5 to 6 Implementing Cue-to-Target Conversion for Object Memory Retrieval in the Primate Temporal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Kenji W; Takeda, Masaki; Matsui, Teppei; Hirabayashi, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Yohei; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2016-10-19

    The cerebral cortex computes through the canonical microcircuit that connects six stacked layers; however, how cortical processing streams operate in vivo, particularly in the higher association cortex, remains elusive. By developing a novel MRI-assisted procedure that reliably localizes recorded single neurons at resolution of six individual layers in monkey temporal cortex, we show that transformation of representations from a cued object to a to-be-recalled object occurs at the infragranular layer in a visual cued-recall task. This cue-to-target conversion started in layer 5 and was followed by layer 6. Finally, a subset of layer 6 neurons exclusively encoding the sought target became phase-locked to surrounding field potentials at theta frequency, suggesting that this coordinated cell assembly implements cortical long-distance outputs of the recalled target. Thus, this study proposes a link from local computation spanning laminar modules of the temporal cortex to the brain-wide network for memory retrieval in primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics

  20. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics.

  1. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  2. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  3. Involuntary top-down control by search-irrelevant features: Visual working memory biases attention in an object-based manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Schneider, Werner X

    2018-03-01

    Many everyday tasks involve successive visual-search episodes with changing targets. Converging evidence suggests that these targets are retained in visual working memory (VWM) and bias attention from there. It is unknown whether all or only search-relevant features of a VWM template bias attention during search. Bias signals might be configured exclusively to task-relevant features so that only search-relevant features bias attention. Alternatively, VWM might maintain objects in the form of bound features. Then, all template features will bias attention in an object-based manner, so that biasing effects are ranked by feature relevance. Here, we investigated whether search-irrelevant VWM template features bias attention. Participants had to saccade to a target opposite a distractor. A colored cue depicted the target prior to each search trial. The target was predefined only by its identity, while its color was irrelevant. When target and cue matched not only in identity (search-relevant) but also in color (search-irrelevant), saccades went more often and faster directly to the target than without any color match (Experiment 1). When introducing a cue-distractor color match (Experiment 2), direct target saccades were most likely when target and cue matched in the search-irrelevant color and least likely in case of a cue-distractor color match. When cue and target were never colored the same (Experiment 3), cue-colored distractors still captured the eyes more often than different-colored distractors despite color being search-irrelevant. As participants were informed about the misleading color, the result argues against a strategical and voluntary usage of color. Instead, search-irrelevant features biased attention obligatorily arguing for involuntary top-down control by object-based VWM templates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  5. The progesterone-induced enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation involves activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the dorsal hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patrick T.; Rubin, Amanda J.; Fan, Lu; Kent, Brianne A.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Although much recent work has elucidated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the modulation of memory by 17β-estradiol, little is known about the signaling events through which progesterone (P) regulates memory. We recently demonstrated that immediate post-training infusion of P into the dorsal hippocampus enhances object recognition memory consolidation in young ovariectomized female mice (Orr et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to identify the biochemical alterations that might underlie this mnemonic enhancement. We hypothesized that the P-induced enhancement of object recognition would be dependent on activation of the ERK and mTOR pathways. In young ovariectomized mice, we found that bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusion of P significantly increased levels of phospho-p42 ERK and the mTOR substrate S6K in the dorsal hippocampus 5 minutes after infusion. Phospho-p42 ERK levels were downregulated 15 minutes after infusion and returned to baseline 30 minutes after infusion, suggesting a biphasic effect of P on ERK activation. Dorsal hippocampal ERK and mTOR activation were necessary for P to facilitate memory consolidation, as suggested by the fact that inhibitors of both pathways infused into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after training blocked the P-induced enhancement of object recognition. Collectively, these data provide the first demonstration that the ability of P to enhance memory consolidation depends on the rapid activation of cell signaling and protein synthesis pathways in the dorsal hippocampus. PMID:22265866

  6. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    ANIMMA 2013 is the third of a series of conferences devoted to endorsing and promoting scientific and technical activities based on nuclear instrumentation and measurements. The main objective of ANIMMA conference is to unite the various scientific communities not only involved in nuclear instrumentation and measurements, but also in nuclear medicine and radiation. The conference is all about getting scientists, engineers and the industry to meet, exchange cultures and identify new scientific and technical prospects to help overcome both current and future unresolved issues. The conference provides scientists and engineers with a veritable opportunity to compare their latest research and development in different areas: physics, nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, safety, security, future energies (GEN III+, GENIV, ITER, ...). The conference topics include instrumentation and measurement methods for: Fundamental physics; Fusion diagnostics and technology; Nuclear power reactors; Research reactors; Nuclear fuel cycle; Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling; Safeguards, homeland security; Severe accident monitoring; Environmental and medical sciences; Education, training and outreach. This document brings together the abstracts of the presentations. Each presentation (full paper) is analysed separately and entered in INIS

  7. New rather than old? For working memory tasks with abstract patterns the P3 and the single-trial delta response are larger for modified than identical probe stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, B; Schmiedt, J; Schmiedt-Fehr, C; Pantelis, C; Basar-Eroglu, C

    2012-07-01

    Memory-guided decision making is dynamic and context-dependent, even though many studies describe an enhancement of the P3 for recognized items in memory tasks ("old-new effect"). This study utilized a delay-dependent working memory task during which decision making could be optimized by focusing attention on detected changes instead of recognized similarities. Mean P3 amplitude and delta activity were analyzed from participants who classified probe stimuli as identical or modified. The P3 amplitudes were larger for modified than for identical probes, even when the probe occurred 4,000 ms after the primary stimulus. Enhanced single-trial amplitude, trial-by-trial consistency, and frontoparietal phase coherence of delta activity contributed to the larger P3 for the modified probe. Thus, context-dependent attentional resource allocation supporting memory-guided decisions might explain the enhancement of the P3 for specific probe types. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Retrieving autobiographical memories: How different retrieval strategies associated with different cues explain reaction time differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Tugba

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that memories cued by concrete concepts, such as objects, are retrieved faster than those cued by more abstract concepts, such as emotions. This effect has been explained by the fact that more memories are directly retrieved from object versus emotion cues. In the present study, we tested whether RT differences between memories cued by emotion versus object terms occur not only because object cues elicit direct retrieval of more memories (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012), but also because of differences in memory generation in response to emotions versus objects. One hundred university students retrieved memories in response to basic-level (e.g. orange), superordinate-level (e.g. plant), and emotion (e.g. surprised) cues. Retrieval speed was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that memories were retrieved faster in response to basic-level versus superordinate-level and emotion cues because a) basic-level cues elicited more directly retrieved memories, and b) generating memories was more difficult when cues were abstract versus concrete. These results suggest that generative retrieval is a cue generation process in which additional cues that provide contextual information including the target event are produced. Memories are retrieved more slowly in response to emotion cues in part because emotion labels are less effective cues of appropriate contextual information. This particular finding is inconsistent with the idea that emotion is a primary organizational unit for autobiographical memories. In contrast, the difficulty of emotional memory generation implies that emotions represent low-level event information in the organization of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  10. 2018 Congress Podium Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. For Congress scheduling information, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  11. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  12. Frontopolar cortex mediates abstract integration in analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Kraemer, David J M; Shamosh, Noah A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-06-22

    Integration of abstractly similar relations during analogical reasoning was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activation elicited by an analogical reasoning task that required both complex working memory and integration of abstractly similar relations was compared to activation elicited by a non-analogical task that required complex working memory in the absence of abstract relational integration. A left-sided region of the frontal pole of the brain (BA 9/10) was selectively active for the abstract relational integration component of analogical reasoning. Analogical reasoning also engaged a left-sided network of parieto-frontal regions. Activity in this network during analogical reasoning is hypothesized to reflect categorical alignment of individual component terms that make up analogies. This parieto-frontal network was also engaged by the complex control task, which involved explicit categorization, but not by a simpler control task, which did not involve categorization. We hypothesize that frontopolar cortex mediates abstract relational integration in complex reasoning while parieto-frontal regions mediate working memory processes, including manipulation of terms for the purpose of categorical alignment, that facilitate this integration.

  13. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  14. Object-Based Benefits without Object-Based Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Fougnie, Daryl; Cormiea, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    The organization of visual information into objects strongly influences visual memory: Displays with objects defined by two features (e.g. color, orientation) are easier to remember than displays with twice as many objects defined by one feature (Olson & Jiang, 2002). Existing theories suggest that this ‘object-benefit’ is based on object-based limitations in working memory: because a limited number of objects can be stored, packaging features together so that fewer objects have to be remembe...

  15. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  16. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics

  17. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  18. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  19. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  20. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  1. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  2. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M; Gorree, Eva

    2012-05-17

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a preferential loss of hippocampus-dependent, configurational information over more cortically based memory components, including memory for individual objects. The current study systematically tests this hypothesis, using a new paradigm that allows the contemporaneous assessment of memory for objects, object pairings, and object-position conjunctions. Retention of each memory component was tested, at multiple intervals, up to 3 mo following encoding. The three memory subtasks adopted the same retrieval paradigm and were matched for initial difficulty. Results show differential decay of the tested episodic memory components, whereby memory for configurational aspects of a scene (objects' co-occurrence and object position) decays faster than memory for featured objects. Interestingly, memory requiring a visually detailed object representation decays at a similar rate as global object recognition, arguing against interpretations based on task difficulty and against the notion that (visual) detail is forgotten preferentially. These findings show that memories undergo qualitative changes as they age. More specifically, event memories become less configurational over time, preferentially losing some of the higher order associations that are dependent on the hippocampus for initial fast encoding. Implications for theories of long-term memory are discussed.

  3. Scientific meeting abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is a collection of the scientific meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, different aspects of energy and presents research done in 1999 in these fields

  4. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  5. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  6. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  7. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  8. Connexin31.1 deficiency in the mouse impairs object memory and modulates open-field exploration, acetylcholine esterase levels in the striatum, and cAMP response element-binding protein levels in the striatum and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, E; Zheng-Fischhöfer, Q; Viggiano, D; Gironi Carnevale, U A; Ruocco, L A; Zlomuzica, A; Schnichels, M; Willecke, K; Huston, J P; Sadile, A G

    2008-05-02

    Neuronal gap junctions in the brain, providing intercellular electrotonic signal transfer, have been implicated in physiological and behavioral correlates of learning and memory. In connexin31.1 (Cx31.1) knockout (KO) mice the coding region of the Cx31.1 gene was replaced by a LacZ reporter gene. We investigated the impact of Cx31.1 deficiency on open-field exploration, the behavioral response to an odor, non-selective attention, learning and memory performance, and the levels of memory-related proteins in the hippocampus, striatum and the piriform cortex. In terms of behavior, the deletion of the Cx31.1 coding DNA in the mouse led to increased exploratory behaviors in a novel environment, and impaired one-trial object recognition at all delays tested. Despite strong Cx31.1 expression in the peripheral and central olfactory system, Cx31.1 KO mice exhibited normal behavioral responses to an odor. We found increased levels of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the striatum of Cx31.1 KO mice. In the piriform cortex the Cx31.1 KO mice had an increased heterogeneity of CREB expression among neurons. In conclusion, gap-junctions featuring the Cx31.1 protein might be involved in open-field exploration as well as object memory and modulate levels of AChE and CREB in the striatum and piriform cortex.

  9. Data Abstraction Mechanisms in Sina/st

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyrowitz, N.K.; Aksit, Mehmet; Tripathi, Anand

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new data abstraction mechanism in an object-oriented model of computing. The data abstraction mechanism described here has been devised in the context of the design of Sina/st language. In Sina/st no language constructs have been adopted for specifying inheritance or

  10. Abstract Machines for Programming Language Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Stephan; Hartel, Pieter H.; Sestoft, Peter

    We present an extensive, annotated bibliography of the abstract machines designed for each of the main programming paradigms (imperative, object oriented, functional, logic and concurrent). We conclude that whilst a large number of efficient abstract machines have been designed for particular

  11. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  12. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.

  13. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  15. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  16. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  17. Full Abstraction for HOPLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for the higher-order process language HOPLA is presented. It characterises contextual and logical equivalence, the latter linking up with simulation. The semantics is a clean, domain-theoretic description of processes as downwards-closed sets of computation...

  18. Abstraction and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  19. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  20. Abstract algebra for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1975-06-01

    Certain recent models of composite hadrons involve concepts and theorems from abstract algebra which are unfamiliar to most theoretical physicists. The algebraic apparatus needed for an understanding of these models is summarized here. Particular emphasis is given to algebraic structures which are not assumed to be associative. (2 figures) (auth)