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Sample records for abstract categorical representation

  1. The Representation of Concrete and Abstract Concepts: Categorical versus Associative Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jingyi; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 word-translation experiments, we examined the different representational frameworks theory (Crutch & Warrington, 2005; 2010) that concrete words are represented primarily by category, whereas abstract words are represented by association. In our experiments, Chinese-English bilingual speakers were presented with an auditory Chinese word…

  2. Reflective Abstraction and Representation.

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    Lewin, Philip

    Piaget's theory of reflective abstraction can supplement cognitive science models of representation by specifying both the act of construction and the component steps through which knowers pass as they acquire knowledge. But, while approaches suggested by cognitive science supplement Piaget by awakening researchers to the role of auxiliary factors…

  3. The abstract representations in speech processing.

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    Cutler, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Speech processing by human listeners derives meaning from acoustic input via intermediate steps involving abstract representations of what has been heard. Recent results from several lines of research are here brought together to shed light on the nature and role of these representations. In spoken-word recognition, representations of phonological form and of conceptual content are dissociable. This follows from the independence of patterns of priming for a word's form and its meaning. The nature of the phonological-form representations is determined not only by acoustic-phonetic input but also by other sources of information, including metalinguistic knowledge. This follows from evidence that listeners can store two forms as different without showing any evidence of being able to detect the difference in question when they listen to speech. The lexical representations are in turn separate from prelexical representations, which are also abstract in nature. This follows from evidence that perceptual learning about speaker-specific phoneme realization, induced on the basis of a few words, generalizes across the whole lexicon to inform the recognition of all words containing the same phoneme. The efficiency of human speech processing has its basis in the rapid execution of operations over abstract representations.

  4. Ologs: a categorical framework for knowledge representation.

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    Spivak, David I; Kent, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the olog, or ontology log, a category-theoretic model for knowledge representation (KR). Grounded in formal mathematics, ologs can be rigorously formulated and cross-compared in ways that other KR models (such as semantic networks) cannot. An olog is similar to a relational database schema; in fact an olog can serve as a data repository if desired. Unlike database schemas, which are generally difficult to create or modify, ologs are designed to be user-friendly enough that authoring or reconfiguring an olog is a matter of course rather than a difficult chore. It is hoped that learning to author ologs is much simpler than learning a database definition language, despite their similarity. We describe ologs carefully and illustrate with many examples. As an application we show that any primitive recursive function can be described by an olog. We also show that ologs can be aligned or connected together into a larger network using functors. The various methods of information flow and institutions can then be used to integrate local and global world-views. We finish by providing several different avenues for future research.

  5. Ologs: a categorical framework for knowledge representation.

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    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the olog, or ontology log, a category-theoretic model for knowledge representation (KR. Grounded in formal mathematics, ologs can be rigorously formulated and cross-compared in ways that other KR models (such as semantic networks cannot. An olog is similar to a relational database schema; in fact an olog can serve as a data repository if desired. Unlike database schemas, which are generally difficult to create or modify, ologs are designed to be user-friendly enough that authoring or reconfiguring an olog is a matter of course rather than a difficult chore. It is hoped that learning to author ologs is much simpler than learning a database definition language, despite their similarity. We describe ologs carefully and illustrate with many examples. As an application we show that any primitive recursive function can be described by an olog. We also show that ologs can be aligned or connected together into a larger network using functors. The various methods of information flow and institutions can then be used to integrate local and global world-views. We finish by providing several different avenues for future research.

  6. Poster Abstract: Towards a Categorization Framework for Occupancy Sensing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Jradi, Muhyiddine

    2015-01-01

    A large share of the energy consumption of buildings is driven by occupancy behavior. Means to minimize this share of consumption depend upon accurate information about occupant behavior. Therefore, it is important to improve sensing systems for gathering such information. However, as research...... on occupancy sensing systems goes beyond basic methods, there is an increasing need for better comparison of proposed occupancy sensing systems. Developers of occupancy sensing systems are also lacking good frameworks for understanding different options when building occupancy sensing systems. This poster...... abstract motivates the need for working towards a better categorization framework to address both of these problems. For researchers, the categorization framework is also an aid when scoping out future research in the area of occupancy sensing systems....

  7. The effect of training methodology on knowledge representation in categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hélie

    Full Text Available Category representations can be broadly classified as containing within-category information or between-category information. Although such representational differences can have a profound impact on decision-making, relatively little is known about the factors contributing to the development and generalizability of different types of category representations. These issues are addressed by investigating the impact of training methodology and category structures using a traditional empirical approach as well as the novel adaptation of computational modeling techniques from the machine learning literature. Experiment 1 focused on rule-based (RB category structures thought to promote between-category representations. Participants learned two sets of two categories during training and were subsequently tested on a novel categorization problem using the training categories. Classification training resulted in a bias toward between-category representations whereas concept training resulted in a bias toward within-category representations. Experiment 2 focused on information-integration (II category structures thought to promote within-category representations. With II structures, there was a bias toward within-category representations regardless of training methodology. Furthermore, in both experiments, computational modeling suggests that only within-category representations could support generalization during the test phase. These data suggest that within-category representations may be dominant and more robust for supporting the reconfiguration of current knowledge to support generalization.

  8. Perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions of experience of abstract and representational paintings

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    Marković Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the difference between representational and abstract paintings in judgments on perceptual, semantic and affective dimensions was investigated. Two groups of participants judged the sets of representational and abstract paintings on three groups of dimensions: perceptual (Form, Color, Space and Complexity, semantic (Illusion-Construction of Reality, Expression, Ideology and Decoration, and affective (Hedonic Tone, Arousal, Relaxation and Regularity. The results have shown that representational paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimensions of Form and Complexity, the semantic dimension of the Illusion of Reality (the opposite pole of the Construction of Reality, and the affective dimension of Regularity. On the other hand, abstract paintings have higher judgments on the perceptual dimension of Color, the semantic dimensions of Construction of Reality (the opposite pole of the Illusion of Reality and Expression, and the affective dimension Arousal. A discriminant analysis indicated that all three sets of dimensions are relatively good predictors of the classification of representational and abstract paintings (61-100%. The results suggest that the subjective categorization of paintings is generally based on the recognizability of pictorial content (representational vs. abstract, but some formal or stylistic properties play a role in the categorization, as well: some expressionistic representational paintings were classified in an abstract category, and some geometrically abstract paintings were classified as representational.

  9. Emergence of an abstract categorical code enabling the discrimination of temporally structured tactile stimuli.

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    Rossi-Pool, Román; Salinas, Emilio; Zainos, Antonio; Alvarez, Manuel; Vergara, José; Parga, Néstor; Romo, Ranulfo

    2016-12-06

    The problem of neural coding in perceptual decision making revolves around two fundamental questions: (i) How are the neural representations of sensory stimuli related to perception, and (ii) what attributes of these neural responses are relevant for downstream networks, and how do they influence decision making? We studied these two questions by recording neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (DPC) cortex while trained monkeys reported whether the temporal pattern structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli (of equal mean frequency) was the same or different. We found that S1 neurons coded the temporal patterns in a literal way and only during the stimulation periods and did not reflect the monkeys' decisions. In contrast, DPC neurons coded the stimulus patterns as broader categories and signaled them during the working memory, comparison, and decision periods. These results show that the initial sensory representation is transformed into an intermediate, more abstract categorical code that combines past and present information to ultimately generate a perceptually informed choice.

  10. Abstraction/Representation Theory for heterotic physical computing.

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    Horsman, D C

    2015-07-28

    We give a rigorous framework for the interaction of physical computing devices with abstract computation. Device and program are mediated by the non-logical representation relation; we give the conditions under which representation and device theory give rise to commuting diagrams between logical and physical domains, and the conditions for computation to occur. We give the interface of this new framework with currently existing formal methods, showing in particular its close relationship to refinement theory, and the implications for questions of meaning and reference in theoretical computer science. The case of hybrid computing is considered in detail, addressing in particular the example of an Internet-mediated social machine, and the abstraction/representation framework used to provide a formal distinction between heterotic and hybrid computing. This forms the basis for future use of the framework in formal treatments of non-standard physical computers. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Extension Properties and Subdirect Representation in Abstract Algebraic Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lávička, Tomáš; Noguera, Carles

    (2018) ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04630S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Abstract algebraic logic * Infinitary logics * Natural extensions * Natural expansions * Semilinear logics * Subdirect representation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  12. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

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    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  13. Automatic activation of categorical and abstract analogical relations in analogical reasoning.

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    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-10-01

    We examined activation of concepts during analogical reasoning. Subjects made either analogical judgments or categorical judgments about four-word sets. After each four-word set, they named the ink color of a single word in a modified Stroop task. Words that referred to category relations were primed (as indicated by longer response times on Stroop color naming) subsequent to analogical judgments and categorical judgments. This finding suggests that activation of category concepts plays a fundamental role in analogical thinking. When colored words referred to analogical relations, priming occurred subsequent to analogical judgments, but not to categorical judgments, even though identical four-word stimuli were used for both types of judgments. This finding lends empirical support to the hypothesis that, when people comprehend the analogy between two items, they activate an abstract analogical relation that is distinct from the specific content items that compose the analogy.

  14. Space-by-time manifold representation of dynamic facial expressions for emotion categorization

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    Delis, Ioannis; Chen, Chaona; Jack, Rachael E.; Garrod, Oliver G. B.; Panzeri, Stefano; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    Visual categorization is the brain computation that reduces high-dimensional information in the visual environment into a smaller set of meaningful categories. An important problem in visual neuroscience is to identify the visual information that the brain must represent and then use to categorize visual inputs. Here we introduce a new mathematical formalism—termed space-by-time manifold decomposition—that describes this information as a low-dimensional manifold separable in space and time. We use this decomposition to characterize the representations used by observers to categorize the six classic facial expressions of emotion (happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad). By means of a Generative Face Grammar, we presented random dynamic facial movements on each experimental trial and used subjective human perception to identify the facial movements that correlate with each emotion category. When the random movements projected onto the categorization manifold region corresponding to one of the emotion categories, observers categorized the stimulus accordingly; otherwise they selected “other.” Using this information, we determined both the Action Unit and temporal components whose linear combinations lead to reliable categorization of each emotion. In a validation experiment, we confirmed the psychological validity of the resulting space-by-time manifold representation. Finally, we demonstrated the importance of temporal sequencing for accurate emotion categorization and identified the temporal dynamics of Action Unit components that cause typical confusions between specific emotions (e.g., fear and surprise) as well as those resolving these confusions. PMID:27305521

  15. Temporal dynamics of categorization: Forgetting as the basis of abstraction and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley eVlach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Historically, models of categorization have focused on how learners track frequencies and co-occurrence information to abstract relevant category features for generalization. The current study takes a different approach by examining how the temporal dynamics of categorization affect abstraction and generalization. In the learning phase of the experiment, all relevant category features were presented an equal number of times across category exemplars. However, the relevant features were presented on one of two learning schedules: massed or interleaved. At a series of immediate and delayed tests, learners were asked to generalize to novel exemplars that contained massed features, interleaved features, or all novel features. The results of this experiment revealed that, at an immediate test, learners more readily generalized based upon features presented on a massed schedule. Conversely, at a delayed test, learners more readily generalized based upon features presented on an interleaved schedule, until information was no longer readily retrievable from memory. These findings suggest that forgetting and retrieval processes engendered by the temporal dynamics of learning are used as a basis of abstraction, implicating forgetting as a central mechanism of generalization.

  16. Fine-Grained Semantic Categorization across the Abstract and Concrete Domains

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    Tettamanti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated approach to the study of the mental representation of word meanings has consisted in contrasting different domains of knowledge, broadly reflecting the abstract-concrete dichotomy. More fine-grained semantic distinctions have emerged in neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience work, reflecting semantic category specificity, but almost exclusively within the concrete domain. Theoretical advances, particularly within the area of embodied cognition, have more recently put forward the idea that distributed neural representations tied to the kinds of experience maintained with the concepts' referents might distinguish conceptual meanings with a high degree of specificity, including those within the abstract domain. Here we report the results of two psycholinguistic rating studies incorporating such theoretical advances with two main objectives: first, to provide empirical evidence of fine-grained distinctions within both the abstract and the concrete semantic domains with respect to relevant psycholinguistic dimensions; second, to develop a carefully controlled linguistic stimulus set that may be used for auditory as well as visual neuroimaging studies focusing on the parametrization of the semantic space beyond the abstract-concrete dichotomy. Ninety-six participants rated a set of 210 sentences across pre-selected concrete (mouth, hand, or leg action-related) and abstract (mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-related) categories, with respect either to different semantic domain-related scales (rating study 1), or to concreteness, familiarity, and context availability (rating study 2). Inferential statistics and correspondence analyses highlighted distinguishing semantic and psycholinguistic traits for each of the pre-selected categories, indicating that a simple abstract-concrete dichotomy is not sufficient to account for the entire semantic variability within either domains. PMID:23825625

  17. Fine-grained semantic categorization across the abstract and concrete domains.

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    Marta Ghio

    Full Text Available A consolidated approach to the study of the mental representation of word meanings has consisted in contrasting different domains of knowledge, broadly reflecting the abstract-concrete dichotomy. More fine-grained semantic distinctions have emerged in neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience work, reflecting semantic category specificity, but almost exclusively within the concrete domain. Theoretical advances, particularly within the area of embodied cognition, have more recently put forward the idea that distributed neural representations tied to the kinds of experience maintained with the concepts' referents might distinguish conceptual meanings with a high degree of specificity, including those within the abstract domain. Here we report the results of two psycholinguistic rating studies incorporating such theoretical advances with two main objectives: first, to provide empirical evidence of fine-grained distinctions within both the abstract and the concrete semantic domains with respect to relevant psycholinguistic dimensions; second, to develop a carefully controlled linguistic stimulus set that may be used for auditory as well as visual neuroimaging studies focusing on the parametrization of the semantic space beyond the abstract-concrete dichotomy. Ninety-six participants rated a set of 210 sentences across pre-selected concrete (mouth, hand, or leg action-related and abstract (mental state-, emotion-, mathematics-related categories, with respect either to different semantic domain-related scales (rating study 1, or to concreteness, familiarity, and context availability (rating study 2. Inferential statistics and correspondence analyses highlighted distinguishing semantic and psycholinguistic traits for each of the pre-selected categories, indicating that a simple abstract-concrete dichotomy is not sufficient to account for the entire semantic variability within either domains.

  18. Emerging Object Representations in the Visual System Predict Reaction Times for Categorization.

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    J Brendan Ritchie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing an object takes just a fraction of a second, less than the blink of an eye. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, or "brain decoding", methods to magnetoencephalography (MEG data has allowed researchers to characterize, in high temporal resolution, the emerging representation of object categories that underlie our capacity for rapid recognition. Shortly after stimulus onset, object exemplars cluster by category in a high-dimensional activation space in the brain. In this emerging activation space, the decodability of exemplar category varies over time, reflecting the brain's transformation of visual inputs into coherent category representations. How do these emerging representations relate to categorization behavior? Recently it has been proposed that the distance of an exemplar representation from a categorical boundary in an activation space is critical for perceptual decision-making, and that reaction times should therefore correlate with distance from the boundary. The predictions of this distance hypothesis have been born out in human inferior temporal cortex (IT, an area of the brain crucial for the representation of object categories. When viewed in the context of a time varying neural signal, the optimal time to "read out" category information is when category representations in the brain are most decodable. Here, we show that the distance from a decision boundary through activation space, as measured using MEG decoding methods, correlates with reaction times for visual categorization during the period of peak decodability. Our results suggest that the brain begins to read out information about exemplar category at the optimal time for use in choice behaviour, and support the hypothesis that the structure of the representation for objects in the visual system is partially constitutive of the decision process in recognition.

  19. Morphing between expressions dissociates continuous from categorical representations of facial expression in the human brain

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    Harris, Richard J.; Young, Andrew W.; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the brain represents facial expressions as perceptual continua or as emotion categories remains controversial. Here, we measured the neural response to morphed images to directly address how facial expressions of emotion are represented in the brain. We found that face-selective regions in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and the amygdala responded selectively to changes in facial expression, independent of changes in identity. We then asked whether the responses in these regions reflected categorical or continuous neural representations of facial expression. Participants viewed images from continua generated by morphing between faces posing different expressions such that the expression could be the same, could involve a physical change but convey the same emotion, or could differ by the same physical amount but be perceived as two different emotions. We found that the posterior superior temporal sulcus was equally sensitive to all changes in facial expression, consistent with a continuous representation. In contrast, the amygdala was only sensitive to changes in expression that altered the perceived emotion, demonstrating a more categorical representation. These results offer a resolution to the controversy about how facial expression is processed in the brain by showing that both continuous and categorical representations underlie our ability to extract this important social cue. PMID:23213218

  20. Asymmetric Compression of Representational Space for Object Animacy Categorization under Degraded Viewing Conditions.

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    Grootswagers, Tijl; Ritchie, J Brendan; Wardle, Susan G; Heathcote, Andrew; Carlson, Thomas A

    2017-12-01

    Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization. PLoS Computational Biology, 11, e1004316, 2015; Carlson, T. A., Ritchie, J. B., Kriegeskorte, N., Durvasula, S., & Ma, J. Reaction time for object categorization is predicted by representational distance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 132-142, 2014]. Using MEG decoding, we tested if the same relationship holds when a stimulus manipulation (degradation) increases task difficulty, which we predicted would systematically decrease the distance of activation patterns from the decision boundary and increase RTs. In addition, we tested whether distance to the classifier boundary correlates with drift rates in the linear ballistic accumulator [Brown, S. D., & Heathcote, A. The simplest complete model of choice response time: Linear ballistic accumulation. Cognitive Psychology, 57, 153-178, 2008]. We found that distance to the classifier boundary correlated with RT, accuracy, and drift rates in an animacy categorization task. Split by animacy, the correlations between brain and behavior were sustained longer over the time course for animate than for inanimate stimuli. Interestingly, when examining the distance to the classifier boundary during the peak correlation between brain and behavior, we found that only degraded versions of animate, but not inanimate, objects had systematically shifted toward the classifier decision boundary as predicted. Our results support an asymmetry in the representation of animate and inanimate object categories in the human

  1. Early-latency categorical speech sound representations in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

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    Alho, Jussi; Green, Brannon M; May, Patrick J C; Sams, Mikko; Tiitinen, Hannu; Rauschecker, Josef P; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

    2016-04-01

    Efficient speech perception requires the mapping of highly variable acoustic signals to distinct phonetic categories. How the brain overcomes this many-to-one mapping problem has remained unresolved. To infer the cortical location, latency, and dependency on attention of categorical speech sound representations in the human brain, we measured stimulus-specific adaptation of neuromagnetic responses to sounds from a phonetic continuum. The participants attended to the sounds while performing a non-phonetic listening task and, in a separate recording condition, ignored the sounds while watching a silent film. Neural adaptation indicative of phoneme category selectivity was found only during the attentive condition in the pars opercularis (POp) of the left inferior frontal gyrus, where the degree of selectivity correlated with the ability of the participants to categorize the phonetic stimuli. Importantly, these category-specific representations were activated at an early latency of 115-140 ms, which is compatible with the speed of perceptual phonetic categorization. Further, concurrent functional connectivity was observed between POp and posterior auditory cortical areas. These novel findings suggest that when humans attend to speech, the left POp mediates phonetic categorization through integration of auditory and motor information via the dorsal auditory stream. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of trimming the content of face representations for categorization in the brain.

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    Nicola J van Rijsbergen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1 over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2 concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in 'fear'; the detailed mouth in 'happy'. Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300.

  3. Categorical Working Memory Representations are used in Delayed Estimation of Continuous Colors

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    Hardman, Kyle O; Vergauwe, Evie; Ricker, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, major strides have been made in understanding visual working memory through mathematical modeling of color production responses. In the delayed color estimation task (Wilken & Ma, 2004), participants are given a set of colored squares to remember and a few seconds later asked to reproduce those colors by clicking on a color wheel. The degree of error in these responses is characterized with mathematical models that estimate working memory precision and the proportion of items remembered by participants. A standard mathematical model of color memory assumes that items maintained in memory are remembered through memory for precise details about the particular studied shade of color. We contend that this model is incomplete in its present form because no mechanism is provided for remembering the coarse category of a studied color. In the present work we remedy this omission and present a model of visual working memory that includes both continuous and categorical memory representations. In two experiments we show that our new model outperforms this standard modeling approach, which demonstrates that categorical representations should be accounted for by mathematical models of visual working memory. PMID:27797548

  4. Categorical working memory representations are used in delayed estimation of continuous colors.

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    Hardman, Kyle O; Vergauwe, Evie; Ricker, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, major strides have been made in understanding visual working memory through mathematical modeling of color production responses. In the delayed color estimation task (Wilken & Ma, 2004), participants are given a set of colored squares to remember, and a few seconds later asked to reproduce those colors by clicking on a color wheel. The degree of error in these responses is characterized with mathematical models that estimate working memory precision and the proportion of items remembered by participants. A standard mathematical model of color memory assumes that items maintained in memory are remembered through memory for precise details about the particular studied shade of color. We contend that this model is incomplete in its present form because no mechanism is provided for remembering the coarse category of a studied color. In the present work, we remedy this omission and present a model of visual working memory that includes both continuous and categorical memory representations. In 2 experiments, we show that our new model outperforms this standard modeling approach, which demonstrates that categorical representations should be accounted for by mathematical models of visual working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Enhancing text categorization with semantic-enriched representation and training data augmentation.

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    Lu, Xinghua; Zheng, Bin; Velivelli, Atulya; Zhai, Chengxiang

    2006-01-01

    Acquiring and representing biomedical knowledge is an increasingly important component of contemporary bioinformatics. A critical step of the process is to identify and retrieve relevant documents among the vast volume of modern biomedical literature efficiently. In the real world, many information retrieval tasks are difficult because of high data dimensionality and the lack of annotated examples to train a retrieval algorithm. Under such a scenario, the performance of information retrieval algorithms is often unsatisfactory, therefore improvements are needed. We studied two approaches that enhance the text categorization performance on sparse and high data dimensionality: (1) semantic-preserving dimension reduction by representing text with semantic-enriched features; and (2) augmenting training data with semi-supervised learning. A probabilistic topic model was applied to extract major semantic topics from a corpus of text of interest. The representation of documents was projected from the high-dimensional vocabulary space onto a semantic topic space with reduced dimensionality. A semi-supervised learning algorithm based on graph theory was applied to identify potential positive training cases, which were further used to augment training data. The effects of data transformation and augmentation on text categorization by support vector machine (SVM) were evaluated. Semantic-enriched data transformation and the pseudo-positive-cases augmented training data enhance the efficiency and performance of text categorization by SVM.

  6. Teaching with Concrete and Abstract Visual Representations: Effects on Students' Problem Solving, Problem Representations, and Learning Perceptions

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    Moreno, Roxana; Ozogul, Gamze; Reisslein, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we examined the effects of using concrete and/or abstract visual problem representations during instruction on students' problem-solving practice, near transfer, problem representations, and learning perceptions. In Experiments 1 and 2, novice students learned about electrical circuit analysis with an instructional program that…

  7. Qualitatively different semantic representations for abstract and concrete words: further evidence from the semantic reading errors of deep dyslexic patients.

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    Crutch, Sebastian J

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the hypothesis that conceptual knowledge for abstract and concrete items is underpinned by qualitatively different representational frameworks (Crutch and Warrington, 2005a). A re-analysis of the semantic reading errors of four deep dyslexic patients is presented, examining the incidence of semantically associated and semantically similar errors in response to abstract and concrete target words. The results demonstrate that abstract target words elicit a greater proportion of associative than similar errors, while concrete words show the reverse pattern. These findings provide evidence which converges with that previously documented for a semantic refractory access dysphasic to suggest that abstract concepts are represented in an associative network while concrete concepts are represented in a categorical framework.

  8. Shared liking and association valence for representational art but not abstract art.

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    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Pullen, Sarah J; Kirkham, Julie

    2015-01-01

    We examined the finding that aesthetic evaluations are more similar across observers for representational images than for abstract images. It has been proposed that a difference in convergence of observers' tastes is due to differing levels of shared semantic associations (Vessel & Rubin, 2010). In Experiment 1, student participants rated 20 representational and 20 abstract artworks. We found that their judgments were more similar for representational than abstract artworks. In Experiment 2, we replicated this finding, and also found that valence ratings given to associations and meanings provided in response to the artworks converged more across observers for representational than for abstract art. Our empirical work provides insight into processes that may underlie the observation that taste for representational art is shared across individual observers, while taste for abstract art is more idiosyncratic.

  9. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

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    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  10. Subliminal access to abstract face representations does not rely on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Bronson; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2012-03-01

    The present study used masked repetition priming to examine whether face representations can be accessed without attention. Two experiments using a face recognition task (fame judgement) presented masked repetition and control primes in spatially unattended locations prior to target onset. Experiment 1 (n=20) used the same images as primes and as targets and Experiment 2 (n=17) used different images of the same individual as primes and targets. Repetition priming was observed across both experiments regardless of whether spatial attention was cued to the location of the prime. Priming occurred for both famous and non-famous targets in Experiment 1 but was only reliable for famous targets in Experiment 2, suggesting that priming in Experiment 1 indexed access to view-specific representations whereas priming in Experiment 2 indexed access to view-invariant, abstract representations. Overall, the results indicate that subliminal access to abstract face representations does not rely on attention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation.

  12. The Interplay between Perceptual Organization and Categorization in the Representation of Complex Visual Patterns by Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul C.; Schyns, Philippe G.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The relation between perceptual organization and categorization processes in 3- and 4-month-olds was explored. The question was whether an invariant part abstracted during category learning could interfere with Gestalt organizational processes. A 2003 study by Quinn and Schyns had reported that an initial category familiarization experience in…

  13. Neural Semantic Parsing by Character-based Translation: Experiments with Abstract Meaning Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noord, Rik; Bos, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the character-level translation method for neural semantic parsing on a large corpus of sentences annotated with Abstract Meaning Representations (AMRs). Using a sequence-to-sequence model, and some trivial preprocessing and postprocessing of AMRs, we obtain a baseline accuracy of 53.1

  14. The Differential Contributions of Conceptual Representation Format and Language Structure to Levels of Semantic Abstraction Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido

    2017-06-01

    This paper reviews some controversies concerning the original and revised versions of the 'hub-and-spoke' model of conceptual representations and their implication for abstraction capacity levels. The 'hub-and-spoke' model, which is based on data gathered in patients with semantic dementia (SD), is the most authoritative model of conceptual knowledge. Patterson et al.'s (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(12), 976-987, 2007) classical version of this model maintained that conceptual representations are stored in a unitary 'amodal' format in the right and left anterior temporal lobes (ATLs), because in SD the semantic disorder cuts across modalities and categories. Several authors questioned the unitary nature of these representations. They showed that the semantic impairment is 'multi-modal'only in the advanced stages of SD, when atrophy affects the ATLs bilaterally, but that impariments can be modality-specific in lateralised (early) stages of the disease. In these cases, SD mainly affects lexical-semantic knowledge when atrophy predominates on the left side and pictorial representations when atrophy prevails on the right side. Some aspects of the model (i.e. the importance of spokes, the multimodal format of representations and the graded convergence of modalities within the ATLs), which had already been outlined by Rogers et al. (Psychological Review, 111(1), 205-235, 2004) in a computational model of SD, were strengthened by these results. The relevance of these theoretical problems and of empirical data concerning the neural substrate of concrete and abstract words is discussed critically. The conclusion of the review is that the highest levels of abstraction are due more to the structuring influence of language than to the format of representations.

  15. The Role of Representations in Executive Function: Investigating a Developmental Link between Flexibility and Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonova, Maria; Munakata, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Young children often perseverate, engaging in previously correct, but no longer appropriate behaviors. One account posits that such perseveration results from the use of stimulus-specific representations of a situation, which are distinct from abstract, generalizable representations that support flexible behavior. Previous findings supported this account, demonstrating that only children who flexibly switch between rules could generalize their behavior to novel stimuli. However, this link between flexibility and generalization might reflect general cognitive abilities, or depend upon similarities across the measures or their temporal order. The current work examined these issues by testing the specificity and generality of this link. In two experiments with 3-year-old children, flexibility was measured in terms of switching between rules in a card-sorting task, while abstraction was measured in terms of selecting which stimulus did not belong in an odd-one-out task. The link between flexibility and abstraction was general across (1) abstraction dimensions similar to or different from those in the card-sorting task and (2) abstraction tasks that preceded or followed the switching task. Good performance on abstraction and flexibility measures did not extend to all cognitive tasks, including an IQ measure, and dissociated from children's ability to gaze at the correct stimulus in the odd-one-out task, suggesting that the link between flexibility and abstraction is specific to such measures, rather than reflecting general abilities that affect all tasks. We interpret these results in terms of the role that developing prefrontal cortical regions play in processes such as working memory, which can support both flexibility and abstraction.

  16. The Role of Representations in Executive Function: Investigating a Developmental Link Between Flexibility and Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eKharitonova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Young children often perseverate, engaging in previously correct, but no longer appropriate behaviors. One account posits that such perseveration results from the use of stimulus-specific representations of a situation, which are distinct from abstract, generalizable representations that support flexible behavior. Previous findings supported this account, demonstrating that only children who flexibly switch between rules could generalize their behavior to novel stimuli. However, this link between flexibility and generalization might reflect general cognitive abilities, or depend upon similarities across the measures or their temporal order. The current work examined these issues by testing the specificity and generality of this link. In two experiments with three-year-old children, flexibility was measured in terms of switching between rules in a card-sorting task, while abstraction was measured in terms of selecting which stimulus did not belong in an odd-one-out task. The link between flexibility and abstraction was general across (1 abstraction dimensions similar to or different from those in the card-sorting task and (2 abstraction tasks that preceded or followed the switching task. Good performance on abstraction and flexibility measures did not extend to all cognitive tasks, including an IQ measure, and dissociated from children’s ability to gaze at the correct stimulus in the odd-one-out task, suggesting that the link between flexibility and abstraction is specific to such measures, rather than reflecting general abilities that affect all tasks. We interpret these results in terms of the role that developing prefrontal cortical regions play in processes such as working memory, which can support both flexibility and abstraction.

  17. Do young readers have fast access to abstract lexical representations? Evidence from masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that adult readers have fast access to abstract letter/word representations, the developmental trajectory of such access has not been mapped out yet. To examine whether developmental readers have rapid access to abstract representations during the early stages of word processing, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with two groups of young readers (third and fifth graders) and a group of young adults. We selected two types of words: (a) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually dissimilar (DIS words; e.g., arte/ARTE [Spanish for art]) and (b) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually similar (SIM words; e.g., vivo/VIVO [Spanish for alive]). For young adults and fifth graders, response times for DIS and SIM words were very similar in the matched- and mismatched-case identity priming conditions, which in turn produced shorter responses than the unrelated condition (i.e., ARTE-ARTE=arte-ARTEARTE). This is consistent with the idea that there is fast access to abstract representations. In contrast, this process does not seem to be fully operative in third graders, as revealed by the pattern of data with DIS words (ARTE-ARTEarte-ARTE=edad-ARTE). These findings have relevant implications for developmental models of visual word recognition and for the use of masked priming experiments with developmental readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maru Shete

    of voice, power and representation. To avert this situation, poor women in the research area require equal participation in resources sharing and power of decision making, better employment, housing, education, health care and other opportunities for social service opportunities through savings and credit cooperatives.

  19. Siamese-GAN: Learning Invariant Representations for Aerial Vehicle Image Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bashmal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new algorithm for cross-domain classification in aerial vehicle images based on generative adversarial networks (GANs. The proposed method, called Siamese-GAN, learns invariant feature representations for both labeled and unlabeled images coming from two different domains. To this end, we train in an adversarial manner a Siamese encoder–decoder architecture coupled with a discriminator network. The encoder–decoder network has the task of matching the distributions of both domains in a shared space regularized by the reconstruction ability, while the discriminator seeks to distinguish between them. After this phase, we feed the resulting encoded labeled and unlabeled features to another network composed of two fully-connected layers for training and classification, respectively. Experiments on several cross-domain datasets composed of extremely high resolution (EHR images acquired by manned/unmanned aerial vehicles (MAV/UAV over the cities of Vaihingen, Toronto, Potsdam, and Trento are reported and discussed.

  20. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University Health Services. Ahmadu Bella University, Zaria, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Phywieo-chemical methods were used to analyse the commonly used lcualt samples bought from Zaria and Kano local markets. Blood-leadaoncentrations in ltuali ...

  1. The development of shared liking of representational but not abstract art in primary school children and their justifications for liking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRodway

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n=80 were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4 to 8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages.

  2. The Development of Shared Liking of Representational but not Abstract Art in Primary School Children and Their Justifications for Liking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Paul; Kirkham, Julie; Schepman, Astrid; Lambert, Jordana; Locke, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how aesthetic preferences are shared among individuals, and its developmental time course, is a fundamental question in aesthetics. It has been shown that semantic associations, in response to representational artworks, overlap more strongly among individuals than those generated by abstract artworks and that the emotional valence of the associations also overlaps more for representational artworks. This valence response may be a key driver in aesthetic appreciation. The current study tested predictions derived from the semantic association account in a developmental context. Twenty 4-, 6-, 8- and 10-year-old children (n = 80) were shown 20 artworks (10 representational, 10 abstract) and were asked to rate each artwork and to explain their decision. Cross-observer agreement in aesthetic preferences increased with age from 4–8 years for both abstract and representational art. However, after age 6 the level of shared appreciation for representational and abstract artworks diverged, with significantly higher levels of agreement for representational than abstract artworks at age 8 and 10. The most common justifications for representational artworks involved subject matter, while for abstract artworks formal artistic properties and color were the most commonly used justifications. Representational artwork also showed a significantly higher proportion of associations and emotional responses than abstract artworks. In line with predictions from developmental cognitive neuroscience, references to the artist as an agent increased between ages 4 and 6 and again between ages 6 and 8, following the development of Theory of Mind. The findings support the view that increased experience with representational content during the life span reduces inter-individual variation in aesthetic appreciation and increases shared preferences. In addition, brain and cognitive development appear to impact on art appreciation at milestone ages. PMID:26903834

  3. Fast and automatic activation of an abstract representation of money in the human ventral visual pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tallon-Baudry

    Full Text Available Money, when used as an incentive, activates the same neural circuits as rewards associated with physiological needs. However, unlike physiological rewards, monetary stimuli are cultural artifacts: how are monetary stimuli identified in the first place? How and when does the brain identify a valid coin, i.e. a disc of metal that is, by social agreement, endowed with monetary properties? We took advantage of the changes in the Euro area in 2002 to compare neural responses to valid coins (Euros, Australian Dollars with neural responses to invalid coins that have lost all monetary properties (French Francs, Finnish Marks. We show in magneto-encephalographic recordings, that the ventral visual pathway automatically distinguishes between valid and invalid coins, within only ∼150 ms. This automatic categorization operates as well on coins subjects were familiar with as on unfamiliar coins. No difference between neural responses to scrambled controls could be detected. These results could suggest the existence of a generic, all-purpose neural representation of money that is independent of experience. This finding is reminiscent of a central assumption in economics, money fungibility, or the fact that a unit of money is substitutable to another. From a neural point of view, our findings may indicate that the ventral visual pathway, a system previously thought to analyze visual features such as shape or color and to be influenced by daily experience, could also able to use conceptual attributes such as monetary validity to categorize familiar as well as unfamiliar visual objects. The symbolic abilities of the posterior fusiform region suggested here could constitute an efficient neural substrate to deal with culturally defined symbols, independently of experience, which probably fostered money's cultural emergence and success.

  4. Children's representation of abstract relations in relational/array match-to-sample tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmann, Jean-Rémy; Tuerk, Arin S; Sanborn, Sophia; Zhu, Rebecca; Long, Robert; Dempster, Meg; Carey, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Five experiments compared preschool children's performance to that of adults and of non-human animals on match to sample tasks involving 2-item or 16-item arrays that varied according to their composition of same or different items (Array Match-to-Sample, AMTS). They establish that, like non-human animals in most studies, 3- and 4-year-olds fail 2-item AMTS (the classic relational match to sample task introduced into the literature by Premack, 1983), and that robust success is not observed until age 6. They also establish that 3-year-olds, like non-human animal species, succeed only when they are able to encode stimuli in terms of entropy, a property of an array (namely its internal variability), rather than relations among the individuals in the array (same vs. different), whereas adults solve both 2-item and 16-item AMTS on the basis of the relations same and different. As in the case of non-human animals, the acuity of 3- and 4-year-olds' representation of entropy is insufficient to solve the 2-item same-different AMTS task. At age 4, behavior begins to contrast with that of non-human species. On 16-item AMTS, a subgroup of 4-year-olds induce a categorical rule matching all-same arrays to all-same arrays, while matching other arrays (mixed arrays of same and different items) to all-different arrays. These children tend to justify their choices using the words "same" and "different." By age 4 a number of our participants succeed at 2-item AMTS, also justifying their choices by explicit verbal appeals using words for same and different. Taken together these results suggest that the recruitment of the relational representations corresponding to the meaning of these words contributes to the better performance over the preschool years at solving array match-to-sample tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multivariate Cross-Classification: Applying machine learning techniques to characterize abstraction in neural representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKaplan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we highlight an emerging trend in the use of machine learning classifiers to test for abstraction across patterns of neural activity. When a classifier algorithm is trained on data from one cognitive context, and tested on data from another, conclusions can be drawn about the role of a given brain region in representing information that abstracts across those cognitive contexts. We call this kind of analysis Multivariate Cross-Classification (MVCC, and review several domains where it has recently made an impact. MVCC has been important in establishing correspondences among neural patterns across cognitive domains, including motor-perception matching and cross-sensory matching. It has been used to test for similarity between neural patterns evoked by perception and those generated from memory. Other work has used MVCC to investigate the similarity of representations for semantic categories across different kinds of stimulus presentation, and in the presence of different cognitive demands. We use these examples to demonstrate the power of MVCC as a tool for investigating neural abstraction and discuss some important methodological issues related to its application.

  6. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Abstract. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from the leaves of Ficus religiosa, Thespesia populnea and Hibiscus tiliaceus were completely screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chloroform extract of F. religiosa possessed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity with a zone of inhibition of 10 to 21 ...

  7. Abstract,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract·. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of overso~ing legumes on ~a~gela~d pe'rtormance in. Shinyanga'region, Tanzania. Four leguminous species namely Centrosema pubescence, Clito-':iii ternatea,. cMacroptilium atropurpureum and Stylosanthes hamata were Qversown in. a"natural ran,geland in a.

  8. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Abstract. For well over three hundred years, the monsoon has been considered to be a gigantic land-sea breeze driven by the land-ocean contrast in surface temperature. In this paper, this hypothesis ..... primary driver of the monsoon in many papers and most textbooks (e.g. Lau and Li, 1984,. Webster 1987a, Meehl 1994, ...

  9. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Email: jameskigera@yahoo.co.uk. ABSTRACT. Background: Implant orthopaedic surgery is associated with a risk of post operative Surgical Site. Infection (SSI). This can have devastating consequences in the case of arthroplasty. Due to the less than ideal circumstances under which surgery is conducted in Africa, there are ...

  10. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WORKERS ON THEIR JOB PERFORMANCE IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA. NGOZI OKEREKE AND no. ONU. ABSTRACT. The study focused on the. efl'ect of socioeconomic characteristics of field extension workers on their job performance in.1mo state agricultural development programme, Nigeria. Data was collected with the ...

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Abstract. Many mathematical models of stochastic dynamical systems were based on the assumption that the drift and volatility coefficients were linear function of the solution. In this work, we arrive at the drift and the volatility by observing the dynamics of change in the selected stocks in a sufficiently small interval t∆ .

  12. Representation without background? A critical reading of Wollheim and Greenberg on the representational character of abstract pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Caldarola

    2012-01-01

    Focussing on some claims addressed by Richard Wollheim and Clement Greenberg I investigate how the concepts of depicted figure, background of a pictorial scene and ground of a picture are relevant for an understanding of the relation between figurative and abstract pictures, especially when it comes to consider whether abstract pictures can be said to represent pictorially.

  13. Representation without background? A critical reading of Wollheim and Greenberg on the representational character of abstract pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caldarola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on some claims addressed by Richard Wollheim and Clement Greenberg I investigate how the concepts of depicted figure, background of a pictorial scene and ground of a picture are relevant for an understanding of the relation between figurative and abstract pictures, especially when it comes to consider whether abstract pictures can be said to represent pictorially.

  14. Contributions maternelles et paternelles au developpement des representations symboliques et categorielles des objets par les jeunes enfants (Materal and Paternal Contributions to the Development of Symbolic and Categorical Representation of Objects by Young Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrell, Florence

    1998-01-01

    Theory and research on parent-child linguistic interactions that focus on the symbolic representation or categorization of objects are discussed, noting the role of such variables as the age of the children, linguistic context, and sex of the involved parent. During the second year of life, even if maternal and paternal games with toddlers are…

  15. Teaching Subtraction and Multiplication with Regrouping Using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence and Strategic Instruction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa; Strozier, Shaunita D.

    2014-01-01

    Based on Common Core Standards (2010), mathematics interventions should emphasize conceptual understanding of numbers and operations as well as fluency. For students at risk for failure, the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA) sequence and the Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) have been shown effective in teaching computation with an emphasis…

  16. Stimulus-response bindings code both abstract and specific representations of stimuli: evidence from a classification priming design that reverses multiple levels of response representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, A J; Henson, R N

    2011-11-01

    Repetition priming can be caused by the rapid retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. S-R bindings have recently been shown to simultaneously code multiple levels of response representation, from specific Motor-actions to more abstract Decisions ("yes"/"no") and Classifications (e.g., "man-made"/"natural"). Using an experimental design that reverses responses at all of these levels, we assessed whether S-R bindings also code multiple levels of stimulus representation. Across two experiments, we found effects of response reversal on priming when switching between object pictures and object names, consistent with S-R bindings that code stimuli at an abstract level. Nonetheless, the size of this reversal effect was smaller for such across-format (e.g., word-picture) repetition than for within-format (e.g., picture-picture) repetition, suggesting additional coding of format-specific stimulus representations. We conclude that S-R bindings simultaneously represent both stimuli and responses at multiple levels of abstraction.

  17. Combining dimensional and categorical representation of psychosis: the way forward for DSM-V and ICD-11?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Demjaha, A

    2009-12-01

    There is good evidence that psychotic symptoms segregate into symptom dimensions. However, it is still unclear how these dimensions are associated with risk indicators and other clinical variables, and whether they have advantages over categorical diagnosis in clinical practice. We investigated symptom dimensions in a first-onset psychosis sample and examined their associations with risk indicators and clinical variables. We then examined the relationship of categorical diagnoses to the same variables.

  18. The Effects of Idealized and Grounded Materials on Learning, Transfer, and Interest: An Organizing Framework for Categorizing External Knowledge Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Schalk, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Research in both cognitive and educational psychology has explored the effect of different types of external knowledge representations (e.g., manipulatives, graphical/pictorial representations, texts) on a variety of important outcome measures. We place this large and multifaceted research literature into an organizing framework, classifying three…

  19. Use of Representation Mapping to Capture Abstraction in Problem Solving in Different Courses in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevian, H.; Bernholt, S.; Szteinberg, G. A.; Auguste, S.; Pérez, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    A perspective is presented on how the representation mapping framework by Hahn and Chater (1998) may be used to characterize reasoning during problem solving in chemistry. To provide examples for testing the framework, an exploratory study was conducted with students and professors from three different courses in the middle of the undergraduate…

  20. Are Scientific Abstracts Written in Poetic Verse an Effective Representation of the Underlying Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday and Martin, 2003). Research concerning climate change in particular demands to be communicated, because of its global relevance and the potential societal consequences of its findings. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a general audience. References: HALLIDAY, M. A. K. & MARTIN, J. R. 2003. Writing science: Literacy and discursive power, Taylor & Francis. PURTILL, R. 1970. The purpose of science. Philosophy of Science, 301-306.

  1. The role of the lateral occipital cortex in aesthetic appreciation of representational and abstract paintings: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Ferrari, Chiara; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cela-Conde, Camilo José; Silvanto, Juha; Nadal, Marcos

    2015-04-01

    Neuroimaging studies of aesthetic appreciation have shown that activity in the lateral occipital area (LO)-a key node in the object recognition pathway-is modulated by the extent to which visual artworks are liked or found beautiful. However, the available evidence is only correlational. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the putative causal role of LO in the aesthetic appreciation of paintings. In our first experiment, we found that interfering with LO activity during aesthetic appreciation selectively reduced evaluation of representational paintings, leaving appreciation of abstract paintings unaffected. A second experiment demonstrated that, although the perceived clearness of the images overall positively correlated with liking, the detrimental effect of LO TMS on aesthetic appreciation does not owe to TMS reducing perceived clearness. Taken together, our findings suggest that object-recognition mechanisms mediated by LO play a causal role in aesthetic appreciation of representational art. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. From Sailing Ships to Subtraction Symbols: Multiple Representations to Support Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Limin

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are tasked with supporting students' learning of abstract mathematical concepts. Students can represent their mathematical understanding in a variety of modes, for example: manipulatives, pictures, diagrams, spoken languages, and written symbols. Although most students easily pick up rudimentary knowledge through the use of concrete…

  3. Linguistic Representation of Emotions in Japanese and Hungarian: Quantity and Abstractness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton SZEMEREY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, two linguistic aspects of emotion expression are studied in the form they are performed in present day Japanese and Hungarian. After a brief summary on the recent emotional researches connected to Japanese culture and language, the concept of Linguistic Category Model is introduced. The quantitative study presented afterwards investigates emotion expression in terms of amount and abstraction. Translations were used for comparison and the results showed that 1 Japanese tend to use less explicit emotion terms compared to Hungarians and 2 emotion language in Japanese is characterized by the choice of less abstract phrases compared to Hungarian. These findings are discussed in the light of their relevance to former researches of cross-cultural psychology and linguistics.

  4. The role of prefrontal and parietal cortices in esthetic appreciation of representational and abstract art: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Lega, Carlotta; Gardelli, Chiara; Merabet, Lotfi B; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Nadal, Marcos

    2014-10-01

    To explain the biological foundations of art appreciation is to explain one of our species' distinctive traits. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have pointed to the prefrontal and the parietal cortex as two critical regions mediating esthetic appreciation of visual art. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left prefrontal cortex and the right posterior parietal cortex while participants were evaluating whether they liked, and by how much, a particular painting. By depolarizing cell membranes in the targeted regions, TMS transiently interferes with the activity of specific cortical areas, which allows clarifying their role in a given task. Our results show that both regions play a fundamental role in mediating esthetic appreciation. Critically though, the effects of TMS varied depending on the type of art considered (i.e. representational vs. abstract) and on participants' a-priori inclination toward one or the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The dynamics of categorization: Unraveling rapid categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    We explore a puzzle of visual object categorization: Under normal viewing conditions, you spot something as a dog fastest, but at a glance, you spot it faster as an animal. During speeded category verification, a classic basic-level advantage is commonly observed (Rosch, Mervis, Gray, Johnson, & Boyes-Braem, 1976), with categorization as a dog faster than as an animal (superordinate) or Golden Retriever (subordinate). A different story emerges during ultra-rapid categorization with limited exposure duration (<30 ms), with superordinate categorization faster than basic or subordinate categorization (Thorpe, Fize, & Marlot, 1996). These two widely cited findings paint contrary theoretical pictures about the time course of categorization, yet no previous study has investigated them together. We systematically examined two experimental factors that could explain the qualitative difference in categorization across the two paradigms: exposure duration and category trial context. Mapping out the time course of object categorization by manipulating exposure duration and the timing of a post-stimulus mask revealed that brief exposure durations favor superordinate-level categorization, but with more time a basic-level advantage emerges. However, these advantages were modulated by category trial context. With randomized target categories, the superordinate advantage was eliminated; and with only four repetitions of superordinate categorization within an otherwise randomized context, the basic-level advantage was eliminated. Contrary to theoretical accounts that dictate a fixed priority for certain levels of abstraction in visual processing and access to semantic knowledge, the dynamics of object categorization are flexible, depending jointly on the level of abstraction, time for perceptual encoding, and category context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Word Composite Effect Depends on Abstract Lexical Representations But Not Surface Features Like Case and Font.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paulo; Fernandes, Tânia; Leite, Isabel; Almeida, Vítor B; Casqueiro, Inês; Wong, Alan C-N

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that words show a composite effect: When readers perform a same-different matching task on a target-part of a word, performance is affected by the irrelevant part, whose influence is severely reduced when the two parts are misaligned. However, the locus of this word composite effect is largely unknown. To enlighten it, in two experiments, Portuguese readers performed the composite task on letter strings: in Experiment 1, in written words varying in surface features (between-participants: courier, notera, alternating-cAsE), and in Experiment 2 in pseudowords. The word composite effect, signaled by a significant interaction between alignment of the two word parts and congruence between parts was found in the three conditions of Experiment 1, being unaffected by NoVeLtY of the configuration or by handwritten form. This effect seems to have a lexical locus, given that in Experiment 2 only the main effect of congruence between parts was significant and was not modulated by alignment. Indeed, the cross-experiment analysis showed that words presented stronger congruence effects than pseudowords only in the aligned condition, because when misaligned the whole lexical item configuration was disrupted. Therefore, the word composite effect strongly depends on abstract lexical representations, as it is unaffected by surface features and is specific to lexical items.

  7. Using the concrete-representational-abstract approach to support students with intellectual disability to solve change-making problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Park, Jiyoon; Nickell, Barb

    2017-01-01

    The Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) instructional approach supports students with disabilities in mathematics. Yet, no research explores the use of the CRA approach to teach functional-based mathematics for this population and limited research explores the CRA approach for students who have a disability different from a learning disability, such as an intellectual disability. This study investigated the effects of using the CRA approach to teach middle school students in a self-contained mathematics class focused on functional-based mathematics to solve making change problems. Researchers used a multiple probe across participants design to determine if a functional relation existed between the CRA strategy and students' ability to solve making change problems. The study of consisted of five-to-eight baseline sessions, 9-11 intervention sessions, and two maintenance sessions for each student. Data were collected on percentage of making change problems students solved correctly. The CRA instructional strategy was effective in teaching all four participants to correctly solve the problems; a functional relation between the CRA approach and solving making change with coins problems across all participants was found. The CRA instructional approach can be used to support students with mild intellectual disability or severe learning disabilities in learning functional-based mathematics, such as purchasing skills (i.e., making change). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  9. Speech perception as categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L; Lotto, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition.

  10. Sticky Categorizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2015-01-01

    What are the possibilities and/or limitations in becoming subjects who are differenciated from earlier processes of categorizations that certain students are subjected to? This is the question explored in the analysis of this paper, based on observations of, and narratives and perspectives of two...

  11. The Ineliminable Distortion of Reality: On Causality, Representation, Abstraction and Idealization in Batterman’s Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    of emergents having novel causal powers with emergents figuring in novel explanatory stories, see (Batterman, 2002). I argue that Batterman’s view of causality is ontologically too restrictive. I also argue that it is methodologically too restrictive, in that abstractions in science, including some involved......) or that they proceed by appealing to fictional highly idealized models in physics, see (Bokulich, 2011), (Pexton, 2014), (Wayne, 2015). I claim that these arguments do not preclude that causality is presupposed at the macro-level, except perhaps in quantum theoretical explanations in which case an appeal to Bohr...

  12. The Influence of Art Expertise and Training on Emotion and Preference Ratings for Representational and Abstract Artworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paasschen, Jorien; Bacci, Francesca; Melcher, David P

    2015-01-01

    Across cultures and throughout recorded history, humans have produced visual art. This raises the question of why people report such an emotional response to artworks and find some works more beautiful or compelling than others. In the current study we investigated the interplay between art expertise, and emotional and preference judgments. Sixty participants (40 novices, 20 art experts) rated a set of 150 abstract artworks and portraits during two occasions: in a laboratory setting and in a museum. Before commencing their second session, half of the art novices received a brief training on stylistic and art historical aspects of abstract art and portraiture. Results showed that art experts rated the artworks higher than novices on aesthetic facets (beauty and wanting), but no group differences were observed on affective evaluations (valence and arousal). The training session made a small effect on ratings of preference compared to the non-trained group of novices. Overall, these findings are consistent with the idea that affective components of art appreciation are less driven by expertise and largely consistent across observers, while more cognitive aspects of aesthetic viewing depend on viewer characteristics such as art expertise.

  13. Categorical Pullbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardi Marco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to introduce the categorical concept of pullback in Mizar. In the first part of this article we redefine homsets, monomorphisms, epimorpshisms and isomorphisms [7] within a free-object category [1] and it is shown there that ordinal numbers can be considered as categories. Then the pullback is introduced in terms of its universal property and the Pullback Lemma is formalized [15]. In the last part of the article we formalize the pullback of functors [14] and it is also shown that it is not possible to write an equivalent definition in the context of the previous Mizar formalization of category theory [8].

  14. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  15. A MEDLINE categorization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehanno Jean-Francois

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Categorization is designed to enhance resource description by organizing content description so as to enable the reader to grasp quickly and easily what are the main topics discussed in it. The objective of this work is to propose a categorization algorithm to classify a set of scientific articles indexed with the MeSH thesaurus, and in particular those of the MEDLINE bibliographic database. In a large bibliographic database such as MEDLINE, finding materials of particular interest to a specialty group, or relevant to a particular audience, can be difficult. The categorization refines the retrieval of indexed material. In the CISMeF terminology, metaterms can be considered as super-concepts. They were primarily conceived to improve recall in the CISMeF quality-controlled health gateway. Methods The MEDLINE categorization algorithm (MCA is based on semantic links existing between MeSH terms and metaterms on the one hand and between MeSH subheadings and metaterms on the other hand. These links are used to automatically infer a list of metaterms from any MeSH term/subheading indexing. Medical librarians manually select the semantic links. Results The MEDLINE categorization algorithm lists the medical specialties relevant to a MEDLINE file by decreasing order of their importance. The MEDLINE categorization algorithm is available on a Web site. It can run on any MEDLINE file in a batch mode. As an example, the top 3 medical specialties for the set of 60 articles published in BioMed Central Medical Informatics & Decision Making, which are currently indexed in MEDLINE are: information science, organization and administration and medical informatics. Conclusion We have presented a MEDLINE categorization algorithm in order to classify the medical specialties addressed in any MEDLINE file in the form of a ranked list of relevant specialties. The categorization method introduced in this paper is based on the manual indexing of resources

  16. Sobre la pertinencia de las categorías culturales en la elaboración de las Representaciones de los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales About the pertinence of cultural categories on the elaboration of Representations of New Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cárdenas Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de las representaciones sociales sobre el movimiento antiglobalización (MAG elaboradas por una muestra de obreros españoles. Para el análisis de dichas representaciones se ha utilizado un método de asociación libre de palabras a un conjunto de estímulos y un cuestionario de imagen del movimiento (que toma la forma de un diferencial semántico. Los resultados obtenidos a través de la asociación libre de palabras son analizados por medio de métodos multivariados (análisis de conglomerados, escalamiento multidimensional y análisis de correspondencias. Los resultados del cuestionario de imagen son resumidos en siete factores principales cuyas medias son comparadas según criterio de auto-categorización política. El principal efecto observado es el rechazo, por parte de los sujetos de la muestra, a utilizar las categorías culturales que en otros estudios aparecían como las más pertinentes para la elaboración de las representaciones sociales sobre el MAG.This paper presents a study of the social representations on the anti-globalization movement (AGM elaborated from a sample of Spanish workers. A method of free association of words as stimuli and an image of movement survey (that takes the form of a semantic differential were used for the analysis of these representations. The results obtained by free association of words were analyzed by multivariated methods (hierarchical cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling and correspondences analysis. The results on the image survey were summarized in seven principal factors. The averages of these factors were compared according to the criterion of political self-categorization. The principal effect observed was a rejection, from a part of the subjects of the sample, in using the cultural categories that in other studies appeared as the most pertinent fo the elaboration of social representations about the anti-globalization movement (AMG.

  17. Goguen categories a categorical approach to l-fuzzy relations

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Michael; Mundici, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Goguen categories extend the relational calculus and its categorical formalization to the fuzzy world. Starting from the fundamental concepts of sets, binary relations and lattices this book introduces several categorical formulations of an abstract theory of relations such as allegories, Dedekind categories and related structures. It is shown that neither theory is sufficiently rich to describe basic operations on fuzzy relations. The book then introduces Goguen categories and provides a comprehensive study of these structures including their representation theory, and the definability of norm-based operations. The power of the theory is demonstrated by a comprehensive example. A certain Goguen category is used to specify and to develop a fuzzy controller. Based on its abstract description as well as certain desirable properties and their formal proofs, a verified controller is derived without compromising the - sometimes - intuitive choice of norm-based operations by fuzzy engineers.

  18. The Timing of Visual Object Categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    An object can be categorized at different levels of abstraction: as natural or man-made, animal or plant, bird or dog, or as a Northern Cardinal or Pyrrhuloxia. There has been growing interest in understanding how quickly categorizations at different levels are made and how the timing of those perceptual decisions changes with experience. We specifically contrast two perspectives on the timing of object categorization at different levels of abstraction. By one account, the relative timing imp...

  19. The timing of visual object categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Mack

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An object can be categorized at different levels of abstraction: as natural or man-made, animal or plant, bird or dog, or as a Northern Cardinal or Pyrrhuloxia. There has been growing interest in understanding how quickly categorizations at different levels are made and how the timing of those perceptual decisions changes with experience. We specifically contrast two perspectives on the timing of object categorization at different levels of abstraction. By one account, the relative timing implies a relative timing of stages of visual processing that are tied to particular levels of object categorization: Fast categorizations are fast because they precede other categorizations within the visual processing hierarchy. By another account, the relative timing reflects when perceptual features are available over time and the quality of perceptual evidence used to drive a perceptual decision process: Fast simply means fast, it does not mean first. Understanding the short-term and long-term temporal dynamics of object categorizations is key to developing computational models of visual object recognition. We briefly review a number of models of object categorization and outline how they explain the timing of visual object categorization at different levels of abstraction.

  20. The timing of visual object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael L; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    AN OBJECT CAN BE CATEGORIZED AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION: as natural or man-made, animal or plant, bird or dog, or as a Northern Cardinal or Pyrrhuloxia. There has been growing interest in understanding how quickly categorizations at different levels are made and how the timing of those perceptual decisions changes with experience. We specifically contrast two perspectives on the timing of object categorization at different levels of abstraction. By one account, the relative timing implies a relative timing of stages of visual processing that are tied to particular levels of object categorization: Fast categorizations are fast because they precede other categorizations within the visual processing hierarchy. By another account, the relative timing reflects when perceptual features are available over time and the quality of perceptual evidence used to drive a perceptual decision process: Fast simply means fast, it does not mean first. Understanding the short-term and long-term temporal dynamics of object categorizations is key to developing computational models of visual object recognition. We briefly review a number of models of object categorization and outline how they explain the timing of visual object categorization at different levels of abstraction.

  1. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  2. Categorization by Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Hamilton (Rebecca); S. Puntoni (Stefano); N.T. Tavassoli (Nader)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCategorization is a core psychological process central to consumer and managerial decision-making. While a substantial amount of research has been conducted to examine individual categorization behaviors, relatively little is known about the group categorization process. In two

  3. Biases in categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    On what grounds can we conclude that an act of categorization is biased? In this chapter, it is contended that in the absence of objective norms of what categories actually are, biases in categorization can only be specified in relation to theoretical understandings of categorization. Therefore, the

  4. Space Structure and Clustering of Categorical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuhua; Li, Feijiang; Liang, Jiye; Liu, Bing; Dang, Chuangyin

    2016-10-01

    Learning from categorical data plays a fundamental role in such areas as pattern recognition, machine learning, data mining, and knowledge discovery. To effectively discover the group structure inherent in a set of categorical objects, many categorical clustering algorithms have been developed in the literature, among which k -modes-type algorithms are very representative because of their good performance. Nevertheless, there is still much room for improving their clustering performance in comparison with the clustering algorithms for the numeric data. This may arise from the fact that the categorical data lack a clear space structure as that of the numeric data. To address this issue, we propose, in this paper, a novel data-representation scheme for the categorical data, which maps a set of categorical objects into a Euclidean space. Based on the data-representation scheme, a general framework for space structure based categorical clustering algorithms (SBC) is designed. This framework together with the applications of two kinds of dissimilarities leads two versions of the SBC-type algorithms. To verify the performance of the SBC-type algorithms, we employ as references four representative algorithms of the k -modes-type algorithms. Experiments show that the proposed SBC-type algorithms significantly outperform the k -modes-type algorithms.

  5. Are scientific abstracts written in poetic verse an effective representation of the underlying research? [version 3; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Illingworth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970. However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003. This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists. In order to assess this suitability, a survey was conducted in which two different groups of participants were asked questions based on a scientific abstract. One group of participants was given the original scientific abstract, whilst the second group was instead given a poem written about the scientific study. Quantitative analysis found that whilst a scientific audience found a poetic interpretation of a scientific abstract to be no less interesting or inspiring than the original prose, they did find it to be less accessible. However, further qualitative analysis suggested that the poem did a good job in conveying a similar meaning to that presented in the original abstract. The results of this study indicate that whilst for a scientific audience poetry should not replace the prose abstract, it could be used alongside the original format to inspire the reader to find out more about the topic. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of this approach for a non-expert audience. Alternative version:   Are scientific papers understood, By anyone from outside of the field; And is an abstract really any good, If jargon means its secrets aren’t revealed? Could poetry present a different way, Of summing up research in a nutshell;  Presented in a language for the lay, Yet still useful for scientists as well? This study

  6. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  7. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...... they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio....

  8. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  9. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Carmen; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a) whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b) whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c) whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand, independently from

  10. Naming a Lego world. The role of language in the acquisition of abstract concepts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Granito

    Full Text Available While embodied approaches of cognition have proved to be successful in explaining concrete concepts and words, they have more difficulties in accounting for abstract concepts and words, and several proposals have been put forward. This work aims to test the Words As Tools proposal, according to which both abstract and concrete concepts are grounded in perception, action and emotional systems, but linguistic information is more important for abstract than for concrete concept representation, due to the different ways they are acquired: while for the acquisition of the latter linguistic information might play a role, for the acquisition of the former it is instead crucial. We investigated the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts and words, and verified its impact on conceptual representation. In Experiment 1, participants explored and categorized novel concrete and abstract entities, and were taught a novel label for each category. Later they performed a categorical recognition task and an image-word matching task to verify a whether and how the introduction of language changed the previously formed categories, b whether language had a major weight for abstract than for concrete words representation, and c whether this difference had consequences on bodily responses. The results confirm that, even though both concrete and abstract concepts are grounded, language facilitates the acquisition of the latter and plays a major role in their representation, resulting in faster responses with the mouth, typically associated with language production. Experiment 2 was a rating test aiming to verify whether the findings of Experiment 1 were simply due to heterogeneity, i.e. to the fact that the members of abstract categories were more heterogeneous than those of concrete categories. The results confirmed the effectiveness of our operationalization, showing that abstract concepts are more associated with the mouth and concrete ones with the hand

  11. Longitudinal categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sutradhar, Brajendra C

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book in longitudinal categorical data analysis with parametric correlation models developed based on dynamic relationships among repeated categorical responses. This book is a natural generalization of the longitudinal binary data analysis to the multinomial data setup with more than two categories. Thus, unlike the existing books on cross-sectional categorical data analysis using log linear models, this book uses multinomial probability models both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. A theoretical foundation is provided for the analysis of univariate multinomial responses, by developing models systematically for the cases with no covariates as well as categorical covariates, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. In the longitudinal setup, both stationary and non-stationary covariates are considered. These models have also been extended to the bivariate multinomial setup along with suitable covariates. For the inferences, the book uses the generalized quasi-likelihood as w...

  12. Ignorability for categorical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    We study the problem of ignorability in likelihood-based inference from incomplete categorical data. Two versions of the coarsened at random assumption (car) are distinguished, their compatibility with the parameter distinctness assumption is investigated and several conditions for ignorability...

  13. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  14. Categorization of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a categorization scheme for radiation sources that could be relevant to decisions both in a retrospective application to bring sources under control and in a prospective sense to guide the application of the regulatory infrastructure. The Action Plan envisages that the preparation of guidance on national strategies and programmes for the detection and location of orphan sources and their subsequent management should commence after the categorization of sources has been carried out. In the prospective application of the system of notification, registration, and licensing, the categorization is relevant to prioritize a regulatory authority's resources and training activities; to guide the degree of detail necessary for a safety assessment; and to serve as a measure of the intensity of effort which a regulatory authority should apply to the safety and security of a particular type of source

  15. Categorization of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, M.

    2000-01-01

    Through one-parameter (factor) analysis it is proved a hypothesis that the value of a radiation source (RS) activity of an application correlates with the category (the rank) given to it by the IAEA categorization although it is based on other parameters of the RS applications (practices like devices with radiation sources in industry, science, medicine and agriculture). The principles of the new IAEA categorization, taking into account the potential harm the sources may cause and the necessary regulatory control, are described. (author)

  16. A MEDLINE categorization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stefan J; Névéol, Aurelie; Renard, Jean-Marie; Gehanno, Jean-Francois; Soualmia, Lina F; Dahamna, Badisse; Thirion, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    Background Categorization is designed to enhance resource description by organizing content description so as to enable the reader to grasp quickly and easily what are the main topics discussed in it. The objective of this work is to propose a categorization algorithm to classify a set of scientific articles indexed with the MeSH thesaurus, and in particular those of the MEDLINE bibliographic database. In a large bibliographic database such as MEDLINE, finding materials of particular interest to a specialty group, or relevant to a particular audience, can be difficult. The categorization refines the retrieval of indexed material. In the CISMeF terminology, metaterms can be considered as super-concepts. They were primarily conceived to improve recall in the CISMeF quality-controlled health gateway. Methods The MEDLINE categorization algorithm (MCA) is based on semantic links existing between MeSH terms and metaterms on the one hand and between MeSH subheadings and metaterms on the other hand. These links are used to automatically infer a list of metaterms from any MeSH term/subheading indexing. Medical librarians manually select the semantic links. Results The MEDLINE categorization algorithm lists the medical specialties relevant to a MEDLINE file by decreasing order of their importance. The MEDLINE categorization algorithm is available on a Web site. It can run on any MEDLINE file in a batch mode. As an example, the top 3 medical specialties for the set of 60 articles published in BioMed Central Medical Informatics & Decision Making, which are currently indexed in MEDLINE are: information science, organization and administration and medical informatics. Conclusion We have presented a MEDLINE categorization algorithm in order to classify the medical specialties addressed in any MEDLINE file in the form of a ranked list of relevant specialties. The categorization method introduced in this paper is based on the manual indexing of resources with MeSH (terms

  17. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  18. Selective Attention, Diffused Attention, and the Development of Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei (Sophia); Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    How do people learn categories and what changes with development? The current study attempts to address these questions by focusing on the role of attention in the development of categorization. In Experiment 1, participants (adults, 7-year-olds, and 4-year-olds) were trained with novel categories consisting of deterministic and probabilistic features, and their categorization and memory for features were tested. In Experiment 2, participants’ attention was directed to the deterministic feature, and in Experiment 3 it was directed to the probabilistic features. Attentional cuing affected categorization and memory in adults and 7-year-olds: these participants relied on the cued features in their categorization and exhibited better memory of cued than of non-cued features. In contrast, in 4-year-olds attentional cueing affected only categorization, but not memory: these participants exhibited equally good memory for both cued and non-cued features. Furthermore, across the experiments, 4-year-olds remembered non-cued features better than adults. These results coupled with computational simulations provide novel evidence (1) pointing to differences in category representation and mechanisms of categorization across development, (2) elucidating the role of attention in the development of categorization, and (3) suggesting an important distinction between representation and decision factors in categorization early in development. These issues are discussed with respect to theories of categorization and its development. PMID:27721103

  19. Categorizing clients with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lena; Amby, Finn

    than that of people without disabilities for more than a decade (Larsen & Høgelund 2015). An explanation of this difference could be the limited connection between these general goals, the employment laws and the actual implementation of the goals in the job centers (Amby 2015). Earlier Danish studies...... have by large focused on employment and disability at the stage where the client already has been categorized as having a disability (e.g. Møller & Stone 2013). This study offers new insight to the field in a Danish context by exploring the process in which people with disabilities are categorized...... during their first interactions with the job center by asking two interconnected questions: a) To what extent do job centers construct categories that capture client with disabilities? b) How do caseworkers identify whether (and to what extent) the client has lasting impairments that can be considered...

  20. Interaction and observation, categorically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ciancia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to use dialgebras to specify the semantics of interactive systems in a natural way. Dialgebras are a conservative extension of coalgebras. In this categorical model, from the point of view that we provide, the notions of observation and interaction are separate features. This is useful, for example, in the specification of process equivalences, which are obtained as kernels of the homomorphisms of dialgebras. As an example we present the asynchronous semantics of the CCS.

  1. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  2. Article Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.

  3. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Cyclic ovarian activity and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were assessed for 179 days in 5. (free grazing) and 6 (free grazing + high energy and protein-supplemented) normocyclic donkeys. In addition, plasma p4 and cortisol were measured in blood samples collected at J5·min intervals in the.

  4. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Abstract. Hemoglobin is a tetrameric protein which is able to dissociate into dimers. The dimers can in turn dissociate into tetramers. It has been found that dimers are more reactive than tetramers. The difference in the reactivity of these two species has been used to determine the tetramer- dimer dissociation constant of ...

  5. Visual Categorization and the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie K Fitzgerald

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The primate brain is adept at rapidly grouping items and events into functional classes, or categories, in order to recognize the significance of stimuli and guide behavior. Higher cognitive functions have traditionally been considered the domain of frontal areas. However, increasing evidence suggests that parietal cortex is also involved in categorical and associative processes. Previous work showed that the parietal cortex is highly involved in spatial processing, attention and saccadic eye movement planning, and more recent studies have found decision-making signals in LIP. We recently found that a subdivision of parietal cortex, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, reflects learned categories for multiple types of visual stimuli. Additionally, a comparison of categorization signals in parietal and frontal areas found stronger and earlier categorization signals in parietal cortex, arguing that parietal abstract association or category signals are unlikely to arise via feedback from prefrontal cortex (PFC.

  6. Innate pattern recognition and categorization in a jumping spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinnon Dolev

    Full Text Available The East African jumping spider Evarcha culicivora feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by preferentially preying upon blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria1, using the distinct resting posture and engorged abdomen characteristic of these specific prey as key elements for their recognition. To understand perceptual categorization of objects by these spiders, we investigated their predatory behavior toward different digital stimuli--abstract 'stick figure' representations of Anopheles constructed solely by known key identification elements, disarranged versions of these, as well as non-prey items and detailed images of alternative prey. We hypothesized that the abstract images representing Anopheles would be perceived as potential prey, and would be preferred to those of non-preferred prey. Spiders perceived the abstract stick figures of Anopheles specifically as their preferred prey, attacking them significantly more often than non-preferred prey, even when the comprising elements of the Anopheles stick figures were disarranged and disconnected from each other. However, if the relative angles between the elements of the disconnected stick figures of Anopheles were altered, the otherwise identical set of elements was no longer perceived as prey. These data show that E. culicivora is capable of making discriminations based on abstract concepts, such as the hypothetical angle formed by discontinuous elements. It is this inter-element angle rather than resting posture that is important for correct identification of Anopheles. Our results provide a glimpse of the underlying processes of object recognition in animals with minute brains, and suggest that these spiders use a local processing approach for object recognition, rather than a holistic or global approach. This study provides an excellent basis for a comparative analysis on feature extraction and detection by animals as diverse as bees and mammals.

  7. Categorical database generalization in GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Categorical database, categorical database generalization, Formal data structure, constraints, transformation unit, classification hierarchy, aggregation hierarchy, semantic similarity, data model,

  8. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Categorization of Radioxenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E.

    2012-04-26

    This report summarizes a study into some false positive issues in the use of radioxenon as a method to verify a clandestine nuclear weapons explosion. False positives arise due to similarities between the radioxenon signature generated in medical isotope production and that generated in a nuclear weapon explosion. This report also discusses how to categorize the radioxenon by levels of urgency for manual analysis and interpretation and recommends applying machine learning and time series analysis techniques in the automation of radioxenon characterization. The literature indicates that medical isotope production is a major contributor to atmospheric radioxenon and is the main source of confusion in determining the source of radioxenon. While radioxenon emissions from nuclear power plants can be distinguished from that from nuclear weapon explosions, emissions from medical isotope production generate signatures similar to certain nuclide ratios found in nuclear weapons explosions. Different techniques for analyzing nuclide concentrations and ratios as well as including other sensing modalities via sensor fusion are discussed.

  10. Observing behaviour categorically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Cheng, Allan

    1995-01-01

    certain "path lifting" properties, so-called open maps, as an abstract definition of bisimilarity. Furthermore, it was shown how to capture Milner's bisimulation and a variant of history-preserving bisimulations for event structures. In this paper we review the theory of open maps and show that the theory...

  11. Decoding the Brain’s Algorithm for Categorization from its Neural Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael L.; Preston, Alison R.; Love, Bradley C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acts of cognition can be described at different levels of analysis: what behavior should characterize the act, what algorithms and representations underlie the behavior, and how the algorithms are physically realized in neural activity [1]. Theories that bridge levels of analysis offer more complete explanations by leveraging the constraints present at each level [2–4]. Despite the great potential for theoretical advances, few studies of cognition bridge levels of analysis. For example, formal cognitive models of category decisions accurately predict human decision making [5, 6], but whether model algorithms and representations supporting category decisions are consistent with underlying neural implementation remains unknown. This uncertainty is largely due to the hurdle of forging links between theory and brain [7–9]. Here, we tackle this critical problem by using brain response to characterize the nature of mental computations that support category decisions to evaluate two dominant, and opposing, models of categorization. We found that brain states during category decisions were significantly more consistent with latent model representations from exemplar [5] rather than prototype theory [10, 11]. Representations of individual experiences, not the abstraction of experiences, are critical for category decision making. Holding models accountable for behavior and neural implementation provides a means for advancing more complete descriptions of the algorithms of cognition. PMID:24094852

  12. Person (mis)perception: functionally biased sex categorization of bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L; Iida, Masumi; Tassinary, Louis G

    2012-12-22

    Social perception is among the most important tasks that occur in daily life, and perceivers readily appreciate the social affordances of others. Here, we demonstrate that sex categorizations are functionally biased towards a male percept. Perceivers judged body shapes that varied in waist-to-hip ratio to be men if they were not, in reality, exclusive to women, and male categorizations occurred more quickly than female categorizations (studies 1 and 4). This pattern was corroborated when participants identified the average body shapes of men and women (study 2) and when we assessed participants' cognitive representations (study 3). Moreover, these tendencies were modulated by emotion context (study 4). Thus, male categorizations occurred readily and rapidly, demonstrating a pronounced categorization bias and temporal advantage for male judgements.

  13. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  14. Causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Raymond Ashwin

    Categorical quantum mechanics is a way of formalising the structural features of quantum theory using category theory. It uses compound systems as the primitive notion, which is formalised by using symmetric monoidal categories. This leads to an elegant formalism for describing quantum protocols such as quantum teleportation. In particular, categorical quantum mechanics provides a graphical calculus that exposes the information flow of such protocols in an intuitive way. However, the graphical calculus also reveals surprising features of these protocols; for example, in the quantum teleportation protocol, information appears to flow `backwards-in-time'. This leads to question of how causal structure can be described within categorical quantum mechanics, and how this might lead to insight regarding the structural compatibility between quantum theory and relativity. This thesis is concerned with the project of formalising causal structure in categorical quantum mechanics. We begin by studying an abstract view of Bell-type experiments, as described by `no-signalling boxes', and we show that under time-reversal no-signalling boxes generically become signalling. This conflicts with the underlying symmetry of relativistic causal structure. This leads us to consider the framework of categorical quantum mechanics from the perspective of relativistic causal structure. We derive the properties that a symmetric monoidal category must satisfy in order to describe systems in such a background causal structure. We use these properties to define a new type of category, and this provides a formal framework for describing protocols in spacetime. We explore this new structure, showing how it leads to an understanding of the counter-intuitive information flow of protocols in categorical quantum mechanics. We then find that the formal properties of our new structure are naturally related to axioms for reconstructing quantum theory, and we show how a reconstruction scheme based on

  15. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  16. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  17. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Statistical science's first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data, now fully revised and updated, continues to present applications and case studies in fields as diverse as sociology, public health, ecology, marketing, and pharmacy. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data, Second Edition provides an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, giving thorough coverage of new developments and recent methods. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods including an integrated comparison of the available st

  18. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  19. BALWOIS: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    anthropogenic pressures and international shared water. Here are the 320 abstracts proposed by authors and accepted by the Scientific Committee. More than 200 papers are presented during the Conference on 8 topics related to Hydrology, Climatology and Hydro biology: - Climate and Environment; - Hydrological regimes and water balances; - Droughts and Floods; -Integrated Water Resources Management; -Water bodies Protection and Eco hydrology; -Lakes; -Information Systems for decision support; -Hydrological modelling. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. Video genre categorization and representation using audio-visual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Bogdan; Seyerlehner, Klaus; Rasche, Christoph; Vertan, Constantin; Lambert, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    We propose an audio-visual approach to video genre classification using content descriptors that exploit audio, color, temporal, and contour information. Audio information is extracted at block-level, which has the advantage of capturing local temporal information. At the temporal structure level, we consider action content in relation to human perception. Color perception is quantified using statistics of color distribution, elementary hues, color properties, and relationships between colors. Further, we compute statistics of contour geometry and relationships. The main contribution of our work lies in harnessing the descriptive power of the combination of these descriptors in genre classification. Validation was carried out on over 91 h of video footage encompassing 7 common video genres, yielding average precision and recall ratios of 87% to 100% and 77% to 100%, respectively, and an overall average correct classification of up to 97%. Also, experimental comparison as part of the MediaEval 2011 benchmarking campaign demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed audio-visual descriptors over other existing approaches. Finally, we discuss a 3-D video browsing platform that displays movies using feature-based coordinates and thus regroups them according to genre.

  1. Categorization of Destinations and Formation of Mental Destination Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Segmentation analysis in tourism research is challenged by an excessive number of variables used. The biclustering approach to segmentation is considered a promising approach to address the problem of an inappropriately large number of variables involved. This paper introduces, to tourism researc...

  2. Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressel Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it was suggested that the carry effect observed in addition involves both categorical and continuous processing characteristics. Methods In the present study, we aimed at identifying the specific neural correlates associated with processing either categorical or continuous aspects of the carry effect in an fMRI study on multi-digit addition. Results In line with our expectations, we observed two distinct parts of the fronto-parietal network subserving numerical cognition to be associated with either one of these two characteristics. On the one hand, the categorical aspect of the carry effect was associated with left-hemispheric language areas and the basal ganglia probably reflecting increased demands on procedural and problem solving processes. Complementarily, the continuous aspect of the carry effect was associated with increased intraparietal activation indicating increasing demands on magnitude processing as well as place-value integration with increasing unit sum. Conclusions In summary, the findings suggest representations and processes underlying the carry effect in multi-digit addition to be more complex and interactive than assumed previously.

  3. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  4. Geometry of abstraction in quantum computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Abramsky, S.; Mislove, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum algorithms are sequences of abstract operations, per formed on non-existent computers. They are in obvious need of categorical semantics. We present some steps in this direction, following earlier contribu tions of Abramsky, Goecke and Selinger. In particular, we analyze function abstraction

  5. Differential beta-band event-related desynchronization during categorical action sequence planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hame; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-01-01

    A primate study reported the existence of neurons from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex which fired prior to executing categorical action sequences. The authors suggested these activities may represent abstract level information. Here, we aimed to find the neurophysiological representation of planning categorical action sequences at the population level in healthy humans. Previous human studies have shown beta-band event-related desynchronization (ERD) during action planning in humans. Some of these studies showed different levels of ERD according to different types of action preparation. Especially, the literature suggests that variations in cognitive factors rather than physical factors (force, direction, etc) modulate the level of beta-ERD. We hypothesized that the level of beta-band power will differ according to planning of different categorical sequences. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) from 22 subjects performing 11 four-sequence actions--each consisting of one or two of three simple actions--in 3 categories; 'Paired (ooxx)', 'Alternative (oxox)' and 'Repetitive (oooo)' ('o' and 'x' each denoting one of three simple actions). Time-frequency representations were calculated for each category during the planning period, and the corresponding beta-power time-courses were compared. We found beta-ERD during the planning period for all subjects, mostly in the contralateral fronto-parietal areas shortly after visual cue onset. Power increase (transient rebound) followed ERD in 20 out of 22 subjects. Amplitudes differed among categories in 20 subjects for both ERD and transient rebound. In 18 out of 20 subjects 'Repetitive' category showed the largest ERD and rebound. The current result suggests that beta-ERD in the contralateral frontal/motor/parietal areas during planning is differentiated by the category of action sequences.

  6. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations.

  7. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  8. Categorization of Mobile Advertising Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2006-01-01

    The result of this contribution is a categorization and thus a description model for mobile advertising campaigns using the morphological method. For identification of the characteristics 32 case studies were analysed and relevant literature was sighted.

  9. Brain activity across the development of automatic categorization: A comparison of categorization tasks using multi-voxel pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Fabian A.; Waldschmidt, Jennifer G.; Helie, Sebastien; Ashby, F. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that relatively separate neural networks underlie initial learning of rule-based and information-integration categorization tasks. With the development of automaticity, categorization behavior in both tasks becomes increasingly similar and exclusively related to activity in cortical regions. The present study uses multi-voxel pattern analysis to directly compare the development of automaticity in different categorization tasks. Each of three groups of participants received extensive training in a different categorization task: either an information-integration task, or one of two rule-based tasks. Four training sessions were performed inside an MRI scanner. Three different analyses were performed on the imaging data from a number of regions of interest (ROIs). The common patterns analysis had the goal of revealing ROIs with similar patterns of activation across tasks. The unique patterns analysis had the goal of revealing ROIs with dissimilar patterns of activation across tasks. The representational similarity analysis aimed at exploring (1) the similarity of category representations across ROIs and (2) how those patterns of similarities compared across tasks. The results showed that common patterns of activation were present in motor areas and basal ganglia early in training, but only in the former later on. Unique patterns were found in a variety of cortical and subcortical areas early in training, but they were dramatically reduced with training. Finally, patterns of representational similarity between brain regions became increasingly similar across tasks with the development of automaticity. PMID:23333700

  10. Body-Specific Representations of Spatial Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gardony, Aaron; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    The body specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) posits that the way in which people interact with the world affects their mental representation of information. For instance, right- versus left-handedness affects the mental representation of affective valence, with right-handers categorically associating good with rightward areas and bad with…

  11. Homogeneous Operators and Projective Representations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper surveys the existing literature on homogeneous operators and their relationships with projective representations of P S L ( 2 , R ) and other Lie groups. It also includes a list of open problems in this area.

  12. Abstracts and Abstracting in Knowledge Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Lancaster, F. W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents various levels of criteria for judging the quality of abstracts and abstracting. Requirements for abstracts to be read by humans are compared with requirements for those to be searched by computer. Concludes that the wide availability of complete text in electronic form does not reduce the value of abstracts for information retrieval.…

  13. Disordered semantic representation in schizophrenic temporal cortex revealed by neuromagnetic response patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Yaron

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loosening of associations and thought disruption are key features of schizophrenic psychopathology. Alterations in neural networks underlying this basic abnormality have not yet been sufficiently identified. Previously, we demonstrated that spatio-temporal clustering of magnetic brain responses to pictorial stimuli map categorical representations in temporal cortex. This result has opened the possibility to quantify associative strength within and across semantic categories in schizophrenic patients. We hypothesized that in contrast to controls, schizophrenic patients exhibit disordered representations of semantic categories. Methods The spatio-temporal clusters of brain magnetic activities elicited by object pictures related to super-ordinate (flowers, animals, furniture, clothes and base-level (e.g. tulip, rose, orchid, sunflower categories were analysed in the source space for the time epochs 170–210 and 210–450 ms following stimulus onset and were compared between 10 schizophrenic patients and 10 control subjects. Results Spatio-temporal correlations of responses elicited by base-level concepts and the difference of within vs. across super-ordinate categories were distinctly lower in patients than in controls. Additionally, in contrast to the well-defined categorical representation in control subjects, unsupervised clustering indicated poorly defined representation of semantic categories in patients. Within the patient group, distinctiveness of categorical representation in the temporal cortex was positively related to negative symptoms and tended to be inversely related to positive symptoms. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients show a less organized representation of semantic categories in clusters of magnetic brain responses than healthy adults. This atypical neural network architecture may be a correlate of loosening of associations, promoting positive symptoms.

  14. Lectures on categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rudas, Tamás

    2018-01-01

    This book offers a relatively self-contained presentation of the fundamental results in categorical data analysis, which plays a central role among the statistical techniques applied in the social, political and behavioral sciences, as well as in marketing and medical and biological research. The methods applied are mainly aimed at understanding the structure of associations among variables and the effects of other variables on these interactions. A great advantage of studying categorical data analysis is that many concepts in statistics become transparent when discussed in a categorical data context, and, in many places, the book takes this opportunity to comment on general principles and methods in statistics, addressing not only the “how” but also the “why.” Assuming minimal background in calculus, linear algebra, probability theory and statistics, the book is designed to be used in upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in the field and in more general statistical methodology courses, as w...

  15. Categorical differentiation and intergroup relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, D; Volpato, C

    1990-03-01

    In this study we attempted to replicate the well-known Doise & Sinclair (1973) procedure for manipulating category salience, in a different social context. We considered the relationship between two groups of professionals: doctors and nurses, as perceived by 40 members of the superior group. The results did not confirm those obtained by Doise & Sinclair since they showed reduced categorical differentiation when the out-group was evoked in advance of the intergroup evaluations. The implications of these findings for theories of social categorization and social identity are discussed.

  16. ERP signs of categorical and supra-categorical processing of visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Alberto; Marsili, Giulia; Senerchia, Annapaola; Orlandi, Andrea; Citron, Francesca M M; Rizzi, Ezia; Proverbio, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    , overall most likely related to different stages of analysis of the greater endomorphy of these shape groups. Conversely, an enhanced fronto-central and fronto-lateral N2 as well as a centro-parietal N400 to man-made objects and different-category pairs were found, possibly indexing processing of these entities' lower endomorphy and isomorphy at the basic features and semantic levels, respectively. Overall, the present ERP results revealed shared and distinct mechanisms of access to supra-categorical and categorical knowledge in the same way in which shared and distinct neural representations underlie the processing of diverse semantic categories. Additionally, they outlined the serial nature of categorical and supra-categorical representations, indicating the sequential steps of access to these separate knowledge types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-cutting categorization schemes in the digital humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Colin

    2013-09-01

    Digital access to large amounts of scholarly text presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers in the humanities. Meeting these challenges depends on having high-quality representations of the contents of digital resources suitable for both machines and humans to use. Different ways of categorizing these contents are appropriate for different purposes, leading to the further problem of relating the contents of different categorization schemes to each other. This essay discusses the rationale for categorizing philosophical concepts and surveys some of the main approaches to doing so for materials that are continuously changing. It describes the goals and methods of the Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) project and provides an example of the kind of analysis that is made possible by powerful modeling methods.

  18. Representation of speech variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael F

    2017-07-01

    Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal. Specifically, listeners can accurately identify some talker characteristics, including native language status, approximate age, sex, and gender. Additionally, listeners have sensitivity to other speaker characteristics-such as sexual orientation, regional dialect, native language for non-native speakers, race, and ethnicity-but listeners tend to be less accurate or more variable at categorizing or rating speakers based on these constructs. However, studies have not necessarily incorporated more recent conceptions of these constructs (e.g., separating listeners' perceptions of race vs ethnicity) or speakers who do not fit squarely into specific categories (e.g., for sex perception, intersex individuals; for gender perception, genderqueer speakers; for race perception, multiracial speakers). Additional research on how the intersections of social-indexical categories influence speech perception is also needed. As the field moves forward, scholars from a variety of disciplines should be incorporated into investigations of how listeners' extract and represent facets of personal identity from speech. Further, the impact of these representations on our interactions with one another in contexts outside of the laboratory should continue to be explored. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1434. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1434 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Psychology

  19. Frontopolar cortex mediates abstract integration in analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Kraemer, David J M; Shamosh, Noah A; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2006-06-22

    Integration of abstractly similar relations during analogical reasoning was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activation elicited by an analogical reasoning task that required both complex working memory and integration of abstractly similar relations was compared to activation elicited by a non-analogical task that required complex working memory in the absence of abstract relational integration. A left-sided region of the frontal pole of the brain (BA 9/10) was selectively active for the abstract relational integration component of analogical reasoning. Analogical reasoning also engaged a left-sided network of parieto-frontal regions. Activity in this network during analogical reasoning is hypothesized to reflect categorical alignment of individual component terms that make up analogies. This parieto-frontal network was also engaged by the complex control task, which involved explicit categorization, but not by a simpler control task, which did not involve categorization. We hypothesize that frontopolar cortex mediates abstract relational integration in complex reasoning while parieto-frontal regions mediate working memory processes, including manipulation of terms for the purpose of categorical alignment, that facilitate this integration.

  20. Categorization in the Affective Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    2011-01-01

    Data collected in Romance and Scandinavian languages (N=474) in a superordinate category name production task indicate that a multiple-strategy approach would be more suitable for accounting of categorization in the affective domain instead of a prototype approach as suggested by previous studies...

  1. Atomic toposes and countable categoricity

    OpenAIRE

    Caramello, Olivia

    2008-01-01

    We give a model-theoretic characterization of the class of geometric theories classified by an atomic topos having enough points; in particular, we show that every complete geometric theory classified by an atomic topos is countably categorical. Some applications are also discussed.

  2. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    , and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  3. The emergence of semantic categorization in early visual processing: ERP indices of animal vs. artifact recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Zotto Marzia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroimaging and neuropsychological literature show functional dissociations in brain activity during processing of stimuli belonging to different semantic categories (e.g., animals, tools, faces, places, but little information is available about the time course of object perceptual categorization. The aim of the study was to provide information about the timing of processing stimuli from different semantic domains, without using verbal or naming paradigms, in order to observe the emergence of non-linguistic conceptual knowledge in the ventral stream visual pathway. Event related potentials (ERPs were recorded in 18 healthy right-handed individuals as they performed a perceptual categorization task on 672 pairs of images of animals and man-made objects (i.e., artifacts. Results Behavioral responses to animal stimuli were ~50 ms faster and more accurate than those to artifacts. At early processing stages (120–180 ms the right occipital-temporal cortex was more activated in response to animals than to artifacts as indexed by posterior N1 response, while frontal/central N1 (130–160 showed the opposite pattern. In the next processing stage (200–260 the response was stronger to artifacts and usable items at anterior temporal sites. The P300 component was smaller, and the central/parietal N400 component was larger to artifacts than to animals. Conclusion The effect of animal and artifact categorization emerged at ~150 ms over the right occipital-temporal area as a stronger response of the ventral stream to animate, homomorphic, entities with faces and legs. The larger frontal/central N1 and the subsequent temporal activation for inanimate objects might reflect the prevalence of a functional rather than perceptual representation of manipulable tools compared to animals. Late ERP effects might reflect semantic integration and cognitive updating processes. Overall, the data are compatible with a modality-specific semantic memory

  4. Geometry of abstraction in quantum computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Abramsky, S.; Mislove, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum algorithms are sequences of abstract operations, per­ formed on non-existent computers. They are in obvious need of categorical semantics. We present some steps in this direction, following earlier contribu­ tions of Abramsky, Goecke and Selinger. In particular, we analyze function

  5. Categorical Algebra and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    Categorical algebra and its applications contain several fundamental papers on general category theory, by the top specialists in the field, and many interesting papers on the applications of category theory in functional analysis, algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, general topology, ring theory, cohomology, differential geometry, group theory, mathematical logic and computer sciences. The volume contains 28 carefully selected and refereed papers, out of 96 talks delivered, and illustrates the usefulness of category theory today as a powerful tool of investigation in many other areas.

  6. Colour categorization by domestic chicks.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, C. D.; Osorio, D.; Baddeley, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Spectral stimuli form a physical continuum, which humans divide into discrete non-overlapping regions or categories that are designated by colour names. Little is known about whether non-verbal animals form categories on stimulus continua, but work in psychology and artificial intelligence provides models for stimulus generalization and categorization. We compare predictions of such models to the way poultry chicks (Gallus gallus) generalize to novel stimuli following appetitive training to e...

  7. Complementarity in Categorical Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, Chris

    2012-07-01

    We relate notions of complementarity in three layers of quantum mechanics: (i) von Neumann algebras, (ii) Hilbert spaces, and (iii) orthomodular lattices. Taking a more general categorical perspective of which the above are instances, we consider dagger monoidal kernel categories for (ii), so that (i) become (sub)endohomsets and (iii) become subobject lattices. By developing a `point-free' definition of copyability we link (i) commutative von Neumann subalgebras, (ii) classical structures, and (iii) Boolean subalgebras.

  8. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  9. A Categorical Framework for Model Classification in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauhs, Michael; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Models have a mixed record of success in the geosciences. In meteorology, model development and implementation has been among the first and most successful examples of triggering computer technology in science. On the other hand, notorious problems such as the 'equifinality issue' in hydrology lead to a rather mixed reputation of models in other areas. The most successful models in geosciences are applications of dynamic systems theory to non-living systems or phenomena. Thus, we start from the hypothesis that the success of model applications relates to the influence of life on the phenomenon under study. We thus focus on the (formal) representation of life in models. The aim is to investigate whether disappointment in model performance is due to system properties such as heterogeneity and historicity of ecosystems, or rather reflects an abstraction and formalisation problem at a fundamental level. As a formal framework for this investigation, we use category theory as applied in computer science to specify behaviour at an interface. Its methods have been developed for translating and comparing formal structures among different application areas and seems highly suited for a classification of the current "model zoo" in the geosciences. The approach is rather abstract, with a high degree of generality but a low level of expressibility. Here, category theory will be employed to check the consistency of assumptions about life in different models. It will be shown that it is sufficient to distinguish just four logical cases to check for consistency of model content. All four cases can be formalised as variants of coalgebra-algebra homomorphisms. It can be demonstrated that transitions between the four variants affect the relevant observations (time series or spatial maps), the formalisms used (equations, decision trees) and the test criteria of success (prediction, classification) of the resulting model types. We will present examples from hydrology and ecology in

  10. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  11. Graph Abstraction and Abstract Graph Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boneva, I.B.; Rensink, Arend; Kurban, M.E.; Bauer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Many important systems like concurrent heap-manipulating programs, communication networks, or distributed algorithms are hard to verify due to their inherent dynamics and unboundedness. Graphs are an intuitive representation of states of these systems, where transitions can be conveniently described

  12. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  13. Ontology-Based Learner Categorization through Case Based Reasoning and Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Sohail; García-Castro, Raul; Qayyum, Zia Ul; Safyan, Muhammad; Munir, Rana Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Learner categorization has a pivotal role in making e-learning systems a success. However, learner characteristics exploited at abstract level of granularity by contemporary techniques cannot categorize the learners effectively. In this paper, an architecture of e-learning framework has been presented that exploits the machine learning based…

  14. Decision Making Under Uncertain Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ying-Fen Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of what categories are and are not relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use was and was not appropriate.

  15. Experimental design and model choice the planning and analysis of experiments with continuous or categorical response

    CERN Document Server

    Toutenburg, Helge

    1995-01-01

    This textbook gives a representation of the design and analysis of experiments, that comprises the aspects of classical theory for continuous response and of modern procedures for categorical response, and especially for correlated categorical response. Complex designs, as for example, cross-over and repeated measures, are included. Thus, it is an important book for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry as well as for clinical research in medicine and dentistry.

  16. Comparison and Contrast in Perceptual Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.

    2005-01-01

    People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…

  17. Social representations of sex and gender among trans people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Caravaca Morera

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the social representations of sex and gender among transsexual people, through their life histories. Method: Qualitative, multicenter and descriptive research. The participants were 70 transsexuals from Brazil and Costa Rica. Data were analyzed according to the technique of Content Analysis. Results: Two complementary representations related to sex were identified: “Sex as a natural categorical imposition sealed and acquired (irremediably at birth” and “Sex as an element that labels, condemns and differentiates people.” Regarding gender, a single representation was associated with “synthetic-social constructions associated with (necro/bio power, cisnormativity and culture.” Final considerations: The former absolute division of gender as social construction and of sex as considered as natural must be questioned in order to analyze both concepts as an interconnected dyad. In addition, it should be recognized that this dyad presents itself as an organizational and cognitive construct, mediated by the still prevalent cispatriarchal (necro/bio power.

  18. Categorical perception of animal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Julie; Davidoff, Jules

    2008-05-01

    As part of the more general issue of whether culture can affect perception, the present paper addresses the Whorfian question of whether the language available to describe perceptual experience can influence the experience itself. It investigated the effect of vocabulary on perceptual classification by the study of a remote culture (Himba) which possesses a poor colour vocabulary but a rich vocabulary of animal pattern terms. Thus, the present study examined Categorical Perception (CP) with a type of visual stimulus not previously used to assess the effect of labels on perceptual judgments. For the animal patterns, the Whorfian view predicted that it would only be the Himba who showed superiority for cross-category decisions as only they have the appropriate labels. The Whorfian view was upheld and confirmed previous findings that linked perceptual differences to labelling differences.

  19. Categorical Perception of Sound Frequency by Crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.; May, Michael L.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    1996-09-01

    Partitioning continuously varying stimuli into categories is a fundamental problem of perception. One solution to this problem, categorical perception, is known primarily from human speech, but also occurs in other modalities and in some mammals and birds. Categorical perception was tested in crickets by using two paradigms of human psychophysics, labeling and habituation-dishabituation. The results show that crickets divide sound frequency categorically between attractive (16 kilohertz) sounds. There is sharp discrimination between these categories but no discrimination between different frequencies of ultrasound. This demonstration of categorical perception in an invertebrate suggests that categorical perception may be a basic and widespread feature of sensory systems, from humans to invertebrates.

  20. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  2. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics

  3. Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saitta, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is a fundamental mechanism underlying both human and artificial perception, representation of knowledge, reasoning and learning. This mechanism plays a crucial role in many disciplines, notably Computer Programming, Natural and Artificial Vision, Complex Systems, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, Art, and Cognitive Sciences. This book first provides the reader with an overview of the notions of abstraction proposed in various disciplines by comparing both commonalities and differences.  After discussing the characterizing properties of abstraction, a formal model, the K

  4. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological......, technical, and institutional mechanisms. Geographically, bodily, and geometrically, the camera has positioned its subjects in social structures and hierarchies, in recognizable localities, and in iconic depth constructions which, although they show remarkable variation, nevertheless belong specifically...

  5. On Categorical Diagnoses in "DSM-V": Cutting Dimensions at Useful Points?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Jan H.; Noordhof, Arjen

    2009-01-01

    The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; "DSM-V") will likely place more emphasis on dimensional representation of mental disorders. However, it is often argued that categorical diagnoses are preferable for professional communication, clinical decision-making, or distinguishing between individuals with and without a…

  6. On categorical diagnoses in DSM-V: cutting dimensions at useful points?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, J.H.; Noordhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-V) will likely place more emphasis on dimensional representation of mental disorders. However, it is often argued that categorical diagnoses are preferable for professional communication, clinical decision-making, or

  7. On Categorical Diagnoses in DSM-V : Cutting Dimensions at Useful Points?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jan H.; Noordhof, Arjen

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-V) will likely place more emphasis on dimensional representation of mental disorders. However, it is often argued that categorical diagnoses are preferable for professional communication, clinical decision-making, or

  8. 40 CFR 403.13 - Variances from categorical pretreatment standards for fundamentally different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section; (7) A description of the Industrial User's existing water pollution control facilities; (8) A schematic flow representation of the Industrial User's water system including water supply, process...-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.13 Variances from categorical pretreatment standards for...

  9. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  10. GENDER VIOLENCE: SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF RELATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Vanda Palmarella; Machado, Juliana Costa; Santos, Washington da Silva; Santos, Maria de Fátima de Souza; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed at analyzing the social representations of gender violence by family members. A qualitative study based upon the Theory of Social Representations. The free word association test was undertaken by 81 relatives of women who suffered gender violence registered in Family Health Units of Jequié, Bahia. The data were submitted to correspondence factorial analysis in the Tri-deux-mots software. The relatives' representation of gender violence is rooted in unequal gender rel...

  11. Out of sight, out of mind: Categorization learning and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sabrina; Minda, John P; Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The present combined EEG and eye tracking study examined the process of categorization learning at different age ranges and aimed to investigate to which degree categorization learning is mediated by visual attention and perceptual strategies. Seventeen young subjects and ten elderly subjects had to perform a visual categorization task with two abstract categories. Each category consisted of prototypical stimuli and an exception. The categorization of prototypical stimuli was learned very early during the experiment, while the learning of exceptions was delayed. The categorization of exceptions was accompanied by higher P150, P250 and P300 amplitudes. In contrast to younger subjects, elderly subjects had problems in the categorization of exceptions, but showed an intact categorization performance for prototypical stimuli. Moreover, elderly subjects showed higher fixation rates for important stimulus features and higher P150 amplitudes, which were positively correlated with the categorization performances. These results indicate that elderly subjects compensate for cognitive decline through enhanced perceptual and attentional processing of individual stimulus features. Additionally, a computational approach has been applied and showed a transition away from purely abstraction-based learning to an exemplar-based learning in the middle block for both groups. However, the calculated models provide a better fit for younger subjects than for elderly subjects. The current study demonstrates that human categorization learning is based on early abstraction-based processing followed by an exemplar-memorization stage. This strategy combination facilitates the learning of real world categories with a nuanced category structure. In addition, the present study suggests that categorization learning is affected by normal aging and modulated by perceptual processing and visual attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stochastic integral representations of quantum martingales on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper a quantum stochastic integral representation theorem is obtained for unbounded regular martingales with respect to multidimensional quantum noise. This simultaneously extends results of Parthasarathy and Sinha to unbounded martingales and those of the author to multidimensions.

  13. Homogeneous operators and projective representations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper surveys the existing literature on homogeneous operators and their relationships with projective representations of P S L ( 2 , R ) and other Lie groups. It also includes a list of open problems in this area.

  14. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  15. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...

  16. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  17. Scientific representation and nominalism: an empiricist view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bueno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2008v12n2p177 Can a constructive empiricist make sense of scientific representation? Usually, a scientific model is an abstract entity (e.g., formulated in set theory, and scientific representation is conceptualized as an intentional relation between scientific models and certain aspects of the world. On this conception, since both the models and the representation relation are abstract, a constructive empiricist, who is not committed to the existence of abstract entities, would be unable to invoke these notions to make sense of scientific representation. In this paper, instead of understanding representation as a relation between abstract entities, I focus on the activity of representing, and argue that it provides a way of making sense of representation within the boundaries of empiricism. The activity of representing doesn’t deal with abstract entities, but with concrete ones, such as inscriptions, templates, and blueprints. In the end, by examining the practice of representing, rather than an artificially reified product—the representation—the constructive empiricist has the resources to make sense of scientific representation in empiricist terms.

  18. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  19. Neighbourhood Abstraction in GROOVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    2011-01-01

    Important classes of graph grammars have infinite state spaces and therefore cannot be verified with traditional model checking techniques. One way to address this problem is to perform graph abstraction, which allows us to generate a finite abstract state space that over-approximates the original

  20. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  1. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  2. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics

  3. Hierarchical document categorization using associative networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, Niels; Theune, Mariet; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Klement, E.P.; Borutzky, W.; Fahringer, T.; Hamza, M.H.; Uskov, V.

    Associative networks are a connectionist language model with the ability to handle dynamic data. We used two associative networks to categorize random sets of related Wikipedia articles with only their raw text as input. We then compared the resulting categorization to a gold standard: the manual

  4. An Intelligent System For Arabic Text Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syiam, M.M.; Tolba, Mohamed F.; Fayed, Z.T.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed S.; Ghoniemy, Said A.; Habib, Mena Badieh

    Text Categorization (classification) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. In this paper, an intelligent Arabic text categorization system is presented. Machine learning algorithms are used in this system. Many algorithms for stemming and

  5. Accelerating Visual Categorization with the GPU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual categorization is important to manage large collections of digital images and video, where textual meta-data is often incomplete or simply unavailable. The bag-of-words model has become the most powerful method for visual categorization of images and video. Despite its high accuracy, a severe

  6. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 520.5 Categorical...) Department of Agriculture categorical exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (1) Policy development, planning and... involve the use of control agents requiring containment or a special license or a permit from a regulatory...

  7. On \\omega-categorical simple theories

    OpenAIRE

    Palacin, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we shall prove that countable \\omega-categorical simple CM-trivial theories and countable \\omega-categorical simple theories with strong stable forking are low. In addition, we observe that simple theories of bounded finite weight are low.

  8. Graph-structured Conditional Random Fields for Named Entity Categorization in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yotaro; Asahara, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Yuji

    This paper presents a method for categorizing named entities in Wikipedia. In Wikipedia, an anchor text is glossed in a linked HTML text. We formalize named entity categorization as a task of categorizing anchor texts with linked HTML texts which glosses a named entity. Using this representation, we introduce a graph structure in which anchor texts are regarded as nodes. In order to incorporate HTML structure on the graph, three types of cliques are defined based on the HTML tree structure. We propose a method with Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to categorize the nodes on the graph. Since the defined graph may include cycles, the exact inference of CRFs is computationally expensive. We introduce an approximate inference method using Tree-based Reparameterization (TRP) to reduce computational cost. In experiments, our proposed model obtained significant improvements compare to baseline models that use Support Vector Machines.

  9. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  10. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  11. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...... machines to singular, non-axiomatic and diagrammatic machines. That is: Machines which constitute becomings. This presentation gives a survey of the development of the concept of abstract machines in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guatari and the function of these abstract machines in the creation of works...... of art. From Difference and Repetition to Anti-Oedipus, the machines are conceived as binary machines based on the exclusive or inclusive use respectively of the three syntheses: conexa, disjuncta and conjuncta. The machines have a twofold embedment: In the desiring-production and in the social...

  12. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  13. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Infrastructure, Cost Estimate, Photovoltaic Power Conversion, PVPC, Solar PV System, Vines, MPPT A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE BASED LOGISTICS...state of low voltage power storage devices may enable practical Pulse Forming Inductive Network power supplies to be developed if a suitable current...analyzed by three separate comparator banks, the outputs of which are used to determine a digital representation of the analog signal. This design

  14. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...... by ‘professionals’ to ‘laypeople’. The thesis articulates problems in VR’s current application, specifically the CAVE and Panorama theatres, and seeks an understanding of how these problems may be addressed. The central questions that have motivated this research project are thus: What is architectural VR...

  15. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jonathan D H

    2008-01-01

    Taking a slightly different approach from similar texts, Introduction to Abstract Algebra presents abstract algebra as the main tool underlying discrete mathematics and the digital world. It helps students fully understand groups, rings, semigroups, and monoids by rigorously building concepts from first principles. A Quick Introduction to Algebra The first three chapters of the book show how functional composition, cycle notation for permutations, and matrix notation for linear functions provide techniques for practical computation. The author also uses equivalence relations to introduc

  16. Abstract Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert; Maurer, Ueli; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be re...

  17. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  18. Analysis of categorical data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Bilder, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Learn How to Properly Analyze Categorical DataAnalysis of Categorical Data with R presents a modern account of categorical data analysis using the popular R software. It covers recent techniques of model building and assessment for binary, multicategory, and count response variables and discusses fundamentals, such as odds ratio and probability estimation. The authors give detailed advice and guidelines on which procedures to use and why to use them.The Use of R as Both a Data Analysis Method and a Learning ToolRequiring no prior experience with R, the text offers an introduction to the essent

  19. Feature engineering for MEDLINE citation categorization with MeSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno Yepes, Antonio Jose; Plaza, Laura; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Jorge; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R

    2015-04-08

    Research in biomedical text categorization has mostly used the bag-of-words representation. Other more sophisticated representations of text based on syntactic, semantic and argumentative properties have been less studied. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of different text representations of biomedical texts as features for reproducing the MeSH annotations of some of the most frequent MeSH headings. In addition to unigrams and bigrams, these features include noun phrases, citation meta-data, citation structure, and semantic annotation of the citations. Traditional features like unigrams and bigrams exhibit strong performance compared to other feature sets. Little or no improvement is obtained when using meta-data or citation structure. Noun phrases are too sparse and thus have lower performance compared to more traditional features. Conceptual annotation of the texts by MetaMap shows similar performance compared to unigrams, but adding concepts from the UMLS taxonomy does not improve the performance of using only mapped concepts. The combination of all the features performs largely better than any individual feature set considered. In addition, this combination improves the performance of a state-of-the-art MeSH indexer. Concerning the machine learning algorithms, we find that those that are more resilient to class imbalance largely obtain better performance. We conclude that even though traditional features such as unigrams and bigrams have strong performance compared to other features, it is possible to combine them to effectively improve the performance of the bag-of-words representation. We have also found that the combination of the learning algorithm and feature sets has an influence in the overall performance of the system. Moreover, using learning algorithms resilient to class imbalance largely improves performance. However, when using a large set of features, consideration needs to be taken with algorithms due to the risk of over-fitting. Specific

  20. Learning Document Semantic Representation with Hybrid Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-01-01

    it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance.

  1. The roles of categorical and coordinate spatial relations in recognizing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Categorical spatial information is considered more useful for recognizing objects, and coordinate spatial information for guiding actions--for example, during navigation or grasping. In contrast with this assumption, we hypothesized that buildings, unlike other categories of objects, require both categorical and coordinate spatial information in order to be recognized. This hypothesis arose from evidence that right-brain-damaged patients have deficits in both coordinate judgments and recognition of buildings and from the fact that buildings are very useful for guiding navigation in urban environments. To test this hypothesis, we assessed 210 healthy college students while they performed four different tasks that required categorical and coordinate judgments and the recognition of common objects and buildings. Our results showed that both categorical and coordinate spatial representations are necessary to recognize a building, whereas only categorical representations are necessary to recognize an object. We discuss our data in view of a recent neural framework for visuospatial processing, suggesting that recognizing buildings may specifically activate the parieto-medial-temporal pathway.

  2. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Conrey, Brianna; Pisoni, David B

    2005-06-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners' categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect.

  3. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLOPPER, CYNTHIA G.; CONREY, BRIANNA; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners’ categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect. PMID:21423866

  4. Statistical methods for categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to methods and models for categorical data analysis and their applications in social science research. Companion website also available, at https://webspace.utexas.edu/dpowers/www/

  5. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  6. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...

  7. Prototype learning and dissociable categorization systems in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, William C; Festa, Elena K; Ott, Brian R; Landy, Kelly M; Salmon, David P

    2013-08-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that prototype learning may be mediated by at least two dissociable memory systems depending on the mode of acquisition, with A/Not-A prototype learning dependent upon a perceptual representation system located within posterior visual cortex and A/B prototype learning dependent upon a declarative memory system associated with medial temporal and frontal regions. The degree to which patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can acquire new categorical information may therefore critically depend upon the mode of acquisition. The present study examined A/Not-A and A/B prototype learning in AD patients using procedures that allowed direct comparison of learning across tasks. Despite impaired explicit recall of category features in all tasks, patients showed differential patterns of category acquisition across tasks. First, AD patients demonstrated impaired prototype induction along with intact exemplar classification under incidental A/Not-A conditions, suggesting that the loss of functional connectivity within visual cortical areas disrupted the integration processes supporting prototype induction within the perceptual representation system. Second, AD patients demonstrated intact prototype induction but impaired exemplar classification during A/B learning under observational conditions, suggesting that this form of prototype learning is dependent on a declarative memory system that is disrupted in AD. Third, the surprisingly intact classification of both prototypes and exemplars during A/B learning under trial-and-error feedback conditions suggests that AD patients shifted control from their deficient declarative memory system to a feedback-dependent procedural memory system when training conditions allowed. Taken together, these findings serve to not only increase our understanding of category learning in AD, but to also provide new insights into the ways in which different memory systems interact to support the acquisition of

  8. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and body manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka eDijkstra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through metaphor activation. Substantial research has been conducted on the activation of common orientational metaphors with bodily manipulations, such as ‘power is up’ and ‘more is up’ representations. We will focus on the political metaphor that has a more complex association between the concept and the concrete domain. However, the outcomes of studies on this political metaphor have not always been consistent, possibly because the experimental manipulation was not implicit enough. The inclusion of new technological devices in this area of research, such as the Wii Balance Board, seems promising in order to assess the groundedness of abstract conceptual spatial metaphors in an implicit manner. This may aid further research to effectively demonstrate the interrelatedness between the body and more abstract representations.

  9. Gestalt-like representations hijack Chunk-and-Pass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Magda L

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) make two related and somewhat contradictory claims, namely that the ever abstract language representations built during Chunk-and-Pass processing allow for ever greater interference from extra-linguistic information, and that it is nevertheless the language system that re-codes incoming information into abstract representations. I analyse these claims and discuss evidence suggesting that Gestalt-like representations hijack Chunk-and-Pass processing.

  10. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    -insensitive analysis. To achieve this unification, we develop a systematic method for transforming a concrete semantics into a monadically-parameterized abstract machine. Changing the monad changes the behavior of the machine. By changing the monad, we recover a spectrum of machines—from the original concrete...

  11. WWNPQFT-2013 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  12. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  13. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher formsof cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving forcethroughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rationalthought. Wending its way th...

  14. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  15. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  16. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj...

  17. Abstracts of submitted papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)

  18. Metaphors in Abstract Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Boot (Inge)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the dissertation was to investigate the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999).The CMT proposes that abstract concepts are partly structured by concrete concepts through the mechanism of metaphorical mapping. In Chapter 2 we wanted to investigate the

  19. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  20. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no...

  1. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  2. Abstract Introduction Materials & Methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plzfg

    Abstract. Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  3. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  4. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  5. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  6. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  7. Regression analysis with categorized regression calibrated exposure: some interesting findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjartåker Anette

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression calibration as a method for handling measurement error is becoming increasingly well-known and used in epidemiologic research. However, the standard version of the method is not appropriate for exposure analyzed on a categorical (e.g. quintile scale, an approach commonly used in epidemiologic studies. A tempting solution could then be to use the predicted continuous exposure obtained through the regression calibration method and treat it as an approximation to the true exposure, that is, include the categorized calibrated exposure in the main regression analysis. Methods We use semi-analytical calculations and simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach compared to the naive approach of not correcting for measurement error, in situations where analyses are performed on quintile scale and when incorporating the original scale into the categorical variables, respectively. We also present analyses of real data, containing measures of folate intake and depression, from the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC. Results In cases where extra information is available through replicated measurements and not validation data, regression calibration does not maintain important qualities of the true exposure distribution, thus estimates of variance and percentiles can be severely biased. We show that the outlined approach maintains much, in some cases all, of the misclassification found in the observed exposure. For that reason, regression analysis with the corrected variable included on a categorical scale is still biased. In some cases the corrected estimates are analytically equal to those obtained by the naive approach. Regression calibration is however vastly superior to the naive method when applying the medians of each category in the analysis. Conclusion Regression calibration in its most well-known form is not appropriate for measurement error correction when the exposure is analyzed on a

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  9. An abstract approach to music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  10. The effects of a culturally gender-specifying peripheral cue (headscarf) on the categorization of faces by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2015-06-01

    Faces convey a wealth of cues that influence social categorizations and subsequent cognition and behavior. This study examined the effects of wearing a headscarf on face categorization by gender using Egyptian observers who have an extensive exposure with headscarf-framed female faces. A typical headscarf (worn by females) enhanced perceived femininity whereas an atypical headscarf (worn by males) reduced perceived masculinity. Regardless of whether the faces were presented briefly, or until participants responded, the typical headscarf had no effect on categorizing female faces but the atypical headscarf greatly slowed down categorizing male faces. However, a typical headscarf advantage was noticed when the atypical headscarf condition was removed. In addition, both typical and atypical headscarf effects were greatly strengthened when faces were presented as negatives. These data provide support to the dynamic continuity account of social categorization that suggests a competition among multiple simultaneous representations until a construal is stabilized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CATEGORIZATION OF EVENT SEQUENCES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Ragan; P. Mecheret; D. Dexheimer

    2005-04-14

    The purposes of this analysis are: (1) Categorize (as Category 1, Category 2, or Beyond Category 2) internal event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. (2) Categorize external event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. This includes examining DBGM-1 seismic classifications and upgrading to DBGM-2, if appropriate, to ensure Beyond Category 2 categorization. (3) State the design and operational requirements that are invoked to make the categorization assignments valid. (4) Indicate the amount of material put at risk by Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences. (5) Estimate frequencies of Category 1 event sequences at the maximum capacity and receipt rate of the repository. (6) Distinguish occurrences associated with normal operations from event sequences. It is beyond the scope of the analysis to propose design requirements that may be required to control radiological exposure associated with normal operations. (7) Provide a convenient compilation of the results of the analysis in tabular form. The results of this analysis are used as inputs to the consequence analyses in an iterative design process that is depicted in Figure 1. Categorization of event sequences for permanent retrieval of waste from the repository is beyond the scope of this analysis. Cleanup activities that take place after an event sequence and other responses to abnormal events are also beyond the scope of the analysis.

  12. Response actions influence the categorization of directions in auditory space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Castro Campos Velten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial region concepts such as front, back, left and right reflect our typical interaction with space, and the corresponding surrounding regions have different statuses in memory. We examined the representation of spatial directions in the auditory space, specifically in how far natural response actions, such as orientation movements towards a sound source, would affect the categorization of egocentric auditory space. While standing in the middle of a circle with 16 loudspeakers, participants were presented acoustic stimuli coming from the loudspeakers in randomized order, and verbally described their directions by using the concept labels front, back, left, right, front-right, front-left, back-right and back-left. Response actions varied in three blocked conditions: 1 facing front, 2 turning the head and upper body to face the stimulus, and 3 turning the head and upper body plus pointing with the hand and outstretched arm towards the stimulus. In addition to a protocol of the verbal utterances, motion capture and video recording generated a detailed corpus for subsequent analysis of the participants’ behavior. Chi-square tests revealed an effect of response condition for directions within the left and right sides. We conclude that movement-based response actions influence the representation of auditory space, especially within the sides’ regions.

  13. DEGRO 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.

  14. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    in emphasis from the three syntheses to mappings and rhizomatic diagrams that cut across semiotics or “blow apart regimes of signs”. The aim here is the absolute deterritorialization. Deleuze has shown how abstract machines operate in the philosophy of Foucault, the literature of Proust and Kafka......, and the painting of Bacon. We will finish our presentation by showing how these machines apply to architecture....

  15. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  16. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  17. WWNPQFT-2011 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, E.; Bender, C.; Culetu, H.; Fried, H.; Grossmann, A.; Hofmann, R.; Le Bellac, M.; Martinetti, P.; Muller, B.; Patras, F.; Raffaeli, B.; Vitting Andersen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The object of this workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non-perturbative field theories. This year the presentations deal with quantum gravity, non-commutative geometry, fat-tailed wave-functions, strongly coupled field theories, space-times two time-like dimensions, and multiplicative renormalization. A presentation is dedicated to the construction of a nucleon-nucleon potential from an analytical, non-perturbative gauge invariant QCD. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  18. Comparing Categorical and Probabilistic Fingerprint Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Brandon; Mitchell, Gregory; Scurich, Nicholas

    2018-04-23

    Fingerprint examiners traditionally express conclusions in categorical terms, opining that impressions do or do not originate from the same source. Recently, probabilistic conclusions have been proposed, with examiners estimating the probability of a match between recovered and known prints. This study presented a nationally representative sample of jury-eligible adults with a hypothetical robbery case in which an examiner opined on the likelihood that a defendant's fingerprints matched latent fingerprints in categorical or probabilistic terms. We studied model language developed by the U.S. Defense Forensic Science Center to summarize results of statistical analysis of the similarity between prints. Participant ratings of the likelihood the defendant left prints at the crime scene and committed the crime were similar when exposed to categorical and strong probabilistic match evidence. Participants reduced these likelihoods when exposed to the weaker probabilistic evidence, but did not otherwise discriminate among the prints assigned different match probabilities. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  1. Feminisms, Political Mobilization, and the Transnational Sex Trade: Contestation over Categorizing Social Reproductive Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Lodermeier, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Numerous scholars and activists attempt to define what the transnational sex trade is and what it should or should not be. Each of the groups involved in this struggle to categorize sex labor channel different representations of the category, or discourses. This paper analyses how three feminist scholars, of varying perspectives, define transnational sex labor, and despite their widely different viewpoints, marshal similar conceptual categories. Their discourses rely on notions of or attempts...

  2. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species

  3. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  4. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-10

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  5. IPR 2016. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.

  6. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  7. Beyond the abstractions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

      The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...... are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies seems to neglect the fact that history and resources for lifelong learning are different across Europe, and also neglects the multiplicity of adult learners. Instead of refusing the new agendas, however, adult education research should try to dissolve...... learning. Adult education research must fulfil it's potential conversion from normative philosophy to critical and empirical social science....

  8. Parameterized Dataflow (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Duggan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dataflow networks have application in various forms of stream processing, for example for parallel processing of multimedia data. The description of dataflow graphs, including their firing behavior, is typically non-compositional and not amenable to separate compilation. This article considers a dataflow language with a type and effect system that captures the firing behavior of actors. This system allows definitions to abstract over actor firing rates, supporting the definition and safe composition of actor definitions where firing rates are not instantiated until a dataflow graph is launched.

  9. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  10. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331, for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynasty’s scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up to now. However, researchers and critics have introduced various theories and approaches during last four decades.  Stagnation in Persian stylistic researches is the main problem which is considered in current article. The main questions are: What branch of stylistics should be the performed Persian stylistic researches? “what are the weak points of surveys” and “what should be done for getting rid of this stagnation?” The main objective of current article is taking steps for removing stagnation from Persian stylistics.  Malek osh-Shoara Bahar used periodization in studying prose styles and analyzed revolution of Persian prose in lexical aspect (obsolete words, Arabic words, synonyms, words repetition, morphological aspect (verbal prefixes, comparative adjective suffixes, syntactic aspect (precedence of verb over its belongings, omission of verbs and rhetorical aspect (simile and allegory, metonymy and metaphor, prolixity and periphrasis, riming prose and harmony. In fact he tried to show both health and strength and laxity and corruption period of prose. We call Bahar stylistics and all researches done in his way historical stylistics with traditional attitude. In this method, styles' consistency and evolution through history have been studied and preiodization of styles has been taken into account. Mentioned researches periodized styles, finding formal similarities and differences. Since, neglecting meaning and text

  11. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331, for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynasty’s scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up to now. However, researchers and critics have introduced various theories and approaches during last four decades.  Stagnation in Persian stylistic researches is the main problem which is considered in current article. The main questions are: What branch of stylistics should be the performed Persian stylistic researches? “what are the weak points of surveys” and “what should be done for getting rid of this stagnation?” The main objective of current article is taking steps for removing stagnation from Persian stylistics.  Malek osh-Shoara Bahar used periodization in studying prose styles and analyzed revolution of Persian prose in lexical aspect (obsolete words, Arabic words, synonyms, words repetition, morphological aspect (verbal prefixes, comparative adjective suffixes, syntactic aspect (precedence of verb over its belongings, omission of verbs and rhetorical aspect (simile and allegory, metonymy and metaphor, prolixity and periphrasis, riming prose and harmony. In fact he tried to show both health and strength and laxity and corruption period of prose. We call Bahar stylistics and all researches done in his way historical stylistics with traditional attitude. In this method, styles' consistency and evolution through history have been studied and preiodization of styles has been taken into account. Mentioned researches periodized styles, finding formal similarities and differences. Since, neglecting meaning and text functionality they have only paid

  12. Large Scale Identification and Categorization of Protein Sequences Using Structured Logistic Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Ifrim, Georgiana; Liboriussen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Structured Logistic Regression (SLR) is a newly developed machine learning tool first proposed in the context of text categorization. Current availability of extensive protein sequence databases calls for an automated method to reliably classify sequences and SLR seems well...

  13. Local Alignments for Fine-Grained Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavves, E.; Fernando, B.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Tuytelaars, T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is fine-grained categorization without human interaction. Different from prior work, which relies on detectors for specific object parts, we propose to localize distinctive details by roughly aligning the objects using just the overall shape. Then, one may proceed to the

  14. A quick survey of text categorization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an overview of basic formulations and approaches to text classification. This paper surveys the algorithms used in text categorization: handcrafted rules, decision trees, decision rules, on-line learning, linear classifier, Rocchio’s algorithm, k Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Support Vector Machines (SVM.

  15. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 907.10 Section 907.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION...

  16. How Experimental Trial Context Affects Perceptual Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Palmeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions.

  17. The Education of the Categorical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine anew the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant and its contributions to educational theory. I make four claims. First, that Kant should be read as having the Categorical Imperative develop out of subjective maxims. Second, that moral self-perfection is the aim of moral education. Third, that moral self-perfection develops by…

  18. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  19. Categorical Perception in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Brentari, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether Deaf signers or hearing nonsigners exhibit categorical perception (CP) for hand configuration or for place of articulation in American Sign Language. Findings that signers and nonsigners performed similarly suggests that these categories in American Sign Language have a perceptual as well as a linguistic basis.…

  20. Information criterion for the categorization quality evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail V. Svirkin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using the variation of information function as a quality criterion for categorizing a collection of documents. The performance of the variation of information function is being examined subject to the number of categories and the sample volume of the test document collection.

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  3. Is 27 a Big Number? Correlational and Causal Connections among Numerical Categorization, Number Line Estimation, and Numerical Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the generality of the logarithmic to linear transition in children's representations of numerical magnitudes and the role of subjective categorization of numbers in the acquisition of more advanced understanding. Experiment 1 (49 girls and 41 boys, ages 5-8 years) suggested parallel transitions from kindergarten to second grade…

  4. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  5. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference

  6. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  7. ICENES 2007 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues

  8. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2. The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue–purple secondary category boundary. Keywords: categorical perception, CP of color, categorization, blue–purple category boundary, secondary category boundary

  9. Multi-scale lines and edges in V1 and beyond: brightness, object categorization and recognition, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João; du Buf, J M Hans

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we present an improved model for line and edge detection in cortical area V1. This model is based on responses of simple and complex cells, and it is multi-scale with no free parameters. We illustrate the use of the multi-scale line/edge representation in different processes: visual reconstruction or brightness perception, automatic scale selection and object segregation. A two-level object categorization scenario is tested in which pre-categorization is based on coarse scales only and final categorization on coarse plus fine scales. We also present a multi-scale object and face recognition model. Processing schemes are discussed in the framework of a complete cortical architecture. The fact that brightness perception and object recognition may be based on the same symbolic image representation is an indication that the entire (visual) cortex is involved in consciousness.

  10. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  11. Representation as the representation of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, FR

    This essay deals, mainly, with the notion of representation. Representation is associated with texts and, as such, is contrasted to the true singular statement. It is argued that the relationship between the text and what the text represents can never be modeled on the relationship between the true

  12. Nonparametric Bayes Modeling of Multivariate Categorical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B; Xing, Chuanhua

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of multivariate unordered categorical (nominal) data is a challenging problem, particularly in high dimensions and cases in which one wishes to avoid strong assumptions about the dependence structure. Commonly used approaches rely on the incorporation of latent Gaussian random variables or parametric latent class models. The goal of this article is to develop a nonparametric Bayes approach, which defines a prior with full support on the space of distributions for multiple unordered categorical variables. This support condition ensures that we are not restricting the dependence structure a priori. We show this can be accomplished through a Dirichlet process mixture of product multinomial distributions, which is also a convenient form for posterior computation. Methods for nonparametric testing of violations of independence are proposed, and the methods are applied to model positional dependence within transcription factor binding motifs.

  13. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  14. Categorization of radioactive sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education; they are also used in some military applications. Many are in the form of sealed sources with the radioactive materials firmly contained or bound within a suitable capsule or housing. The risks posed by these sources vary widely, depending on such factors as the radionuclides used, the physical and chemical form and the activity. Sealed sources, unless they have been breached or are leaking, present a risk of external radiation exposure only. However, breached or leaking sealed sources, as well as unsealed radioactive materials, may give rise to contamination of the environment and the intake of radioactive materials into the human body. Until the 1950s, only radionuclides of natural origin, particularly 226 Ra, were generally available for use. Since then, radionuclides produced artificially in nuclear facilities and accelerators, including 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 192 Ir, have become widely used. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) provide an internationally harmonized basis for ensuring the safe and secure use of sources of ionizing radiation, and the Safety Requirements for Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety set out the essential elements of a regulatory control system. Sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used for a variety of purposes and they incorporate a wide range of radionuclides and amounts of radioactive material. High activity sources, if not managed safely and securely, can cause severe deterministic effects to individuals in a short period of time, whereas low activity sources are unlikely to cause exposures with harmful consequences. his Safety Guide provides a risk based ranking of radioactive sources and practices in five categories. The categorization system is based on a

  15. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  16. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    ANIMMA 2013 is the third of a series of conferences devoted to endorsing and promoting scientific and technical activities based on nuclear instrumentation and measurements. The main objective of ANIMMA conference is to unite the various scientific communities not only involved in nuclear instrumentation and measurements, but also in nuclear medicine and radiation. The conference is all about getting scientists, engineers and the industry to meet, exchange cultures and identify new scientific and technical prospects to help overcome both current and future unresolved issues. The conference provides scientists and engineers with a veritable opportunity to compare their latest research and development in different areas: physics, nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, safety, security, future energies (GEN III+, GENIV, ITER, ...). The conference topics include instrumentation and measurement methods for: Fundamental physics; Fusion diagnostics and technology; Nuclear power reactors; Research reactors; Nuclear fuel cycle; Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling; Safeguards, homeland security; Severe accident monitoring; Environmental and medical sciences; Education, training and outreach. This document brings together the abstracts of the presentations. Each presentation (full paper) is analysed separately and entered in INIS

  17. SENSE 2010, Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, M.D.; Argyriou, D.N.; Inosov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic origin of unconventional superconductivity continues to attract the attention of the condensed matter community. Whereas rare-earth / actinide-based intermetallic and copper oxide-based high temperature superconductors are studied for more than twenty years, the iron-based superconductors have been in the focus of interest since their recent discovery. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been of particular importance for the understanding of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these compounds. With its 29 talks and 14 posters the workshop provided a forum for the 71 registered participants to review and discuss experimental achievements, recognize the observed synergy and differences as well as discuss theoretical efforts to identify the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter in addition to the coupling mechanisms of the Cooper pairs. The workshop covered different topics relevant for the study of unconventional superconductivity. Magnetization and lattice dynamics such as spin resonances, phonons, magnetic and other excitations as studied by spectroscopic methods were presented. Investigations of (doping, pressure and magnetic field dependent) phase diagrams, electronic states as well as vortex physics by the various diffraction techniques were also addressed. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)

  18. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  19. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  20. Stochastic text models for music categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sancho, Carlos; Rizo Valero, David; Iñesta Quereda, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Music genre meta-data is of paramount importance for the organization of music repositories. People use genre in a natural way when entering a music store or looking into music collections. Automatic genre classification has become a popular topic in music information retrieval research. This work brings to symbolic music recognition some technologies, like the stochastic language models, already successfully applied to text categorization. In this work we model chord progressions and melodie...

  1. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    CLOPPER, CYNTHIA G.; CONREY, BRIANNA; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation co...

  2. Auditory intensity processing: Categorization versus comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2015-10-01

    Intensity is an important parameter for the perception of complex auditory stimuli like speech. The results of previous studies on the processing of intensity are diverse since left-lateralized, right-lateralized and non-lateralized processing was suggested. A clear dependence of the lateralization on the kind of stimuli and/or task is not apparent. With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we directly investigated the differences between a categorical and comparative task. To determine hemispheric involvement we used a method with contralateral noise presentation. Harmonic complexes were presented monaurally without and with contralateral noise. Both categorization and comparison of harmonic complexes according to their intensity more strongly involved the left than the right auditory cortex shown by a stronger effect of the additional noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. Together with previous results, this suggests that left-lateralized processing of intensity in the auditory cortex can be observed independent of task and stimuli. The comparison task more strongly engaged the left auditory cortex than the categorization task probably due the additional need for sequential comparison and the right auditory cortex probably due to capacity reasons. Comparison also more strongly engaged areas associated with attentional processes and areas responsible for motor response selection. We suggest this to be caused by a more difficult response selection and by the need for continuous update of information in reference memory during the comparison task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Licensing criteria for particle accelerators categorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Evaldo L.C. da, E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dir. de Radioprotecao e Seguranca; Melo, Paulo F.F. Frutuoso e, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    From the international experience of research centers in various parts of the world, where there are particle accelerators of various sizes and energies, it was found that operating energy of particle accelerators is one of the parameters used by categorization models in the licensing of these radiation facilities, and the facility size is an important aspect to be considered in this model. A categorization based on these two key parameters is presented, also taking into account the kinds of accelerated particles and radiation produced, the operating related technology and the possible applications concerned. The categorization models of national nuclear authorities of five countries are reviewed, emphasizing the contribution of Brazil, and the new model proposed is also based on the experience of these countries, modified by those two parameter discussed above: facility size and operating energy of particle accelerators. Later, some changes are suggested, considering risk factors and safety features related to these facilities, emphasizing some analytical tools commonly used in nuclear facilities and chemical plants, such as: risk-informing decision making, layer of protection analysis (LOPRA) and safety integrity levels (SIL), the two latter ones having its origin in the broader concept of system safety. We also discuss the problem of scarcity of reliability data (common in the analyses involving risk factors and safety), due to security concerns and other factors, being the possible alternative solutions the use of generic databases and the adoption of reference facilities that provide partial data publicly. (author).

  4. A nonparametric multiple imputation approach for missing categorical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhan Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incomplete categorical variables with more than two categories are common in public health data. However, most of the existing missing-data methods do not use the information from nonresponse (missingness probabilities. Methods We propose a nearest-neighbour multiple imputation approach to impute a missing at random categorical outcome and to estimate the proportion of each category. The donor set for imputation is formed by measuring distances between each missing value with other non-missing values. The distance function is calculated based on a predictive score, which is derived from two working models: one fits a multinomial logistic regression for predicting the missing categorical outcome (the outcome model and the other fits a logistic regression for predicting missingness probabilities (the missingness model. A weighting scheme is used to accommodate contributions from two working models when generating the predictive score. A missing value is imputed by randomly selecting one of the non-missing values with the smallest distances. We conduct a simulation to evaluate the performance of the proposed method and compare it with several alternative methods. A real-data application is also presented. Results The simulation study suggests that the proposed method performs well when missingness probabilities are not extreme under some misspecifications of the working models. However, the calibration estimator, which is also based on two working models, can be highly unstable when missingness probabilities for some observations are extremely high. In this scenario, the proposed method produces more stable and better estimates. In addition, proper weights need to be chosen to balance the contributions from the two working models and achieve optimal results for the proposed method. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed multiple imputation method is a reasonable approach to dealing with missing categorical outcome data with

  5. Abstraction of man-made shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2009-01-01

    Man-made objects are ubiquitous in the real world and in virtual environments. While such objects can be very detailed, capturing every small feature, they are often identified and characterized by a small set of defining curves. Compact, abstracted shape descriptions based on such curves are often visually more appealing than the original models, which can appear to be visually cluttered. We introduce a novel algorithm for abstracting three-dimensional geometric models using characteristic curves or contours as building blocks for the abstraction. Our method robustly handles models with poor connectivity, including the extreme cases of polygon soups, common in models of man-made objects taken from online repositories. In our algorithm, we use a two-step procedure that first approximates the input model using a manifold, closed envelope surface and then extracts from it a hierarchical abstraction curve network along with suitable normal information. The constructed curve networks form a compact, yet powerful, representation for the input shapes, retaining their key shape characteristics while discarding minor details and irregularities. © 2009 ACM.

  6. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  7. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document contains abstracts of 24 review papers, 24 invited papers, 24 oral contributions and 120 posters. 10 review papers summarize the status of laser fusion research and progress in high-power laser facilities in major world laboratories. Four papers review research programs (laser-matter interaction studies and X-ray source development) based on KrF laser systems. Other review papers discuss the problems of laser energy conversion into X-rays in laser-heated cavities, X-ray lasing at shorter wavelengths, optimization of targets for inertial fusion. Two review papers are devoted to light ion fusion. The subjects of most invited papers are special problems of current laser plasma research, such as hot electron generation, nonlinear resonance absorption, energy accumulation limits, pellet ignition, conversion of laser light into X-rays, high-pressure plasma generation. Three invited papers review laser plasma research in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Spain. One paper suggests a new method of producing muonic superdense matter. The remaining inivited papers deal with the progress in XUV lasers and with laser plasma applications for further laser development. Of the papers accepted for oral presentation 12 papers discuss various problems of laser-plasma interaction; 4 papers deal with laser targets, 4 papers with laser-initiated X-ray sources, 3 papers with the diagnostics of laser-produced plasma. The last oral contribution presents the main principles of the excimer laser theory. The largest group of posters is related to laser-plasma interaction and energy absorption problems, to laser-target interaction and various methods of laser plasma diagnostics. The other posters deal with plasma applications in laser development, plasma mirrors, Brillouin and Raman scattering, X-ray emission, harmonic generation, electron acceleration, production of high-Z plasmas and other related problems. (J.U.)

  8. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport

  9. Categorical Semantics for Functional Reactive Programming with Temporal Recursion and Corecursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Jeltsch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional reactive programming (FRP makes it possible to express temporal aspects of computations in a declarative way. Recently we developed two kinds of categorical models of FRP: abstract process categories (APCs and concrete process categories (CPCs. Furthermore we showed that APCs generalize CPCs. In this paper, we extend APCs with additional structure. This structure models recursion and corecursion operators that are related to time. We show that the resulting categorical models generalize those CPCs that impose an additional constraint on time scales. This constraint boils down to ruling out ω-supertasks, which are closely related to Zeno's paradox of Achilles and the tortoise.

  10. Hologram representation of design data in an expert system knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.; Klon, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel representational scheme for design object descriptions is presented. An abstract notion of modules and signals is developed as a conceptual foundation for the scheme. This abstraction relates the objects to the meaning of system descriptions. Anchored on this abstraction, a representational model which incorporates dynamic semantics for these objects is presented. This representational model is called a hologram scheme since it represents dual level information, namely, structural and semantic. The benefits of this scheme are presented.

  11. A complete categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garira, Winston

    2017-12-01

    Modelling of infectious disease systems has entered a new era in which disease modellers are increasingly turning to multiscale modelling to extend traditional modelling frameworks into new application areas and to achieve higher levels of detail and accuracy in characterizing infectious disease systems. In this paper we present a categorization framework for categorizing multiscale models of infectious disease systems. The categorization framework consists of five integration frameworks and five criteria. We use the categorization framework to give a complete categorization of host-level immuno-epidemiological models (HL-IEMs). This categorization framework is also shown to be applicable in categorizing other types of multiscale models of infectious diseases beyond HL-IEMs through modifying the initial categorization framework presented in this study. Categorization of multiscale models of infectious disease systems in this way is useful in bringing some order to the discussion on the structure of these multiscale models.

  12. What is a Planet?-Categorizing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.

    2009-05-01

    Observing, communicating, comparing, organizing, relating, and inferring are fundamental to scientific thinking processes. Teaching this way, rather than just teaching "the facts,” is also important for developing the critical thinking skills of our future generations of a scientifically literate society. Since the IAU started its discussions on a definition of a planet in 2005, I have been presenting a hands-on activity called "What is a Planet?” at the annual meeting of the DPS. This activity has been designed for short (20 minute) to long (two hour) presentations depending on the venue and the audience. This has been presented to elementary-grade students, middle school students, K-12 teachers, and scientists and educators. Depending on the amount of time available, I show students how people, as well as scientists group or categorize things such as plants and animals, cats and dog, etc. The students are then broken up into groups. Science is usually done by teams of scientists working together, not as individuals working alone. I assess their prior knowledge (how many planets, their names, their properties, etc.). They also do a hands-on group activity where they group/categorize ten spheres by their properties (size, color, etc.). Finally we discuss the process by which the IAU came up with a definition of a planet. I then discuss with them why some scientists, including myself, do not agree with this definition: as with the spheres, there may be more than one "right” answer. There are many ways to look at the properties of objects in the Solar System and group them into planets and other designations. This is the way that science should be done, to look at all of the properties of an object and categorize them in a meaningful way. There may be more than one right answer.

  13. EM cluster analysis for categorical data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4109 (2006), s. 640-648 ISSN 0302-9743. [Joint IAPR International Workshops SSPR 2006 and SPR 2006. Hong Kong , 17.08.2006-19.08.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : cluster analysis * categorical data * EM algorithm Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  14. Categorizing the Growth Strategies of Small Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Westerlund

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the link between a small firm’s investment in R&D and its growth strategy. A firm’s growth strategy refers to the means by which the organization plans to achieve its objective to grow in volume and turnover. We categorize firm growth strategies into eight distinctive clusters: opportunity explorers, radical innovators, business developers, business expanders, profit makers, business rebuilders, stagnators, and downsizers. We argue that understanding a firm’s growth orientation provides a way to assess the returns of its R&D investments, because an organization’s intangible growth strategies and tangible inputs are connected.

  15. Applied categorical and count data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Discrete Outcomes Data Source Outline of the BookReview of Key Statistical ResultsSoftwareContingency Tables Inference for One-Way Frequency TableInference for 2 x 2 TableInference for 2 x r TablesInference for s x r TableMeasures of AssociationSets of Contingency Tables Confounding Effects Sets of 2 x 2 TablesSets of s x r TablesRegression Models for Categorical Response Logistic Regression for Binary ResponseInference about Model ParametersGoodness of FitGeneralized Linear ModelsRegression Models for Polytomous ResponseRegression Models for Count Response Poisson Regression Mode

  16. A Framework for Categorizing Important Project Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2003-01-01

    While substantial research has led to theories concerning the variables that affect project success, no universal set of such variables has been acknowledged as the standard. The identification of a specific set of controllable variables is needed to minimize project failure. Much has been hypothesized about the need to match project controls and management processes to individual projects in order to increase the chance for success. However, an accepted taxonomy for facilitating this matching process does not exist. This paper surveyed existing literature on classification of project variables. After an analysis of those proposals, a simplified categorization is offered to encourage further research.

  17. Predictive Manufacturing: Classification of categorical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2018-01-01

    and classification capabilities of our methodology (on different experimental settings) is done through a specially designed simulation experiment. Secondly, in order to demonstrate the applicability in a real life problem a data set from electronics component manufacturing is being analysed through our proposed...... processes is high volume of information about the process dynamics. In this paper we present a methodology to deal with the categorical data streams from manufacturing processes, with an objective of predicting failures on the last stage of the process. A thorough examination of the behaviour...

  18. Efficient Supervised Dimensionality Reduction for Image Categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Benmokhtar, Rachid; Delhumeau, Jonathan; Gosselin, Philippe-Henri

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the problem of large scale image repre- sentation for object recognition and classification. Our work deals with the problem of optimizing the classification accu- racy and the dimensionality of the image representation. We propose to iteratively select sets of projections from an ex- ternal dataset, using Bagging and feature selection thanks to SVM normals. Features are selected using weights of SVM normals in orthogonalized sets of projections. T...

  19. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  20. Institutional self-representation at South African higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institutional self-representation at South African higher education institutions. N Baijnath, I M Christiansen, N Ogude. Abstract. This article summarises our findings from the investigation of the research question: `What are the variations in self-representations at universities and technikons, with particular respect to boundary ...

  1. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation. L van Eck, S E Visagie, H C de Kock. Abstract. In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR) voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary ...

  2. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega

    2017-05-01

    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  4. Behavioural evidence of a dissociation between voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization using auditory morphed stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril R Pernet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both voice gender and speech perception rely on neuronal populations located in the peri-sylvian areas. However, whilst functional imaging studies suggest a left versus right hemisphere and anterior versus posterior dissociation between voice and speech categorization, psycholinguistic studies on talker variability suggest that these two processes (voice and speech categorization share common mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the categorical perception of voice gender (male vs. female and phonemes (/pa/ vs. /ta/ using the same stimulus continua generated by morphing. This allowed the investigation of behavioural differences while controlling acoustic characteristics, since the same stimuli were used in both tasks. Despite a higher acoustic dissimilarity between items during the phoneme categorization task (a male and female voice producing the same phonemes than the gender task (the same person producing 2 phonemes, results showed that speech information is being processed much faster than voice information. In addition, f0 or timbre equalization did not affect RT, which disagrees with the classical psycholinguistic models in which voice information is stripped away or normalized to access phonetic content. Also, despite similar response (percentages and perceptual (d’ curves, a reverse correlation analysis on acoustic features revealed, as expected, that the formant frequencies of the consonant distinguished stimuli in the phoneme task, but that only the vowel formant frequencies distinguish stimuli in the gender task. The 2nd set of results thus also disagrees with models postulating that the same acoustic information is used for voice and speech. Altogether these results suggest that voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization are dissociated at an early stage on the basis of different enhanced acoustic features that are diagnostic to the task at hand.

  5. Multiracial Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven Othello; Gelman, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Research has explored how multiracial individuals are categorized by monoracial individuals, but has not yet explored how they are categorized by multiracial individuals themselves. We examined how multiracial children (4-9 years) and adults categorized multiracial targets (presented with and without parentage information). When parentage information was provided, multiracial targets were more likely to be categorized as neither wholly black nor wholly white. However, both multiracial adults and children more often categorized multiracial targets as black than as white regardless of the absence or presence of parentage information. For multiracial children, increased contact with white people predicted the tendency to categorize multiracial targets as black. These data suggest that multiracial children's categorizations are more flexible than those of monoracial children in previous research, and that the tendency to categorize multiracial targets as black emerges early in development within multiracial samples, and is especially likely in predominantly white contexts. PMID:28890668

  6. Categorization of aortic aneurysm thrombus morphology by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Motte, Louise; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Thomsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed for qualitative categorization of intraluminal thrombus morphology. We aimed to correlate the qualitative MRI categorization previously described to quantitative measurements of signal intensity and to compare morphological characteristics...

  7. Categorization of web pages - Performance enhancement to search engine

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.

    search systems. Categorization of the web pages abet fairly in addressing this issue. The anatomy of the web pages, links, categorization of text and their relations are empathized with time. Search engines perform critical analysis using several inputs...

  8. Categorization of Quantum Mechanics Problems by Professors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the categorization of 20 quantum mechanics problems by physics professors and undergraduate students from two honours-level quantum mechanics courses. Professors and students were asked to categorize the problems based upon similarity of solution. We also had individual discussions with professors who categorized the problems. Faculty…

  9. Feature coding for image representation and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yongzhen

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a comprehensive introduction to feature coding, which serves as a key module for the typical object recognition pipeline. The text offers a rich blend of theory and practice while reflects the recent developments on feature coding, covering the following five aspects: (1) Review the state-of-the-art, analyzing the motivations and mathematical representations of various feature coding methods; (2) Explore how various feature coding algorithms evolve along years; (3) Summarize the main characteristics of typical feature coding algorithms and categorize them accordingly; (4) D

  10. Equality of opportunity with categorical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda el problema de la evaluación social cuando la equidad es un aspecto relevante. En él se propone una forma de valorar la igualdad de oportunidades aplicable en contextos donde los datos son categóricos. Este método consiste en dividir la sociedad en grupos de características similares y medir la dispersión de los resultados entre dichos grupos, a partir de la distribución de la población en diferentes categorías. El trabajo incluye una aplicación empírica sobre la igualdad de oportunidades educativas usando los datos del informe PISA 2012 sobre conocimientos matemáticos en las regiones españolas.

  11. Grounding abstractness: Abstract concepts and the activation of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth. While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  12. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  13. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet, Laurie; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Tanaka, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven) associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization toward “male” responding in children as young as 5–6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood) as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1–2). The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g., observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3), we further conclude that (1) the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2) any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis) is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling. PMID:25859238

  14. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie eBayet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization towards male responding in children as young as 5-6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1-2. The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g. observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3, we further conclude that (1 the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2 any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling.

  15. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles ......-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications....

  16. Representation of Objective Situations in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ye. Veraksa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the types of representations of objective situations, that is, situations which are defined independently of the subject, by certain external perceptible circumstances and social expectations or rules. The author distinguishes between three types of objective situations in which children act: normative, developing and ambiguous. For each of these types there is a corresponding form of representation: sign, dialectical and symbolic. Each form is a product of the subject's cognitive activity, at the core of which lie cognitive abilities — a system of culturally specific means and ways of using them. The paper outlines normative and stabilizing abilities, transformation abilities, and symbolic mediation abilities. They help categorize different objects and features, enable transformation of situations and provide possibilities for orientation in ambiguous situations

  17. Graph abstraction and abstract graph transformations (Amended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boneva, I.B.; Kreiker, Jörg; Kurban, M.E.; Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Many important systems such as concurrent heap-manipulating programs, communication networks, or distributed algorithms, are hard to verify due to their inherent dynamics and unboundedness. Graphs are an intuitive representation for the states of these systems, where transitions can be conveniently

  18. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  19. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  20. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts

  1. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  2. Logical Full Abstraction and PCF

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, John R; Plotkin, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the concept of logical full abstraction, generalising the usual equational notion. We consider the language PCF and two extensions with “parallel” operations. The main result is that, for standard interpretations, logical full abstraction is equivalent to equational full abstraction together with universality; the proof involves constructing enumeration operators. We also consider restrictions on logical complexity and on the level of types.

  3. Categorizing Pedagogical Patterns by Teaching Activities and Pedagogical Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a proposal for a universal pedagogical pattern categorization based on teaching values and activities. This categorization would be more sustainable than the arbitrary categorization implied by pedagogical pattern language themes. Pedagogical patterns from two......-based categorization, we have combined it with a categorization based on teaching activities. The catalogue could be seen as a tool for combining pedagogical theories and patterns and it is a proposal for a solution to the problem of organizing pedagogical patterns....

  4. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ­E¢b

    direction, which is believed to lead to improved social life and welfare. This means that Ethiopian trade and economic ... holding better market share and customer satisfaction in their products and services. In addition, in both ...... 1995. Dominant Values and Parenting. Styles: Major Limiting Factors on the Development of.

  5. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their effective participation under different socio- ecological constraints (IDRC, 1993;Takyiwa, 1998;. Kinikanwo, 2000; Isiugo-Abanike, 1994; UNO, 1989). The general issue here is to estimate the extent of female participation in ruminant livestock operations with a view to establishing if stereotyping such operations along.

  6. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feasible and sustainable options. ... strategies, specific to the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding as a mechanism to reduce the risk of HIV transmission is urgently needed ... Joyce Beatrice Ballidawa is a lecturer in the Department of Behavioural Sciences at Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, a position she has held.

  7. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about: danger identification, caracterization, evaluation exposition, risk (CAC, 1997; FAO, 2007), European food safety authority, foodrisk organization, pathogens risk ranking, risk reduction, gubernamental responsability

  8. ABSTRACT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Efforts have also been successfully made to include the study of rock art in the school/ college curriculum so as to help develop awareness amongst the students and general public about the need to preserve this cultural heritage for the posterity and also to highlight its importance in tourism industry. rock art and their ...

  9. ABSTRACT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... school/ college curriculum so as to help develop awareness amongst the students and general public about the need to preserve this cultural heritage for the posterity and also to highlight its importance in tourism industry. rock art and their chronological sequences to more applied aspects like scientific methods of dating ...

  10. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Ficus species. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 41: 71-76. Nadkarni KM (1976) Indian Materia Medica. Third edition, Vol I. Popular Prakhasan, Bombay. NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) (1999). Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 9th International Supplement M100- ...

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    realistic distribution of no-show data in modeling the cost function was considered using data collected from the .... the paper models the cost function based on a realistic probability distributions based on the historical data is a .... Plot of Revenue generated vs. overbooking for two class case (at $500. Compensation Cost ...

  12. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Geographic information system; waste bin; optimal location; developing city. Introduction. Over the years, the spatial organization and existing infrastructure of cities in developing countries pose challenges for sustainable solid waste management programs. Much of the ...

  13. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATTAMAH C. O

    Differences in Climate Change Effects and Adaptation Strategies between Male and Female Livestock Entrepreneurs in ... differed from females in the adaptation strategies used in combating climate change and also on their view on ..... also make use of the same farm road whether in good or bad shape. This is in line with.

  14. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    inner forces (bending moments, shearing forces etc) are usually redistributed. Cracks that often appear within the walls of tall buildings during constructions point to this phenomenon. It has also been recognized that foundation engineering is complicated. (1). Also settlement has been accepted as stress induced and time ...

  15. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viral activity has been observed for halofantrine, amodiaquine and mepacrine.” The clinical significance of these findings is uncertain“"”-. There is some evidence that HIV protease inhibitors may alter disease outcomes of colnfected patients.

  16. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was to determine how the natural aerial connec- teracting worker ants from adjacent trees and tions affected'the viability of colonies Oro!. , observing whether fighting took~iplace :(Yar~ra,. IQffginoda in the tree crowns, in the presence of, 1992). Ants of different colonies fight aggres- inimical ants,P" megacephala, 'on the ...

  17. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . user

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the microbiological preparations used for this study was Effective Microorganisms (EM, being a commercial mixture of photosynthesizing bacteria, Actinomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and fermenting fungi. The microbiological composition of the EM concentrateincludesStreptomyces albus, Propioni bacterium freudenreichil, Streptococcus lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor hiemalis, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Candida utilis. Moreover, EM also contains an unspecified amount of Lactobacillus sp. Rhodo pseudomonas sp. and Streptomyces griseus. Effective Microorganisms have a positive effect on the decomposition of organic matter, limiting putrefaction, increasing nitrogen content in the root medium of plants, phosphorus, improving soil fertility and as a result contributing to the growth and development of the root systems of plants. Selection of almond vegetative rootstocks for water stress tolerance is important for almond crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. The study of the eco-morphological characteristics that determine the success of a rootstock in a particular environment is a powerful tool for both agricultural management and breeding purposes. The aim of this work was to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as Effective Microorganism (EM on morphological characteristics of almond rootstocks. Materials and Methods: In order to select the new rootstocks for water shortage tolerance, impact of water stress as well as EMonmorphologicalcharacteristics of almondrootstocks were studiedin thedepartment ofHorticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2011-2012. The experiment was carried out with four replications in a completely random blockdesign to study the effects of two concentrations of EM (0 and 1%, three irrigation levels (normal irrigation 100%-control-and irrigation after depletion of 33 and 66% of available water, and four almond rootstocks including GF677 and selected natural hybrid of peach × almond (H1and H2, and almond vegetative rootstock (local control.In this study,EMtreatments for 60 days before stress treatments were applied so that in each irrigation, EM solution to a concentration of one percent was given to half of the experiment pots. Other pots were irrigated equally with normal water. Stress levels were applied from July as follow: full irrigation, watering after unloading 33% and 66% soil moisture availability. In order to evaluate the performance, seedling survival, plant growth, number of leaves, leaf area, root fresh and dry weight and leaves and root length were measured. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed that between rootstock levels across all treatments were significantly differences at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that the highest fresh and dry weight and leaf are awere observed forGF677and H1.Rootstockannualgrowth rate was also different. Most of the growth was related to the H1 Rootstocks. Thes urvival ratewas significantly different from the Rootstocks ofGF677,andH1showedthe highestpercentage of survival. The degree of adaptation to drought in varieties of almonds is different. The results showed that changes ingrowthparametersinGF677and H1were observed less often than other rootstocks. Because of strong roots,GF677and H1continue to attract more minerals under stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that the between irrigation levels for all treatments were significantly different at 0.01 level of probability. Comparison of means showed that among the study traits, the highest amount was obtained from complete irrigation, while irrigationat66 percenthad the least amount. Water stress may directly affect photosyn thesis, through leaf photochemicalprocessorindirectly,byclosing stomata, reducingleaf area and growth. The results showed that the levels of(EM on the leaf surface, leaf number, annual growth, root dry weight and volume were significantly different (p

  18. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The preservative effect of CO\\\\'pea pods. seeds, husk. and water and ethanol extracts of the seeds and ... preservation of "kindirmo" with water and ethanol extracts of seeds and husk of. CO\\\\'J)Ca for most of the ... Perhaps same may apply in the area of preservatives: plant products may be safer and biologically friendlier.

  19. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. .... women). All patients fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA. (Arnett et al. 1988). A rheumatology university fellow reviewed all clinical data. ... The rs6457617 and rs13192471 were genotyped with a TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination.

  20. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The proceedings contain 106 papers of which 2 fall under the INIS Scope. One concerns seismic risk assessment at radioactive waste repositories in the U.S., the other concerns the possibility of predicting earthquakes from changes in radon 222 levels in selected ground water springs of northern Italy. (M.D.)

  1. abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abstract abstract

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including 0, 500 and 1000 µl L-1 and 3 level of MeSA including 0, 0.1 and 0.2 mM. After treatment, the fruits were inoculated by Botrytis suspension and transferred to storage and quality parameters were evaluated after 7, 14 and 21 days. At each sampling time, disease incidence, weight loss, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that both LEO and MeSA treatments had significant effects on inhibition of mycelium growth within in-vitro condition (p < 0.05. Inhibition rate of mycelium growth significantly improved by LEO and MeSA concentration increase of, (Table 1. At in-vivo assessment, diseases incidence of treated fruits with 500 µl L-1 LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA were 32% and 64% lower than untreated fruits, respectively (Fig. 1 and 2. During storage period, the percentage of infected fruits increased. In addition, LEO and MeSA treatments affected quality parameters of strawberry fruits including titratable acidity, soluble solids content, vitamin C and antioxidant activity. Treated fruits had a high content of soluble solids, vitamin C and antioxidant activity in comparison to untreated fruits (Table 3 and 4. Probably ascorbic acid decreased through fungal infection duo to cell wall break down during storage. Any factors such as essential oil and salicylate that inhibit fungal growth can help preserving vitamin C in stored products. High level of vitamin C and antioxidant activity was observed in treated fruits with 0.1 mM MeSA and 500 µl L-1 LEO. In controlling weight loss of fruits, 0.2 mM of MeSA and 500 µl L-1 of LEO had significant effects, although MeSA was more effective than LEO treatments, possibly due to elimination of respiration rates and fungi infection (Table 4. Therefore, LEO and MeSA with fungicide effects could be replaced with synthetic fungicides in controlling fungal diseases of strawberry and maintain fruits quality during storage. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results showed that LEO and MeSA treatments could be safe and used to prevent infection of strawberry during storage, although LEO was more effective than MeSA treatments. Concentration of 500 μl L-1 of LEO and 0.1 mM MeSA could control fungal infection of fruits during storage. Also, LEO and MeSA treatments can extend shelf life for over the minimum period required to transit strawberries to foreign markets and without affecting quality, adversely. However, future studies are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms by which LEO and MeSA treatments may act as a fungicide and increase their postharvest life.

  2. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This talk deals with the geometry of Banach spaces. A non-reflexive Banach space embeds canonically in its second dual and the process continues, giving raise to a strictly increasing chain of Banach spaces. A well known example of a geometric phenomenon that is preserved in this chain, is that of being (isometric) a ...

  3. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    This software template is also of immense benefits to students of different ... connection, there is the potential to track learner's action in a ..... intelligence. This software will be a direct application of artificial intelligence to develop a special authoring system for e- learning that will have the ability to learn. Intelligent authoring ...

  4. Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafdrup, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf......Udgivet som en del af Tidskrifts specialudgivelse om Adorno. http://tidskrift.dk/data/50/Aforismesamling.pdf...

  5. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chylous leakage is an unusual complication following anterior spinal surgery. This leakage can occur as a result of traumatic injury to the thoracic duct, the cisterna chyli, or the retroperitoneal lymphatic vessels. We report a case of a 56 year old female with thoracic spine disc prolapses with cord compression. She.

  6. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... Significant p-values were corrected (pc) by the number of alleles tested or subgroups analysed according to Bonferroni's ... LD in healthy controls between both rs13192471/rs6457617 with a value of D'=0.99 and ..... Radstake T.R., Gorlova O., Rueda B., Martin J.E., Alizadeh B.Z., Palomino-Morales R. et al.

  7. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -. 1111'. Cl". SO41-. (11-. $0}-. C1; sof-. SW' s-j'. (11; so}. New-_ Blank 'spa§cS imply rhelal levels below cleteczim. ,1 z,m1:> .Qu11>»»»: mtalive analysis _ . 1 mined for individual 1ni11cral. §_'r['§>f:é€lY.l.'.l.fi;'u'- we Table l 006%. 1 ii'!

  8. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getachew

    request made by a customer for a reservation of a certain class at time T. Although dynamic .... to both customer reaction upon denied boarding and profit loss. .... Sabanci University. http://www.optimization- online.org. Bailey, J. 2007. Bumped fliers and no plan B. The New York Times. Beckman, M.J & Bobkoski, F. 1985.

  9. ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Stefano Sabino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and to analyze the integration observed in the Sintonia project with respect to the comparison of project management processes to the model of the Stage-Gate ®. The literature addresses these issues conceptually, but lack an alignment between them that is evident in practice. As a method was used single case study. The report is as if the Sintonia project, developed by PRODESP - Data Processing Company of São Paulo. The results show the integration of project management processes with the Stage-Gate model developed during the project life cycle. The formalization of the project was defined in stages in which allowed the exploitation of economies of repetition and recombination to the development of new projects. This study contributes to the technical vision in dealing with the integration of project management processes. It was concluded that this system represents an attractive way, in terms of creating economic value and technological innovation for the organization.

  10. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    The high cost of delivering financial services to small and widely dispersed customers as well as difficult financial terrain in rural settings characterized by high covariant risks, missing markets for risk management instruments and ... Improving the extent of access to credit for low income households is a vital part of any rural ...

  11. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    the curriculum in higher education. In a similar way, major advances in biological, health sciences, social sciences, physical and life sciences, business and economics, and technology lead to revision of courses in the field. In line, with the everlasting explosion of knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology ...

  12. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production alone cannot provide the animal protein needs of about 100 million Nigerians. This, therefore calls for ... Fish contributes about 12 percent of the total animal protein supply of the World population (Borgstorm, ..... motivation for extension personnel (7.5%), inadequate transport facilities (5.5%), absence of strong ...

  13. Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Revista, Innovar

    2011-01-01

    New approaches towards Efficiency, Productivity and Quality in Management Theory / New approaches towards Efficiency, Productivity and Quality in Management Theory / The new paradigm regarding Science and Management Theory / Game Theory as applied to Administration / A Systemic approach to Territorial Diagnosis /  A prolile 0f Technological Capacity in the Graphical Art, Printing and Publishing Industry / Colombian Industrialisation: a Heterodox Vision /Determinant factors in environmental po...

  14. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing this collaborative e-learning environment on a Linux thin-client system makes it possible for this environment to be available in most schools and companies because the Linux thin-clients are less expensive than other conventional computing systems. Developing a. Collaborative E-Learning Environment on ...

  15. abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication and institutions activities in removing constraints which impede the acceptance and continued usage .... With farmers' feedback, scientists cannot misinterpret a problem or attribute wrong causes to it. ..... Protection and Environmental Management, University of lbadan,. Ibadan. Ashby, J. (1990): Small-farmer ...

  16. Abstract ~. ,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmenf to educate dairy farmers, milli vendors and the consume~s on the importance of producing, selling and consuming respectively un-adulterated milk. Key words: Milk, water adulteration, Morogoro Municipality. Introduction. Total annual milk production in Tanzania is estimated to be at 724,000 metric tons (F AO,.

  17. Learning document semantic representation with hybrid deep belief network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Yin, Xu-Cheng; Li, Sujian; Yang, Mingyuan; Hao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    High-level abstraction, for example, semantic representation, is vital for document classification and retrieval. However, how to learn document semantic representation is still a topic open for discussion in information retrieval and natural language processing. In this paper, we propose a new Hybrid Deep Belief Network (HDBN) which uses Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) on the lower layers together with Deep Belief Network (DBN) on the upper layers. The advantage of DBM is that it employs undirected connection when training weight parameters which can be used to sample the states of nodes on each layer more successfully and it is also an effective way to remove noise from the different document representation type; the DBN can enhance extract abstract of the document in depth, making the model learn sufficient semantic representation. At the same time, we explore different input strategies for semantic distributed representation. Experimental results show that our model using the word embedding instead of single word has better performance.

  18. Cultural heritage and multidimensional representations of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2006-01-01

    as branding the city or cultural environments in a broader sense. In the geo-information community as well as in the built environment metadata and meta-information as means of communicating content and usability of datasets and information setups has been a key matter for several years. The approach...... considering the relations between the three basic elements – the representation, the object of the representation and the way the object is represented – establishes an abstract cognitive framework for handling the analysis of the various communicative aspects related to the complex questions of data quality...

  19. Inborn and experience-dependent models of categorical brain organization. A position paper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGainotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to summarize the debate in contemporary neuroscience between inborn and experience-dependent models of conceptual representations that goes back to the description of category-specific semantic disorders for biological and artefact categories. Experience-dependent models suggest that categorical disorders are the by-product of the differential weighting of different sources of knowledge in the representation of biological and artefact categories. These models maintain that semantic disorders are not really category-specific, because they do not respect the boundaries between different categories. They also argue that the brain structures disrupted in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder should correspond to the areas of convergence of the sensory-motor information which play a major role in the construction of that category. Furthermore, they provide a simple interpretation of gender-related categorical effects and are supported by studies that have assessed the importance of prior experience in the cortical representation of objects On the other hand, inborn models maintain that category-specific semantic disorders reflect the disruption of innate brain networks, which are shaped by natural selection to allow rapid identification of objects that are very relevant for survival. From the empirical point of view, these models are mainly supported by observations made in blind subjects, which suggest that visual experience is not necessary for the emergence of category-specificity in the ventral stream of visual processing. The weight of data supporting experience-dependent and inborn models are thoroughly discussed, stressing the fact observations made in blind subjects are still the subject of intense debate, but concluding that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to choose between experience-dependent and inborn models of conceptual representations.

  20. Body or mind: children's categorizing of pretense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, A S

    1996-08-01

    Researchers studying early social cognition have been particularly interested in pretend play and have obtained evidence indicating that young children do not understand that pretending involves mental representation. The present research investigates whether children think of pretending as a mental state at all, by looking at whether they cluster it with other mental states or with physical processes when making certain judgments. The results from 5 experiments suggest that most children under 6 years of age see pretending as primarily physical. Further, when asked about pretending as a 2-part process entailing planning and execution, even 8-year-olds claim that execution of pretense does not involve the mind, although the planning aspect of pretense does.

  1. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well as re...

  2. Pattern-Based Graph Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Ehrig, H; Engels, G.; Kreowski, H.J.; Rozenberg, G.

    We present a new abstraction technique for the exploration of graph transformation systems with infinite state spaces. This technique is based on patterns, simple graphs describing structures of interest that should be preserved by the abstraction. Patterns are collected into pattern graphs, layered

  3. Abstraction by Set-Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2010-01-01

    that the set of true facts does not monotonically grow with the transitions. We extend the scope of these over-approximation methods by defining a new way of abstraction that can handle such databases, and we formally prove that the abstraction is sound. We realize a translator from a convenient specification...

  4. Abstract concepts in grounded cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, D.

    2010-01-01

    When people think about highly abstract concepts, they draw upon concrete experiences to structure their thoughts. For example, black knights in fairytales are evil, and knights in shining armor are good. The sensory experiences black and white are used to represent the abstract concepts of good and

  5. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This article elucidates the important role the no- tion of symmetry has played in physics. It dis- cusses the proof of one of the important theorems of quantum mechanics, viz., Wigner's Symmetry. Representation Theorem. It also shows how the representations of various continuous and dis- crete symmetries follow from the ...

  6. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the

  7. Representation and Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This essay focuses on the historical text as a whole. It does so by conceiving of the historical text as representation - in the way the we may say of a photo or a painting that it represents the person depicted on it. It is argued that representation cannot be properly understood by modelling it on

  8. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing

  9. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broesius, J.Y. (comp.)

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  10. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  11. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  12. Categorical templates are more useful when features are consistent: Evidence from eye movements during search for societally important vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Robbins, Arryn; Godwin, Hayward J; Fitzsimmons, Gemma; Scarince, Collin

    2017-08-01

    Unlike in laboratory visual search tasks-wherein participants are typically presented with a pictorial representation of the item they are asked to seek out-in real-world searches, the observer rarely has veridical knowledge of the visual features that define their target. During categorical search, observers look for any instance of a categorically defined target (e.g., helping a family member look for their mobile phone). In these circumstances, people may not have information about noncritical features (e.g., the phone's color), and must instead create a broad mental representation using the features that define (or are typical of) the category of objects they are seeking out (e.g., modern phones are typically rectangular and thin). In the current investigation (Experiment 1), using a categorical visual search task, we add to the body of evidence suggesting that categorical templates are effective enough to conduct efficient visual searches. When color information was available (Experiment 1a), attentional guidance, attention restriction, and object identification were enhanced when participants looked for categories with consistent features (e.g., ambulances) relative to categories with more variable features (e.g., sedans). When color information was removed (Experiment 1b), attention benefits disappeared, but object recognition was still better for feature-consistent target categories. In Experiment 2, we empirically validated the relative homogeneity of our societally important vehicle stimuli. Taken together, our results are in line with a category-consistent view of categorical target templates (Yu, Maxfield, & Zelinsky in, Psychological Science, 2016. doi: 10.1177/0956797616640237 ), and suggest that when features of a category are consistent and predictable, searchers can create mental representations that allow for the efficient guidance and restriction of attention as well as swift object identification.

  13. Categorical model of structural operational semantics for imperative language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Steingartner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of programming languages consists of the formal definition of syntax and semantics. One of the most popular semantic methods used in various stages of software engineering is structural operational semantics. It describes program behavior in the form of state changes after execution of elementary steps of program. This feature makes structural operational semantics useful for implementation of programming languages and also for verification purposes. In our paper we present a new approach to structural operational semantics. We model behavior of programs in category of states, where objects are states, an abstraction of computer memory and morphisms model state changes, execution of a program in elementary steps. The advantage of using categorical model is its exact mathematical structure with many useful proved properties and its graphical illustration of program behavior as a path, i.e. a composition of morphisms. Our approach is able to accentuate dynamics of structural operational semantics. For simplicity, we assume that data are intuitively typed. Visualization and facility of our model is  not only  a  new model of structural operational semantics of imperative programming languages but it can also serve for education purposes.

  14. Topological and categorical properties of binary trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pajoohesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Binary trees are very useful tools in computer science for estimating the running time of so-called comparison based algorithms, algorithms in which every action is ultimately based on a prior comparison between two elements. For two given algorithms A and B where the decision tree of A is more balanced than that of B, it is known that the average and worst case times of A will be better than those of B, i.e., ₸A(n ≤₸B(n and TWA (n≤TWB (n. Thus the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees play a main role. Here we consider them as semilattices and characterize the most balanced and the most imbalanced binary trees by topological and categorical properties. Also we define the composition of binary trees as a commutative binary operation, *, such that for binary trees A and B, A * B is the binary tree obtained by attaching a copy of B to any leaf of A. We show that (T,* is a commutative po-monoid and investigate its properties.

  15. Complex surveys analysis of categorical data

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Parimal

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this book is to study some of the research topics in the area of analysis of complex surveys which have not been covered in any book yet. It discusses the analysis of categorical data using three models: a full model, a log-linear model and a logistic regression model. It is a valuable resource for survey statisticians and practitioners in the field of sociology, biology, economics, psychology and other areas who have to use these procedures in their day-to-day work. It is also useful for courses on sampling and complex surveys at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The importance of sample surveys today cannot be overstated. From voters’ behaviour to fields such as industry, agriculture, economics, sociology, psychology, investigators generally resort to survey sampling to obtain an assessment of the behaviour of the population they are interested in. Many large-scale sample surveys collect data using complex survey designs like multistage stratified cluster designs. The o...

  16. Vowel categorization and the critical band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, R S

    1992-01-01

    Using the concept formation paradigm, two series of experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the critical band (CB) was a factor in learning to make absolute discriminations of vowels. The specific hypothesis being examined was that the CB is a psychoacoustic boundary in learning to make vowel categorizations, and that learning absolute discriminations of pairs of vowels that differ in one of their formants by one bark or more is significantly easier than learning absolute discriminations of vowels that differ by less than one bark. Subjects were given the task of learning to identify paired sets of synthesized vowels that differed in either F1 or F2 by 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, or 1.2 bark. The results of these experiments suggest that the critical bandwidth is not a natural psychoacoustic boundary in the learning of vowel categories, and also that subjects seem better able to learn distinctions involving differences in F1 than distinctions involving differences in F2. The discussion raises the possibility that vowels that differ by less than one bark may not be perceptually viable because of such factors as ambient noise, articulatory constraints, and coarticulatory influences. Some evidence from Dutch and French is presented in support of this conjecture.

  17. Deep Supervised, but Not Unsupervised, Models May Explain IT Cortical Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Inferior temporal (IT) cortex in human and nonhuman primates serves visual object recognition. Computational object-vision models, although continually improving, do not yet reach human performance. It is unclear to what extent the internal representations of computational models can explain the IT representation. Here we investigate a wide range of computational model representations (37 in total), testing their categorization performance and their ability to account for the IT representational geometry. The models include well-known neuroscientific object-recognition models (e.g. HMAX, VisNet) along with several models from computer vision (e.g. SIFT, GIST, self-similarity features, and a deep convolutional neural network). We compared the representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) of the model representations with the RDMs obtained from human IT (measured with fMRI) and monkey IT (measured with cell recording) for the same set of stimuli (not used in training the models). Better performing models were more similar to IT in that they showed greater clustering of representational patterns by category. In addition, better performing models also more strongly resembled IT in terms of their within-category representational dissimilarities. Representational geometries were significantly correlated between IT and many of the models. However, the categorical clustering observed in IT was largely unexplained by the unsupervised models. The deep convolutional network, which was trained by supervision with over a million category-labeled images, reached the highest categorization performance and also best explained IT, although it did not fully explain the IT data. Combining the features of this model with appropriate weights and adding linear combinations that maximize the margin between animate and inanimate objects and between faces and other objects yielded a representation that fully explained our IT data. Overall, our results suggest that explaining IT requires

  18. Deep supervised, but not unsupervised, models may explain IT cortical representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2014-11-01

    Inferior temporal (IT) cortex in human and nonhuman primates serves visual object recognition. Computational object-vision models, although continually improving, do not yet reach human performance. It is unclear to what extent the internal representations of computational models can explain the IT representation. Here we investigate a wide range of computational model representations (37 in total), testing their categorization performance and their ability to account for the IT representational geometry. The models include well-known neuroscientific object-recognition models (e.g. HMAX, VisNet) along with several models from computer vision (e.g. SIFT, GIST, self-similarity features, and a deep convolutional neural network). We compared the representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) of the model representations with the RDMs obtained from human IT (measured with fMRI) and monkey IT (measured with cell recording) for the same set of stimuli (not used in training the models). Better performing models were more similar to IT in that they showed greater clustering of representational patterns by category. In addition, better performing models also more strongly resembled IT in terms of their within-category representational dissimilarities. Representational geometries were significantly correlated between IT and many of the models. However, the categorical clustering observed in IT was largely unexplained by the unsupervised models. The deep convolutional network, which was trained by supervision with over a million category-labeled images, reached the highest categorization performance and also best explained IT, although it did not fully explain the IT data. Combining the features of this model with appropriate weights and adding linear combinations that maximize the margin between animate and inanimate objects and between faces and other objects yielded a representation that fully explained our IT data. Overall, our results suggest that explaining IT requires

  19. Deep supervised, but not unsupervised, models may explain IT cortical representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inferior temporal (IT cortex in human and nonhuman primates serves visual object recognition. Computational object-vision models, although continually improving, do not yet reach human performance. It is unclear to what extent the internal representations of computational models can explain the IT representation. Here we investigate a wide range of computational model representations (37 in total, testing their categorization performance and their ability to account for the IT representational geometry. The models include well-known neuroscientific object-recognition models (e.g. HMAX, VisNet along with several models from computer vision (e.g. SIFT, GIST, self-similarity features, and a deep convolutional neural network. We compared the representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs of the model representations with the RDMs obtained from human IT (measured with fMRI and monkey IT (measured with cell recording for the same set of stimuli (not used in training the models. Better performing models were more similar to IT in that they showed greater clustering of representational patterns by category. In addition, better performing models also more strongly resembled IT in terms of their within-category representational dissimilarities. Representational geometries were significantly correlated between IT and many of the models. However, the categorical clustering observed in IT was largely unexplained by the unsupervised models. The deep convolutional network, which was trained by supervision with over a million category-labeled images, reached the highest categorization performance and also best explained IT, although it did not fully explain the IT data. Combining the features of this model with appropriate weights and adding linear combinations that maximize the margin between animate and inanimate objects and between faces and other objects yielded a representation that fully explained our IT data. Overall, our results suggest that explaining

  20. Mining Heterogeneous Social Networks for Egocentric Information Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Te; Lin, Shou-De

    Social network is a powerful data structure that allows the depiction of relationship information between entities. However, real-world social networks are sometimes too complex for human to pursue further analysis. In this work, an unsupervised mechanism is proposed for egocentric information abstraction in heterogeneous social networks. To achieve this goal, we propose a vector space representation for heterogeneous social networks to identify combination of relations as features and compute statistical dependencies as feature values. These features, either linear or eyelie, intend to capture the semantic information in the surrounding environment of the ego. Then we design three abstraction measures to distill representative and important information to construct the abstracted graphs for visual presentation. The evaluations conducted on a real world movie datasct and an artificial crime dataset demonstrate that the abstractions can indeed retain significant information and facilitate more accurate and efficient human analysis.

  1. DENOTATIVE ORIGINS OF ABSTRACT IMAGES IN LINGUISTIC EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina, E.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the refusal from denotation (the subject, as the basic principle of abstract images, and semiotic problems arising in connection with this principle: how to solve the contradiction between the pointlessness and iconic nature of the image? Is it correct in the absence of denotation to recognize abstract representation of a single-level entity? The solution is proposed to decide these questions with the help of a psycholinguistic experiment in which the verbal interpretation of abstract images made by both experienced and “naive” audience-recipients demonstrates the objectivity of perception of denotative “traces” and the presence of denotative invariant in an abstract form.

  2. What does the brain tell us about abstract art?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered eAviv

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I focus on the question of why we are attracted to abstract art (or, perhaps more accurately, non-representational art. After elaborating on the processing of visual art in general and abstract art in particular, I discuss recent data from neuroscience and behavioral studies related to abstract art. I conclude with several speculations concerning our apparent appeal to this particular type of art. In particular, I claim that abstract art frees our brain from the dominance of reality, enabling it to flow within its inner states, create new emotional and cognitive associations, and activate brain-states that are otherwise harder to access. This process is apparently rewarding as it enables the exploration of yet undiscovered inner territories of the viewer’s brain.

  3. Shape theory categorical methods of approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, J M

    2008-01-01

    This in-depth treatment uses shape theory as a ""case study"" to illustrate situations common to many areas of mathematics, including the use of archetypal models as a basis for systems of approximations. It offers students a unified and consolidated presentation of extensive research from category theory, shape theory, and the study of topological algebras.A short introduction to geometric shape explains specifics of the construction of the shape category and relates it to an abstract definition of shape theory. Upon returning to the geometric base, the text considers simplical complexes and

  4. ADOLESCENTS’ SOCIAL REPRESENTATION ABOUT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Balista

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This qualitative study was held with the objective of analyzing the adolescentes’ social representation about domestic violence. It involved eighteen high school students in Passo Fundo – RS. Through some prejecting techniques and semi-structured interviews, it was possible to notice that the violence representation is a present phenomenon in the society and it is supported by the use of drugs, personal defence with the use of guns and by the antisocial behaviour. The domestic violence is represented as an attitude of escape and defence, harmful, intentional and unpunished and as a legitimate trivialization. This representation is supported by the sensation of abandonment and rejection and it should be overcome through the search of a multi-dimensional way to introduce new practices and socially acceptable behaviour. KEYWORDS: Violence; Adolescence; Public Health.

  5. A course in finite group representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This graduate-level text provides a thorough grounding in the representation theory of finite groups over fields and rings. The book provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the subject, detailing the methods needed to analyze representations that arise in many areas of mathematics. Key topics include the construction and use of character tables, the role of induction and restriction, projective and simple modules for group algebras, indecomposable representations, Brauer characters, and block theory. This classroom-tested text provides motivation through a large number of worked examples, with exercises at the end of each chapter that test the reader's knowledge, provide further examples and practice, and include results not proven in the text. Prerequisites include a graduate course in abstract algebra, and familiarity with the properties of groups, rings, field extensions, and linear algebra.

  6. Thinking Big or Small: Does Mental Abstraction Affect Social Network Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacev-Giles, Chantal; Peetz, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Four studies examined how mental abstraction affects how people perceive their relationships with other people, specifically, how these relationships may be categorized in social groups. We expected that individuals induced to think abstractly would report fewer more global social groups, compared to those induced to think concretely, who would report more specific groups. However, induced abstract mindset did not affect how people structured their social groups (Study 2–4), despite evidence that the mindset manipulation changed the level of abstraction in their thoughts (Study 3) and evidence that it changed how people structured groups for a control condition (household objects, Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that while the way people organize their relationships into groups is malleable; cognitive abstraction does not seem to affect how people categorize their relationships into social groups. PMID:26808086

  7. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed.

  8. Perception of angle in visual categorization by pigeons (Columba livia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter T. Herbranson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigeons are capable of learning to categorize stimuli based on visual features, and often reach levels of accuracy comparable with humans. Nevertheless, recent research has suggested that the cognitive processes behind categorization in pigeons and humans may not always be the same. Pigeons learned a categorization task in which they categorized either Shepard circles varying in size and orientation of a radial line (stimuli that are frequently used in research on human categorization, or moving dots varying in speed and direction of travel (stimuli that have been successfully used to study pigeon categorization. Even though categories were balanced so that the angles of orientation of Shepard circles matched the directions of travel for moving dots, birds failed to learn categories based on the former but not the latter. Results suggest that information about angle as a direction of travel may be more important for pigeons than information about angle of orientation.

  9. Motivation to control prejudice predicts categorization of multiracials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Moons, Wesley G; Gaither, Sarah E; Hamilton, David L; Sherman, Jeffrey W

    2014-05-01

    Multiracial individuals often do not easily fit into existing racial categories. Perceivers may adopt a novel racial category to categorize multiracial targets, but their willingness to do so may depend on their motivations. We investigated whether perceivers' levels of internal motivation to control prejudice (IMS) and external motivation to control prejudice (EMS) predicted their likelihood of categorizing Black-White multiracial faces as Multiracial. Across four studies, IMS positively predicted perceivers' categorizations of multiracial faces as Multiracial. The association between IMS and Multiracial categorizations was strongest when faces were most racially ambiguous. Explicit prejudice, implicit prejudice, and interracial contact were ruled out as explanations for the relationship between IMS and Multiracial categorizations. EMS may be negatively associated with the use of the Multiracial category. Therefore, perceivers' motivations to control prejudice have important implications for racial categorization processes.

  10. Prototypes, exemplars, and the natural history of categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David

    2014-04-01

    The article explores-from a utility/adaptation perspective-the role of prototype and exemplar processes in categorization. The author surveys important category tasks within the categorization literature from the perspective of the optimality of applying prototype and exemplar processes. Formal simulations reveal that organisms will often (not always!) receive more useful signals about category belongingness if they average their exemplar experience into a prototype and use this as the comparative standard for categorization. This survey then provides the theoretical context for considering the evolution of cognitive systems for categorization. In the article's final sections, the author reviews recent research on the performance of nonhuman primates and humans in the tasks analyzed in the article. Diverse species share operating principles, default commitments, and processing weaknesses in categorization. From these commonalities, it may be possible to infer some properties of the categorization ecology these species generally experienced during cognitive evolution.

  11. Nuclear energy and environment: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this meeting on nuclear energy and environment, abstracts on the following subjects were presented: nuclear fuels; materials; radioisotopes and its applications; reactors and nuclear power plants; regulations, energy and environment; radioactive wastes; and analytical techniques

  12. Global Neural Pattern Similarity as a Common Basis for Categorization and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gui; Love, Bradley C.; Preston, Alison R.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Familiarity, or memory strength, is a central construct in models of cognition. In previous categorization and long-term memory research, correlations have been found between psychological measures of memory strength and activation in the medial temporal lobes (MTLs), which suggests a common neural locus for memory strength. However, activation alone is insufficient for determining whether the same mechanisms underlie neural function across domains. Guided by mathematical models of categorization and long-term memory, we develop a theory and a method to test whether memory strength arises from the global similarity among neural representations. In human subjects, we find significant correlations between global similarity among activation patterns in the MTLs and both subsequent memory confidence in a recognition memory task and model-based measures of memory strength in a category learning task. Our work bridges formal cognitive theories and neuroscientific models by illustrating that the same global similarity computations underlie processing in multiple cognitive domains. Moreover, by establishing a link between neural similarity and psychological memory strength, our findings suggest that there may be an isomorphism between psychological and neural representational spaces that can be exploited to test cognitive theories at both the neural and behavioral levels. PMID:24872552

  13. Text Categorization Using Weight Adjusted k-Nearest Neighbor Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han, Euihong; Karypis, George; Kumar, Vipin

    1999-01-01

    .... The authors present a nearest neighbor classification scheme for text categorization in which the importance of discriminating words is learned using mutual information and weight adjustment techniques...

  14. Feature Screening for Ultrahigh Dimensional Categorical Data with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danyang; Li, Runze; Wang, Hansheng

    2014-01-01

    Ultrahigh dimensional data with both categorical responses and categorical covariates are frequently encountered in the analysis of big data, for which feature screening has become an indispensable statistical tool. We propose a Pearson chi-square based feature screening procedure for categorical response with ultrahigh dimensional categorical covariates. The proposed procedure can be directly applied for detection of important interaction effects. We further show that the proposed procedure possesses screening consistency property in the terminology of Fan and Lv (2008). We investigate the finite sample performance of the proposed procedure by Monte Carlo simulation studies, and illustrate the proposed method by two empirical datasets.

  15. Representations of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Nanhua

    1994-01-01

    Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest

  16. Representations and Relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koťátko, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), s. 282-302 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : representation * proposition * truth-conditions * belief-ascriptions * reference * externalism * fiction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  17. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  18. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  19. Distributed Representation of Subgraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bijaya; Zhang, Yao; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Prakash, B. Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Network embeddings have become very popular in learning effective feature representations of networks. Motivated by the recent successes of embeddings in natural language processing, researchers have tried to find network embeddings in order to exploit machine learning algorithms for mining tasks like node classification and edge prediction. However, most of the work focuses on finding distributed representations of nodes, which are inherently ill-suited to tasks such as community detection w...

  20. The evolution of representation in simple cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marstaller, Lars; Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    Representations are internal models of the environment that can provide guidance to a behaving agent, even in the absence of sensory information. It is not clear how representations are developed and whether they are necessary or even essential for intelligent behavior. We argue here that the ability to represent relevant features of the environment is the expected consequence of an adaptive process, give a formal definition of representation based on information theory, and quantify it with a measure R. To measure how R changes over time, we evolve two types of networks--an artificial neural network and a network of hidden Markov gates--to solve a categorization task using a genetic algorithm. We find that the capacity to represent increases during evolutionary adaptation and that agents form representations of their environment during their lifetime. This ability allows the agents to act on sensorial inputs in the context of their acquired representations and enables complex and context-dependent behavior. We examine which concepts (features of the environment) our networks are representing, how the representations are logically encoded in the networks, and how they form as an agent behaves to solve a task. We conclude that R should be able to quantify the representations within any cognitive system and should be predictive of an agent's long-term adaptive success.

  1. Asymmetric translation between multiple representations in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulan I.; Son, Ji Y.; Rudd, James A., II

    2016-03-01

    Experts are more proficient in manipulating and translating between multiple representations (MRs) of a given concept than novices. Studies have shown that instruction using MR can increase student understanding of MR, and one model for MR instruction in chemistry is the chemistry triplet proposed by Johnstone. Concreteness fading theory suggests that presenting concrete representations before abstract representations can increase the effectiveness of MR instruction; however, little work has been conducted on varying the order of different representations during instruction and the role of concreteness in assessment. In this study, we investigated the application of concreteness fading to MR instruction and assessment in teaching chemistry. In two experiments, undergraduate students in either introductory psychology courses or general chemistry courses were given MR instruction on phase changes using different orders of presentation and MR assessment questions based on the representations in the chemistry triplet. Our findings indicate that the order of presentation based on levels of concreteness in MR chemistry instruction is less important than implementation of comprehensive MR assessments. Even after MR instruction, students display an asymmetric understanding of the chemical phenomenon on the MR assessments. Greater emphasis on MR assessments may be an important component in MR instruction that effectively moves novices toward more expert MR understanding.

  2. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  3. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division

  4. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  5. Abstracts from Rambam Research Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraga Blazer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [Extract] This Supplement of Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal presents the abstracts from the Eleventh Rambam Research Day. These abstracts represent the newest basic and clinical research coming out of Rambam Health Care Campus—research that is the oxygen for education and development of today’s generation of physicians. Hence, the research presented on Rambam Research Day is a foundation for future generations to understand patient needs and improve treatment modalities. Bringing research from the bench to the bedside and from the bedside to the community is at the heart of Maimonides’ scholarly and ethical legacy.

  6. Visual Analysis of Multi-Dimensional Categorical Data Sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeksema, Bertjan; Telea, Alexandru C.; Baudel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of interactive techniques for the visual analysis of multi-dimensional categorical data. Our approach is based on multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), which allows one to analyse relationships, patterns, trends and outliers among dependent categorical variables. We use MCA as a

  7. Toward an epistemic-logical theory of categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradie, W.; Frittella, S.; Palmigiano, A.; Piazzai, M.; Tzimoulis, A.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Categorization systems are widely studied in psychology, sociology, and organization theory as information-structuring devices which are critical to decision-making processes. In the present paper, we introduce a sound and complete epistemic logic of categories and agents' categorical perception.

  8. Toward an epistemic-logical theory of categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradie, Willem; Frittella, Sabine; Palmigiano, A.; Piazzai, M.; Tzimoulis, A.; Wijnberg, Nachoem M.

    2017-01-01

    Categorization systems are widely studied in psychology, sociology, and organization theory as information-structuring devices which are critical to decision-making processes. In the present paper, we introduce a sound and complete epistemic logic of categories and agents' categorical perception.

  9. Experiences with automated categorization in e-government information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    ) and metadata (e.g., Kopackova, Michalek and Cejna 2010). This paper investigates how automated categorization can enhance information organization and retrieval, and presents the results of a realistic evaluation that compared automated categorization with free text indexing of the government intranet used...

  10. CATEGORIZATION OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN COTTON USING MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...

  11. Working Memory Does Not Dissociate between Different Perceptual Categorization Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Yang, Lee-Xieng; Newell, Ben R.; Kalish, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is crucial for many higher level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization. This…

  12. Working Memory Capacity and Categorization: Individual Differences and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Working memory is crucial for many higher-level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization, and…

  13. Interactions Between Representation Ttheory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsch, Wolfgang; Zarzuela, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This book includes 33 expanded abstracts of selected talks given at the two workshops "Homological Bonds Between Commutative Algebra and Representation Theory" and "Brave New Algebra: Opening Perspectives," and the conference "Opening Perspectives in Algebra, Representations, and Topology," held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona between January and June 2015. These activities were part of the one-semester intensive research program "Interactions Between Representation Theory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra (IRTATCA)." Most of the abstracts present preliminary versions of not-yet published results and cover a large number of topics (including commutative and non commutative algebra, algebraic topology, singularity theory, triangulated categories, representation theory) overlapping with homological methods. This comprehensive book is a valuable resource for the community of researchers interested in homological algebra in a broad sense, and those curious to learn the latest dev...

  14. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: Empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah S. Podolefsky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002. In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002. Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.

  15. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: Empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002 . In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002 . Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.

  16. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  17. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  18. Abstract Résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. To describe the infant feeding practices in the general population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these ... to-child transmission of HIV should re-enforce counselling activities to address the issue of early weaning by HIV-infected women, ..... A study in Zimbabwe yielded similar results,.

  19. Biocards and Level of Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Keshwani, Sonal; Chakrabarti, Amaresh

    2015-01-01

    Biocards are formal descriptions of biological phenomena and their underlying functional principles. They are used in bioinspired design to document search results and to communicate the findings for use in the further design process. The present study explored the effect of abstraction level use...

  20. IRAP 2006, Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publications related with Hacettepe University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, International Atomic Energy Agency, CEA-Saclay, CEA-Saclay Drecam, ANKAmall Shopping Center and Ion Beam Applications Industrial that was held in Antalya, Turkey, 23-28 September 2006. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  1. Abstract Résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 juil. 2013 ... Abstract. In Senegal, where HIV prevalence is less than 1% and stigma remains important, 40% of marriages are polygamic. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze the motivations, benefits and constraints related to HIV disclosure, and to explore specific situations related to polygamy.

  2. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  3. The Complexity of Abstract Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Accattoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-calculus is a peculiar computational model whose definition does not come with a notion of machine. Unsurprisingly, implementations of the lambda-calculus have been studied for decades. Abstract machines are implementations schema for fixed evaluation strategies that are a compromise between theory and practice: they are concrete enough to provide a notion of machine and abstract enough to avoid the many intricacies of actual implementations. There is an extensive literature about abstract machines for the lambda-calculus, and yet—quite mysteriously—the efficiency of these machines with respect to the strategy that they implement has almost never been studied. This paper provides an unusual introduction to abstract machines, based on the complexity of their overhead with respect to the length of the implemented strategies. It is conceived to be a tutorial, focusing on the case study of implementing the weak head (call-by-name strategy, and yet it is an original re-elaboration of known results. Moreover, some of the observation contained here never appeared in print before.

  4. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulowetz, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  5. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  6. Original Abstracts - Supplementary | Conference Contributors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All abstracts from the The Annual Medical Research Day (AMRD) held at the University of Zimbabwe. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  7. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  8. Turning Symbolic: The representation of motion direction in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal eSeidel Malkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available What happens to the representation of a moving stimulus when it is no longer present and its motion direction has to be maintained in working memory (WM? Is the initial, sensorial representation maintained during the delay period or is there another representation, at a higher level of abstraction? It is also feasible that multiple representations may co-exist in WM, manifesting different facets of sensory and more abstract features.To that end, we investigated the mnemonic representation of motion direction in a series of three psychophysical experiments, using a delayed motion-discrimination task (relative clockwisecounter-clockwise judgment. First, we show that a change in the dots' contrast polarity does not hamper performance. Next, we demonstrate that performance is unaffected by relocation of the Test stimulus in either retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinate frames. Finally, we show that an arrow-shaped cue presented during the delay interval between the Sample and Test stimulus, biases performance towards the direction of the arrow, although the cue itself is non-informative (it has no predictive value of the correct answer. These results indicate that the representation of motion direction in WM is independent of the physical features of the stimulus (polarity or position and has non-sensorial abstract qualities. It is plausible that an abstract mnemonic trace might be activated alongside a more basic, analogue representation of the stimulus. We speculate that the specific sensitivity of the mnemonic representation to the arrow-shaped symbol may stem from the long term learned association between direction and the hour in the clock.

  9. Knowledge in the loop: Semantics representation for multimodal simulative environments

    OpenAIRE

    Latoschik, Marc Erich; Biermann, Peter; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Butz, Andreas; Fisher, Brian; Krüger, Antonio; Olivier, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the integration of knowledge based techniques into simulative Virtual Reality (VR) applications. The approach is motivated using multimodal Virtual Construction as an example domain. An abstract Knowledge Representation Layer (KRL) is proposed which is expressive enough to define all necessary data for diverse simulation tasks and which additionally provides a base formalism for the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) representations. The KRL supports two differ...

  10. Turning Symbolic: The Representation of Motion Direction in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel Malkinson, Tal; Pertzov, Yoni; Zohary, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    What happens to the representation of a moving stimulus when it is no longer present and its motion direction has to be maintained in working memory (WM)? Is the initial, sensorial representation maintained during the delay period or is there another representation, at a higher level of abstraction? It is also feasible that multiple representations may co-exist in WM, manifesting different facets of sensory and more abstract features. To that end, we investigated the mnemonic representation of motion direction in a series of three psychophysical experiments, using a delayed motion-discrimination task (relative clockwise∖counter-clockwise judgment). First, we show that a change in the dots’ contrast polarity does not hamper performance. Next, we demonstrate that performance is unaffected by relocation of the Test stimulus in either retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinate frames. Finally, we show that an arrow-shaped cue presented during the delay interval between the Sample and Test stimulus, strongly biases performance toward the direction of the arrow, although the cue itself is non-informative (it has no predictive value of the correct answer). These results indicate that the representation of motion direction in WM could be independent of the physical features of the stimulus (polarity or position) and has non-sensorial abstract qualities. It is plausible that an abstract mnemonic trace might be activated alongside a more basic, analog representation of the stimulus. We speculate that the specific sensitivity of the mnemonic representation to the arrow-shaped symbol may stem from the long term learned association between direction and the hour in the clock. PMID:26909059

  11. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  12. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  13. Introduction to computer data representation

    CERN Document Server

    Fenwick, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre

  14. Contractions of group representations. - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeghini, E.; Tarlini, M.

    1981-01-01

    A new definition of contraction as a limit on the parameters defining the basis of the space of representations is given. From the representations of the original group, those of the contracted one are directly obtained. The contraction of inner automorphisms into outer automorphisms and the splitting of one representation into representations of the same or different group are discussed and illustrated by examples. The procedure is also a technique for the study of representations of non-semi-simple groups. (author)

  15. Sentence retrieval for abstracts of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Grace Y

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM requires clinicians to integrate their expertise with the latest scientific research. But this is becoming increasingly difficult with the growing numbers of published articles. There is a clear need for better tools to improve clinician's ability to search the primary literature. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs are the most reliable source of evidence documenting the efficacy of treatment options. This paper describes the retrieval of key sentences from abstracts of RCTs as a step towards helping users find relevant facts about the experimental design of clinical studies. Method Using Conditional Random Fields (CRFs, a popular and successful method for natural language processing problems, sentences referring to Intervention, Participants and Outcome Measures are automatically categorized. This is done by extending a previous approach for labeling sentences in an abstract for general categories associated with scientific argumentation or rhetorical roles: Aim, Method, Results and Conclusion. Methods are tested on several corpora of RCT abstracts. First structured abstracts with headings specifically indicating Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures are used. Also a manually annotated corpus of structured and unstructured abstracts is prepared for testing a classifier that identifies sentences belonging to each category. Results Using CRFs, sentences can be labeled for the four rhetorical roles with F-scores from 0.93–0.98. This outperforms the use of Support Vector Machines. Furthermore, sentences can be automatically labeled for Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures, in unstructured and structured abstracts where the section headings do not specifically indicate these three topics. F-scores of up to 0.83 and 0.84 are obtained for Intervention and Outcome Measure sentences. Conclusion Results indicate that some of the methodological elements of RCTs are

  16. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  17. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  18. Representations of distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European...... continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge....... The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether...

  19. The social network for confronting conjugal violence: representations of women who experience this health issue

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Reis, Luana Araújo dos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative research, grounded in Social Representations Theory, aimed to describe, based on the representations of women with a history of undergoing conjugal violence, the elements which constitute the social support network for confronting this health problem. Interviews were held with 11 women with a history of experiencing conjugal violence. The data were categorized using thematic analysis. The study shows that support from religion, family members, friends and NGO, such as the Cal...

  20. ERP modulation during observation of abstract paintings by Franz Kline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Berchio, Cristina; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of the static consequences of hand gestures devoid of any meaning.In order to verify this hypothesis we performed an EEG experiment presenting to participants images of abstract works of art with marked traces of brushstrokes. The EEG data were analyzed by using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). We aimed to demonstrate a direct involvement of sensorimotor cortical circuits during the beholding of these selected works of abstract art. The stimuli consisted of three different abstract black and white paintings by Franz Kline. Results verified our experimental hypothesis showing the activation of premotor and motor cortical areas during stimuli observation. In addition, abstract works of art observation elicited the activation of reward-related orbitofrontal areas, and cognitive categorization-related prefrontal areas. The cortical sensorimotor activation is a fundamental neurophysiological demonstration of the direct involvement of the cortical motor system in perception of static meaningless images belonging to abstract art. These results support the role of embodied simulation of artist's gestures in the perception of works of art.

  1. Task Specific versus Generalized Mnemonic Representations in Parietal and Prefrontal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Arup; Masse, Nicolas Y.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Freedman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to learn a wide range of behavioral tasks is essential for responding appropriately to sensory stimuli according to behavioral demands, but the underlying neural mechanism has been rarely examined by neurophysiological recordings in the same subjects across learning. To understand how learning new behavioral tasks impacts underlying neuronal representations, we recorded from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) before and after training on a visual motion categorization task. Here we show that categorization training influenced cognitive encoding in PPC, with a marked enhancement of memory-related delay-period encoding during the categorization task which was absent during a motion discrimination task prior to categorization training. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited strong delay-period encoding during both discrimination and categorization tasks. This reveals a dissociation between PFC’s and PPC’s roles in working memory, with general engagement of PFC across multiple tasks, in contrast with more task-specific mnemonic encoding in PPC. PMID:26595652

  2. Task-specific versus generalized mnemonic representations in parietal and prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Arup; Masse, Nicolas Y; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Freedman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to learn a wide range of behavioral tasks is essential for responding appropriately to sensory stimuli according to behavioral demands, but the underlying neural mechanism has been rarely examined by neurophysiological recordings in the same subjects across learning. To understand how learning new behavioral tasks affects neuronal representations, we recorded from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) before and after training on a visual motion categorization task. We found that categorization training influenced cognitive encoding in PPC, with a marked enhancement of memory-related delay-period encoding during the categorization task that was absent during a motion discrimination task before categorization training. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited strong delay-period encoding during both discrimination and categorization tasks. This reveals a dissociation between PFC's and PPC's roles in working memory, with general engagement of PFC across multiple tasks, in contrast with more task-specific mnemonic encoding in PPC.

  3. Experiments on Supervised Learning Algorithms for Text Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburu, Setu Madhavi; Tu, Haiying; Luo, Jianhui; Pattipati, Krishna R.

    2005-01-01

    Modern information society is facing the challenge of handling massive volume of online documents, news, intelligence reports, and so on. How to use the information accurately and in a timely manner becomes a major concern in many areas. While the general information may also include images and voice, we focus on the categorization of text data in this paper. We provide a brief overview of the information processing flow for text categorization, and discuss two supervised learning algorithms, viz., support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares (PLS), which have been successfully applied in other domains, e.g., fault diagnosis [9]. While SVM has been well explored for binary classification and was reported as an efficient algorithm for text categorization, PLS has not yet been applied to text categorization. Our experiments are conducted on three data sets: Reuter's- 21578 dataset about corporate mergers and data acquisitions (ACQ), WebKB and the 20-Newsgroups. Results show that the performance of PLS is comparable to SVM in text categorization. A major drawback of SVM for multi-class categorization is that it requires a voting scheme based on the results of pair-wise classification. PLS does not have this drawback and could be a better candidate for multi-class text categorization.

  4. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  5. On the spinor representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff da Silva, J.M.; Rogerio, R.J.B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Villalobos, C.H.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    A systematic study of the spinor representation by means of the fermionic physical space is accomplished and implemented. The spinor representation space is shown to be constrained by the Fierz-Pauli-Kofink identities among the spinor bilinear covariants. A robust geometric and topological structure can be manifested from the spinor space, wherein the first and second homotopy groups play prominent roles on the underlying physical properties, associated to fermionic fields. The mapping that changes spinor fields classes is then exemplified, in an Einstein-Dirac system that provides the spacetime generated by a fermion. (orig.)

  6. Mobilities and Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    , literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars......As the centerpiece of the eighth T2M yearbook, the following interview about representations of mobility signals a new and exciting focus area for Mobility in History. In future issues we hope to include reviews that grapple more with how mobilities have been imagined and represented in the arts...

  7. Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, Irina V

    2001-01-01

    Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

  8. Learning abstract algebra with ISETL

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1994-01-01

    Most students in abstract algebra classes have great difficulty making sense of what the instructor is saying. Moreover, this seems to remain true almost independently of the quality of the lecture. This book is based on the constructivist belief that, before students can make sense of any presentation of abstract mathematics, they need to be engaged in mental activities which will establish an experiential base for any future verbal explanation. No less, they need to have the opportunity to reflect on their activities. This approach is based on extensive theoretical and empirical studies as well as on the substantial experience of the authors in teaching astract algebra. The main source of activities in this course is computer constructions, specifically, small programs written in the mathlike programming language ISETL; the main tool for reflections is work in teams of 2-4 students, where the activities are discussed and debated. Because of the similarity of ISETL expressions to standard written mathematics...

  9. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  10. Norddesign 2012 - Book of Abstract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has been organized in line with the original ideas. The topics mentioned in the call for abstracts were: Product Development: Integrated, Multidisciplinary, Product life oriented and Distributed. Multi-product Development. Innovation and Business Models. Engineering Design and Industrial Design....... Conceptualisation and Innovative thinking. Research approaches and topics: Human Behaviour and Cognition. Cooperation and Multidisciplinary Design. Staging and Management of Design. Communication in Design. Design education and teaching: Programmes and Syllabuses. New Courses. Integrated and Multi-disciplinary. We...

  11. Spatiotemporal representation of cardiac vectorcardiogram (VCG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vectorcardiogram (VCG signals monitor both spatial and temporal cardiac electrical activities along three orthogonal planes of the body. However, the absence of spatiotemporal resolution in conventional VCG representations is a major impediment for medical interpretation and clinical usage of VCG. This is especially so because time-domain features of 12-lead ECG, instead of both spatial and temporal characteristics of VCG, are widely used for the automatic assessment of cardiac pathological patterns. Materials and methods We present a novel representation approach that captures critical spatiotemporal heart dynamics by displaying the real time motion of VCG cardiac vectors in a 3D space. Such a dynamic display can also be realized with only one lead ECG signal (e.g., ambulatory ECG through an alternative lag-reconstructed ECG representation from nonlinear dynamics principles. Furthermore, the trajectories are color coded with additional dynamical properties of space-time VCG signals, e.g., the curvature, speed, octant and phase angles to enhance the information visibility. Results In this investigation, spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is used to characterize various spatiotemporal pathological patterns for healthy control (HC, myocardial infarction (MI, atrial fibrillation (AF and bundle branch block (BBB. The proposed color coding scheme revealed that the spatial locations of the peak of T waves are in the Octant 6 for the majority (i.e., 74 out of 80 of healthy recordings in the PhysioNet PTB database. In contrast, the peak of T waves from 31.79% (117/368 of MI subjects are found to remain in Octant 6 and the rest (68.21% spread over all other octants. The spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to capture the same important heart characteristics as the 12-lead ECG plots and more. Conclusions Spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to facilitate the characterization of space-time cardiac

  12. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  13. Hyperfinite representation of distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nonstandard treatment of the theory of distributions in terms of a hyperfinite representa- tion has been presented in papers [2,3] by Kinoshita. A further exploitation of this treatment in an N-dimensional context has been given by Grenier [1]. In the present paper we offer a different approach to the hyperfinite representation, ...

  14. Going beyond representational anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...

  15. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  16. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  17. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  18. The role of language in multi-dimensional categorization: evidence from transcranial direct current stimulation and exposure to verbal labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K; Lupyan, Gary

    2014-08-01

    Human concepts differ in their dimensionality. Some, like green-things, require representing one dimension while abstracting over many others. Others, like bird, have higher dimensionality due to numerous category-relevant properties (feathers, two-legs). Converging evidence points to the importance of verbal labels for forming low-dimensional categories. We examined the role of verbal labels in categorization by (1) using transcranial direct current stimulation over Wernicke's area (2) providing explicit verbal labels during a category learning task. We trained participants on a novel perceptual categorization task in which categories could be distinguished by either a uni- or bi-dimensional criterion. Cathodal stimulation over Wernicke's area reduced reliance on single-dimensional solutions, while presenting informationally redundant novel labels reduced reliance on the dimension that is normally incidental in the real world. These results provide further evidence that implicit and explicit verbal labels support the process of human categorization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning rules and categorization networks for language standardization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, GB

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available defined a generic, automated process that allows them to extract constructional schemas and present these visually as categorization networks, similar to what is often being used in Cognitive Grammar. The authors conclude that computational modeling...

  20. AutoCategorization for Customized Knowledge Portals, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An AutoCategorizing Knowledge Management Engine ("AKM") will automate key capabilities for both human-human and human-agent collaboration tools in aerospace...

  1. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  2. AutoCategorization for Customized Knowledge Portals Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An AutoCategorizing Knowledge Management Engine ("AKM") will automate key capabilities for both human-human and human-agent collaboration tools in aerospace...

  3. The cognitive interface in processes of categorization and identity construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sirleidy de Lima Cordeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the identities attributed to social actors participating of Brazil’s Movimento Passe Livre (Free Pass Movement and to investigate the way these are categorized by the news talk. We are based on the argument that all categories are marked by a “constitutive instability”, in other words, they are transformed by the contexts (MONDADA; DUBOIS, 2003. About the context theme, we are based on the Socio-cognition assumptions. That provides that there is a cognitive interface between categorization and identity construction. We analyzed on-line news pieces about the Movimento Passe Livre. We realized that, even if there is a change in the categorization attributed to the movement’s social actors, the categories nominated by the news speeches have allowed a better social visibility of negative images of these groups. The context was considered as one of the key elements for the categorizations and identity attributions to occur.

  4. Categorization of Indoor Places Using the Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kurazume

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The categorization of places in indoor environments is an important capability for service robots working and interacting with humans. In this paper we present a method to categorize different areas in indoor environments using a mobile robot equipped with a Kinect camera. Our approach transforms depth and grey scale images taken at each place into histograms of local binary patterns (LBPs whose dimensionality is further reduced following a uniform criterion. The histograms are then combined into a single feature vector which is categorized using a supervised method. In this work we compare the performance of support vector machines and random forests as supervised classifiers. Finally, we apply our technique to distinguish five different place categories: corridors, laboratories, offices, kitchens, and study rooms. Experimental results show that we can categorize these places with high accuracy using our approach.

  5. Supervised versus unsupervised categorization: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Edwards, Darren J; Perlman, Amotz

    2011-09-01

    Supervised and unsupervised categorization have been studied in separate research traditions. A handful of studies have attempted to explore a possible convergence between the two. The present research builds on these studies, by comparing the unsupervised categorization results of Pothos et al. ( 2011 ; Pothos et al., 2008 ) with the results from two procedures of supervised categorization. In two experiments, we tested 375 participants with nine different stimulus sets and examined the relation between ease of learning of a classification, memory for a classification, and spontaneous preference for a classification. After taking into account the role of the number of category labels (clusters) in supervised learning, we found the three variables to be closely associated with each other. Our results provide encouragement for researchers seeking unified theoretical explanations for supervised and unsupervised categorization, but raise a range of challenging theoretical questions.

  6. Automatic Text Categorization Applied to E-Mail

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    .... The effectiveness of the author's categorization approach using collections from a set of emails is then evaluated and assigned a numerical score based upon precision and recall. Precision was 65...

  7. Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels

    OpenAIRE

    Ceia, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In his article "Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels" Carlos Ceia discusses a certain type of resistance to genre categorization in many novels in contemporary literature. Many British and US-American contemporary novels show patterns in narrative creativity where novel-writing techniques are sometimes more important than the traditional subject matter driven work of fiction. Ceia reviews experimental/metafictional novels which do not show intent to fulfil an ae...

  8. Impact of a short intervention on novices’ categorization criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Research on physics problem categorization has established that proficient problem solvers are able to group together physics problems that would be solved by similar principles and use conceptual approaches when solving problems, whereas weak solvers rely more heavily upon surface features (objects, contexts, and quantities provided) to identify specific equations that match to the problem situation. This study explores the degree to which novices are able to shift their categorization strat...

  9. Class Representation of Shapes Using Qualitative-codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fouad Hafez Ismail

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces our qualitative shape representation formalism that is devised to overcome, as we have argued, the class abstraction problems created by numeric schemes. The numeric shape representation method used in conventional geometric modeling systems reveals difficulties in several aspects of architectural designing. Firstly, numeric schemes strongly require complete and detailed information for any simple task of object modeling. This requirement of information completeness makes it hard to apply numeric schemes to shapes in sketch level drawings that are characteristically ambiguous and have non-specific limitations on shape descriptions. Secondly, Cartesian coordinate-based quantitative shape representation schemes show restrictions in the task of shape comparison and classification that are inevitably involved in abstract concepts related to shape characteristics. One of the reasons why quantitative schemes are difficult to apply to the abstraction of individual shape information into its classes and categories is the uniqueness property, meaning that an individual description in a quantitative scheme should refer to only one object in the domain of representation. A class representation, however, should be able to indicate not only one but also a group of objects sharing common characteristics. Thirdly, it is difficult or inefficient to apply numeric shape representation schemes based on the Cartesian coordinate system to preliminary shape analysis and modeling tasks because of their emphasis on issues, such as detail, completeness, uniqueness and individuality, which can only be accessed in the final stages of designing. Therefore, we face the need for alternative shape representation schemes that can handle class representation of objects in order to manage the shapes in the early stages of designing. We consider shape as a boundary description consisting of a set of connected and closed lines. Moreover, we need to consider

  10. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  11. National Physics Conference. Paper Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinela Dumitriu, Editorial Coordination.

    1995-01-01

    This book contains the abstracts of the proceedings of the annual Romanian Physics Conference organized by Romanian Physics Society. The conference was held on November 30 to December 2, 1995 in the city of Baia Mare. It was organized in the following nine sections: 1 - Astrophysics, Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics, Molecular and Atomic Physics; 2 - Plasma Physics; 3 - Biophysics; 4 - Technical Physics; 5 - Theoretical Physics; 6 -The Physics of Energy; 7 - The Physics of Environment 8 - Solid State Physics; 9 - Optical and Quantum Electronics. The full texts can be obtained on request from the Romanian Physical Society or directly from authors

  12. WIPR-2010 Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the workshop was to review advanced and preclinical studies on innovative positron emitting radionuclides to assess their usefulness and potentials. Presentations were organized around 4 issues: 1) preclinical and clinical point of view, 2) production of innovative PET radionuclides, 3) from complexation chemistry to PET imaging and 4) from research to clinic. Emphasis has been put on 64 Cu, 68 Ga, 89 Zr, 44 Sc but specific aspects such as production or purification have been considered for 66 Ga, 67 Ga, 52 Fe, 86 Y, and 68 Ge radionuclides. This document gathers the abstracts of most contributions

  13. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  14. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  15. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  16. Abstract decomposition theorem and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grossberg, R; Grossberg, Rami; Lessmann, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Let K be an Abstract Elementary Class. Under the asusmptions that K has a nicely behaved forking-like notion, regular types and existence of some prime models we establish a decomposition theorem for such classes. The decomposition implies a main gap result for the class K. The setting is general enough to cover \\aleph_0-stable first-order theories (proved by Shelah in 1982), Excellent Classes of atomic models of a first order tehory (proved Grossberg and Hart 1987) and the class of submodels of a large sequentially homogenuus \\aleph_0-stable model (which is new).

  17. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  18. Appropriate medical data categorization for data mining classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shang-Chih; Lee, I-Nong

    2002-03-01

    Some data mining (DM) methods, or software tools, require normalized data, others rely on categorized data, and some can accommodate multiple data scales. Each DM technique has a specific background theory; therefore, different results are expected when applying multiple methods. The purpose of this study is to find the data format appropriate for each DM classification technique for wider applications, and efficiently to obtain trustworthy results. Considering the nature of medical data, categorical variables are sometimes useful for making decisions and can make it easier to extrapolate knowledge. In this study, three mathematical data categorization methods (Fusinter, minimum description length principle [MDLPC] and Chi-merge) were applied to accommodate five data mining classification techniques (statistics discriminant analysis, supervised classification with Neural Networks, Decision trees, Genetic supervised clustering and Bayesian classification [probability neural networks; PNN]) using a heart disease database with four types of data (continuous data, binary data, nominal data, and ordinal data). Compared with original or normalized data, data categorized by the MDLPC categorization method was found to perform better in most of the DM classification techniques used in this study. Categorical data is good for most DM classification techniques (e.g. classification of disease and non-disease groups) and is relatively easy to use for extracting medical knowledge.

  19. Aging, culture, and memory for categorically processed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Chen, Wenfeng; Ng, Andy H; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-11-01

    Literature on cross-cultural differences in cognition suggests that categorization, as an information processing and organization strategy, was more often used by Westerners than by East Asians, particularly for older adults. This study examines East-West cultural differences in memory for categorically processed items and sources in young and older Canadians and native Chinese with a conceptual source memory task (Experiment 1) and a reality monitoring task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, participants encoded photographic faces of their own ethnicity that were artificially categorized into GOOD or EVIL characters and then completed a source memory task in which they identified faces as old-GOOD, old-EVIL, or new. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a series of words, each followed either by a corresponding image (i.e., SEEN) or by a blank square within which they imagined an image for the word (i.e., IMAGINED). At test, they decided whether the test words were old-SEEN, old-IMAGINED, or new. In general, Canadians outperformed Chinese in memory for categorically processed information, an effect more pronounced for older than for young adults. Extensive exercise of culturally preferred categorization strategy differentially benefits Canadians and reduces their age group differences in memory for categorically processed information.

  20. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  1. Brazilian abstracts presented at the American Urological Association annual meetings: contribution, publication rates, and comparison with oncology abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arap, Marco A; Reis, Rodolfo Borges dos; Torricelli, Fábio César Miranda; Masson, André L S; Saad, Everardo D

    2014-01-01

    Scientific research originating from Brazil appears to be rising in several medical fields. Research results are often presented at scientific meetings before publication in peer-reviewed journals. We investigated the publication rate of Brazilian studies presented in American Urological Association (AUA) meetings and compared with the rate of publication of Brazilian oncological studies presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meetings. a hand search of 12,454 abstracts presented at aua meetings 2001-2007 was conducted. abstracts for which at least two-thirds of institutions were from brazil were considered as brazilian. final publication was searched in pubmed and lilacs databases. oncological abstracts were also hand searched in the asco meetings proceedings in the same years. There was no significant temporal trend in the proportion of AUA studies originating from Brazil along those 7 years. A total of 195 abstracts (1.57%) were from Brazil. One hundred (51.3%) abstracts were published in full, and the estimated 5-year publication rate was 48.2%. There was a progressive increase in publication rates for studies categorized as video, poster, and podium presentations. Considering abstracts presented in years 2001-2005, urologic publication rate was significantly higher than for abstracts presented at the ASCO meeting. Our results suggest that the Brazilian contribution to AUA meetings is at a plateau and that the Brazilian literature contribution is greater in urology than in oncology. Efforts must be invested towards raising this plateau and understanding qualitative aspects of the urology scientific output from Brazil.

  2. An introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Derek JS

    2003-01-01

    This is a high level introduction to abstract algebra which is aimed at readers whose interests lie in mathematics and in the information and physical sciences. In addition to introducing the main concepts of modern algebra, the book contains numerous applications, which are intended to illustrate the concepts and to convince the reader of the utility and relevance of algebra today. In particular applications to Polya coloring theory, latin squares, Steiner systems and error correcting codes are described. Another feature of the book is that group theory and ring theory are carried further than is often done at this level. There is ample material here for a two semester course in abstract algebra. The importance of proof is stressed and rigorous proofs of almost all results are given. But care has been taken to lead the reader through the proofs by gentle stages. There are nearly 400 problems, of varying degrees of difficulty, to test the reader''s skill and progress. The book should be suitable for students ...

  3. Reconstruction of abstract quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drieschner, M.; Goernitz, T.; von Weizsaecker, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Understanding quantum theory as a general theory of prediction, we reconstruct abstract quantum theory. Abstract means the general frame of quantum theory, without reference to a three-dimensional position space, to concepts like particle or field, or to special laws of dynamics. Reconstruction is the attempt to do this by formulating simple and plausible postulates on prediction in order to derive the basic concepts of quantum theory from them. Thereby no law of classical physics is presupposed which would then have to be quantized. We briefly discuss the relationship of theory and interpretation in physics and the fundamental role of time as a basic concept for physics. Then a number of assertions are given, formulated as succinctly as possible in order to make them easily quotable and comparable. The assertations are arranged in four groups: heuristic principles, verbal definitions of some terms, three basic postulates, and consequences. The three postulates of separable alternatives, indeterminism, and kinematics are the central points of this work. These brief assertions are commented upon, and their relationship with the interpretation of quantum theory is discussed. Also given are an outlook on the further development into concrete quantum theory and some philosophical reflections

  4. Prototype Learning and Dissociable Categorization Systems in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, William C.; Festa, Elena K.; Ott, Brian R.; Landy, Kelly M.; Salmon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that prototype learning may be mediated by at least two dissociable memory systems depending on the mode of acquisition, with A/Not-A prototype learning dependent upon a perceptual representation system located within posterior visual cortex and A/B prototype learning dependent upon a declarative memory system associated with medial temporal and frontal regions. The degree to which patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can acquire new categorical information may therefore critically depend upon the mode of acquisition. The present study examined A/Not-A and A/B prototype learning in AD patients using procedures that allowed direct comparison of learning across tasks. Despite impaired explicit recall of category features in all tasks, patients showed differential patterns of category acquisition across tasks. First, AD patients demonstrated impaired prototype induction along with intact exemplar classification under incidental A/Not-A conditions, suggesting that the loss of functional connectivity within visual cortical areas disrupted the integration processes supporting prototype induction within the perceptual representation system. Second, AD patients demonstrated intact prototype induction but impaired exemplar classification during A/B learning under observational conditions, suggesting that this form of prototype learning is dependent on a declarative memory system that is disrupted in AD. Third, the surprisingly intact classification of both prototypes and exemplars during A/B learning under trial-and-error feedback conditions suggests that AD patients shifted control from their deficient declarative memory system to a feedback-dependent procedural memory system when training conditions allowed. Taken together, these findings serve to not only increase our understanding of category learning in AD, but to also provide new insights into the ways in which different memory systems interact to support the acquisition of

  5. Automatic categorization of diverse experimental information in the bioscience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ruihua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curation of information from bioscience literature into biological knowledge databases is a crucial way of capturing experimental information in a computable form. During the biocuration process, a critical first step is to identify from all published literature the papers that contain results for a specific data type the curator is interested in annotating. This step normally requires curators to manually examine many papers to ascertain which few contain information of interest and thus, is usually time consuming. We developed an automatic method for identifying papers containing these curation data types among a large pool of published scientific papers based on the machine learning method Support Vector Machine (SVM. This classification system is completely automatic and can be readily applied to diverse experimental data types. It has been in use in production for automatic categorization of 10 different experimental datatypes in the biocuration process at WormBase for the past two years and it is in the process of being adopted in the biocuration process at FlyBase and the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. We anticipate that this method can be readily adopted by various databases in the biocuration community and thereby greatly reducing time spent on an otherwise laborious and demanding task. We also developed a simple, readily automated procedure to utilize training papers of similar data types from different bodies of literature such as C. elegans and D. melanogaster to identify papers with any of these data types for a single database. This approach has great significance because for some data types, especially those of low occurrence, a single corpus often does not have enough training papers to achieve satisfactory performance. Results We successfully tested the method on ten data types from WormBase, fifteen data types from FlyBase and three data types from Mouse Genomics Informatics (MGI. It is being used in

  6. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  7. Realizations of the canonical representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  8. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  9. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  10. Group Representations and Intergroup Bias: Positive Affect, Similarity, and Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidio, John F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined how social appearance and affective factors can influence social categorization and intergroup bias. Positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one. Subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the members to feel less like…

  11. Functional representations for quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides information on Representing transformations in quantum theory bosonic quantum field theories: Schrodinger Picture; Represnting Transformations in Bosonic Quantum Field Theory; Two-Dimensional Conformal Transformations, Schrodinger picture representation, Fock space representation, Inequivalent Schrodinger picture representations; Discussion, Self-Dual and Other Models; Field Theory in de Sitter Space. Fermionic Quantum Field Theories: Schroedinger Picture; Schrodinger Picture Representation for Two-Dimensional; Conformal Transformations; Fock Space Dynamics in the Schrodinger Picture; Fock Space Evaluation of Anomalous Current and Conformal Commutators

  12. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  13. Webly-Supervised Fine-Grained Visual Categorization via Deep Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Huang, Shaoli; Zhang, Ya; Tao, Dacheng

    2018-05-01

    Learning visual representations from web data has recently attracted attention for object recognition. Previous studies have mainly focused on overcoming label noise and data bias and have shown promising results by learning directly from web data. However, we argue that it might be better to transfer knowledge from existing human labeling resources to improve performance at nearly no additional cost. In this paper, we propose a new semi-supervised method for learning via web data. Our method has the unique design of exploiting strong supervision, i.e., in addition to standard image-level labels, our method also utilizes detailed annotations including object bounding boxes and part landmarks. By transferring as much knowledge as possible from existing strongly supervised datasets to weakly supervised web images, our method can benefit from sophisticated object recognition algorithms and overcome several typical problems found in webly-supervised learning. We consider the problem of fine-grained visual categorization, in which existing training resources are scarce, as our main research objective. Comprehensive experimentation and extensive analysis demonstrate encouraging performance of the proposed approach, which, at the same time, delivers a new pipeline for fine-grained visual categorization that is likely to be highly effective for real-world applications.

  14. Naturalising Representational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  15. Amplified induced neural oscillatory activity predicts musicians' benefits in categorical speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2017-04-21

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal musical experience refines neural encoding and confers stronger categorical perception (CP) and neural organization for speech sounds. In addition to evoked brain activity, the human EEG can be decomposed into induced (non-phase-locked) responses whose various frequency bands reflect different mechanisms of perceptual-cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to clarify which spectral properties of these neural oscillations are most prone to music-related neuroplasticity and which are linked to behavioral benefits in the categorization of speech. We recorded electrical brain activity while musicians and nonmusicians rapidly identified speech tokens from a sound continuum. Time-frequency analysis parsed evoked and induced EEG into alpha- (∼10Hz), beta- (∼20Hz), and gamma- (>30Hz) frequency bands. We found that musicians' enhanced behavioral CP was accompanied by improved evoked speech responses across the frequency spectrum, complementing previously observed enhancements in evoked potential studies (i.e., ERPs). Brain-behavior correlations implied differences in the underlying neural mechanisms supporting speech CP in each group: modulations in induced gamma power predicted the slope of musicians' speech identification functions whereas early evoked alpha activity predicted behavior in nonmusicians. Collectively, findings indicate that musical training tunes speech processing via two complementary mechanisms: (i) strengthening the formation of auditory object representations for speech signals (gamma-band) and (ii) improving network control and/or the matching of sounds to internalized memory templates (alpha/beta-band). Both neurobiological enhancements may be deployed behaviorally and account for musicians' benefits in the perceptual categorization of speech. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Music of the 7Ts: Predicting and Decoding Multivoxel fMRI Responses with Acoustic, Schematic, and Categorical Music Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Underlying the experience of listening to music are parallel streams of auditory, categorical, and schematic qualia, whose representations and cortical organization remain largely unresolved. We collected high-field (7T) fMRI data in a music listening task, and analyzed the data using multivariate decoding and stimulus-encoding models. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment, which measured BOLD responses evoked by naturalistic listening to twenty-five music clips from five genres. Our first analysis applied machine classification to the multivoxel patterns that were evoked in temporal cortex. Results yielded above-chance levels for both stimulus identification and genre classification-cross-validated by holding out data from multiple of the stimuli during model training and then testing decoding performance on the held-out data. Genre model misclassifications were significantly correlated with those in a corresponding behavioral music categorization task, supporting the hypothesis that geometric properties of multivoxel pattern spaces underlie observed musical behavior. A second analysis employed a spherical searchlight regression analysis which predicted multivoxel pattern responses to music features representing melody and harmony across a large area of cortex. The resulting prediction-accuracy maps yielded significant clusters in the temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes, as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus and the cerebellum. These maps provide evidence in support of our hypothesis that geometric properties of music cognition are neurally encoded as multivoxel representational spaces. The maps also reveal a cortical topography that differentially encodes categorical and absolute-pitch information in distributed and overlapping networks, with smaller specialized regions that encode tonal music information in relative-pitch representations.

  17. Music of the 7Ts: Predicting and Decoding Multivoxel fMRI Responses with Acoustic, Schematic, and Categorical Music Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Underlying the experience of listening to music are parallel streams of auditory, categorical, and schematic qualia, whose representations and cortical organization remain largely unresolved. We collected high-field (7T) fMRI data in a music listening task, and analyzed the data using multivariate decoding and stimulus-encoding models. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment, which measured BOLD responses evoked by naturalistic listening to twenty-five music clips from five genres. Our first analysis applied machine classification to the multivoxel patterns that were evoked in temporal cortex. Results yielded above-chance levels for both stimulus identification and genre classification–cross-validated by holding out data from multiple of the stimuli during model training and then testing decoding performance on the held-out data. Genre model misclassifications were significantly correlated with those in a corresponding behavioral music categorization task, supporting the hypothesis that geometric properties of multivoxel pattern spaces underlie observed musical behavior. A second analysis employed a spherical searchlight regression analysis which predicted multivoxel pattern responses to music features representing melody and harmony across a large area of cortex. The resulting prediction-accuracy maps yielded significant clusters in the temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes, as well as in the parahippocampal gyrus and the cerebellum. These maps provide evidence in support of our hypothesis that geometric properties of music cognition are neurally encoded as multivoxel representational spaces. The maps also reveal a cortical topography that differentially encodes categorical and absolute-pitch information in distributed and overlapping networks, with smaller specialized regions that encode tonal music information in relative-pitch representations. PMID:28769835

  18. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  19. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming accord......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  20. The Knowledge Representation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    representing k nowledge. I,- ONE was designed to represent the kinds of knowlodge constriicts encountered by developers of natural language processing systems...project called Empirically Valid Knowledge Representation in 1986. One of the first tasks of the new project was to translate NIKL into Common LISP -- a...constraints -- the syntactic structures that appear in LOO% :constraints or implies clauses translate into knowledge structures for which we have