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Sample records for absorption spectrophotometric studies

  1. Determination of spectrophotometric absorptivity by analytical ultracentrifugation

    M Senthilraja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of the absorptivity for a recombinant IgG monoclonal antibody using the Beckman equipped with both Raleigh interference and UV absorbance optical systems. The analytical ultracentrifuge data for determining spectrophotometric absorptivities is compared to experimental data from quantitative amino acid analysis and an enzymatic digestion method.

  2. Novel atomic absorption spectrometric and rapid spectrophotometric methods for the quantitation of paracetamol in saliva: Application to pharmacokinetic studies

    Issa M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel atomic absorption spectrometric method and two highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of paracetamol. These techniques based on the oxidation of paracetamol by iron (III (method I; oxidation of p-aminophenol after the hydrolysis of paracetamol (method II. Iron (II then reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form Prussian blue color with a maximum absorbance at 700 nm. The atomic absorption method was accomplished by extracting the excess iron (III in method II and aspirates the aqueous layer into air-acetylene flame to measure the absorbance of iron (II at 302.1 nm. The reactions have been spectrometrically evaluated to attain optimum experimental conditions. Linear responses were exhibited over the ranges 1.0-10, 0.2-2.0 and 0.1-1.0 µg/ml for method I, method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. A high sensitivity is recorded for the proposed methods I and II and atomic absorption spectrometric method value indicate: 0.05, 0.022 and 0.012 µg/ml, respectively. The limit of quantitation of paracetamol by method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method were 0.20 and 0.10 µg/ml. Method II and the atomic absorption spectrometric method were applied to demonstrate a pharmacokinetic study by means of salivary samples in normal volunteers who received 1.0 g paracetamol. Intra and inter-day precision did not exceed 6.9%.

  3. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  4. Spectrofluorimetric, Atomic Absorption Spectrometric and Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Fluoroquinolones

    Hesham Salem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, accurate, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric, atomic absorption spectrometric and spectrophotometric methods are described for the quantitative determination of ten fluoroquinolones (amifloxacin, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, difloxacin hydrochloride, enoxacin, enrofloxacin, lomefloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin mesylate. The first method was a spectrofluorimetric method in which samples of the studied drugs in 0.1 N H2SO4 showed native fluorescence at 450 nm when excitation was at 290 nm. The calibration graph was rectilinear from 0.3-1.4 μg mL-1 (method I. Cobalt sulphate was used for precipitation of the ion associates formed from the reaction with the cited drugs. The formation and solubility of the solid complexes at the optimum conditions of pH and ionic strength values have been studied. The method depends on direct determination of the ions in the precipitate or indirect determination of the ions in the filtrate by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The optimum conditions for precipitation were carefully studied. Rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the range of 3-30 μg mL-1 for each of the investigated drugs. The molar ratios of the formed chelats were determined by Job's method and their association constants were also calculated (method II. Ammonium vanadate was used for the spectrophotometric determination of the selected fluoroquinolones by oxidation in sulphuric acid medium resulting in the development of a greenish blue colour measured at 766 nm which was attributed to the vanadium (IV produced by reduction of vanadium (V by the selected drugs. The optimum conditions for heating time, reagent concentration and sulphuric acid concentration were carefully studied. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method was confirmed by estimating five or six replicates within Beer's law limits were obtained in the range 10-40 μg mL-1 for each of the investigated drugs

  5. A method optimization study for atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of total zinc in insulin using direct aspiration technique

    Sadia Ata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, reliable and relative fast method has been developed for the determination of total zinc in insulin by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This designed study was used to optimize the procedures for the existing methods. Spectrograms of both standard and sample solutions of zinc were recorded by measuring the absorbance at 213.9 nm for determination of total zinc. System suitability parameters were evaluated and were found to be within the limits. Linearity was evaluated through graphical representation of concentration versus absorbance. Repeatability (intra-day and intermediate precision (inter-day were assessed by analyzing working standard solutions. Accuracy and robustness were experimented from the standard procedures. The percentage recovery of zinc was found to be 99.8%, relative standard deviation RSD 1.13%, linearity of determination LOD 0.0032 μg/mL, and limit of quantization LOQ 0.0120 μg/mL. This developed and proposed method was then validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity and robustness which can be successfully used for the quantization of zinc in insulin.

  6. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Determination of Lead in White Rice

    Sherryl M. Montalbo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the heavy metal content of rice from various parts of the world have alarmed rice-eating nations, including the Philippines. In 2013, Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice reported that rice in the Philippines needs to be evaluated to determine whether these contain heavy metals such as lead. This research aimed to assess the presence of lead in the three highest selling rice varieties harvested in Oriental Mindoro and sold in Batangas City public markets. It was done to asses if the lead concentration in the raw and cooked rice samples conform to the maximum acceptable level in food established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA Program Codex Alimentarius Commission. Survey analysis showed that the three highest selling rice varieties during the period when this study was conducted were Sinandomeng, Dinorado and C-4 Dinorado respectively. Lead analysis of rice samples was carried out using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The lead content in both the raw and cooked rice samples were not detected, meaning that the lead concentration were either not present or may be present but is less than the detection limit of the instrument used. The lead concentration in the rice samples from Oriental Mindoro conformed to the standards for food safety for lead content in rice, which is 0.2 mg/kg or 0.2 ppm, set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

  7. Simple Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic and Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Carvedilol in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    Afaf A. Abdelmonem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents simple atomic absorption spectroscopic and spectrophotometric methods for determination of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ-HCl and carvedilol (CRV based on formation of ion-pair associates between drugs and inorganic complex, bismuth(III tetraiodide (Method A and between drugs and organic acidic dyes, fast green and orange G (Method B. Method A is based on formation of ion-pair associate between drugs and bismuth(III tetraiodide in acidic medium to form orange-red ion-pair associates, which can be quantitatively determined by two different procedures. The formed ion-pair associate is extracted by methylene chloride, dissolved in acetone, dried, and then decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and bismuth content is determined by direct atomic absorption spectrometric technique (Procedure 1 or extracted by methylene chloride, dissolved in acetone, and quantified spectrophotometrically at 490 nm (Procedure 2. Method B is based on formation of ion-pair associate between drugs and either fast green dye or orange G dye in acidic medium to form ion-pair associates. The formed ion-pair associate is extracted by methylene chloride and quantified spectrophotometrically at 630 nm (for fast green dye method or 498 nm (for orange G dye method. Optimal experimental conditions have been studied. Both methods are applied for determination of the drugs in tablets without interference.

  8. Spectrophotometric Study of Galaxies with UV Excess

    Kazarian, M. A.; Karapetian, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Results from a spectrophotometric study of 21 galaxies with UV excess are presented. The half widths (FWHM) and equivalent widths of observed spectrum lines of these galaxies, as well as the relative intensities of the emission lines observed in the spectrum of the galaxy Kaz243, are determined. It is conjectured that the latter galaxy has the properties of an Sy2 type galaxy. The electron densities and masses of the gaseous components are found for 15 galaxies, along with the masses of 8 galaxies for which the ratio M/L has been calculated. It is shown that the spectral structures of these galaxies do not depend on whether they are members of physical systems or are isolated.

  9. A COMPARISON OF A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC (QUERCETIN) METHOD AND AN ATOMIC-ABSORPTION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TIN IN FOOD

    Engberg, Å

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for the determination of tin in food, which involve a spectrophotometric method (with the quercetin-tin complex) and an atomic-absorption method, are described. The precision of the complete methods and of the individual analytical steps required is evaluated, and the parameters...

  10. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies of novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes

    2014-01-01

    Novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde/2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines. Results of the newly synthesized compounds established by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and GC–MS spectroscopic experiments were consistent with their chemical structures. Resulted heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were found to be pure from data obtained by the elemental analysis. In addition, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies showed that t...

  11. New method for spectrophotometric determination of quinones and barbituric acid through their reaction. A kinetic study

    Medien, H. A. A.

    1996-11-01

    A new and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of p-benzoquinone, p-chloranil and 1.4-naphthoquinone. The method is based on the reaction between quinones and barbituric acid, by which a color is developed with maximum absorption between 485 and 555 nm in 50% methyl alcohol-water mixture. The absorption of the product obeys Beer's law within the concentration range 0.025-05 mM of orginal quinone. The kinetics of the reaction between p-benzoquinone and barbituric acid was studied in a range of methyl alcohol-water mixtures. The reaction follows overall second order kinetics, first order in each of the reactants. The rate increases with increasing dielectric constant. The method was applied for determination of barbituric acid with p-benzoquinone in the concentration range of 0.025-0.345 mM. Other barbiturates do not interfere.

  12. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies of novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes

    Hadi M. Marwani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were prepared by the reaction of salicylaldehyde/2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with different heterocyclic amines. Results of the newly synthesized compounds established by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and GC–MS spectroscopic experiments were consistent with their chemical structures. Resulted heterocyclic Schiff base dyes were found to be pure from data obtained by the elemental analysis. In addition, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies showed that these dyes were good absorbent and fluorescent. Fluorescence polarity study data revealed that some of these compounds were sensitive to the polarity of the microenvironment provided by different solvents. Time-based fluorescence steady-state measurements also showed that these heterocyclic Schiff base dyes have high photostability against photobleaching.

  13. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF SANGUINARINE-Β-CYCLODEXTRIN COMPLEX FORMATION

    Veaceslav Boldescu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pH and the presence of hydrophilic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone on the formation of sanguinarine-β-cyclodextrin (SANG-β-CD inclusion complex. Spectrophotometric studies of the SANG-β-CD systems in the presence and without 0.1 % PVP at the pH 5.0 did not show any evidence of the complex formation. However, the same systems showed several obvious evidences at the pH 8.0: the hyperchromic and the hypochromic effects and the presence of the isosbestic point in the region of 200 – 210 nm. The association constants calculated by three linear methods: Benesi-Hildebrand, Scott and Scatchard, were two times higher for the systems with addition of 0.1% PVP than for the systems without it.

  14. Study of reduction of chromium (VI by calcium polysulfide using spectrophotometric method

    Batukhan Tatykaev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents  the results of the study on reduction  of  Cr2O72-   to   Cr3 +  by aqueous solution of calcium polysulfide  using spectrophotometric method. Concentrations  of Cr (VI were determined on the basis of the absorption spectrum at the wavelength range 350 - 372 nm. The change of the concentration of Cr (VI during on reduction by calcium polysulfide has been shown.  The influence of pH on the rate of reducing of Cr (VI to Cr (III was considered: the rate of reducing of hexavalent chromium decreases with increasing pH. The data obtained show that recycling Cr (VI in industrial scale potentially effective at  the pH = 5.

  15. Spectrophotometric Study on the Interaction of Water with Chloranilic Acid and its Analytical Application

    Feng Lin ZHAO; Xi Lan FENG; Xue Jing LIU; Na LI; Ke An LI

    2005-01-01

    The reaction between chloranilic acid and water in alcohol was studied spectrophotometrically. The conditions of reaction were investigated in detail. The stable purple complex with an absorption wavelength at 530 nm was produced from the reaction between chloranilic acid and water. As a method for determination of H2O, Beer's law was obeyed in range of 0-6.0% or 0-8.0% (V/V) with the detection limit of 0.13%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 2%. The proposed method has been applied to determination of trace amount of water in ethanol, flour and food flavoring, respectively. The recoveries of water in samples were 97~102%.

  16. On-line spectrophotometric method for monitoring weak residual absorption of CaMoO4 single crystals near the intrinsic luminescence peak

    Buzanov, O. A.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Nabatov, B. V.; Nabatov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    The optical and spectral characteristics of isotopically enriched Czochralski-grown 40Ca100MoO4 single crystals have been investigated. This material is promising for detecting double neutrinoless β decay. The possibility and the technique of spectrophotometric monitoring of weak residual absorption near the intrinsic luminescence peak of this scintillation material, which is designed for developing new-generation detectors of elementary particles, are considered.

  17. On-line spectrophotometric method for monitoring weak residual absorption of CaMoO{sub 4} single crystals near the intrinsic luminescence peak

    Buzanov, O. A., E-mail: fedorov-metrology@yandex.ru [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Kanevskii, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Kornoukhov, V. N. [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Nabatov, B. V.; Nabatov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The optical and spectral characteristics of isotopically enriched Czochralski-grown {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} single crystals have been investigated. This material is promising for detecting double neutrinoless {beta} decay. The possibility and the technique of spectrophotometric monitoring of weak residual absorption near the intrinsic luminescence peak of this scintillation material, which is designed for developing new-generation detectors of elementary particles, are considered.

  18. Binding of benzodiazepine drugs to bovine serum albumin: A second derivative spectrophotometric study

    Omran, Ahmed A.; El-Sayed, Abdel-Aziz; Shehata, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The binding constants ( K values) of three benzodiazepine drugs to bovine serum albumin were determined by a second derivative spectrophotometric method. Despite the sample and reference samples were prepared in the same way to maintain the same albumin content in each sample and reference pair, the absorption spectra show that the baseline compensation was incomplete because of the strong background signals caused by bovine serum albumin. Accordingly, further quantitative spectral information could not be obtained from these absorption spectra. On the other hand, the calculated second derivative spectra clearly show isosbestic points indicating the complete removal of the residual background signal effects. Using the derivative intensity differences (Δ D values) of the studied benzodiazepine drugs before and after the addition of albumin, the binding constants were calculated and obtained with R.S.D. of less than 8%. The interactions of drugs with bovine serum albumin were investigated using Scatchard's plot. In addition, the consistency between the fractions of bound benzodiazepine calculated from the obtained K values and the experimental values were established. The results indicate that the second derivative method can be advantageously applicable to the determination of binding constants of drugs to serum albumin without prior separation. Moreover, the validity of the proposed method was confirmed.

  19. Simple and Precise UV Spectrophotometric Method Development for Estimation of Albendazole for Dissolution Study

    Vipin Kumar Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole is a class II drug in biopharmaceutical classification system, so its dissolution study is very difficult because of its low solubility and difficulty during estimation of drug in bulk. The present study deals with UV spectrophotometric method development and validation for estimation of albendazole in bulk form. Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with an oral broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthes parasites. The drug obeyed the Beer’s law and showed good correlation. It showed absorption maxima at 229nm in 0.1 N HCL with 0.05% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS. The linearity was observed between 4-20μg/ml. The method was applied for the analysis of the drug in the pure, tablet and suspension forms. The slope and intercept of the equation of the regression line are 0.009 and 0.017 respectively. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9996. The results of analysis were validated by recovery studies. The recovery was more than 97%. The method was found to be simple, reliable, rapid, precise, specific and reproducible and can be applied for routine analysis of albendazole in different dosage form and dissolution studies.

  20. Geomorphological and Spectrophotometric Study of Philae Landing Site A

    Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.; Giacomini, L.; Oklay, N.; Massironi, M.; Bertini, I.; Simioni, E.; Marzari, F.; Barbieri, C.; Naletto, G.; Groussin, O.; Lazzarin, M.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Fornasier, S.; Vincent, J. B.; Sierks, H.

    2015-10-01

    5 finalists, this site has the unique value to provide detailed analysis of the multiple fractures present on its cliff and on the neighboring Hathor. Figure 1: Site A as imaged by the OSIRIS NAC camera on 6 August 2014 at 02:20:12 UT. The distance from the comet center is 117.24 km, the scale is 2.17 m/px. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-526, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress We here present the geomorphological map coupled with the size-frequency distributions of boulders # 2 m located on the different types of terrains here identified, such as outcropping layered terrains, gravitational accumulation deposits, taluses and fine particle deposits. Gravitational slopes, derived through the 67P shape model by assuming uniform density, have been used to characterize and better interpret the various terrains. Moreover, we show the spectrophotometric properties of the area, studied through images taken by OSIRIS NAC with a scale of 50 cm/px. Albedo maps, as well as surface reflectance spectra have been obtained by taking advantage of the shape model and DTM in order to correct for the illumination and observing conditions of the terrain. This multidisciplinary analysis highlights that different types of deposits show different photometric properties.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia; Fábio Rangel Marques; Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins) and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B) was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin) was measured and...

  2. Enhancing prediction power of chemometric models through manipulation of the fed spectrophotometric data: A comparative study

    Saad, Ahmed S.; Hamdy, Abdallah M.; Salama, Fathy M.; Abdelkawy, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Effect of data manipulation in preprocessing step proceeding construction of chemometric models was assessed. The same set of UV spectral data was used for construction of PLS and PCR models directly and after mathematically manipulation as per well known first and second derivatives of the absorption spectra, ratio spectra and first and second derivatives of the ratio spectra spectrophotometric methods, meanwhile the optimal working wavelength ranges were carefully selected for each model and the models were constructed. Unexpectedly, number of latent variables used for models' construction varied among the different methods. The prediction power of the different models was compared using a validation set of 8 mixtures prepared as per the multilevel multifactor design and results were statistically compared using two-way ANOVA test. Root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP) was used for further comparison of the predictability among different constructed models. Although no significant difference was found between results obtained using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models, however, discrepancies among results was found to be attributed to the variation in the discrimination power of adopted spectrophotometric methods on spectral data.

  3. Spectrophotometric study for the reaction between fluvoxamine and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate: Kinetic, mechanism and use for determination of fluvoxamine in its dosage forms

    Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Abdine, Heba H.; Amer, Sawsan M.; Al-Rayes, Lama I.

    2009-05-01

    Spectrophotometric study was carried out, for the first time, to investigate the reaction between the antidepressant fluvoxamine (FXM) and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 9), an orange-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak ( λmax) at 470 nm was produced. The kinetics of the reaction was investigated and its activation energy was found to be 2.65 kcal mol -1. Because of this low activation energy, the reaction proceeded easily. The stoichiometry of the reaction was determined and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was successfully employed in the development of simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance ( A) with FXM concentration ( C) was obeyed in the range of 0.6-8 μg ml -1. The regression equation for the calibration data was A = 0.0086 + 0.1348 C, with good correlation coefficient (0.9996). The molar absorptivity ( ɛ) was 5.9 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.2 and 0.6 μg ml -1, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of FXM in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.47 ± 0.96%. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official method. The proposed method is superior to all the previously reported spectrophotometric methods for determination of FXM in terms of its simplicity and sensitivity. The method is practical and valuable for its routine application in quality control laboratories for analysis of FXM.

  4. Spectrophotometric and spectroscopic studies of charge transfer complexes of p-toluidine as an electron donor with picric acid as an electron acceptor in different solvents.

    Singh, Neeti; Khan, Ishaat M; Ahmad, Afaq

    2010-04-01

    The charge transfer complexes of the donor p-toluidine with pi-acceptor picric acid have been studied spectrophotometrically in various solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane acetone, ethanol, and methanol at room temperature using absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicate that formation of CTC in non-polar solvent is high. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 ratio by straight-line method between donor and acceptor with maximum absorption bands. The data are discussed in terms of formation constant (K(CT)), molar extinction coefficient (epsilon(CT)), standard free energy (DeltaG(o)), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (mu(EN)), resonance energy (R(N)) and ionization potential (I(D)). The results indicate that the formation constant (K(CT)) for the complex was shown to be dependent upon the nature of electron acceptor, donor and polarity of solvents that were used.

  5. Influence of phosphorus and calcium on flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of lead in canned fish products.

    Serra, T M; Serrano, J F

    1984-01-01

    Lead was determined in the presence of whole multiples of the P/Ca ratio found in Portuguese canned fish by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry with and without using an ashing aid. Under our experimental conditions, use of the ashing aid eliminates P and Ca interference. Results with real samples, spiked with 1, 2, 3, and 4 ppm lead, are presented and statistically treated.

  6. Comparative study on the selectivity of various spectrophotometric techniques for the determination of binary mixture of fenbendazole and rafoxanide.

    Saad, Ahmed S; Attia, Ali K; Alaraki, Manal S; Elzanfaly, Eman S

    2015-11-05

    Five different spectrophotometric methods were applied for simultaneous determination of fenbendazole and rafoxanide in their binary mixture; namely first derivative, derivative ratio, ratio difference, dual wavelength and H-point standard addition spectrophotometric methods. Different factors affecting each of the applied spectrophotometric methods were studied and the selectivity of the applied methods was compared. The applied methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines and good accuracy; specificity and precision were proven within the concentration range of 5-50 μg/mL for both drugs. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA proved no significant differences among the proposed methods for the determination of the two drugs. The proposed methods successfully determined both drugs in laboratory prepared and commercially available binary mixtures, and were found applicable for the routine analysis in quality control laboratories.

  7. UV-Vis spectrophotometric studies of self-oxidation/dissociation of quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAP) - impact of solvent polarity

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2015-05-01

    Self-oxidation/dissociation of some quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs), such as cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), have been studied spectrophotometrically in six different organic solvent media of different polarities wherein the compounds show good solubility and stability. The optical densities of the substrates at zero time (ODo) and first-order rate constants of dissociation (k1) have been determined from their successive scanning for 40 min. At comparable experimental conditions, absorption capabilities of the substrates are compared from the ODo values in various organic media; the stability of the solutions is compared from the successive scan spectra in those media. The ODo values and the k1 values have been plotted against some solvent parameters to understand their effects on the absorbance and reactivity of the QAPs. These data are also subjected to multiple regression analysis to explain the influence of various solvent parameters on the ion-pairing properties of the substrates, thus elucidating their effects on the process of self-oxidation/dissociation of the substrates.

  8. Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method to study stress degradation behaviour of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Amolkumar, Kempwade; Ashok, Taranalli; Kiran, Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Rizatriptan benzoate is a 5 HT 1B/1D receptor agonist which is prescribed for the treatment of migraine. In the present study new, simple, specific ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for rizatriptan benzoate was developed and validated. Forced degradation studies were carried out in acidic, alkaline and neutral pH conditions. The absorbance maxima peak was found to be 224 nm and linearity was observed in the concentration range of 0. 5-2. 5 µg . mL-1 with regression coefficient value of 0. 998 8. The method was validated and found to be precise. The percent recovery for rizatriptan benzoate was found to be 98. 576±0. 202. The bulk drug was found to be stable in neutral and acidic pH conditions but got degraded in 1 N NaOH solution.

  9. Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method to Study Stress Degradation Behaviour of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    Kempwade Amolkumar; Taranalli Ashok; Jadhav Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Rizatriptan benzoate is a 5 HT 1B/1D receptor agonist which is prescribed for the treatment of mi-graine .In the present study new ,simple ,specific ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for rizatriptan benzo-ate was developed and validated .Forced degradation studies were carried out in acidic ,alkaline and neutral pH conditions .The absorbance maxima peak was found to be 224 nm and linearity was observed in the concentra-tion range of 0.5~2.5 μg・mL -1 with regression coefficient value of 0.998 8 .The method was validated and found to be precise .The percent recovery for rizatriptan benzoate was found to be 98.576 ± 0.202 .The bulk drug was found to be stable in neutral and acidic pH conditions but got degraded in 1 N NaOH solution .

  10. Measurement of Capsaicinoids in Chiltepin Hot Pepper: A Comparison Study between Spectrophotometric Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Alberto González-Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct spectrophotometric determination of capsaicinoids content in Chiltepin pepper was investigated as a possible alternative to HPLC analysis. Capsaicinoids were extracted from Chiltepin in red ripe and green fruit with acetonitrile and evaluated quantitatively using the HPLC method with capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin standards. Three samples of different treatment were analyzed for their capsaicinoids content successfully by these methods. HPLC-DAD revealed that capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin comprised up to 98% of total capsaicinoids detected. The absorbance of the diluted samples was read on a spectrophotometer at 215–300 nm and monitored at 280 nm. We report herein the comparison between traditional UV assays and HPLC-DAD methods for the determination of the molar absorptivity coefficient of capsaicin (ε280=3,410 and ε280=3,720 M−1 cm−1 and dihydrocapsaicin (ε280=4,175 and ε280=4,350 M−1 cm−1, respectively. Statistical comparisons were performed using the regression analyses (ordinary linear regression and Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Comparative data for pungency was determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC on samples ranging from 29.55 to 129 mg/g with a correlation of 0.91. These results indicate that the two methods significantly agree. The described spectrophotometric method can be routinely used for total capsaicinoids analysis and quality control in agricultural and pharmaceutical analysis.

  11. Radiometric and spectrophotometric studies of the behavior of chromium(VI) oxide in concentrated perchloric acid

    Pezzin, S.H.; Collins, C.H.; Collins, K.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Archundia, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares

    1997-11-01

    A study of the behavior of {sup 51}CrO{sub 3} in 70% HClO{sub 4} over the temperature range from 20 to 194 C by means of Cr-51 labelling, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and ion exchange chromatography, shows that the solubility of {sup 51}CrO{sub 3} depends on a competition between the dissolution process and the acid reduction of solution phase Cr(VI). These processes occur simultaneously and are dependent on both the temperature and the concentration of Cr(VI), as shown by comparison between radiometric measurements (where total chromium can be accurately determined) and spectrophotometric measurements (where only the Cr(VI) is detectable at the wavelengths studied). These conclusions are confirmed by PbCrO{sub 4} precipitation of {sup 51}Cr(VI), where at 194 C, 97% of the total chromium appears as Pb{sup 51}CrO{sub 4} while at 86 C only 5% does. Cation exchange chromatography of the solution after brief contact of {sup 51}CrO{sub 3} with concentrated HClO{sub 4} at 20 C shows only traces of {sup 51}Cr(VI), most of the radioactivity eluting as {sup 51}Cr(H{sub 2}O){sup 3+}{sub 6}, with smaller amounts of species with +2 and +1 charges. These results imply serious limitations to the spectrophotometric determination of low concentrations of total chromium in alloys or in biological material which use dissolution in 70% HClO{sub 4} as a primary analytical step. (orig.)

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Ezetimibe

    P. Baby Sudha Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective and accurate spectro-photometric methods (Method A and Method B for the determination of eztimibe in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets have been described. Method A and B are based on the redox/complex formation reaction of drug with 1,10-phenanthroline and hexacyano-ferrate(III in presence of ferric chloride to form coloured chromogens exhibiting λmax at 510 and 740 nm respectively. The results of analysis for the two methods have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The results are compared with those obtained using UV spectrophotometric method in alcohol at 231.7 nm.

  13. Spectrophotometric studies on the charge-transfer interaction between p-nitroaniline with chloranilic acid as π-acceptor in different polar solvents

    Singh, Neeti; Ahmad, Afaq

    2017-01-01

    The charge transfer interaction between the donor p-nitroaniline with the acceptor chloranilic acid has been studied spectrophotometrically in various solvents such as chloroform, ethanol, and methanol at room temperature. The results indicate that formation of CTC in non-polar solvent is high. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 ratio by straight-line method between donor and acceptor with maximum absorption bands. The data are discussed in terms of formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (εCT), standard free energy (ΔG), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μN), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID). The results indicate that the formation constant (KCT) for the complex was shown to be dependent upon the nature of electron acceptor, donor and polarity of solvents that were used. The formation of the complex has been confirmed by UV-visible, FT-IR, and 1H NMR techniques.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charge...

  15. Comparison of visual 24-hour and spectrophotometric 48-hour MICs to CLSI reference microdilution MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole for Candida spp.: a collaborative study.

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Pfaller, M.A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    A multicenter (six-center) study evaluated the performance (interlaboratory reproducibility, compatibility with reference methods, and categorical agreement) of 24-h visual and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs. MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were compared to reference

  16. Absorption-Line Studies of Seyfert Galaxies

    Shull, J. Michael

    We propose to undertake a "reverberation analysis" of the variable absorption lines ill two Seyfert Galaxies (NGC 4051 and Mrk 279) to help understand the origin of intrinsic absorption lines in AGNs. Stich an analysis is a powerful tool for elucidating the radial distribution of absorbing gas in the broad-line region (BLR) and narrow-line region (NLR). Only two Seyferts have previously been studied with this technique: NGC 4151 (Bromage el al. 1985; Clavel et al. 1987) and NGC 3516 (Voit, Shull, and Begelman 1987). The absorption features have been interpreted as an outflow of ionized clouds from the nuclear region or from an accretion disk affected by UV/X-ray heating. Neither the source of the absorbing gas in these Seyferts nor the "gene" which distingishes them from other Seyferts is known. Until the 1984 onset of absorption in Mrk 279, broad self-absorbed. lines had been observed only in Seyferts of low intrinsic luminosity, such as NGC 4051. Mrk 279 is intrinsically much brighter, and therefore more quasar-like, than the other three absorptionline Seyfert I's in the CfA sample. Thus, it may show how the absorption phenomenon changes at higher luminosity and could bridge the gap between the low luminosity absorption-line Seyferts and the well-studied broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO's. In addition, Mrk 279's significant redshift will allow us to study, for the first time, the Ly-alpha line in an absorption-line Seyfert. With 3 US-1 shifts for each of these two underobserved Seyferts, we can double the number of objects in which absorption-line variability has been studied and investigate why the absorption-line strengths correlate or anti-correlate with the UV continuum.

  17. Determination of Cyproheptadine hydrochloride in Pure and Pharmaceutical forms : A Spectrophotometric study

    Sayanna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Siimple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been described for the determination of Cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CPH in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involved formation of coloured chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the CPH with triphenyl methane dyes viz., bromothymol blue (BTB, bromocresol green (BCG and bromocresol purple (BCP in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 419, 419 and 405nm with use of the above dyes, respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 3.0-25, 2.5-22.5 and 1.5-25μg/ml with BTB, BCG and BCP respectively. The stoichiometry of the complex is found to be 1:1 in each case. The effect of concentration of dye, pH and interference of excipients have been studied and optimized. The limit of detection and limit of quantification have been determined for three methods. The methods are applied to the determination of CPH in commercial tablets and results of analysis are validated statistically through recovery studies also the methods are validated as per the guidelines of ICH.

  18. Study on the spectrophotometric detection of free fatty acids in palm oil utilizing enzymatic reactions.

    Azeman, Nur Hidayah; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yunus, Robiah; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Hajian, Reza

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made on the detection of free fatty acids (FFAs) in palm oil via an optical technique based on enzymatic aminolysis reactions. FFAs in crude palm oil (CPO) were converted into fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs) in a biphasic lipid/aqueous medium in the presence of immobilized lipase. The colored compound formed after complexation between FHA and vanadium (V) ion solution was proportional to the FFA content in the CPO samples and was analyzed using a spectrophotometric method. In order to develop a rapid detection system, the parameters involved in the aminolysis process were studied. The utilization of immobilized lipase as catalyst during the aminolysis process offers simplicity in the product isolation and the possibility of conducting the process under extreme reaction conditions. A good agreement was found between the developed method using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginose lipase as catalyst for the aminolysis process and the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) standard titration method (R2 = 0.9453).

  19. Spectrophotometric studies on the complexation equilibria of Ni and Pb with 2-carboxy-2-hydroxy-5'-sulfo-formazylbenzene. Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of Ni and Pb.

    Hashem, Elham Y; Abu-Bakr, Mohamed S; Hussain, Sawsan M

    2004-01-01

    Spectrophotometric studies have been made to investigate the reaction of Nickel and Lead with 2-carboxy-2'-hydroxy-5'-sulfoformazyl-benzene (zincon) in 50%(v/v) ethanol-water at 25 degrees C and an ionic strength of 0.1 M NaClO4. A complete picture of the complexation equilibria in the pH range (4.2-12.0) for nickel and (1.9-11.5) for lead are presented. Simple, rapid, selective and sensitive methods for the spectro-photometric determination of nickel and lead has been developed based on the color reaction of their complexes with zincon. The methods allow the determination of 4.69 microg mL(-1) of nickel at pH = 6.3 (lambdamax = 665 nm) and 10.3 microg ml(-1) of lead at pH = 5.6 (lambdamax = 610 nm). The apparent molar absorptivities were epsilon = 1.3 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) for nickel and epsilon = 0.6 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) for lead. The interference of a large number of foreign ions and complexing agents has been studied. Thiosulphate, as masking agent allows the simultaneous determination of nickel and lead in the presence of high concentrations of copper. Ascorbic acid, sodium cyanide and or sodium fluoride provide the elimination of many other interferences. The methods have been applied successfully to the simultaneous determination of nickel and lead in an aluminium and non-ferrous alloy.

  20. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of a Magnetic Field on Human Blood Components

    Kazin, V. N.; Makaryin, V. V.; Guzov, E. A.; Moshareva, V. A.; Kovchiy, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have used electronic spectroscopy and optical aggregometry to study the effect of a constant magnetic fi eld on blood components. Based on the absorption spectra, we observe a decrease in optical density for both plasma and whole blood samples. Based on the results of platelet aggregation studies, we identifi ed two groups of test subjects with opposite types of responses to exposure to a magnetic fi eld. The observed behavior is probably associated with changes in the spatial structure of the proteins.

  1. Evaluation of the Esthetic Properties of Developmental Defects of Enamel: A Spectrophotometric Clinical Study

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Detailed clinical quantification of optical properties of developmental defect of enamel is possible with spectrophotometric evaluation. Developmental defects of enamel (DDE are daily encountered in clinical practice. DDE are an alteration in quality and quantity of the enamel, caused by disruption and/or damage to the enamel organ during amelogenesis. Methods. Several clinical indices have been developed to categorize enamel defects based on their nature, appearance, microscopic features, or cause. A sample of 39 permanent teeth presenting DDE on labial surface was examined using the DDE Modified Index and SpectroShade evaluation. The spectrophotometric approach quantifies L* (luminosity, a* (quantity of green-red, and b* (quantity of blue-yellow of different DDE. Conclusions. SpectroShade evaluation of the optical properties of the enamel defect enhances clinical understanding of severity and extent of the defect and characterizes the enamel alteration in terms of color discrepancy and surface characterization.

  2. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of binary mixture of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin: A comparative study

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Three different spectrophotometric methods were applied for the quantitative analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixture, namely, ratio subtraction, absorbance subtraction and amplitude modulation. A comparative study was done listing the advantages and the disadvantages of each method. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixtures.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin was measured and Bradford method showed the lowest variation of absorbance. The concentration of total protein obtained by using Bradford method was not statistically different (p>0.05 from concentration of total protein obtained by the biuret method. But in regard to erythrosin-B and TBPEE methods the concentrations of total protein were statistically different (pA determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo é importante em diversas áreas de pesquisa. Um estudo comparativo entre o método de biureto (método padrão para proteínas totais e diversos métodos que utilizam corantes (Bradford, tetrabromofenolftaleína etil éster-TBPEE, e eritrosina-B foi realizado para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo de ratos. O método de Bradford mostrou a maior sensibilidade para proteínas e o de biureto a menor. Para todos os métodos, as absorbâncias para diferentes proteínas (BSA, caseína, e ovoalbumina foram medidas e o método de Bradford mostrou a menor variação da absorbância. Utilizando o método de Bradford a concentração de proteínas totais obtida não foi estatisticamente diferente (p>0.05 daquela obtida pelo método do biureto. Porém, para os métodos da eritrosina-B e TBPEE as concentrações de proteínas totais foram estatisticamente diferentes (p<0.05 da obtida pelo método de biureto. Portanto o método de Bradford pode ser utilizado no lugar do método de biureto para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo.

  4. Rapid and direct spectrophotometric method for kinetics studies and routine assay of peroxidase based on aniline diazo substrates.

    Mirazizi, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Azita; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Bakavoli, Mehdi; Legge, Raymond L

    2016-12-01

    Peroxidases are ubiquitous enzymes that play an important role in living organisms. Current spectrophotometrically based peroxidase assay methods are based on the production of chromophoric substances at the end of the enzymatic reaction. The ambiguity regarding the formation and identity of the final chromophoric product and its possible reactions with other molecules have raised concerns about the accuracy of these methods. This can be of serious concern in inhibition studies. A novel spectrophotometric assay for peroxidase, based on direct measurement of a soluble aniline diazo substrate, is introduced. In addition to the routine assays, this method can be used in comprehensive kinetics studies. 4-[(4-Sulfophenyl)azo]aniline (λmax = 390 nm, ɛ = 32 880 M(-1) cm(-1) at pH 4.5 to 9) was introduced for routine assay of peroxidase. This compound is commercially available and is indexed as a food dye. Using this method, a detection limit of 0.05 nmol mL(-1) was achieved for peroxidase.

  5. Spectrophotometric study of the charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation of methamphetamine with some acceptors

    Shahdousti, Parvin; Aghamohammadi, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Naader

    2008-04-01

    The charge-transfer (CT) complexes of methamphetamine (MPA) as a n-donor with several acceptors including bromocresolgreen (BCG), bromocresolpurple (BCP), chlorophenolred (CPR), picric acid (PIC), and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) have been studied spectrophotometrically in chloroform solutions in order to obtain some information about their stoichiometry and stability of complexation. The oscillator strengths, transition dipole moments and resonance energy of the complex in the ground state for all complexes have been calculated. Vertical ionization potential of MPA and electron affinity of acceptors were determined by ab initio calculation. The acceptors were also used to utilize a simple and sensitive extraction-spectrophotometric method for the determination of MPA. The method is based on the formation of 1:1 ion-pair association complexes of MPA with BCG, BCP and PIC in chloroform medium. Beer's plots were obeyed in a general concentration range of 0.24-22 μg ml -1 for the investigated drug with different acceptors. The proposed methods were applied successfully for the determination of MAP in pure and abuse drug with good accuracy and precision.

  6. Validation of UV spectrophotometric methods for the determination of dothiepin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form and stress degradation studies

    Abdulrahman, Sameer A. M.; Basavaiah, K.; Cijo, M. X.; Vinay, K. B.

    2012-11-01

    Spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of dothiepin hydrochloride (DOTH) in both pure and tablet dosage form and their limits of detection and quantification have been evaluated. The methods are based on the measurement of the absorbance of a DOTH solution either in 0.1 N HCl at 229 nm (method A) or in methanol at 231 nm (method B). Beer's law is obeyed over a concentration range of 1-16 μg/ml DOTH for both methods. Molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 2.48 × 104 and 2.42 × 104 l/(mol × cm) with Sandell sensitivity values of 0.0134 and 0.0137 μg/cm2 for methods A and B, respectively. The degradation behavior of DOTH was investigated under different stress conditions such as acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, water hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat treatment, and UV-degradation. The drug undergoes significant degradation under oxidative conditions only.

  7. Spectrophotometric and Voltammetric Studies on the Interaction of Heparin with Phenosafranine

    Wei SUN; Ya Qin DING; Kui JIAO

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of phenosafranine (PSF) with a glycosaminoglycans of heparin (Hep) in aqueous solution has been characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry in pH 1.5 Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution. The addition of Hep caused decrease of the absorbance of PSF at 532 nm and the redox peak current of PSF. The study showed that an supramolecular complex of PSF-Hep was formed because of the electrostatic attraction of negatively charged Hep with the positively charged PSF, which resulted in the decrease of the equilibrium concentration of PSF in solutions, and the decrease of the absorbance or the Peak current of PSF. The stoichiometry of the Hep/PSF complex was further calculated by voltammetric data with the result of 1:1 complex.

  8. An Introduction to Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares: Spectrophotometric Study of the Acid-Base Equilibria of 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    A spectrophotometric study of the acid-base equilibria of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid to describe the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS) is described. The algorithm provides a lot of information and hence is of great importance for the chemometrics research.

  9. Study on Performance and Mechanism of Oil Absorption Materials

    韩梅; 吴兵; 李发生; 何绪文; 谷庆宝

    2001-01-01

    Both the commonly used and the PHBV based oil absorption materials were studied and the absorption mechanism was analyzed. The results show that the oil pick-up ratios and the absorption rates of molded PHBV are almost the same as that of oil absorption polypropylene felt. In addition, the oil-keeping ability of molded PHBV is superior to the latter. So the PHBV is a valuable and bio-degradable oil absorption material.

  10. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    R Venkatasubramanian

    2001-06-01

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material being heated can be prevented from depositing on the windows of the absorption cell by maintaining a higher temperature at both the ends of the absorption cell.

  11. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS IN ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ACACIA CATECHU AS INDICATOR OF POLLUTION BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC (FAAS ANALYSIS

    Lakshmi.T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia catechu ethanolic leaf extract were selected to determine their heavy metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant material was procured from green chem herbal extracts, Bangalore, India and was digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 6030 and the concentration of different heavy metals in the plant sample was calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant material is safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contains heavy metals such as arsenic (As, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg and cadmium (Cd, which were present within the permissible limit.

  12. New Spectrophotometric and Conductometric Methods for Macrolide Antibiotics Determination in Pure and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Using Rose Bengal

    Rania A. Sayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Simple, accurate, precise, and rapid spectrophotometric and conductometric methods were developed for the estimation of erythromycin thiocyanate (I, clarithromycin (II, and azithromycin dihydrate (III in both pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The spectrophotometric procedure depends on the reaction of rose bengal and copper with the cited drugs to form stable ternary complexes which are extractable with methylene chloride, and the absorbances were measured at 558, 557, and 560 nm for (I, (II, and (III, respectively. The conductometric method depends on the formation of an ion-pair complex between the studied drug and rose bengal. For the spectrophotometric method, Beer's law was obeyed. The correlation coefficient ( for the studied drugs was found to be 0.9999. The molar absorptivity (, Sandell’s sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD, and limit of quantification (LOQ were also calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of certain pharmaceutical dosage forms containing the studied drugs

  13. Spectrophotometric Study of Stability Constants of Cr(III, Ni(II and Cu(II Complexes with a Schiff’s Base in Different Solvents

    Israel Leka Lere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexation of Cr(III, Ni(II and Cu(II with para-dimethylaminoanil of ortho-hydroxyphenylglyoxal Schiff’s base in methanol, ethanol and acetone solvents has been studied spectrophotometrically at room temperature (298K. The stoichiometry and stability of the complexes were determined using mole-ratio method. Stability data shows solvent-wise stability order as methanol > ethanol > acetone.

  14. A comparative study of validated spectrophotometric and TLC- spectrodensitometric methods for the determination of sodium cromoglicate and fluorometholone in ophthalmic solution.

    Saleh, Sarah S; Lotfy, Hayam M; Hassan, Nagiba Y; Elgizawy, Samia M

    2013-10-01

    The determination of sodium cromoglicate (SCG) and fluorometholone (FLU) in ophthalmic solution was developed by simple, sensitive and precise methods. Three spectrophotometric methods were applied: absorptivity factor (a-Factor method), absorption factor (AFM) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). The linearity ranges of SCG were found to be (2.5-35 μg/mL) for (a-Factor method) and (MCR); while for (AFM), it was found to be (7.5-50 μg/mL). The linearity ranges of FLU were found to be (4-16 μg/mL) for (a-Factor method) and (AFM); while for (MCR), it was found to be (2-16 μg/mL). The mean percentage recoveries/RSD for SCG were found to be 100.31/0.90, 100.23/0.57 and 100.43/1.21; while for FLU, they were found to be 100.11/0.56, 99.97/0.35 and 99.94/0.88 using (a-Factor method), (AFM) and (MCR), respectively. A TLC-spectrodensitometric method was developed by separation of SCG and FLU on silica gel 60 F254 using chloroform:methanol:toluene:triethylamine in the ratio of (5:2:4:1 v/v/v/v) as developing system, followed by spectrodensitometric measurement of the bands at 241 nm. The linearity ranges and the mean percentage recoveries/RSD were found to be (0.4-4.4 μg/band), 100.24/1.44 and (0.2-1.6 μg/band), 99.95/1.50 for SCG and FLU, respectively. A comparative study was conducted between the proposed methods to discuss the advantage of each method. The suggested methods were validated in compliance with the ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SCG and FLU in their laboratory prepared mixtures and commercial ophthalmic solution in the presence of benzalkonium chloride as a preservative. These methods could be an alternative to different HPLC techniques in quality control laboratories lacking the required facilities for those expensive techniques.

  15. New acyclic 1,2,4-triazole-based Schiff base hydrazone: Synthesis, characterization, spectrophotometric and computational studies

    Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Erfantalab, Malihe; Azimi, Golamhassan

    2013-03-01

    A new 1,2,4-triazole-based Schiff base hydrazone with N, O, S donor set of atoms, H4L, has been prepared by condensation reaction of N,N'-bis(3-formyl-5-methylsalicylidene)ethane-1,2-diamine, H2L, with 4-amino-3-(4-pyridyl)-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole. The structure of H4L was characterized by using FT-IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analysis data. The formation constants of copper(II), cadmium(II), mercury(II) and silver(I) complexes of H4L in DMSO were calculated using a hard model chemometrics method applying the spectrophotometric data. The protonation constants of H4L were also measured in DMSO-water (1:10) mixture. Furthermore, 1H chemical shifts of H4L were studied by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) and continuous set of gauge transformations (CSGTs) methods at the level of density functional theory using B3LYP/6-311++G* basis sets in gas phase. The computed chemical shifts are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Study of the Antioxidant Property Variation of Cornelian Cherry Fruits during Storage Using HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Assays

    Anamaria Hosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornus species fruits are well known as a rich source of antioxidant compounds responsible for their diverse health benefits. The present study aims to investigate the variation of the total antioxidant capacity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. fruits during storage, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC and two spectrophotometric assays based on different mechanisms: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS+∙ assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. The fruit extract was stored at room temperature (22°C for 19 days. No major differences in the total antioxidant capacity were observed during this period, indicating that storage does not have any deleterious effect on the antioxidant properties of the investigated fruits extract. The antioxidant capacity varied between 12.91 and 12.83 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the HPTLC method and from 36.13 to 33.93 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the ABTS assay.

  17. Study of the Antioxidant Property Variation of Cornelian Cherry Fruits during Storage Using HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Assays

    Hosu, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species fruits are well known as a rich source of antioxidant compounds responsible for their diverse health benefits. The present study aims to investigate the variation of the total antioxidant capacity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits during storage, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and two spectrophotometric assays based on different mechanisms: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+∙) assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The fruit extract was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 19 days. No major differences in the total antioxidant capacity were observed during this period, indicating that storage does not have any deleterious effect on the antioxidant properties of the investigated fruits extract. The antioxidant capacity varied between 12.91 and 12.83 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the HPTLC method and from 36.13 to 33.93 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the ABTS assay. PMID:27957382

  18. A comparative study of ICH validated novel spectrophotometric techniques for resolving completely overlapping spectra of quaternary mixtures

    Ali, Nouruddin W.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abdelkawy, M.; Emam, Aml A.

    2016-02-01

    A pharmaceutically marketed mixture of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine co-formulated as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. Simultaneous determination of the aforementioned pharmaceutical formulation without prior separation steps was applied using mean centering of ratio spectra and triple divisor spectrophotometric methods. Mean centering of ratio spectra method depended on using the mean centered ratio spectra in three successive steps which eliminated the derivative steps and so the signal to noise ratio was improved. The absorption spectra of the prepared solutions were measured in the wavelength range of 215-300 nm in the concentration ranges of 1-15, 3-15, 1-20, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 for Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. The amplitudes of the mean centered third ratio spectra were measured at 250 nm and 268 nm for Yohimbine and Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, respectively and at peak to peak 272-273 and 262-263 nm for Niacin and Caffeine, respectively. In triple divisor method each drug in the quaternary mixture was determined by dividing the spectrum of the quaternary mixture by a standard spectrum of a mixture containing equal concentrations of the other three drugs. First derivative of these ratio spectra was obtained where determination could be achieved without any interference from the other three drugs. Amplitudes of 1-15, 3-15, 1-15, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 were used for selective determination of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. Laboratory prepared mixtures were analyzed by the developed novel methods to investigate their selectivity also, Super Act® capsules were successfully analyzed to ensure absence of interference from additives. The developed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were statistically compared with each other and with the reported methods; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA

  19. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Y J Shiu; J M Zhang; M Hayashi; V Gulbinas; C M Yang; S H Lin

    2002-12-01

    Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited states of the unexcited subunit of allophycocyanin monomer decreases via an interaction with another excited subunit. For allophycocyanin trimer, we find that the fast dynamics results from the fast internal conversion and the first excited state is the only one electronic state which can trap the final population.

  20. A comparative study of Saturn's icy satellites spectrophotometric properties by Cassini/VIMS

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Tosi, F.; McCord, T. B.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Brown, R. H.; Bibring, J. P.; Vims Team

    The main spectral properties of Saturn s icy satellites are investigated through the hyperspectral data collected by VIMS Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer in the VIS-NIR range 0 35-5 1 micron from July 2004 to nowadays In this work we make a comparative analysis of more than 500 full-disk spectra obtained at different phase angles and leading-trailing coverage for 14 satellites Mimas Enceladus Tethys Dione Rhea Hyperion Iapetus Janus Epimetheus Telesto Calypso Atlas Prometheus Pandora The amount of contaminants organics and tholins on the surfaces is estimated thanks to the visible spectral slopes abundance of water ice and particle sizes are retrieved through the 1 5 2 0 and 3 0 micron absorption band strengths We present here also preliminary phase curves and mean full-disk spectra This work is supported by an ASI Italian Space Agency grant

  1. Studies on Negative Refractive Index without Absorption

    Rajapakse, R M; Yelin, S F

    2012-01-01

    Which systems are ideal to obtain negative refraction with no absorption? Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a method to suppress absorption and make a material transparent to a field of a given frequency. Such a system has been discussed in [1]; however the main limitations for negative refraction introduced are the necessity of resonant electric and magnetic dipole transitions, and the necessity of very dense media. We suggest using frequency translators in a composite system that would provide negative refraction for a range of optical frequencies while attempting to overcome the limitations discussed above. In the process of using frequency translators, we also find composite systems that can be used for refractive index enhancement.

  2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimethylamine-nitrogen in Cadaver Tissues for the Estimation of Late Postmortem Interval: A Pilot Study

    Qian LIU; Xiangyang CAI; Yan LIU; Lan ZHOU; Shaohua YI; Liang LIU

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between the late postmortem interval (PMI) and trimethylamine-nitrogen (TMA-N) in postmortem tissues of cadaver, TMA-N in muscles, livers and kidneys of rats was measured at different postmortem intervals (PMD by using a modified spectrophotometric method. The results indicated that the detection sensitivity of TMA-N was 1 mg/L, and there was a good linear correlation between the value of absorbance (A value) and TMA-N at the concentration of 1-10 mg/L (R2 =0.9991). Although TMA variation in muscles was different from that in inner organs during the time since death, TMA-N changes in cadaver tissues was positively correlated with PMI. During 2 to 7 d since death, the best correlation between PMI and TMA-N concentration was found in muscles.With PMI as an independent variable, the cubic polynomial regression equation was y= --0.457x3+6.519x2-24.574x+27.207 (R2=0.969). During 3 to 8 days since death, PMI was best correlated with TMA-N concentration in inner organs. With PMI as the independent variable, the cubic polynomial regression equation was y=0.509x3-9.153x2+55.727x-95.819 (R2=0.953). It was concluded that TMA-N in tissues could be used as a new estimator for late PMI. The method used in this study offered advantages such as accuracy, sensitivity, little samples required and wide PMI estimation.

  3. 石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法直接测定全血中锗%Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for the direct determination of germanium in blood

    高丽红

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for the determination of germanium in whole blood. Methods: Without treatment, germanium content in the sample was directly determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after sample dilution with 0. l%TritonX -100/ 0.2% HNO3 (v/v) as diluent and 0. 5 mg/ml calcium nitrate as matrix modifier. Results: The detection limit of the method (re = 10) was 0. 75 mg/L, the linearity was observed in the range of 0 μg/L ~ 190 μg/L, the relative standard deviation was 0. 8% ~ 3. 2% , the recovery rate was 99. 5% ~ 103. 6% . Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid with high recovery rate and precision, it is applicable to the determination of germanium content in whole blood.%目的:建立石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法测定全血中锗的方法.方法:样品无需处理,以0.1%TritonX-100/0.2% HNO3(v/v)为稀释液,以0.5 mg/ml硝酸钙为基体改进剂,对血液适当稀释后,直接用石墨炉原子吸收分光光度法测定锗的含量.结果:方法最低检出限(n=10)为0.75 mg/L,线性范围为0μg/L~190 μg/L,相对标准偏差0.8% ~3.2%,回收率为99.5% ~ 103.6%.结论:方法具有简便、快速、回收率高、精密度高的优点,适用于全血中锗含量的测定.

  4. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Caffeine

    Showkat Ahmad Bhawani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of caffeine reveals that it is a bitter white crystalline alkaloid. It is a common ingredient in a variety of drinks (soft and energy drinks and is also used in combination with various medicines. In order to maintain the optimum level of caffeine, various spectrophotometric methods have been developed. The monitoring of caffeine is very important aspect because of its consumption in higher doses that can lead to various physiological disorders. This paper incorporates various spectrophotometric methods used in the analysis of caffeine in various environmental samples such as pharmaceuticals, soft and energy drinks, tea, and coffee. A range of spectrophotometric methodologies including chemometric techniques and derivatization of spectra have been used to analyse the caffeine.

  5. Pulse radiolysis and spectrophotometric studies on the binding of organic cations with heparin

    Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Adamus, Jan; Gębicki, Jerzy; Marcinek, Andrzej; Sikora, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Here we present the spectroscopic and pulse radiolysis studies of the interactions of heparin and some organic cations:methylene blue (MB), 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA+), and its dimer 1,3-bis(1-methylnicotinamide)propane (bis(MNA+)).

  6. A comparative study of smart spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of sitagliptin phosphate and metformin hydrochloride in their binary mixture.

    Lotfy, Hayam M; Mohamed, Dalia; Mowaka, Shereen

    2015-01-01

    Simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the oral antidiabetic drugs; sitagliptin phosphate (STG) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) in combined pharmaceutical formulations. Three methods were manipulating ratio spectra namely; ratio difference (RD), ratio subtraction (RS) and a novel approach of induced amplitude modulation (IAM) methods. The first two methods were used for determination of STG, while MET was directly determined by measuring its absorbance at λmax 232 nm. However, (IAM) was used for the simultaneous determination of both drugs. Moreover, another three methods were developed based on derivative spectroscopy followed by mathematical manipulation steps namely; amplitude factor (P-factor), amplitude subtraction (AS) and modified amplitude subtraction (MAS). In addition, in this work the novel sample enrichment technique named spectrum addition was adopted. The proposed spectrophotometric methods did not require any preliminary separation step. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined. The selectivity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures of the drugs and their combined pharmaceutical formulations. Standard deviation values were less than 1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. The obtained results were statistically compared to that of a reported spectrophotometric method. The statistical comparison showed that there was no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported one regarding both accuracy and precision.

  7. The UV and IR Comparative Spectrophotometric Study of Some Saturated and Lacunary Polyoxometalates

    Grama Lavinia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The polyoxometalates are a class of inorganic compounds with controllable shapes and sizes, and with excellent properties that make them attractive for various applications. This study is aimed at the comparative UV and IR spectra of Keggin type polyoxometalates.

  8. The Nearby Field Galaxy Survey a spectrophotometric and photometric study of nearby galaxies

    Jansen, R A

    2001-01-01

    We report on our observing program to obtain integrated spectrophotometry, intermediate and high resolution major axis spectra, and U,B,R surface photo- metry of a representative sample of ~200 galaxies in the nearby field. The main goal of this program is to provide a comparison sample for high redshift studies and to study the variation in star formation rates (SFR), star forma- tion history (SFH), excitation, metallicity, and internal kinematics over a large range in galaxy luminosity and morphological type. In particular, we extend the work of Kennicutt (1992) to lower luminosity systems. We present the main results of our analysis sofar. In these proceedings, we condense the presented two atlases of (1) images and radial surface brightness profiles and color profiles, and (2) of images and integrated spectra into several example images, profiles and spectra, showing the general trends observed. For the original atlasses we refer to the electronic version, available at http://www.astro.rug.nl/~nfgs/ .

  9. Copper and cobalt complexes of octadentate azamacrocycles: spectrophotometric titration, stopped-flow kinetics and crystallographic study.

    Ozay, Hava; Baran, Yakup; Ishii, Youichi

    2011-12-01

    Details of complex formation kinetics are reported for tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl) substituted cyclen (L(1)) and cyclam (L(2)) with Cu(II) and Co(II). Stopped-flow kinetics and spectroscopic titration methods were employed for the activation parameters and stability constants, respectively. X-ray studies revealed that the pendant 2-hydroxyethyl groups are not equivalent: two are folded over the macrocycle and maintained by intramolecular hydrogen bonds while the others are extended and pointed away from the macrocyclic cavity. Complex formation kinetics and spectroscopic titration were performed in aqueous acidic buffer solutions. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters revealed that the ring size of the macrocycles plays an extremely important role for each metal ion studied. Stopped-flow kinetic measurements explained the mechanism of the complex formation process of both Cu(II) and Co(II) which proceed in outer-sphere interactions with ligands. There are two steps in the complex formation of the system studied. The initial step is a second order reaction between the metal ion and macrocycle with a second order rate constant.

  10. Potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies of Mn{sup II} and Ni{sup II} cimetidine complexes

    Kanumfre, Francieli; Lima, Eliane M. de; Scheidt, Gabriele; Carneiro, Paulo I.B.; Rosso, Neiva D., E-mail: ndrosso@uepg.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Cimetidine is an important hydrogen histamine receptor which has the ability to chelate metal ions in blood plasma and in different tissues. This study aimed to determine the stability constants for the cimetidine ligand with Mn{sup II} and Ni{sup II} metallic ions, synthesizing complexes and characterizing them by infrared spectroscopy, IR, and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, {sup 1}H NMR. Cimetidine protonation constant regarding to the imidazole group was log K 7.05 and the stability constants for Mn{sup II} and Ni{sup II} complexes, ML{sub 2} species were log K 3.75 and 2.97, respectively, in 0.100 mol L{sup -1} KCl. The interpretation of IR and {sup H}1 NMR spectra for complexes Mn{sup II}-cim{sub 2} and Ni{sup II}-cim{sub 2} indicated that their formation occurs through the sulfur atoms in the thiol group, nitrogen atoms of imidazole ring, and nitrogen atoms of secondary amine. The nitrile group seems to be involved in the complexation of the Ni{sup II}-cim{sub 2} complex. (author)

  11. Simultaneous Determination and Stability Studies on Diminazene Diaceturate and Phenazone Using Developed Derivative Spectrophotometric Method

    Ahmed Gadkariem, Elrasheed; Awadalla Mohamed, Magdi

    2017-01-01

    This work presents UV first derivative spectrophotometry as a precise, accurate, and feasible method for simultaneous determination of diminazene diaceturate and phenazone in bulk and dosage forms. The absorbance values of diminazene diaceturate and phenazone aqueous mixture were obtained at 398 nm and 273 nm, respectively. The developed method was proved to be linear over the concentration ranges (2–10) μg/mL and (2.496–12.48) μg/mL for diminazene diaceturate and phenazone, respectively, with good correlation coefficients (not less than 0.997). The detection and quantitation limits were found to be (LOD = 0.63 and 0.48 μg/mL; LOQ = 1.92 and 1.47 μg/mL, resp.). The developed method was employed for stability studies of both drugs under different stress conditions. Diminazene diaceturate was prone to degrade at acidic pH via first-order kinetics. The degradation process was found to be temperature dependent with an activation energy of 7.48 kcal/mole. Photo-stability was also investigated for this drug.

  12. Comparison of Visual 24-Hour and Spectrophotometric 48-Hour MICs to CLSI Reference Microdilution MICs of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Posaconazole, and Voriconazole for Candida spp.: a Collaborative Study

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Barchiesi, F.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rinaldi, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.; Verweij, P. E.

    2005-01-01

    A multicenter (six-center) study evaluated the performance (interlaboratory reproducibility, compatibility with reference methods, and categorical agreement) of 24-h visual and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs. MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were compared to reference 48-h microdilution broth visual MICs (CLSI [formerly NCCLS] M27-A2 document) for 71 isolates of Candida spp. that included 10 fluconazole-resistant strains. Twenty readings (5%) were reported as showing no growth at 24 h, mostly for Candida dubliniensis and from a single center. The overall interlaboratory agreement of 24-h visual readings and 48-h spectrophotometric MICs, as well their compatibility with reference values, were excellent with the four triazoles for most of the species (93 to 99%, within 3 dilutions). The categorical agreement between the investigational reading conditions and reference values was good with fluconazole and voriconazole (93 to 97%) but lower with itraconazole (86 to 88%), due primarily to minor errors. There were only 0 to 3% very major errors with these three triazoles; the number of substantial errors (more than three dilutions) was also low (<2%) with posaconazole. These data suggest that the performance of both investigational MIC readings gives results similar to those of reference MICs. Since spectrophotometric MICs are more objective and the 24-h time period would shorten the MIC determination of azoles, the description of either of these two reading conditions in the M27-A2 document should be considered by the CLSI subcommittee in addition to or instead of the longer, less practical, and more subjective 48-h visual MIC reading. PMID:16145103

  13. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    M K Bhide; R M Kadam; M D Sastry; Ajay Singh; Shashwati Sen; Manmeet Kaur; D K Aswal; S K Gupta; V C Sahni

    2002-05-01

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave absorption has been found to obey a $\\sqrt{H}$ dependence with two different slopes, which indicated a transition from strongly pinned lattice to flux flow regime.

  14. Studies on intestinal absorption of sulpiride (3): intestinal absorption of sulpiride in rats.

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sawano, Tetsuya; Jinriki, Toshiya; Sato, Juichi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the concomitant administration of the substrates or inhibitors of PEPT1, OCTN1, OCTN2, and P-glycoprotein affects the intestinal absorption of sulpiride in rats. The absorption of sulpiride from rat intestine was decreased by the substrates or inhibitors of PEPT1, OCTN1, and OCTN2. On the other hand, the absorption was increased by the substrates of P-glycoprotein. The effects of these concomitantly administered drugs on the pharmacokinetic behavior of sulpiride after oral administration in rats were investigated. Peak concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-8 h)) of sulpiride were decreased by the concomitant administration of the substrates or inhibitors of PEPT1, OCTN1, and OCTN2. However, the same parameters were significantly increased by the concomitant administration of the substrates of P-glycoprotein. The present results suggest the possibility of drug-drug interaction during the absorption process in the small intestine due to the coadministration of sulpiride and these agents. These findings provide important information for preventing adverse effects and for ensuring the effectiveness of sulpiride and concomitantly administered drugs.

  15. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI using diacetyl monoxime isonicotinoyl hydrazone (DMIH

    ChandraSekhar Reddy Gadikota

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Uranium (VI forms a yellow coloured water soluble complex with diacetyl monoxime isonicotinoyl hydrazone (DMIH reagent in acidic buffer of pH 3.25 with ?max at 364 nm. The molar absorptivity and sandell’s sensitivity are 1.63 X 10 4 L.mol -1.cm-1 and 0.00307692 µg/cm 2, respectively. The Beer’s law validity range is 1.19–14.28 µg/mL. Uranium (VI forms (M:L 1:1 complex with DMIH and stability constant of the complex is 4.928 X 106 .The derivative spectrophotometric determination of U (VI was carried out by measuring peak height method. The developed derivative spectrophotometric method was employed for the determination of uranium (VI in rock and synthetic samples. The effect of various diverse ions was also studied.

  16. A New Way to Study Water-Vapor Absorption Coefficient

    2005-01-01

    In the visible spectrum, the atmospheric attenuations to sunlight mainly include aerosol scattering, atmospheric molecule Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption, while in the near-infrared spectrum (from 650 nm to 1000 nm), we must take water-vapor absorption into account. Based on the atmospheric correction theory, using spectrum irradiance data measured by Instantaneous Ground spectrometer, ozone content measured by Microtops Ⅱ ozone monitor,water-vapor content and aerosol optical thickness measured by sun photometer, we give a new way to study water-vapor absorption to sunlight, and the result shows that the main peak values of water-vapor absorption coefficients are 0.025 cm-1, 0.073 cm-1, 0.124 cm-1, 0.090 cm-1, 0.141cm-1 and 0.417 cm-1, which respectively lie at 692 nm, 725 nm, 761 nm, 818 nm, 912 nm and 937 nm.

  17. THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF TRIAMTERENE

    M. Ramegowda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT calculations have been carried out to study the electronic structure and the UV absorption spectra of Triamterene. The UV spectra have been investigated with inclusion of solvent effect. The B3LYP functional with a 6-31G(d, p basis sets have been used to compute absorption energies. The solvent effects have been described within the polarizable continuum model (PCM. The geometries are optimized using density functional theory (DFT with B3LYP functional combined with 6-31G(d, p basis sets. The vertical absorption energies both in gas phase and in polar solvents such as ethanol, methanol and water were computed. Red-shift of the absorption maximum in the polar solvents is discussed in terms of electrostatic interaction energy, oscillator strength and dipole moment.

  18. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    Li, Yeguang; Miao, Fengping; Geng, Yahong; Lu, Dayan; Zhang, Chengwu; Zeng, Mingtao

    2012-07-01

    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated, and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al. was established. According to Boussiba's method, alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll. However, we found that: 1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm. Interestingly, a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content, while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study. Therefore, with 530 nm as working wavelength, the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll, other carotenoids, and the unknown interference could be avoided. The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g. When compared with the measured values at 492 nm, the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%, respectively. The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples. The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  19. Aqueous complexation of citrate with neodymium(III) and americium(III): a study by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and XAFS.

    Brown, M Alex; Kropf, A Jeremy; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2014-05-07

    The aqueous complexation of Nd(III) and Am(III) with anions of citrate was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Using potentiometric titration data fitting the metal-ligand (L) complexes that were identified for Nd(III) were NdHL, NdL, NdHL2, and NdL2; a review of trivalent metal-citrate complexes is also included. Stability constants for these complexes were calculated from potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. Microcalorimetric results concluded that the entropy term of complex formation is much more dominant than the enthalpy. XAFS results showed a dependence in the Debye-Waller factor that indicated Nd(iii)-citrate complexation over the pH range of 1.56-6.12.

  20. Method development, validation and stability study of ritonavir in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form by spectrophotometric method

    Anindita Behera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor and mostly used as a booster for increasing the bioavailability of other protease inhibitors like Atazanavir Sulfate and Lopinavir. Aims: Quality assessment of the new dosage form of Ritonavir i.e. tablets is very essential, so two sensitive, simple and precise methods are developed for quantification of Ritonavir in bulk and tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: The first method is based on first order derivative method and the second is based on area under curve method. Both the methods are validated according to international conference of harmonization (ICH guidelines. A stability study of Ritonavir is done in UV - Visible Spectrophotometer under different stress conditions recommended by ICH guidelines. Results: The absorption maximum is found to be 239nm in methanol. The absorption maximum in first method is chosen at 253.2nm, and the linearity is found between 4 - 20 ΅g/ml with coefficient of correlation value 0.9981. In the second method, the range for area under curve selected is 237 - 242nm. The linearity is found between 4 -20 ΅g/ml with coefficient of correlation value 0.9992. Conclusion: The developed methods are validated and found to be simple, rapid, precise and cost-effective. The degradation study in tablet dosage form can be used as a stability indicating assay method.

  1. Percutaneous absorption of methimazole: an in vitro study of the absorption pharmacokinetics for two different vehicles.

    Hill, K E; Mills, P C; Jones, B R; Bolwell, C F; Aberdein, D; Chambers, J P

    2015-12-01

    The use of transdermal medications in cats has become popular in veterinary medicine due to the ease of administration compared to oral medication. However, the research to support systemic absorption of drugs applied to the pinna after transdermal administration in cats is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics of methimazole in a lipophilic vehicle compared to methimazole in Pluronic(®) lecithin organogel (PLO) using a finite dose applied to feline ear skin in an in vitro Franz cell model. The two formulations of methimazole (10 mg) were applied to the inner stratum corneum of six pairs of feline ears. The receptor medium was sampled up to 30 h post-administration, and methimazole concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histological examination of all ears was undertaken as small differences in the thickness of ear skin may have contributed to inter-individual differences in methimazole absorption between six cats. Methimazole was absorbed more completely across the pinnal skin when administered in the lipophilic vehicle compared to administration in the PLO gel (P < 0.001).

  2. Improved spectrophotometric analysis of barium styphnate

    Brown, N E; Blasi, J A

    1983-01-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure to determine the purity of barium styphnate monohydrate based upon the absorbance of the styphnate ion at 326 and 413.3 nm has been developed. The purity is determined by comparing the absorbance of the styphnate ion in barium styphnate and in styphnic acid. Our investigation has shown that the molar absorptivity and lambda maxima of the styphnate ion are quite pH dependent; therefore, the pH is buffered to 6.8 to 7.0 with ammonium acetate. Under these conditions the molar absorptivity is 1.6 x 10/sup 4/ L/mol-cm. Analyses following the procedure in the Navy specification WS13444A using water were found to give low molar absorptivities (1.3 x 10/sup 4/ L/mol-cm) for the styphnic acid calibration resulting in erroneous values for barium styphnate purity.

  3. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet.

    Mahaparale, Sonali; Telekone, R S; Raut, R P; Damle, S S; Kasture, P V

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 mug/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 mug/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm) and lambda(max) of paracetamol (243.5 nm). In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  4. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet

    Mahaparale Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm and λmax of paracetamol (243.5 nm. In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  5. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Sulfate at 10-70oC

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.

    2008-06-16

    Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents in the groundwater of nuclear waste repository, could affect the migration of radioactive materials by forming complexes. Spectrophotometric and microcalorimetric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/sulfate complex and determine the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation at 10-70 C. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is weak but slightly enhanced by the increase in temperature. The complexation is endothermic and becomes more endothermic with the increase in temperature. The enhanced complexation at elevated temperatures is due to the increasingly larger entropy of complexation that exceeds the increase in enthalpy, suggesting that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is entropy-driven.

  6. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at Variable Temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at variable temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding temperatures was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the temperature is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated temperatures is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher temperatures.

  7. Mechanistic chemistry of oxidation of balsalazide with acidic chloramine-T and bromamine-T: A comparative spectrophotometric kinetic study

    Puttaswamy; S Dakshayani

    2014-11-01

    Balsalazide (BSZ) belongs to a class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of BSZ with sodium N-halo-p-toluenesulfonamides viz., chloramine-T(CAT) and bromamine-T(BAT) in HClO4 medium have been spectrophotometrically investigated (max =357nm) at 303 K. Under comparable experimental conditions, reactions with both the oxidants follow a first-order dependence of rate on [BSZ] and fractional-order dependence on each [oxidant] and [HClO4]. Activation parameters and reaction constants have been computed. 2-hydroxy-5-nitroso-benzoic acid and 3-(4-nitroso-benzoylamino)-propionic acid are identified as the oxidation products of BSZ with both CAT and BAT. The rate of oxidation of BSZ is about five-fold faster with BAT than with CAT. Plausible mechanism and related rate law have been deduced for the observed kinetics.

  8. Direct Spectrophotometric Assay for Benzaldehyde Lyase Activity

    Dessy Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens Biovar I. (BAL, EC 4.1.2.38 is a versatile catalyst for the organic synthesis of chiral α-hydroxy ketones. To allow fast assessment of enzyme activity, a direct spectrophotometric assay is desirable. Here, a new robust and easy-to-handle assay based on UV absorption is presented. The assay developed is based on the ligation of the α-hydroxy ketone (R-2,2′-furoin from 2-furaldehyde. A robust assay with direct monitoring of the product is facilitated with a convenient concentration working range minimising experimental associated with low concentrations.

  9. Prediction of absorption coefficients by pulsed laser induced photoacoustic measurements.

    Priya, Mallika; Satish Rao, B S; Ray, Satadru; Mahato, K K

    2014-06-05

    In the current study, a pulsed laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy setup was designed and developed, aiming its application in clinical diagnostics. The setup was optimized with carbon black samples in water and with various tryptophan concentrations at 281nm excitations. The sensitivity of the setup was estimated by determining minimum detectable concentration of tryptophan in water at the same excitation, and was found to be 0.035mM. The photoacoustic experiments were also performed with various tryptophan concentrations at 281nm excitation for predicting optical absorption coefficients in them and for comparing the outcomes with the spectrophotometrically-determined absorption coefficients for the same samples. Absorption coefficients for a few serum samples, obtained from some healthy female volunteers, were also determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitations, which showed good agreement between them, indicating its clinical implications.

  10. Theoretical Study on Sulfur Dioxide Absorption with Citrate Solution

    薛娟琴; 洪涛; 王召启; 李林波

    2006-01-01

    The citrate absorption of SO2 is currently one of the most successful and economic methods to harness sulfur dioxide pollution.In order to theoretically elucidate the mechanism of SO2 absorption by citrate solution and provide theoretical instruction for experiments and industrial process, the theory of multi-buffer solution, combined with computer numerical calculation methods, was applied to study the distribution parameters of the components of the citrate solution in the process of SO2 absorption and the following results were obtained: (1) HCi2- and H2Ci- in the citrate solution played the dominant role in the absorption and desorption processes; (2) Through the calculation for the buffer capacity of citrate solution, it was found that the pH of the absorption and desorption solution should be in the range of 2~8, while at pH=4.5 the buffer capacity reached its maximum. Some valuable parameters were obtained, which are instructive to the ensuing experiments and industrial design.

  11. Studies of Moisture Absorption and Release Behaviour of Akund Fiber

    Xue Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Akund fiber is a new type of natural cellulose fiber. Because of its excellent properties, akund fiber has become one of the new ecological materials which have huge development potential. Recently natural fibers have shown great promise in a variety of applications that were previously dominated by synthetic fibers due to their important aspects of biocompatibility, possible biodegradation, nontoxicity, and abundance. Moisture absorption and release behaviour of natural fiber plastic composites is one major concern in their outdoor applications. So the knowledge of the moisture content and the moisture absorption and release rate is very much essential for the application of akund fiber as an excellent reinforcement in polymers. An effort has been made to study the moisture absorption and release behaviour of akund fiber and the mechanical performance of it at relative air humidity from 0% to 100%. The gain and loss in moisture content in akund fiber due to water absorption and release were measured as a function of exposure time under the environment, in which temperature is 20°C and humidity is 65%. The regression equations of the absorption and release process were established.

  12. Study on Optical Absorption Behavior of Dyestuff in Fabric

    YANG Hong-ying; ZHU Su-kang; ZUO Lei; ZHU Ping-ping; PAN Ning

    2008-01-01

    Fabric is a kind of turbid materials with strong light scattering,to which the Kubelka-Munk theory can be applied to describe it optical behavior.In this paper,the light absorption coefficients of dyestuff in fabrics are obtained by test and calculation thnmgh a special method proposed by the authors.Then the optical behaviours of dyestuff in fabric are studied.Results show that,the absorption coeffident of dye in fabric is non-scalable and exponential to dye concentrafion in fabric which is totally different from that of the dye in transparent medm like water.

  13. Spectrophotometric and conductometric study of the complexation of N-salicylidene-2-aminophenol with Cu2+ in methanol + 1,4-dioxane binary solutions

    Biswas Rashmidipta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexation reaction between N-salicylidene-2-aminophenol, abbreviated as SAP, with Cu2+ ion was studied in binary mixtures of methanol and 1,4-dioxane by using conductometric and spectrophotometric method at different temperatures. The stability constants (Kf for the 1:1 complex, Cu2+-SAP, were calculated from computer fitting of absorbance and molar conductance data against various mole ratios (cM:cL or cL:cM in different binary solvent mixtures. A non-linear behaviour was observed for the variation of logKf for the complex against the solvent compositions. Various thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG for the formation of Cu2+-SAP complex were determined from the temperature dependence of stability constants (Kf. The overall results showed that the complexation reaction is entropy driven and is affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  14. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of U(VI) Complexation with Sulfate at 25-70oC

    Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2008-10-30

    Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents in the groundwater of nuclear waste repository, could affect the migration of radioactive materials by forming complexes. Spectrophotometric and microcalorimetric titrations were performed to identify the U(VI)/sulfate complexes and determine the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation at 25-70 C. Results show that U(VI) forms moderately strong complexes with sulfate, i.e., UO{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(aq) and UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2-}, in this temperature range and the complexes become stronger as the temperature is increased: 2-fold and 10-fold increases in the stability constants of UO{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(aq) and UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}{sub 2}{sup 2-}), respectively, when the temperature is increased from 25 C to 70 C. The complexation is endothermic and entropy-driven, showing typical characteristics of inner-sphere complexation and 'hard acid'/'hard base' interactions. The thermodynamic trends are discussed in terms of dehydration of both the cation (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) and the anion (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) as well as the effect of temperature on the structure of water.

  15. Comparative study of three modified numerical spectrophotometric methods: An application on pharmaceutical ternary mixture of aspirin, atorvastatin and clopedogrel

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R.'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Abu; Hegazy, Nahed Diab; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana

    2014-07-01

    Three novel numerical methods were developed for the spectrophotometric multi-component analysis of capsules and synthetic mixtures of aspirin, atorvastatin and clopedogrel without any chemical separation. The subtraction method is based on the relationship between the difference in absorbance at four wavelengths and corresponding concentration of analyte. In this method, the linear determination ranges were 0.8-40 μg mL-1 aspirin, 0.8-30 μg mL-1 atorvastatin and 0.5-30 μg mL-1 clopedogrel. In the quotient method, 0.8-40 μg mL-1 aspirin, 0.8-30 μg mL-1 atorvastatin and 1.0-30 μg mL-1 clopedogrel were determine from spectral data at the wavelength pairs that show the same ratio of absorbance for other two species. Standard addition method was used for resolving ternary mixture of 1.0-40 μg mL-1 aspirin, 0.8-30 μg mL-1 atorvastatin and 2.0-30 μg mL-1 clopedogrel. The proposed methods were validated. The reproducibility and repeatability were found satisfactory which evidence was by low values of relative standard deviation (dosage forms and results were in good concordance with alternative liquid chromatography.

  16. [Study on solid phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of uranium in water with 2-(2-quinolylazo)-5-dimthylaminophenol].

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Zhuo-Bin; Hu, Qiu-Fen; Yang, Guang-Yu; Yin, Jia-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    A new chromogenic reagent 2-(2-quinolylazo)-5-Dimthylaminophenol (QADMAP) was synthesized, and its structure was verified by elemental analysis, infrared spectrum, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum, mass spectrumand UV-spectrum. The color reaction of QADMAP with uranium was studied. In the presence of pH 7.8 buffer solution, when fluorin ion and TritonX-100 medium exist, QADMAP can react with uranium and fluorin to form a stable 1 : 1 : 1 stable complex [F- :QADMAP : U(VI)]. The molar absorptivity is 1.05 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1) at 590 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in range of 0-20 microg/10 mL. The uranium in samples can be enriched and separated by solid phase extraction with TBP resin cartridge. This method is applied to the determination of uranium in water sample. The relative standard deviations are 2.2%-3.6%, and the recoveries are 94%-105%.

  17. Comparative study of three modified numerical spectrophotometric methods: an application on pharmaceutical ternary mixture of aspirin, atorvastatin and clopedogrel.

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Abu; Hegazy, Nahed Diab; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana

    2014-07-15

    Three novel numerical methods were developed for the spectrophotometric multi-component analysis of capsules and synthetic mixtures of aspirin, atorvastatin and clopedogrel without any chemical separation. The subtraction method is based on the relationship between the difference in absorbance at four wavelengths and corresponding concentration of analyte. In this method, the linear determination ranges were 0.8-40 μg mL(-1) aspirin, 0.8-30 μg mL(-1) atorvastatin and 0.5-30 μg mL(-1) clopedogrel. In the quotient method, 0.8-40 μg mL(-1) aspirin, 0.8-30 μg mL(-1) atorvastatin and 1.0-30 μg mL(-1) clopedogrel were determine from spectral data at the wavelength pairs that show the same ratio of absorbance for other two species. Standard addition method was used for resolving ternary mixture of 1.0-40 μg mL(-1) aspirin, 0.8-30 μg mL(-1) atorvastatin and 2.0-30 μg mL(-1) clopedogrel. The proposed methods were validated. The reproducibility and repeatability were found satisfactory which evidence was by low values of relative standard deviation (methods, the time taken for analysis was reduced as these methods involve very limited steps. The developed methods were applied for simultaneous analysis of aspirin, atorvastatin and clopedogrel in capsule dosage forms and results were in good concordance with alternative liquid chromatography.

  18. Spectroscopic study of low-temperature hydrogen absorption in palladium

    Ienaga, K., E-mail: ienaga@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takata, H.; Onishi, Y.; Inagaki, Y.; Kawae, T. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Nishi-Ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tsujii, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kimura, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2015-01-12

    We report real-time detection of hydrogen (H) absorption in metallic palladium (Pd) nano-contacts immersed in liquid H{sub 2} using inelastic electron spectroscopy (IES). After introduction of liquid H{sub 2}, the spectra exhibit the time evolution from the pure Pd to the Pd hydride, indicating that H atoms are absorbed in Pd nano-contacts even at the temperature where the thermal process is not expected. The IES time and bias voltage dependences show that H absorption develops by applying bias voltage 30 ∼ 50 mV, which can be explained by quantum tunneling. The results represent that IES is a powerful method to study the kinetics of high density H on solid surface.

  19. IR absorption spectroscopic study of mixed cobalt substituted lithium ferrites

    Sawant, V. S.; Bagade, A. A.; Mohite, S. V.; Rajpure, K. Y.

    2014-10-01

    The IR spectra of Li0.5-(x/2)CoxFe2.5-(x/2)O4 ferrite samples (0≤x≤0.6) prepared by solution combustion method have been reported. The influence of Co substitution is verified. XRD studies confirm the spinel phase formation of ferrites. Lattice constant varies linearly from 8.31 Å (x=0) to 8.35 Å (x=0.6) with composition. Evidence of two absorption bands in the IR spectra (below 800 cm-1) reveals the characteristic feature of spinel ferrite. The IR spectra featured additional three absorption bands around 550, 670 and 705 cm-1 for the samples x=0.1 and x=0.6. Absence of bands splitting specifies that Fe ions do not exist in excess form. It is found that high frequency band (ν1), due to tetrahedral (A) group, lies at around 600 cm-1 and low frequency band (ν2), due to octahedral (B) group, around 450 cm-1. The positions of bands are found to be composition dependent. The IR bands due to tetrahedral complexes shift slightly towards high frequency side with composition upto x=0.4 where as that due to octahedral complexes shift towards lower frequency side with x. Based on the data of absorption bands, force constants (kt, ko) and bond lengths (RA, RB) were estimated. Compositional dependence of force constants is explained on the basis of cation-oxygen bond distances of respective sites and cation distribution.

  20. Sound absorption study of raw and expanded particulate vermiculites

    Vašina, Martin; Plachá, Daniela; Mikeska, Marcel; Hružík, Lumír; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2016-12-01

    Expanded and raw vermiculite minerals were studied for their ability to absorb sound. Phase and structural characterization of the investigated vermiculites was found similar for both types, while morphology and surface properties vary. Sound waves reflect in wedge-like structure and get minimized, and later are absorbed totally. We found that thanks to porous character of expanded vermiculite the principle of absorption of sound into layered vermiculite morphology is analogous to principle of sound minimization in "anechoic chambers." It was found in this study that the best sound damping properties of the investigated vermiculites were in general obtained at higher powder bed heights and higher excitation frequencies.

  1. A New Spectrophotometric Method for Measuring COD of Seawater

    LIU Ying; JI Hongwei; XIN Huizhen; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    This research studied a new spectrophotometric method for measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of seawater. In this method, the COD was measured using a spectrophotometer instead of titrating with sodium thiosulphate.The measuring wavelength was selected to be 470 nm, and the COD of three standard glucose solutions (COD = 0.5, 1.5 and2.5 mgL-1, respectively) and two seawater samples (from the South Yellow Sea and Jiaozhou Bay) were measured using the spectrophotometric method and titrimetric method respectively. The results showed that the spectrophotometric method was somewhat better than the titrimetric method. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the spectrophotometric method was less than 2.7%, and the recovery of seawater samples ranged from 96.3% to 103.8%. In addition, the spectrophotometric method has other advantages such as expeditiousness, operation simplicity, analysis automatization, etc. Therefore the spectrophotometric method can be used to measure the COD of seawater with satisfactory results.

  2. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  3. Comparative study for determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 'PAHs' by a new spectrophotometric method and multivariate calibration coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid extraction.

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El Kosasy, A M; El-Sayed Okeil, S M

    2014-12-10

    A modified dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (DLLE) procedure coupled with spectrophotometric techniques was adopted for simultaneous determination of naphthalene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, alpha-naphthol and beta-naphthol in water samples. Two different methods were used, partial least-squares (PLS) method and a new derivative ratio method, namely extended derivative ratio (EDR). A PLS-2 model was established for simultaneous determination of the studied pollutants in methanol, by using twenty mixtures as calibration set and five mixtures as validation set. Also, in methanol a novel (EDR) method was developed for determination of the studied pollutants, where each component in the mixture of the five PAHs was determined by using a mixture of the other four components as divisor. Chemometric and EDR methods could be also adopted for determination of the studied PAH in water samples after transferring them from aqueous medium to the organic one by utilizing dispersive liquid-liquid extraction technique, where different parameters were investigated using a full factorial design. Both methods were compared and the proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully applied to determine these PAHs simultaneously in spiked water samples, where satisfactory results were obtained. All the results obtained agreed with those of published methods, where no significant difference was observed.

  4. Accurate quantification of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract spectrophotometrically

    LI Yeguang; MIAO Fengping; GENG Yahong; LU Dayan; ZHANG Chengwu; ZENG Mingtao

    2012-01-01

    The influence of alkali on astaxanthin and the optimal working wave length for measurement of astaxanthin from Haematococcus crude extract were investigated,and a spectrophotometric method for precise quantification of the astaxanthin based on the method of Boussiba et al.was established.According to Boussiba's method,alkali treatment destroys chlorophyll.However,we found that:1) carotenoid content declined for about 25% in Haematococcus fresh cysts and up to 30% in dry powder of Haematococcus broken cysts after alkali treatment; and 2) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-extracted chlorophyll of green Haematococcus bares little absorption at 520-550 nm.Interestingly,a good linear relationship existed between absorbance at 530 nm and astaxanthin content,while an unknown interference at 540-550 nm was detected in our study.Therefore,with 530 nm as working wavelength,the alkali treatment to destroy chlorophyll was not necessary and the influence of chlorophyll,other carotenoids,and the unknown interference could be avoided.The astaxanthin contents of two samples were measured at 492 nm and 530 nm; the measured values at 530 nm were 2.617 g/100 g and 1.811 g/100 g.When compared with the measured values at 492 nm,the measured values at 530 nm decreased by 6.93% and 11.96%,respectively.The measured values at 530 nm are closer to the true astaxanthin contents in the samples.The data show that 530 nm is the most suitable wave length for spectrophotometric determination to the astaxanthin in Haematococcus crude extract.

  5. Study on Polarographic Absorption Wave of Soluble Porphyrin Copper Complex

    HE; YuFeng

    2001-01-01

    The porphyrins is a kind of sensitive color-producing reagent. However, its selectivity is low. If the porphyrin is used in polarographic analysis, the selectivity and sensitivity can be improved. Copper is one of the most important trace element in human and mammalian body. The polarographic method is a kind of important method in determination of metal ion [1]. In this paper, meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) is used as the soluble ligand. The polarographic absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin complex with copper ion has been studied.  ……

  6. Study on Polarographic Absorption Wave of Soluble Porphyrin Copper Complex

    2001-01-01

    @@ The porphyrins is a kind of sensitive color-producing reagent. However, its selectivity is low. If the porphyrin is used in polarographic analysis, the selectivity and sensitivity can be improved. Copper is one of the most important trace element in human and mammalian body. The polarographic method is a kind of important method in determination of metal ion [1]. In this paper, meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) is used as the soluble ligand. The polarographic absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin complex with copper ion has been studied.

  7. SHARDS: an optical spectro-photometric survey of distant galaxies

    Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G; Barro, Guillermo; Villar, Victor; Cardiel, Nicolas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Balcells, Marc; Cenarro, Javier; Cepa, Jordi; Charlot, Stephane; Cimatti, Andrea; Conselice, Christopher J; Daddi, Emmanuele; Donley, Jennifer; Elbaz, David; Espino, Nestor; Gallego, Jesus; Gobat, R; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Guzman, Rafael; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Muñoz-Tuñon, Casiana; Renzini, Alvio; Zaurin, Javier Rodriguez; Tresse, Laurence; Trujillo, Ignacio; Zamorano, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS), an ESO/GTC Large Program carried out with GTC/OSIRIS. SHARDS is an ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric survey of the GOODS-N field (130 arcmin^2) at wavelengths 500 to 950 nm and using 24 contiguous medium-band filters (spectral resolution R 50). The data reach 26.5 mag (>3-sigma level) with sub-arcsec seeing in all bands. SHARDS main goal is obtaining accurate physical properties of interm- and high-z galaxies using well-sampled optical SEDs with sufficient spectral resolution to measure absorption and emission features. Among the different populations of high-z galaxies, SHARDS principal targets are massive quiescent galaxies at z>1. In this paper, we outline the observational strategy and include a detailed discussion of the special reduction and calibration procedures applied to the GTC/OSIRIS data. We present science demonstration results about the detection and study of emission-line galaxies (star-forming and AGN) ...

  8. STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING INK ABSORPTION OF COATED PAPER

    Yanxin Liu; Chuanshan Zhao; Shuxia Shang; Zhongwei Sun

    2004-01-01

    Ink absorption is one of the most important factors which influence printing properties. This article had discussed the influence of coating properties,technologies of heating and pressure etc. on ink absorption and showed that ink absorption can be adjusted and coating surface structure can be improved when technologies of heating and pressure change, pigment and adhesive altered.

  9. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Paracetamol in Tablet

    Mahaparale Sonali; Telekone R; Raut R; Damle S; Kasture P

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamo...

  10. Emission and Absorption Study of the Vela Supernova Remnant

    Raymond, John C.

    The combination of emission and absorption studies of the shocked gas in a supernova remnant can provide information not available from either study by itself, especially relating to the liberation of refractory elements from interstellar grains in the cooling zone behind the shock and the effects of departures from steady flow. No such combined studies have been attempted due to the need for a hot, bright background star behind supernova remnant nebulosity bright enough for emission line observations. Wallerstein and Balick have discovered a suitable patch of nebulosity in the Vela Supernova Remnant adjacent to the B3 III star HD 72088. IUE spectra of the star show a 94 km/s component in C IV and Si IV in absorption, and the optical spectra of Wallerstein and Balick show strong high excitation emission lines close to the star. We wish to obtain IUE spectra of the nebulosity as close to the star as possible and further high dispersion spectra of the star to improve the signal-tonoise.

  11. X-ray absorption studies of battery materials

    McBreen, J.

    1996-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is ideal for {ital in}{ital situ} studies of battery materials because both the probe and signal are penetrating x rays. The advantage of XAS being element specific permits investigation of the environment of a constituent element in a composite material. This makes it very powerful for studying electrode additives and corrosion of individual components of complex metal hydride alloys. The near edge part of the spectrum (XANES) provides information on oxidation state and site symmetry of the excited atom. This is particularly useful in study of corrosion and oxidation changes in cathode materials during charge/discharge cycle. Extended fine structure (EXAFS) gives structural information. Thus the technique provides both chemical and structural information. Since XAS probes only short range order, it can be applied to study of amorphous electrode materials and electrolytes. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of the method, as well as some experimental aspects.

  12. IR absorption spectroscopic study of mixed cobalt substituted lithium ferrites

    Sawant, V.S.; Bagade, A.A.; Mohite, S.V.; Rajpure, K.Y., E-mail: rajpure@yahoo.com

    2014-10-15

    The IR spectra of Li{sub 0.5−(x/2)}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2.5−(x/2)}O{sub 4} ferrite samples (0≤x≤0.6) prepared by solution combustion method have been reported. The influence of Co substitution is verified. XRD studies confirm the spinel phase formation of ferrites. Lattice constant varies linearly from 8.31 Å (x=0) to 8.35 Å (x=0.6) with composition. Evidence of two absorption bands in the IR spectra (below 800 cm{sup −1}) reveals the characteristic feature of spinel ferrite. The IR spectra featured additional three absorption bands around 550, 670 and 705 cm{sup −1} for the samples x=0.1 and x=0.6. Absence of bands splitting specifies that Fe ions do not exist in excess form. It is found that high frequency band (ν{sub 1}), due to tetrahedral (A) group, lies at around 600 cm{sup −1} and low frequency band (ν{sub 2}), due to octahedral (B) group, around 450 cm{sup −1}. The positions of bands are found to be composition dependent. The IR bands due to tetrahedral complexes shift slightly towards high frequency side with composition upto x=0.4 where as that due to octahedral complexes shift towards lower frequency side with x. Based on the data of absorption bands, force constants (k{sub t}, k{sub o}) and bond lengths (R{sub A}, R{sub B}) were estimated. Compositional dependence of force constants is explained on the basis of cation–oxygen bond distances of respective sites and cation distribution.

  13. Studies on Steam Absorption Chillers Performance at a Cogeneration Plant

    Abd Majid Mohd Amin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers at cogeneration plants generate chilled water using steam supplied by heat recovery steam generators. The chillers can be of either single-effect or double effect configuration and the coefficient of performance (COP depends on the selection made. The COP varies from 0.7 to 1.2 depending on the types of chillers. Single effect chillers normally have COP in the range of 0.68 to 0.79. Double effect chillers COP are higher and can reach 1.2. However due to factors such as inappropriate operations and maintenance practices, COP could drop over a period of time. In this work the performances of double effect steam absorption chillers at a cogeneration plant were studied. The study revealed that during the period of eleven years of operation the COP of the chillers deteriorated from 1.25 to 0.6. Regression models on the operation data indicated that the state of deterioration was projected to persist. Hence, it would be recommended that the chillers be considered for replacement since they had already undergone a series of costly repairs.

  14. An absorption study of dietary administered acrylamide in swine.

    Aureli, Federica; Di Pasquale, Mauro; Lucchetti, Dario; Aureli, Paolo; Coni, Ettore

    2007-07-01

    Acrylamide is a food toxicant suspected to be carcinogenic to humans. It is formed in the heat processing of carbohydrate-rich food. A current issue in food safety is whether acrylamide actually represents a risk for human health. At present, available information is insufficient to reach any conclusions. Inter alias, a still unclear matter is the fraction of acrylamide ingested by food that is absorbed and metabolized. This study compared the in vivo relative absorption of acrylamide formed in cooked food with that of the pure compound dissolved in drinking water using the pig (25 Italian Large White females) as the animal model. Acrylamide intakes of about 0.8 and 8 microg kg(-1) pig body wt day(-1) equal to one and ten times, respectively, the maximum average acrylamide daily intake for humans from the diet (expressed on a body wt basis) in industrialized countries, were chosen for the study. Adducts with the N-terminal valine of haemoglobin formed by acrylamide and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide, were used as exposure markers. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry following in-house method validation. Both for the low and the high dose regimen, the glycidamide adduct levels in swine globins were lower of the limit of quantification of the method. As concerns acrylamide adducts, it was found that the relative absorption of acrylamide from feed and water was the same and that there is a direct proportionality between the adduct concentration and acrylamide intake.

  15. Spectrophotometric Studies on the Thermodynamics of the ds-DNA Interaction with Irinotecan for a Better Understanding of Anticancer Drug-DNA Interactions

    Reza Hajian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ds-DNA binding properties of irinotecan (CPT-11 including binding constant, thermodynamic parameter, and thermal denaturation (Tm have been systematically studied by spectrophotometric methods. The binding of CPT-11 to ds-DNA is quite strong as indicated by its remarkable hypochromicity and equilibrium binding constant (Kb. The van't Hoff plot of 1/T versus ln Kb suggests that the CPT-11 binds endothermically to ct-DNA which is characterized by large positive enthalpy and entropy changes. According to the polyelectrolyte theory, the charge release (Z, when ct-DNA interacts with CPT-11, is +0.98, which corresponds very well to the one positive charge carried by CPT-11. The Kb at a low concentration of salt is dominated by electrostatic interaction (98.5% while that at a high concentration of salt is weakly controlled by nonelectrostatic processes (19.0%. A moderate stabilization of the double helix ds-DNA occurs when CPT-11 binds to ds-DNA as indicated by the increase in Tm of ct-DNA by approximately 15°C in the presence of CPT-11. The CPT-11 is stabilized by intercalation in the DNA (binding constant, K [irinotecan-DNA] = 5.8 × 104 mol−1 L and displaces the NR dye from the NR-DNA complex (K [NR-DNA] = 2.7 × 104 mol−1 L in a competitive reaction.

  16. New 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine dye. Part III: Synthesis, characterization, thermal property, spectrophotometric and computational studies

    Erfantalab, Malihe; Khanmohammadi, Hamid

    A new 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine compound, H2L, has been prepared by condensation reaction of 1-(3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenylazo)-4-ethylbenzene with prepared triazole-based diamine. The structure of H2L was characterized by using FT-IR, UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analysis. Hard model chemometrics method has been used to determine the formation constants of zinc(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H2L in DMSO by UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. Solvatochromic behavior of the dye has been also investigated in some organic solvents with different polarities. Thermal properties of the prepared dye was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Results indicated that the framework of the dye was stable up to 245 °C. Furthermore,1H chemical shifts and UV-Vis of H2L were studied by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO), continuous set of gauge transformations (CSGT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods respectively at the level of density functional theory using B3LYP/6-311+G(d) basis sets in DMSO. The computational data are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. New 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine dye. Part III: Synthesis, characterization, thermal property, spectrophotometric and computational studies.

    Erfantalab, Malihe; Khanmohammadi, Hamid

    2014-05-05

    A new 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine compound, H2L, has been prepared by condensation reaction of 1-(3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenylazo)-4-ethylbenzene with prepared triazole-based diamine. The structure of H2L was characterized by using FT-IR, UV-Vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analysis. Hard model chemometrics method has been used to determine the formation constants of zinc(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H2L in DMSO by UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. Solvatochromic behavior of the dye has been also investigated in some organic solvents with different polarities. Thermal properties of the prepared dye was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Results indicated that the framework of the dye was stable up to 245 °C. Furthermore,(1)H chemical shifts and UV-Vis of H2L were studied by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO), continuous set of gauge transformations (CSGT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods respectively at the level of density functional theory using B3LYP/6-311+G(d) basis sets in DMSO. The computational data are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Simple Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Meloxicam in Presence of Its Degradation Products

    Elham A. Taha

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To develope two simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of meloxicam ( Ⅰ ) in presence of its degradation products, 5 - methyl - 2 - aminothiazole ( Ⅱ ) and benzothiazine carboxylic acid ( Ⅲ ). Method:Both methods are based on the formation of chelate complexes of the studied drug with uranyl acetate and ferric chloride at room temperature in a methanolic medium. Results:The resulting complexes are stable for 24 hrs and show absorption maxima at 406 nm and 580 nm for uranyl and ferric complexes respectiverecoveries of (99.44 ± 0. 48 ) % and (99. 42 ± 0. 45 ) %, and molar absorptivity of 4. 67 × 103 and 1. 029 × 103 respectively. Conclusion:Both methods are proved to be stability indicating as no interference was observed with the degradation products. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of the drug in bulk powder, laboratory prepared mixtures containing different percentages of degradation products and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of tranexamic acid using vanillin

    EM.A.Rind; M.G.H.Laghari; A.H.Memon; U.R.Mughal; F. Almani; N.Me-mon; M.Y.Khuhawar; M.L.Maheshwari

    2009-01-01

    A new spectrophotometric method has been examined for the determination of the tranexamic acid (TA)by derivatization with vanillin(VAN).The molar absorptivity of TA was calculated 25 160 L·mol-1·cm-1at λ max 354 nm and obeyed the Beer's law within 0.5-2.5 μg·mL-1.The color reaction was highly stable and didnot show any change in absorbance up to 24 h.The method was applied for the analysis of TA from capsules,injections and tooth pastes.The amounts of TA found in capsules,injections and tooth pastes of various pharmaceutical companies were observed with 249.0-250.9 mg/capsule,249.3-250.7 mg/injection and 0.048%-0.049%in tooth pastes with relative standard deviation(RSD)0.2%-5.0%(n=3).

  20. Aqueous nonionic copolymer-functionalized laponite clay. A thermodynamic and spectrophotometric study to characterize its behavior toward an organic material.

    De Lisi, R; Lazzara, G; Milioto, S; Muratore, N

    2006-09-12

    The affinity of functionalized Laponite clay toward an organic material in the aqueous phase was explored. Functionalization was performed by using triblock copolymers based on ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) units that are EO(11)PO(16)EO(11) (L35) and PO(8)EO(23)PO(8) (10R5). Phenol (PhOH) was chosen as organic compound, which represents a contaminant prototype. To this purpose, densities and enthalpies of mixing as well as PhOH UV-absorption spectra were determined. The enthalpy and the spectrophotometry revealed PhOH-Laponite interactions whereas the volume did not. It emerged that the area occupied by PhOH on the Laponite surface is equal to that computed from the partial molar volume of PhOH in water, corroborating the insensitivity of the experimental volumes to the adsorption process. The situation where both PhOH and copolymer are simultaneously present in the aqueous Laponite suspension was also investigated. It turned out that the copolymer replaces PhOH from the water/Laponite clay interface, resulting in L35 being the more efficient. Moreover, the lateral copolymer-phenol interactions enhance the anchoring of PhOH to the solid surface. The reverse copolymer exercises the most important relevant effect. The UV-absorption spectra of PhOH in the water + copolymer + Laponite mixtures provided information that is consistent with those given by the calorimetric experiments. In conclusion, the aqueous copolymer-functionalized Laponite presents surface properties very different from the bare Laponite, favoring the removal of the organic compound from the solid surface.

  1. STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING INK ABSORPTION OF COATED PAPER

    YanxinLiu; ChuanshanZhao; ShuxiaShangt; ZhongweiSun

    2004-01-01

    Ink absorption is one of the most important factorswhich influence printing properties. This article haddiscussed the influence of coating properties,technologies of heating and pressure etc. on inkabsorption and showed that ink absorption can beadjusted and coating surface structure can beimproved when technologies of heating and pressurechange, pigment and adhesive altered.

  2. Fading Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Polyvinylpyrrolidone with Eosin Y

    YU Lihong; LIU Zhongfang; LIU Shaopu; HU Xiaoli; LIU Linfeng

    2009-01-01

    In weak acid medium,eosin Y (EY) has a strong absorption band in the visible light region,and the maximum absorption wavelength (λmax) is at 517 nm.There is no light absorption for polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in 250-700 nm.When EY was reacted with PVP to form a binding product,a fading reaction of EY appeared and the maximum fading wavelength was still located at 517 nm.At the same time,a smaller absorption peak was observed at 545 nm.The extent of the fading (△A) is directly proportional to the concentration of PVP in the range of 0.40-3.20 mg·L-1.The fading reaction has high sensitivity.The molar absorptivity (ε) is 6.4×106 L·mol 1·cm-1 and the detection limit for PVP is 0.12 mg·L-1.The influencing factors for the reaction have been studied,and the results show that the selectivity is good.Based on this fact,a new fading spectrophotometric method for the determination of PVP with EY has been developed,which is simple and rapid,and it can be applied to the quantitative determination of PVP in beer samples.

  3. Simpler spectrophotometric assay of paracetamol in tablets and urine samples

    Sirajuddin; Khaskheli, Abdul Rauf; Shah, Afzal; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Niaz, Abdul; Mahesar, Sarfaraz

    2007-11-01

    A very fast, economical and simpler direct spectrophotometric method was investigated for paracetamol (PC) determination in aqueous medium without using any chemical reagents. The method is based on the photo-absorption of the analyte at 243 nm after dissolution in water. The change in structure of PC after addition of water was studied by comparing the corresponding FTIR spectra. Optimization studies were conducted by using a 5 μg ml -1 standard solution of the analyte. Various parameters studied include, time for stability and measurement of spectra, effect of HCl, NaOH, CH 3COOH and NH 3 for change in absorbance and shift in spectra, interference by some analgesic drugs and some polar solvents and temperature effect. After optimization, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 0.3-20 μg ml -1 PC solution with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and detection limit of 0.1 μg ml -1. The newly developed method was successfully applied for PC determination in some locally available tablets and urine samples. The proposed method is very useful for quick analysis of various types of solid and liquid samples containing PC.

  4. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  5. Fundamental Study of Absorption Cycle without Electric Solution Pump

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Sato, Kazuo; Nakao, Kazushige; Ohgushi, Tetsuro; Katsuta, Masafumi

    The absorption refrigerant cycle has been used in Japan, as energy shortage problem is more and more serious and environmental protection is of increasing importance. This type of air conditioner and chiller consume less electric power input than the electric one. However, the absorption refrigerator of large cooling capacity consumes some electric power with the required facility. Then in this research, the absorption cycle without the electric solution pump is proposed using a capillary pump and the possibility of making this cycle running using LiBr solution as a working fluid is investigated. As a result, it was found that the absorption cycle could be reached using a capillary wick in the generator to circulate the refrigerant and kept the strong and weak solution low pressure.

  6. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day.

  7. Study on Kinetics of Hydrogen Absorption by Metal Hydride Slurries Ⅰ. Absorption of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Storage Alloy MlNi5 Suspended in Benzene

    安越; 陈长聘; 徐国华; 蔡官明; 王启东

    2002-01-01

    The absorption of hydrogen was studied in metal hydride slurry, which is formed by benzene and hydrogen storage alloy powder. The influence of temperature on the rate of absorption was discussed using three-phase mass transfer model. It is also concluded that the suitable absorption temperature is 313 K.

  8. Shock absorption in lumbar disc prosthesis: a preliminary mechanical study.

    LeHuec, J C; Kiaer, T; Friesem, T; Mathews, H; Liu, M; Eisermann, L

    2003-08-01

    Lumbar disc prostheses have been used in treating symptomatic degenerative disc diseases. A few prostheses of the ball-socket design are currently available for clinical use, the joint mechanism being materialized either with a hard polymer core or a metal-to-metal couple. Other prostheses of "shock absorber" design were not available at the time of the study. The objective of this work was to establish whether there was a difference in the shock absorption capacity between a device having an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene center core and a device having a metal-on-metal bearing. Vibration and shock loading were applied to two lumbar total disc prostheses: PRODISC, manufactured by Spine Solutions, and MAVERICK Total Disc Replacement, manufactured by Medtronic Sofamor Danek. The shock absorption capacity of the device was evaluated by comparing the input and the output force measurements. The disc prosthesis was mounted onto a test apparatus. Each side of the device was equipped with a force sensor. The input shock load and the output resulting forces were simultaneously measured and recorded. The loading force pattern included 1). a static preload of 350 N plus an oscillating vibration of 100 N with frequency sweeping from 0 to 100 Hz and 2). a sudden shock load of 250 N applied over a 0.1-second interval. Both input and output signal data were processed and were transformed into their frequency spectrums. The vibration and shock transmissibility of the device, defined as the ratio of the output spectrum over the input spectrum, were calculated in sweeping the frequency from 0 to 100 Hz. The phase deviation was calculated to characterize the shock absorber effects. For both tested devices under vibration and shock loading, the phase angle displacement between the input and the output signals was 10 degrees. Under oscillating vibration loading, both tested devices had a transmission ratio higher than 99.8%. Over the frequency interval 1-100 Hz, the

  9. A comparative study of smart spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of a skeletal muscle relaxant and an analgesic in combined dosage form

    Salem, Hesham; Mohamed, Dalia

    2015-04-01

    Six simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the analgesic drug; paracetamol (PARA) and the skeletal muscle relaxant; dantrolene sodium (DANT). Three methods are manipulating ratio spectra namely; ratio difference (RD), ratio subtraction (RS) and mean centering (MC). The other three methods are utilizing the isoabsorptive point either at zero order namely; absorbance ratio (AR) and absorbance subtraction (AS) or at ratio spectrum namely; amplitude modulation (AM). The proposed spectrophotometric procedures do not require any preliminary separation step. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined. The selectivity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures of the drugs and their combined dosage form. Standard deviation values are less than 1.5 in the assay of raw materials and capsules. The obtained results were statistically compared with each other and with those of reported spectrophotometric ones. The comparison showed that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported methods regarding both accuracy and precision.

  10. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHYLLS AND CAROTENOIDS. AN EFFECT OF SONICATION AND SAMPLE PROCESSING

    Jana Braniša

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls and carotenoids are abundant pigments in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. In this study we verified the applicability of two previously developed UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous quantitative determination of chlorophylls (a, b and carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene or total carotenoids. The pigments were extracted from the strawberries, apricots and raspberries in both the acetone-water and acetone-hexane mixtures. Based on the statistical evaluation of the results the combination of mechanical disruption and sonication of fruit samples seems to be a suitable way to improve the pigment extraction efficiency from fruits in both types of solvents. In the case of apricot and raspberry fruit extracts the amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids calculated from the proposed equations was comparable to those published by other authors. However, the spectrophotometric determination of β-carotene content in strawberry acetone-hexane extract appeared to be problematic mainly due to the fact that carotenoids exhibited overlapping chlorophyll absorption bands. Overlap of bands leads to the negative values calculated from the proposed equation for the β-carotene content. The results indicate the limitations in use of the proposed set of equations for plant samples with comparable amounts of studied pigments.

  11. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method), and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g%) were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%). There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709) between the total protein values, determined with both methods...

  12. Bioavailability study of calcium sandoz-250 by atomic absorption spectroscopy in albino rats

    Patel, Bimalkumar N.; Krishnaveni, N.; Jivani, Nurrrudin P.; Khodakiya, Akruti S.; Khodakiya, Moorti S.; Parida, Saswat K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium sandoz-250 is an Ayurvedic calcium supplement, containing Khatika Churna. Bioavailability study of the formulation is essential for estimation of peak plasma concentration (C max), time to C max and rate of absorption. Aim: To evaluate the absorption parameters of calcium sandoz-250 in albino rats by atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) method. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out as a single dose, open-label, randomized study. Estimation of calcium was carried ou...

  13. Spectrophotometric analysis of irradiated spices

    Josimovic, L.; Cudina, I.

    1987-01-01

    Seven different spices (thyme, cinnamon, coriander, caraway, pimento, paprika, black pepper) were treated by gamma radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy, and the effect on chemical quality was determined. The effects of this dose were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of some water-soluble constituents of spices (carbohydrates; carbonyl compounds) and on the content of water-insoluble steam-volatile oils. The colour of paprika and the content of piperine in pepper held in different packaging materials were measured in unirradiated and irradiated samples as a function of storage time. In all cases irradiation does not bring about any distinct qualitative or quantitative chemical changes based on spectrophotometric analysis of spice extracts.

  14. Spectrophotometric thermodynamic study of orientational isomers formed by inclusion of methyl orange into β-cyclodextrin nanocavity

    Kompany Zare, Mohsen; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Spectrophotometry has been used to investigate the interaction of methyl orange (MO), an azo dye as a guest, with β-cyclodextrin (CD) as the host. Inclusion of methyl orange into β-cyclodextrin nanocavity leads to two orientational isomers, so-called inclumers, because of the asymmetric structure...... of methyl orange. This study was performed in basic and acidic media to yield the microconstants and thermodynamic parameters for inclusion complex formation equilibria in each media. The recorded data set at a constant temperature is rank deficient, because there is a linear dependency between...... for inclumers, pure spectra for absorbing components in each media and thermodynamic parameters such as change in enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy for inclusion equilibria. Then globalization was performed to analyze the augmented data sets. The titration of acidic methyl orange with sodium hydroxide...

  15. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme

    Benitez-Vieyra, Santiago Miguel

    2016-01-01

    For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300–700 nm). The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness) show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown). The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication. PMID:27213273

  16. A Spectrophotometric Study of Plumage Color in the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, the Most Abundant South American Columbiforme.

    Diego Javier Valdez

    Full Text Available For birds, plumage color perception is critical in social interactions such as courtship, in both monochromatic and dichromatic species. In the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata, perhaps the most abundant South American Columbiforme, the plumage of males and females looks alike and both sexes share the same melanistic coloration with gray and pink tones. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether evident sexual dichromatism exists in the plumage of the Eared Dove using a spectrophotometry technique in the avian-visible range (300-700 nm. The results of the classic colorimetric variables analysis (hue, chroma and brightness show that males are in general brighter and have higher UV chroma values than females. The avian visual model points to differences in achromatic and chromatic levels between males and females in body regions possibly involved in sexual selection (e.g. the crown. The model also indicates chromatic or achromatic differences in body regions not subject to sexual selection such as the black spots on the wing coverts and white tail bands, both of which may be involved in intra- or inter-gender-specific communication.

  17. Spectrophotometric study on the binding of two water soluble Schiff base complexes of Mn(III) with ct-DNA.

    Dehkordi, Maryam Nejat; Bordbar, Abdol-Khlegh; Mehrgardi, Masood Ayatolahi; Mirkhani, Valiolah

    2011-07-01

    In this work, binding of two water soluble Schiff base complexes: Bis sodium (5-sulfosalicylaldehyde) o-phenylendiiminato) Manganese (III) acetate (Salophen complex) and Bis sodium (5-sulfosalicylaldehyde) 1, 2 ethylendiiminato) Manganese (III) acetate (Salen complex) with calf thymus (ct) DNA were investigated by using different spectroscopic and electrometric techniques including UV-vis, Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy, viscommetry and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Both complexes have shown a hyperchromic and a small bathochromic shift in the visible region spectra. A competitive binding study showed that the enhanced emission intensity of ethidium bromide (EB) in the presence of DNA was quenched by the addition of the two Schiff base complexes indicating that they displace EB from its binding site in DNA. Moreover structural changes in the CD spectra and an increase in the CV spectra with addition of DNA were observed. The results show that both complexes bind to DNA. The binding constants have been calculated using fluorescence data for two complexes also K(b) was calculated with fluorescence Scatchard plot for Salophen. Ultimately, the experimental results show that the dominant interactions are electrostatic while binding mode is surface binding then followed by hydrophobic interactions in grooves in high concentration of complexes.

  18. Solid-liquid Extraction Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper with 2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline

    2001-01-01

    Solid liquid extraction of copper ion (I) with 2, 9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (neo-cuproine, DMP) into molten naphthalene followed by chloroform spectrophotometric determination has been studied experimentally. The ternary complex Cu(I)-DMP-ClO4 was extracted quantitatively into molten naphthalene in the range of pH from 5 to 6 at 85℃. Absorbance was spectrophotometrically determined at 459 nm against the reagent blank after the solid naphthalene layer was anhydrously dissolved in chloroform. Beer's law is obeyed over a concentration range of 0.5-70 mg/mL. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity are 1.0′104 L/(mol·cm) and 0.0099 mg·cm2 respectively. In addition, the various conditions on determination and the interference of coexisted ions were discussed, and the method was applied to the determination of copper ion both in tea samples and cadmium sulfate reagents. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by ICP AES method.

  19. [Spectrophotometric determination of protein content in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages - description of the method].

    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are the basic building block of tissue, and are part of enzymes and hormones regulating many important life processes. Changes in their concentration control the metabolic processes of the cell. Quantitative determination of the protein content is divided into indirect methods (e.g. Kjeldahl method) and direct methods (buret method, Lowry, immunoenzymatic, formol method, based on incorporation of dye in the range of ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and based on the phenomenon of selective absorption of radiation in the infrared range). One of the methods for the determination of protein content is the spectrophotometric method described by Bradford. The protein concentration assay procedure utilizes the phenomenon of formation of the dye (Coomassie Brillant Blue G-250)-protein and colour intensity is proportional to the protein content in the solution. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of this method for determining the protein content in THP-1 cells cultured with extracts of nettle fruit stalks (Urtica dioica L.). Aqueous and alcohol extracts at two concentrations were used. It has been shown that the spectrophotometric determination of protein content by the Bradford method is an effective and accurate method for determining the concentration of protein in THP-1 macrophages. The results indicate that this method can be recommended for the determination of the protein content in other cell cultures.

  20. 21-cm absorption studies with the Square Kilometer Array

    Kanekar, N; Briggs, FH

    2004-01-01

    HI 21-cm absorption spectroscopy provides an excellent probe of the neutral gas content of absorbing galaxies, yielding information on their kinematics, mass, physical size and ISM conditions. The high sensitivity, unrivaled frequency coverage and RFI suppression techniques of the SKA will enable it

  1. A study of the absorption features of Makemake

    Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J.; Duffard, R.; Carvano, J.; de Pra, M.

    2014-07-01

    Most transneptunian objects do not show prominent absorption features due to the size and location [1]. Nevertheless, absorption due to water ice and volatile ices do appear on a few large objects, particularly those that have good signal-to-noise-ratio spectra. In particular, methane appears in three dwarf planets (Pluto, Eris, and Makemake), as well as in some smaller objects, such as Quaoar and probably Sedna, and in Neptune's satellite Triton. Methane has such intense absorption features that even small amounts of methane on the surface dominate the reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared range, making it a great tool to probe surfaces, especially, considering that the depth of the bands could be used as a proxy for physical depths and that shifts in the bands with respect to laboratory measurements could point to possible dilutions (as seen in Pluto and Eris; for instance [3] and references therein). Aiming at gaining a deeper insight into Makemake's surface through its methane absorption bands, we have observed it with X-Shooter at the VLT with a medium spectral resolution in the range of 0.4--1.8 microns. In this work, we present the results of comparing these features with those of methane in the laboratory and the same features in Eris and Pluto, within the context of methane-dominated spectra of dwarf planets.

  2. [Study of Terahertz Amplitude Imaging Based on the Mean Absorption].

    Zhang, Zeng-yan; Ji, Te; Xiao, Ti-qiao; Zhao, Hong-wei; Chen, Min; Yu, Xiao-han; Tong, Ya-jun; Zhu, Hua-chun; Peng, Wei-wei

    2015-12-01

    A new method of terahertz (THz) imaging based on the mean absorption is proposed. Terahertz radiation is an electromagnetic radiation in the range between millimeter waves and far infrared. THz pulse imaging emerges as a novel tool in many fields because of its low energy and non-ionizing character, such as material, chemical, biological medicine and food safety. A character of THz imaging technique is it can get large amount of information. How to extract the useful parameter from the large amount of information and reconstruct sample's image is a key technology in THz imaging. Some efforts have been done for advanced visualization methods to extract the information of interest from the raw data. Both time domain and frequency domain visualization methods can be applied to extract information on the physical properties of samples from THz imaging raw data. The process of extracting useful parameter from raw data of the new method based on the mean absorption was given in this article. This method relates to the sample absorption and thickness, it delivers good signal to noise ratio in the images, and the dispersion effects are cancelled. A paper with a "THz" shape hole was taken as the sample to do the experiment. Traditional THz amplitude imaging methods in time domain and frequency domain are used to achieve the sample's image, such as relative reduction of pulse maximum imaging method, relative power loss imaging method, and relative power loss at specific frequency imaging method. The sample's information that reflected by these methods and the characteristics of these methods are discussed. The method base on the mean absorption within a certain frequency is also used to reconstruct sample's image. The experimental results show that this new method can well reflect the true information of the sample. And it can achieve a clearer image than the other traditional THz amplitude imaging methods. All the experimental results and theoretical analyses indicate that

  3. Spectrophotometric study of the charge transfer complexes of 4'-nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 and benzo-15-crown-5 with iodine in nonaqueous solvents

    Nina Alizadeh; Sadegh Dehghanikhah

    2011-01-01

    The formation of charge transfer complex between iodine with 4'-nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 (NB15C5) and benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5) is investigated spectrophotometrically in chloroform and dichloromethane (DCM) solutions at 25℃. The pseudo-first-order rate constants for the transformation process were evaluated from the absorbance-time data and found to vary in the order of DCM > CHCl3. The values of the formation constant, Kf, for each complex are evaluated from Benesi-Hilebrand equation. Stability of the resulting complex in two solvents was also found to vary in the order of DCM > CHC13.

  4. CdTe Nanowires studied by Transient Absorption Microscopy

    Kuno M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient absorption measurements were performed on single CdTe nanowires. The traces show fast decays that were assigned to charge carrier trapping at surface states. The observed power dependence suggests the existence of a trap-filling mechanism. Acoustic phonon modes were also observed, which were assigned to breathing modes of the nanowires. Both the fundamental breathing mode and the first overtone were observed, and the dephasing times provide information about how the nanowires interact with their environment.

  5. Study on the Absorption Spectra and Stability of Theaflavin Pigment

    2000-01-01

    Theaflavin(TF) was extracted and purified from black broken tea.The purified TF possessed an absorption peak at the 363nm wavelength,and the solutions of TF remained stable under the conditions of pH3-6,below 80℃ within 60 minutes, as well as in 1%-4% Vc and 0. 05-0.5mmol /L Na2SO3 solutions. Fading occurred in 0. 05mol/L H2O2 solution.

  6. Atomic absorption determination of tin in foods: collaborative study.

    Elkins, E R; Sulek, A

    1979-09-01

    Samples of green beans, applesauce, and a fruit juice were fortified with tin at 3 levels. Collaborators were asked to digest the samples, using HNO3-H2SO4, add methanol to enhance the absorption signal, and aspirate directly, using a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Results were received from 8 laboratories including 4 from Europe. However, only 6 laboratories used the prescribed methodology. All results were considered acceptable. The method has been adopted as interim official first action.

  7. Spectrophotometric Determination of Kinetic Constants of Fe (Iii-Amines’s Charge Transfere Complexes

    Kamel Bentayeb

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Using UV-visible spectrophotometric data of (1:1, electron donor-acceptor complexes (AD1, AD2 and AD3 have been investigated. The complexes concerned are n-butyl amine (D1 and cyclohexyl amine (D2 and phenyl hydrazine (D3 as electron donors with iron (III ion as an electron acceptor (A in methanol at 25°C. The values of formation constant (KAD, molar extinction coefficient (εAD, and absorption band energy of complexes were estimated. The ionization potential of the donors ID, were calculated from the complex band energies. The kinetics of the above association and reverse reactions were studied and some kinetic parameters have been estimated.

  8. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium in binary mixture

    Sahu R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, accurate and precise UV Spectrophotometric method using simultaneous equation was developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium in a binary mixture. In the proposed method, the signals were measured at 238.2 and 246.6 nm corresponding to the absorbance maxima of amlodipine besylate and atorvastatin calcium in methanol, respectively. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ml for both the drugs. Concentration of each drug was obtained by using the absorptivity values calculated for both the drugs at two wavelengths, 238.2 and 246.6 nm and solving the simultaneous equations. The method was validated statistically and recovery study was performed to confirm the accuracy of the method. Laboratory prepared synthetic mixture was successfully analyzed using the developed method.

  9. Studies on the red absorption band of chlorophyll a in vivo

    Thomas, J.B.; Kleinen Hammans, J.W.; Arnolds, W.J.

    1965-01-01

    It was studied whether certain earlier observed weak shoulders on the red absorption band of chlorophyll a in vivo might represent anomalies due to overlap of absorption bands. The results are suggested of the fact that no such anomalies occur. It is therefore concluded that the present study suppo

  10. Calorimetry study of microwave absorption of some solid materials.

    He, Chun Lin; Ma, Shao Jian; Su, Xiu Juan; Chen, Yan Qing; Liang, Yu Shi

    2013-01-01

    In practice, the dielectric constant of a material varies the applied frequency the material composition, particle size, purity, temperature, physical state (solid or liquid), and moisture content. All of these parameters might change during processing, therefore, it is difficult to predict how well a material will absorb microwave energy in a given process. When the temperature is measured by a digital thermometer, it could not accurately reflect the true temperature of the bulk materials, especially for mixed materials. Thus, in this paper we measured the microwave absorption characteristics of different materials by calorimetry. The microwave power levels, irradiation times, and masses of the materials were varied. It was difficult to predict the microwave energy absorption characteristics of reagent-grade inorganic compounds based on their color, metallic cation, or water stoichiometry. CuO, MnO2, Fe3O4, and MnSO4 x H2O (Taishan) strongly absorbed microwave energy. Most of the remaining inorganic compounds were poor absorbers, with silica hardly absorbing any microwave energy. Carbon-based materials had significantly different microwave absorption characteristics. Activated carbon and coke were especially sensitive to microwaves, but different types of coal were poor absorbers. The jamesonite concentrate absorbed microwave energy strongly, while the zinc concentrate was a poor absorber.

  11. Optical absorption and fluorescence studies on imidazolium ionic liquids comprising the bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl)imide anion

    Aniruddha Paul; Anunay Samanta

    2006-07-01

    Optical absorption and fluorescence behaviour of two rigorously purified imidazolium ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide are studied in the neat condition and in solution. Non-negligible absorption in the UV region with a long tail extending into the visible region is the main feature of the absorption. Excitation wavelength-dependent two-component fluorescence characterizes the emission behaviour of these liquids. That ion association gives rise to the long absorption tail and shifting fluorescence maximum, which appears to be common to most of the imidazolium ionic liquids, is evident from the effect of the conventional solvents.

  12. A study of selective spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride and Rabeprazole sodium binary mixture: Resolving sever overlapping spectra

    Mohamed, Heba M.

    2015-02-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) are co-formulated together for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods were applied and validated for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) namely; constant center (CC), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) spectrophotometric methods. Linear correlations were obtained in range of 10-110 μg/μL for Itopride hydrochloride and 4-44 μg/mL for Rabeprazole sodium. No preliminary separation steps were required prior the analysis of the two drugs using the proposed methods. Specificity was investigated by analyzing the synthetic mixtures containing the two cited drugs and their capsules dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported method, no significant difference was obtained with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and can be used for quality control laboratories for IT and RB.

  13. An alternative method study for determining the content oils and greases derived from spectrophotometric; Estudo de um metodo alternativo para determinacao de oleos e graxas derivado do metodo espectrofotometrico

    Moura, Leila Rose Benevides; Bezerra, Magna Angelica dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-14; Melo, Josette Lourdes de Sousa; Melo, Henio Normando de Sousa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Gomes, Andrea Karla Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the Text of Oils and Greases (TOG) it can be done by several methods - gravimetrical or spectrophotometric. That work seeks to study a method alternative spectrophotometric, being compared this with the method used by Curbelo (2002). The modifications were: the reason solvent/sample, and the procedure in which the solvent the sample was mixed. For the method of Curbelo (2002) 100 mL of the sample was mixed to 10 chloroform mL and separated in separation funnel. In the proposed method, adapted denominated Chloroform, the reason was of 20 sample mL for 20 chloroform mL, being this mixture, after manual agitation, taken directly for centrifuge. The medium results were of 81,36 mg/L and 150,44 mg/L for the methods of the Chloroform and Adapted Chloroform, respectively. In spite of the medium values they present differences of almost 50%, it can be verified that the methods demonstrated certain uniformity when evaluated separately, being obtained a minimum deviation of 5,88%. With base in those preliminary results, it can be verified that the developed alternative method gets to remove more oil, mainly for more concentrated samples - exception done to the results of the pattern - and that the two methods present viability of substitution of the gravimetrical methods. (author)

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of thioctic (a-Aipoic acid in water and pharmaceutical preparations

    ZAGORKA KORICANAC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of thioctic acid. The method is based on the reaction between the drug and palladium(II chloride. In this reaction, a yellow-coloured, water soluble product with a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio and an absorption maximum at 365 nm was formed. The stability of the formed complex depends on various factors (pH, reaction time, concentration of reagents, ionic strength. Based on these findings, a new method is suggested for the spectrophotometric determination of thioctic acid in pharmaceutical formulations. This method is simple, sensitive and reproducible.

  15. Iron absorption in raw and cooked bananas: A field study using stable isotopes in women

    Banana is a staple food in many regions with high iron deficiency and may be a potential vehicle for iron fortification. However, iron absorption from bananas is not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate total iron absorption from raw and cooked bananas. Thirty women (34.9 +/- 6.6 years...

  16. A polarizable embedding DFT study of one-photon absorption in fluorescent proteins

    Beerepoot, Maarten; Steindal, Arnfinn H.; Kongsted, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical study of the one-photon absorption of five fluorescent proteins (FPs) is presented. The absorption properties are calculated using a polarizable embedding approach combined with density functional theory (PE-DFT) on the wild-type green fluorescent protein (wtGFP) and several of its...

  17. Spectrophotometric Study of Ternary Complex Forming Systems of Some Lanthanide Metal Ions with Eriochrome Cyanine R in Presence of Cetylpyridinium Bromide for Microdetermination

    A. S. Dhepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of coordination compounds of lanthanide elements has received a great attention due to growing applications in science and technology. Number of chromogenic reagents form water soluble colored complexes with lanthanides. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR a member of triphenylmethane type of dye has been reported to form green colored complexes with lanthanides and has been used for microdetermination of these metal ions. Addition of cationic surfactant, Cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB, a cationic surfactant sensitizes the color reactions of Gd(III, Tb(III, Dy(III, Ho(III and Lu(III with ECR. Formation of water soluble, highly colored ternary complexes with a considerable bathochromic shift of about 50 nm in presence of surfactant has been observed. Optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were also evaluated. Stoichiometric ratio 1:3:3 of Ln: ECR: CPB are responsible for the observed rise in molar absorptivity and sensitivity. Beer’s law was obeyed between 0.50 to 13.00 ppm. Effective photometric range and molar absorptivity of these ternary complexes have been calculated. Effect of some common interfering ions on determination of these lanthanide metal ions was studied. A simple, rapid and highly sensitive spectrophotometeric method has been proposed for the determination of metal ions understudy.

  18. Pilot Study on the Nano-Composites Coats of Radar Wave's Absorption

    HU Chuan-xin; ZhANG Lei; GAN Ai-feng; LI Wan-zhi; LIANG Wen-ting; ZHANG Chen-jia

    2004-01-01

    This thesis mainly introduced the guiding principle and physical model of the research on the nano-composites coats of radar wave's absorption, and then studied the qualitative analysis of the performance ameliorating of radar wave's absorption composite coats. And on the basis of the optimum design of multilayer wave's absorption materials, two new kinds of radar wave's absorption composite coats have been made, which are composed of nano-composites hydroxyl iron powder and hollow micro-sphere. The research indicated that the surface-density of these two new composite coats is less than 3.5 Kg/m2.The coats' thickness is about 1 mm. And the waves absorption capability is above the level of 5 db, in the range of 3 ~ 18GHz. Therefore the wave's absorption performance of these two new coats is better than nano-crystalloid in low frequency area. The pilot study has proved that the nano-composites coat's performance of radar wave's absorption excels the ordinary radar wave's absorption coats, so it needs to be further studied.

  19. Studies of Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry using Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    Lindenmaier, Rodica

    The objective of this Ph.D. project is to investigate Arctic middle atmosphere chemistry using solar infrared absorption spectroscopy. These measurements were made at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut, which is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). This research is part of the CANDAC/PEARL Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry theme and aims to improve our understanding of the processes controlling the stratospheric ozone budget using measurements of the concentrations of stratospheric constituents. The instrument, a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, has been specifically designed for high-resolution measurements over a broad spectral range and has been used to measure reactive species, source gases, reservoirs, and dynamical tracers at PEARL since August 2006. The first part of this research focuses on the optimization of ozone retrievals, for which 22 microwindows were studied and compared. The spectral region from 1000 to 1005 cm-1 was found to be the most sensitive in both the stratosphere and troposphere, giving the highest number of independent pieces of information and the smallest total error for retrievals at Eureka. Similar studies were performed in coordination with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change for nine other species, with the goal of improving and harmonizing the retrieval parameters among all Infrared Working Group sites. Previous satellite validation exercises have identified the highly variable polar conditions of the spring period to be a challenge. In this work, comparisons between the 125HR and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer) from 2007 to 2010 have been used to develop strict criteria that allow the ground and satellite-based instruments to be confidently compared. After applying these criteria, the differences between the two instruments were generally

  20. STUDY ON EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSORPTION IN ROMANIA FOR MEASURE 313

    Florentina D. MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we wish to highlight the main causes of regional disparities in Romania in terms of absorption of European funds through Measure 313: Encouragement of tourism activities. The post-accession of Romania shows a major deficiency in attracting funds from the European Union, this situation is generated, in particular, by the lack of a coherent long-term vision of the authorities, insufficient resources for co-financing projects, low administrative capacity at central and local level, lack of inter-institutional coordination, public-private partnerships failures and insufficient skilled human resources . We will analyze the number of projects approved and implemented in each region of Romania (2007-2013 to establish the real possibilities of expansion of rural tourism.

  1. Hydrodynamic and absorption studies of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous amide solutions using a bubble column contactor

    A. Blanco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the carbon dioxide absorption process in aqueous n-alkylpyrrolidones solutions, from the point of view of hydrodynamic studies as well as mass transfer, using a bubble column contactor. An analysis of the influence of solute concentration and gas flow-rate is complemented by the study of the effect caused by the alkyl group on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer. The presence of this kind of substance produces a decrease in mass transfer rate, but on the basis of interfacial area and mass transfer coefficient values, ethyl-2-pyrrolidine (EP shows suitable characteristics to replace methyl-2-pyrrolidine (MP in gas separation processes due to its lower safety problems.

  2. Experimental studies on the influence of porosity on membrane absorption process

    GAO Jian; REN Zhongqi; ZHANG Zeting; ZHANG Weidong

    2007-01-01

    Eight kinds of flat membranes with different micro-structures were chosen to carry out the membrane absorption experiments with CO2 and de-ionized water or According to experimental results,the membrane pores shape (stretched pore and cylinder pore) and membrane thickness do not affect the membrane absorption process,and the membrane porosity has only little influence on membrane absorption process for slow mass transfer system.However,the influence of porosity on the membrane absorption process became visible for fast mass transfer system.Moreover,the mass transfer behavior near the membrane surface on liquid side was studied.The results show that the influence of membrane porosity on mass transfer relates to flow condition,absorption system and distance between micro-pores,etc.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of the fungicide captan.

    Galeano, Teresa; Guiberteau, Agustina; Mora, Nielene M; Alvarez, Pedro R; Salinas, Francisco

    2002-11-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of the fungicide captan has been developed based on its reaction with thiosemicarbazide. The absorbance was measured at 315 nm. The effects of the proportion of water, thiosemicarbazide concentration, pH and temperature on this reaction was studied to select the best chemical conditions. The calibration graph was obtained between 1.2 and 30 ppm and the detection limit is 0.5 ppm. The RSD (n = 10) was 1.34%. Possible interference of various pesticides was examined. The method was applied to the determination of captan in agrochemical formulations. Results agree well with the labelled values and also with results that were obtained by a polarographic method.

  4. A Study on the Determination of Trace Nitrite-N by Spectrophotometric with Safranin-T%番红T分光光度法测定微量亚硝酸盐氮的研究

    殷飞; 吴艳

    2001-01-01

    研究了在酸性条件下,亚硝酸盐氮与番红T体系的分光光度测定,提出了一种测定亚硝酸盐氮的新方法.在0.16 mol*L-1的硫酸介质中,体系的最大吸收波长为520 nm,表观摩尔吸光系数为9.5×104 L*mol-1*cm-1,含量在0~0.32 g*L-1范围内遵守比耳定律.方法用于环境水样中微量亚硝酸盐氮的测定,结果与经典的盐酸萘乙二胺比色法基本一致.%A new method based on the spectrophotometric system of nitrite-N and Safranin-T has been developed for the determination of nitrite in this paper. In the presence of H2SO4(0.16 mol*L-1), the maximum absorption wavelength is 520 nm and the apparent molar absorptivity is 9.5×104 L*mol-1* cm-1. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0~0.32 g*L-1. This method has been applied to the determination of micro-amount of nitrite in environmental water and the obtained results are in agreement with that of the N-(1-naphthyl) euhylenediaminedily drochloride photometric method.

  5. Study on Rapid Determination of Bisphenol S by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method in Plastic Products%紫外分光光度法快速检测塑料制品中的双酚S

    王丽; 乐传俊; 王雯彬

    2015-01-01

    在碱性条件下,双酚S紫外吸收光谱的最强吸收峰发生红移,从257 nm移至293 nm,据此建立了简单、灵敏、快捷、选择性较好的测定双酚S的紫外分光光度法.研究了氨水用量、反应时间,反应温度的影响.结果表明:双酚S的最大吸收波长为293 nm,线性范围是0.6 mg/L~7.2 mg/L,相关系数r为0.997 3.这种方法简单快速,结果稳定准确,为塑料制品中双酚S的残留检测提供了新的试验方法.%Under alkaline conditions, the UV-Vis maximum absorption of bisphenol S exhibited bathochromic shift from 257 nm to 293 nm. Based on which, a simpler, quicker, more sensitive and more selective UV-spectrophotometric method to determine bisphenol S was established. The effects of the amount of ammonia water, reaction time, reaction temperature were investigated. The analysis showed that the maximum absorption wavelength of bisphenol S was 293 nm, the linear range was 0.6 mg/L-7.2 mg/L, and the correlation coefficients r was 0.997 3. The determination method was simple and rapid , and the results were accurate and stable as well, hence a new method for bisphenol S residues determination was provided in plastic products.

  6. Study on the interaction between fluoroquinolones and erythrosine by absorption, fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra and their application

    Wang, Jian; Liu, Zhongfang; Liu, Jiangtao; Liu, Shaopu; Shen, Wei

    2008-03-01

    In pH 4.4-4.5 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FLQs) including ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR), levofloxacin (LEV) and lomefloxacin (LOM) could react with erythrosine (Ery) to form 1:1 ion-association complexes, which not only resulted in the changes of the absorption spectra and the quenching of fluorescence, but also resulted in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS). These offered some indications of the determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by spectrophotometric, fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering methods. The detection limits for fluoroquinolone antibiotics were in the range of 0.097-0.265 μg/mL for absorption methods, 0.022-0.100 μg/mL for fluorophotometry and 0.014-0.027 μg/mL for RRS method, respectively. Among them, the RRS method had the highest sensitivity. In this work, the spectral characteristics of the absorption, fluorescence and RRS, the optimum conditions of the reactions and the properties of the analytical chemistry were investigated. The methods have been successfully applied to determination of some fluoroquinolone antibiotics in human urine samples and tablets. Taking CIP-Ery system as an example, the charge distribution, the enthalpy of formation and the mean polarizability were calculated by density function theory (DFT) method. In addition, the reasons for the enhancement of scattering spectra were discussed.

  7. Contributions te the study of methods and factors affecting the spectrophotometric determination of boron traces with carmin uranium compounds; Contribucion al estudio del metodo y factores que afectan a la determinacion espectrofotometrica de trazas de boro con Carmin en compuestos de uranio

    Fernandez Cellini, R.; Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1956-07-01

    The study of some factors affecting the spectrophotometric determination of boron traces with carmin is made; the influence of carmin from different origin, the stability of complex carmin-boric acid in relation with the sulphuric acid concentration, the interference produced by ion nitrate, and the ion uraline and light influence are discussed. (Author) 36 refs.

  8. Studies on absorption and metabolism of palatinose (isomaltulose) in rats.

    Tonouchi, Hidekazu; Yamaji, Taketo; Uchida, Masayuki; Koganei, Megumi; Sasayama, Akina; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Urita, Yoshihisa; Okuno, Masahiro; Suzuki, Kouji; Kashimura, Jun; Sasaki, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the absorption and metabolism of palatinose in rats by the carbohydrate load test and the 13C- and H2-breath tests. We compared the results of these tests with those of sucrose, since sucrose is an isomer of palatinose and generally known to be degraded and absorbed from the small intestine. In the carbohydrate load test, blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after oral administration of palatinose rose more gradually and reached a maximum that was lower than that after sucrose administration. In the 13C-breath test, rats were orally administrated [1-13C]sucrose or [1-13C]palatinose and housed in a chamber. The expired air in the chamber was collected, and the level of 13CO2 in the expired air was measured at appropriate intervals for 360 min. The value of time taken to reach the maximum concentration for expired 13CO2 from [1-13Cglucose] ([1-13Cglc]) and [1-13Cfructose] ([1-13Cfru]) palatinose was significantly longer than that from [1-13Cglc] and [1-13Cfru]sucrose, respectively. The value of area under the curve (AUC) for [1-13Cglc]palatinose was larger than that for [1-13Cglc]sucrose, but AUC for [1-13Cfru] showed no difference between palatinose and sucrose. In the H2-breath test, the concentration of H2 in the expired air was measured for 420 min. H2 was hardly detected with both palatinose and sucrose and no significant difference was observed between the two groups. These results suggest that palatinose is utilised in vivo at a rate equal to that of sucrose.

  9. A comparative study of the PIFA and printed monopole antenna EM absorption.

    Hossain, Md Ikbal; Iqbal Faruque, Mohammad Rashed; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2017-02-01

    This paper represents a comparative study on electromagnetic (EM) absorption in the human head between a printed monopole antenna and a planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA). The specific absorption rate (SAR) values and total absorbed power in the human head phantom are used to evaluate EM absorption for both antennae. Moreover, antenna performances in terms of return loss, radiation efficiency, and gain are also investigated in this study. The finite integration technique (FIT) based on CST Microwave studio and SAM head phantom are used in this study. The antenna performances are measured in an anechoic chamber and the SAR is tested using COMOSAR measurement system. The obtained results indicate that the printed monopole antenna lead to higher EM absorption in the human head as compared to PIFA for both GSM frequencies.

  10. Cinchocaine hydrochloride determination by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry.

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Youssef, Ahmed F A; Awady, Mohamed A

    2005-05-01

    Two sensitive spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric procedures have been developed for determination of cinchocaine hydrochloride (Cin.Cl) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The spectrophotometric method was based on formation of an insoluble colored ion-associate between the cited drug and tetrathiocyanatocobaltate (CoTC) or hexathiocyanatochromate (CrTC) which dissolved and extracted in an organic solvent. The optimal experimental conditions for quantitative extraction such as pH, concentration of the reagents and solvent were studied. Toluene and iso-butyl alcohol proved to be the most suitable solvents for quantitative extraction of Cin-CoTC and Cin-CrTC ion-associates with maximum absorbance at 620 and 555 nm, respectively. The optimum concentration ranges, molar absorptivities, Ringbom ranges and Sandell sensitivities were also evaluated. The atomic absorption spectrometric method is based on measuring of the excess cobalt or chromium in the aqueous solution, after precipitation of the drug, at 240.7 and 357.9 nm, respectively. Linear application ranges, characteristic masses and detection limits were 57.99-361.9, 50.40 and 4.22 microg ml(-1) of Cin.Cl, in case of CoTC, while 37.99-379.9, 18.94 and 0.81 microg ml(-1) in case of CrTC.

  11. Experimental Study on the Energy Absorption Properties of MWK Reinforced Composites

    ZHOU Rong-xing; LI Wei; CHEN Nan-liang; FENG Xun-wei

    2002-01-01

    The energy absorption properties of MWK fabric reinforced composite plates were studied. Low velocity and low energy impact experiments were carried out for MWK fabric reinforced Glassfibre/Epoxy composite plate, by setting up a drop weight impact test system.Using this system, the drop weight velocity during impacting was obtained and recorded by transducer and corresponding signal processing system. Based on the velocity record, the impact energy and dissipated impact energy (energy absorption) were obtained. The influences of structure parameters of MWK on the impact behavior and energy absorption properties were then investigated.

  12. Study on NO2 absorption by ascorbic acid and various chemicals

    LI Wei; WU Cheng-zhi; FANG He-liang; SHI Yao; LEI Le-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Study on NO2 absorption aimed at seeking a better NO2 absorption chemical at pH 4.5~7.0 for application to existing wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The results from the double-stirred reactor indicated thru ascorbic acid has very high absorption rate at this pH range. The rate constant of ascorbic acid reaction with NO2 (0~1000× 10-6 mol/mol) is about 3.54× 106 mol/(L.s)at pH 5.4~6.5 at 55 ℃.

  13. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, spectrophotometric, structural and antimicrobial studies of the newly charge transfer complex of p-phenylenediamine with π acceptor picric acid

    Khan, Ishaat M.; Ahmad, Afaq; Oves, M.

    2010-12-01

    Charge transfer complex (CTC) of donor, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and acceptor, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid) has been studied in methanol at room temperature. The CT complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectra, 1H NMR spectroscopy and electronic absorption spectra which indicate the CT interaction associated with proton migration from the acceptor to the donor followed by hydrogen bonding via N +-H⋯O -. The thermal stability of CT complex was studied using TGA and DTA analyses techniques. The CT complex was screened for its antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (Laboratory isolate), Candida albicans (IQA-109) and Penicillium sp. (Laboratory isolate) and antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA 22) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) and two Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (K 12) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2488). It gives good antimicrobial activity. The stoichiometry of the CT complex was found to be 1:1. The physical parameters of CT complex were evaluated by the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. On the basis of the studies, the structure of CT complex is [(PPDH) +(PA) -], and a general mechanism for its formation is proposed.

  15. SHARDS: AN OPTICAL SPECTRO-PHOTOMETRIC SURVEY OF DISTANT GALAXIES

    Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Barro, Guillermo; Villar, Victor; Cardiel, Nicolas; Espino, Nestor; Gallego, Jesus [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferreras, Ignacio [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Balcells, Marc; Cepa, Jordi [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Cenarro, Javier [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon, Plaza San Juan 1, Planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Charlot, Stephane [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, UMR 7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Cimatti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Conselice, Christopher J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Donley, Jennifer [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gobat, R. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2013-01-01

    We present the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources (SHARDS), an ESO/GTC Large Program carried out using the OSIRIS instrument on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). SHARDS is an ultra-deep optical spectro-photometric survey of the GOODS-N field covering 130 arcmin{sup 2} at wavelengths between 500 and 950 nm with 24 contiguous medium-band filters (providing a spectral resolution R {approx} 50). The data reach an AB magnitude of 26.5 (at least at a 3{sigma} level) with sub-arcsec seeing in all bands. SHARDS' main goal is to obtain accurate physical properties of intermediate- and high-z galaxies using well-sampled optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with sufficient spectral resolution to measure absorption and emission features, whose analysis will provide reliable stellar population and active galactic nucleus (AGN) parameters. Among the different populations of high-z galaxies, SHARDS' principal targets are massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1, whose existence is one of the major challenges facing current hierarchical models of galaxy formation. In this paper, we outline the observational strategy and include a detailed discussion of the special reduction and calibration procedures which should be applied to the GTC/OSIRIS data. An assessment of the SHARDS data quality is also performed. We present science demonstration results on the detection and study of emission-line galaxies (star-forming objects and AGNs) at z = 0-5. We also analyze the SEDs for a sample of 27 quiescent massive galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 1.0 < z {approx}< 1.4. We discuss the improvements introduced by the SHARDS data set in the analysis of their star formation history and stellar properties. We discuss the systematics arising from the use of different stellar population libraries, typical in this kind of study. Averaging the results from the different libraries, we find that the UV-to-MIR SEDs of the massive quiescent galaxies at

  16. Feasibility of a 3D human airway epithelial model to study respiratory absorption.

    Reus, Astrid A; Maas, Wilfred J M; Jansen, Harm T; Constant, Samuel; Staal, Yvonne C M; van Triel, Jos J; Kuper, C Frieke

    2014-03-01

    The respiratory route is an important portal for human exposure to a large variety of substances. Consequently, there is an urgent need for realistic in vitro strategies for evaluation of the absorption of airborne substances with regard to safety and efficacy assessment. The present study investigated feasibility of a 3D human airway epithelial model to study respiratory absorption, in particular to differentiate between low and high absorption of substances. Bronchial epithelial models (MucilAir™), cultured at the air-liquid interface, were exposed to eight radiolabeled model substances via the apical epithelial surface. Absorption was evaluated by measuring radioactivity in the apical compartment, the epithelial cells and the basolateral culture medium. Antipyrine, caffeine, naproxen and propranolol were highly transported across the epithelial cell layer (>5%), whereas atenolol, mannitol, PEG-400 and insulin were limitedly transported (absorption. The intra-experimental reproducibility of the results was considered adequate based on an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 15%. The inter-experimental reproducibility of highly absorbed compounds was in a similar range (CV of 15%), but this value was considerably higher for those compounds that were limitedly absorbed. No statistical significant differences between different donors and experiments were observed. The present study provides a simple method transposable in any lab, which can be used to rank the absorption of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and is ready for further validation with respect to reproducibility and capacity of the method to predict respiratory transport in humans.

  17. Roles of reactive oxygen species in UVA-induced oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid-melanin as studied by differential spectrophotometric method.

    Ito, Shosuke; Kikuta, Marina; Koike, Shota; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Sarna, Michal; Zadlo, Andrzej; Sarna, Tadeusz; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    Eumelanin photoprotects pigmented tissues from ultraviolet (UV) damage. However, UVA-induced tanning seems to result from the photooxidation of preexisting melanin and does not contribute to photoprotection. We investigated the mechanism of UVA-induced degradation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA)-melanin taking advantage of its solubility in a neutral buffer and using a differential spectrophotometric method to detect subtle changes in its structure. Our methodology is suitable for examining the effects of various agents that interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to determine how ROS is involved in the UVA-induced oxidative modifications. The results show that UVA radiation induces the oxidation of DHICA to indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylic acid in eumelanin, which is then cleaved to form a photodegraded, pyrrolic moiety and finally to form free pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid. The possible involvement of superoxide radical and singlet oxygen in the oxidation was suggested. The generation and quenching of singlet oxygen by DHICA-melanin was confirmed by direct measurements of singlet oxygen phosphorescence.

  18. A spectrophotometric and thermodynamic study of the charge-transfer complexes of iodine with 2-aminomethyl-15-crown-5 in chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane solutions.

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Akbari, Sakineh

    2007-05-01

    Interaction of 2-aminomethyl-15-crown-5 (AM15C5) with iodine has been investigated spectrophotometrically in chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) solutions. The observed time dependence of the charge-transfer band and subsequent formation of I(3)(-) in solution were related to the slow transformation of the initially formed 1:1 AM15C5.I(2) outer complex to an inner electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex, followed by fast reaction of the inner complex with iodine to form a triiodide ion. The pseudo-first-order rate constants were evaluated from the absorbance- and conductivity-time data. The stoichiometry and formation constants of the resulting EDA complexes have also been determined. Thermodynamic parameters, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees , of the complexes have been determined from the temperature dependence of stability constants by Van't Hoff equation. The results indicate that iodine complexes of AM15C5 in both solvents are enthalpy stabilized but entropy destabilized. The influence of solvent properties on the kinetics and stability of the resulting charge-transfer complexes are discussed.

  19. Synthesis, crystallographic, spectral, and spectrophotometric studies of proton transfer complex of 1,2-dimethylimidazole with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid in different polar solvents

    Miyan, Lal; Zulkarnain; Ahmad, Afaq

    2017-04-01

    The molecular interaction between 1, 2-dimethylimidazole (DMI) and 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (DNBA) has been investigated in methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometry of the synthesized CT complex was found to be 1:1 using the straight line method of Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The structure of the resulting CT complex was isolating and characterized using X-ray crystallography, FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The thermal composition and stability of the CT complex were analyzed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). UV-visible spectrophotometric technique was used to the determine the various important physical parameters such as formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (εCT), energy of interaction (ECT), ionization potential (ID), resonance energy (RN), free energy (ΔG°), oscillator strength (ƒ) and transition dipole moment (μN). The effect of polarity of the solvent and concentration of acceptor on these parameters have been investigated. The results indicate that charge transfer complex (CTC) is more stable in less polar solvent due to the high value of the formation constant. A polymeric network through hydrogen bonding interaction between neighboring moieties was observed. This has also been attributed to the formation of 1:1 type CT complex.

  20. Study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding active carbon particles into MEA solution

    Qian, Juan; Sun, Rui; Ma, Lian; Sun, Shaozeng [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} is generally recognized as the most efficient post-combustion technology of CO{sub 2} separation at present. A study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding small particles of active carbon into MEA solution is investigated within a self-designed glass stirring tank. Experiments of different particle loadings and different particle sizes have been conducted. When active carbon particle concentration is fewer, compared to the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} gas absorbed by MEA aqueous solution, the role of active carbon adsorption CO{sub 2} gas is negligible. The enhancement efficiency of CO{sub 2} absorption could be improved by 10% to the upmost in this liquid-particle system.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of nizatidine and ranitidine through charge transfer complex formation.

    Walash, M; Sharaf-El Din, M; Metwalli, M E-S; RedaShabana, M

    2004-07-01

    Two Spectrophotometric procedures are presented for the determination of two commonly used H2-receptor antagonists, nizatidine (I) and ranitidine hydrochloride (II). The methods are based mainly on charge transfer complexation reaction of these drugs with either p-chloranilic acid (rho-CA) or 2, 3 dichloro-5, 6-dicyanoquinone (DDQ). The produced colored products are quantified spectrophotometrically at 515 and 467 nm in chloranilic acid and DDQ methods, respectively. The molar ratios for the reaction products and the optimum assay conditions were studied. The methods determine the cited drugs in concentration ranges of 20-200 and 20-160 microg/mL for nizatidine and ranges of 20-240 and 20-140 microg/mL for ranitidine with chloranilic acid and DDQ methods, respectively. A more detailed investigation of the complexes formed was made with respect to their composition, association constant, molar absorptivity and free energy change. The proposed procedures were successfully utilized in the determination of the drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. The standard addition method was applied by adding nizatidine and ranitidine to the previously analyzed tablets or capsules. The recovery of each drug was calculated by comparing the concentration obtained from the spiked mixtures with those of the pure drug. The results of analysis of commercial tablets and the recovery study (standard addition method) of the cited drugs suggested that there is no interference from any excipients, which are present in tablets or capsules. Statistical comparison of the results was performed with regard to accuracy and precision using student's t-test and F-ratio at 95% confidence level. There is no significant difference between the reported and proposed methods with regard to accuracy and precision.

  2. Evaluation of the color durability of acrylic resin veneer materials after immersion in common beverages at different time intervals: A spectrophotometric study

    Shivani Kohli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper function, esthetics, and cost are the prime factors to be considered while selecting bridge veneering materials. The purpose of the study is to evaluate color durability of acrylic veneer materials after immersion in common beverages at different time intervals. Methods: Spectrophotometer was used for taking color measurements based on the transmission of light through the specimens made of the selected materials which were Tooth moulding powder (DPI and Acrylux (Ruthinium. Thirty specimens of standardized dimensions were prepared from each material. The specimens were divided into three groups of 10 each. One group of each material was immersed in tea (TajMahal and another group of each material in cola (Pepsi as the staining solutions. The remaining group of 10 from each material served as control and was stored in distilled water. Color measurements were obtained pre-immersion, and after 1, 15, and 30 days of immersion. Results: Tooth moulding powder displayed better color durability than Acrylux over the 1 month immersion period in both staining solutions. Tea resulted in more discoloration compared to cola (Pepsi. Conclusion: The difference in the color durability of Acrylux and Tooth moulding powder may be attributed to the differences in the composition of tested resin veneering materials, i.e. their polar properties, which contribute to the absorption of staining solution, and the different brands and the strengths of the solutions.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of acidity constant of some indicators in various micellar media solutions by rank annihilation factor analysis.

    Niazi, Ali; Zolgharnein, Javad; Davoodabadi, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-01

    Rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) was used to the spectrophotometric studies of the acidity constant of methyl orange, methyl red and methyl violet in water and different micellar solutions at 25 degrees C and an ionic strength of 0.1M. When the acidity constants (surfactant concentration dependent acidity constant) acts as an optimizing object, and simply combined with the pure spectrum of acidic and basic forms, the rank of original data matrix can be reduced. The residual standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the residual matrix after bi-linearization of the background matrix is regarded as the evaluation function. Results show that the acidity constant of these indicators are influenced as the percentages of neutral, cationic and anionic surfactant such as Triton X-100 (poly(oxyethylene)(9.5)p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethyl), sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS) and cethyltrimethylammonium (CTAB), respectively, added to the solution of these reagents. Also, RAFA is an efficient chemometrics algorithm for completely analysis of acid-base equilibrium systems by spectrophotometric method. Effects of surfactant on acidity constant and absorption spectra are also discussed.

  4. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of cobalt,copper and nickel using 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol by chemometrics methods

    Ali Niazi; Ateesa Yazdanipour

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of cobalt,copper and nickel using 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (first figure of this article) by spectrophotometric method is a difficult problem in analytical chemistry,due to spectral interferences.By multivariate calibration methods,such as partial least squares (PLS) regression,it is possible to obtain a model adjusted to the concentration values of the mixtures used in the calibration range.Orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is a preprocessing technique used for removing the information unrelated to the target variables based on constrained principal component analysis.OSC is a suitable preprocessing method for PLS calibration of mixtures without loss of prediction capacity using spectrophotometric method.In this study,the calibration model is based on absorption spectra in the 550-750-nm range for 21 different mixtures of cobalt,copper and nickel.Calibration matrices were formed from samples containing 0.05-1.05,0.05-1.30 and 0.05-0.80 μg mL-1 for cobalt,copper and nickel,respectively.The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for cobalt,copper and nickel with OSC and without OSC were 0.007,0.008,0.011 and 0.031,0.037,0.032 μg mL-1,respectively.This procedure allows the simultaneous determination of cobalt,copper and nickel in synthetic and real samples and good reliability of the determination was proved.

  5. Comparative QSAR studies on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drug absorption potential with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption

    Verma, Rajeshwar P.; Hansch, Corwin; Selassie, Cynthia D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in speed of synthesis and biological evaluation of new chemical entities, the number of compounds that survive the rigorous processes associated with drug development is low. Thus, an increased emphasis on thorough ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) studies based on in vitro and in silico approaches allows for early evaluation of new drugs in the development phase. Artificial membrane permeability measurements afford a high throughput, relatively low cost but labor intensive alternative for in vitro determination of drug absorption potential; parallel artificial membrane permeability assays have been extensively utilized to determine drug absorption potentials. The present study provides comparative QSAR analysis on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drugs with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption.

  6. Sensitive Determination of Epinephrine Using Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method

    Atefah Ekhtesasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thionine – bromate as a sensitive reaction system using kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of epinephrine is proposed. The method is based on the catalytic effect of epinephrine on the selected reaction system. The change in absorbance was followed spectrophotometrically as a criterion of the oxidation reaction progress. The effective reaction variables were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, calibration curve was linear over the range 0.4 – 12.8 mg/l and the detection limit was 0.13 mg/l for five replicate determinations of blank signal. The interfering effect of various species was also investigated. The developed procedure was successfully applied for the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical and biological samples satisfactorily.

  7. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  8. A study of sound absorption by street canyon boundaries and asphalt rubber concrete pavement

    Drysdale, Graeme Robert

    A sound field model, based on a classical diffusion equation, is extended to account for sound absorption in a diffusion parameter used to model sound energy in a narrow street canyon. The model accounts for a single sound absorption coefficient, separate accommodation coefficients and a combination of separate absorption and accommodation coefficients from parallel canyon walls. The new expressions are compared to the original formula through numerical simulations to reveal the effect of absorption on sound diffusion. The newly established analytical formulae demonstrate satisfactory agreement with their predecessor under perfect reflection. As well, the influence of the extended diffusion parameter on normalized sound pressure levels in a narrow street canyon is in agreement with experimental data. The diffusion parameters are used to model sound energy density in a street canyon as a function of the sound absorption coefficient of the street canyon walls. The acoustic and material properties of conventional and asphalt rubber concrete (ARC) pavement are also studied to assess how the crumb rubber content influences sound absorption in street canyons. The porosity and absolute permeability of compacted specimens of asphalt rubber concrete are measured and compared to their normal and random incidence sound absorption coefficients as a function of crumb rubber content in the modified binder. Nonlinear trends are found between the sound absorption coefficients, porosity and absolute permeability of the compacted specimens and the percentage of crumb rubber in the modified binders. The cross-sectional areas of the air voids on the surfaces of the compacted specimens are measured using digital image processing techniques and a linear relationship is obtained between the average void area and crumb rubber content. The measured material properties are used to construct an empirical formula relating the average porosity, normal incidence noise reduction coefficients and

  9. [Near infrared Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy study of NO2O].

    Wu, Zhi-wei; Dong, Yan-ting; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2014-08-01

    Using a tunable near infrared external cavity diode laser and a 650 mm long high finesse optical cavity consisting of two highly reflective (R=99.97% at 6561.39 cm(-1)) plan-concave mirrors of curvature radius approximately 1000 mm, a cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) system was made. The absorption spectra centered at 6561.39 cm(-1) of pure N2O gas and gas mixtures of N2O and N2 were recorded. According to the absorption of N2O at 6561.39 cm(-1) in the cavity, the measured effective absorption path was about 1460 km. The spectra line intensity and line-width of N2O centered at 6561.39 cm(-1) were carefully studied. The relationship between the line-width of absorption spectra and the gas pressure was derived. The pressure broadening parameter of N2 gas for NO2O line centered at 6 561. 39 cm(-1) was deduced and given a value of approximately (0.114 +/- 0.004) cm(-1) x atm(-1). The possibility to detect trace N2O gas in mixture using this CEAS system was investigated. By recording the ab- sorption spectra of N2O gas mixtures at different concentration, the relationship between the line intensity and gas concentration was derived. The minimum detectable absorption was found to be 2.34 x 10(-7) cm(-1) using this cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy system. And te measurement precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) for N2O is approximately 1.73%, indicating the possibility of using the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy system for micro gas N2O analysis in the future.

  10. Studies on different iron source absorption by in situ ligated intestinal loops of broilers.

    Jia, Y F; Jiang, M M; Sun, J; Shi, R B; Liu, D S

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the iron source absorption in the small intestine of broiler. In situ ligated intestinal loops of 70 birds were poured into one of seven solutions, including inorganic iron (FeSO4, Fe2(SO4)3), organic Fe glycine chelate (Fe-Gly(II), Fe-Gly(III)), the mixtures (FeSO4 with glycine (Fe+Gly(II)), Fe2(SO4)3 with glycine (Fe+Gly(III)), and no Fe source (control). The total volume of 3-mL solution (containing 1 mg of elemental Fe) was injected into intestinal loops, and then 120-min incubation was performed. Compared with inorganic iron groups, in which higher FeSO4 absorption than Fe2(SO4)3 was observed, supplementation with organic Fe glycine chelate significantly increased the Fe concentration in the duodenum and jejunum (P small intestine. Those results indicated that the absorption of organic Fe glycine chelate was more effective than that of inorganic Fe, and the orders of iron absorption in the small intestine were: Fe-Gly(II), Fe-Gly(III) > FeSO4, Fe+Gly(II) > Fe2(SO4)3, Fe+Gly(III). Additionally, the simple mixture of inorganic iron and glycine could not increase Fe absorption, and the duodenum was the main site of Fe absorption in the intestines of broilers and the ileum absorbed iron rarely.

  11. QSAR Study and VolSurf Characterization of Human Intestinal Absorption of Druge

    胡桂香; 商志才; 等

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of human intestinal absorption is a major goal in the design,optimization,and selection of candidates for the develoment of oral drugs.In this study,a computerized method(VolSurf with GRID) was used as a novel tool for predicting human intestinal absorption of test compound,and for determining the critical molecular properties needed for human intestinal absorption.The tested molecules consisted of 20 diverse drug-like compounds.Partial least squares(PLS) discriminant analysis was used to correlate the experimental data with the theoretical molecular properties of human intestinal absorption.A good correlation(r2=0.95,q2=0.86) between the molecular modeling results and the experimental data demonstrated that human intestinal absorption could be predicted from the three-dimensional(3D) molecular structure of a compound .Favorable structureal properties identified for the potent intestinal absorption of drugs included strong imbalance between the center of mass of a molecule and the barycentre of its hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and a definitive hydrophobic region as well as less hydrogen bonding donors and acceptors in the molecule.

  12. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of diethylcarbamazine citrate in formulations using iodate and iodide mixture as reagents

    Nagaraju Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are proposed for the determination of diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC in bulk drug and in formulations using potassium iodate and potassium iodide as reagent. The methods employ the well-known analytical reaction between iodate and iodide in the presence of acid. In titrimetry (method A, the drug was treated with a measured excess of thiosulfate in the presence of unmeasured excess of iodate-iodide mixture and after a standing time of 10 min, the surplus thiosulfate was determined by back titration with iodine towards starch end point. Titrimetric assay is based on a 1:3 reaction stoichiometry between DEC and iodine and the method is applicable over 2.0-10.0 mg range. The liberated iodine is measured spectrophotometrically at 370 nm (method B or the iodine-starch complex measured at 570 nm (method C. In both methods, the absorbance is found to be linearly dependent on the concentration of iodine, which in turn is related to DEC concentration. The calibration curves are linear over 2.5-50 and 2.5-30 µg mL-1 DEC for method B and method C, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity values were 6.48×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0604 µg cm-2, respectively, for method B, and their respective values for method C are 9.96×103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0393 µg cm-2. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision studies were carried out according to the ICH guidelines. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of DEC formulations.

  13. Estimation of citicoline sodium in tablets by difference spectrophotometric method

    Sagar Suman Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work deals with development and validation of a novel, precise, and accurate spectrophotometric method for the estimation of citicoline sodium (CTS in tablets. This spectrophotometric method is based on the principle that CTS shows two different forms that differs in the absorption spectra in basic and acidic medium. Materials and Methods: The present work was being carried out on Shimadzu 1800 Double Beam UV-visible spectrophotometer. Difference spectra were generated using 10 mm quartz cells over the range of 200-400 nm. Solvents used were 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl. Results: The maxima and minima in the difference spectra of CTS were found to be 239 nm and 283 nm, respectively. Amplitude was calculated from the maxima and minima of spectrum. The drug follows linearity in the range of 1-50 μ/ml (R 2 = 0.999. The average % recovery from the tablet formulation was found to be 98.47%. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use: ICH Q2(R1 Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology guidelines. Conclusion: This method is simple and inexpensive. Hence it can be applied for determination of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  14. Development and Statistical Validation of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Estimation of Nabumetone in Tablet Dosage Form

    A. R. Rote

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new simple, economic spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of nabumetone in bulk and tablet dosage form. First method includes determination of nabumetone at absorption maxima 330 nm, second method applied was area under curve for analysis of nabumetone in the wavelength range of 326-334 nm and third method was First order derivative spectra with scaling factor 4. Beer law obeyed in the concentration range of 10-30 μg/mL for all three methods. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9997, 0.9998 and 0.9998 by absorption maxima, area under curve and first order derivative spectra. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by performing recovery studies. The mean percent recoveries were found satisfactory for all three methods. The developed methods were also compared statistically using one way ANOVA. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for the estimation of nabumetone in bulk and pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.

  15. Selective spectrophotometric determination of some primary amines using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene reagent

    Theia’a N. Al-Sabha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method is developed for the quantitative determination of some primary aliphatic and aromatic amines, i.e., allyl amine, 1,5-diaminopentane, 1,6-diaminohexane, cyclohexylamine, m-aminophenol, benzidine and p-phenylenediamine. The method is based on the interaction between these amines and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB reagent. The spectra of the products show maximum absorption that ranged from 355–357 nm and 366–377 nm with molar absorptivities that ranged from 1.086 × 104–6.398 × 104 and 7.566 × 103–1.581 × 104 l/mol cm for aliphatic and aromatic primary amines, respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 0.25–8.0, 1.0–10, 0.25–2.50, 1.0–8.0, 2.0–20, 1.0–12.0 and 1.0–10.0 μg/ml for the above mentioned amines, respectively, and the mean percent recoveries ranged between 97.8% and 103.3% with precision (RSD better than 5.5% for all the amines under study. In addition, the stability constant has been determined and the mechanism is proposed for the DNFB-amine products.

  16. Spectrophotometric Assay of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Using 4-Aminoantipyrine and Copper (II

    Theia'a N. Al-Sabha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method is proposed for determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride. The method is based on the coupling of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PEH to give a new ligand that reacts with copper (II in the presence of sodium tetraborate buffer solution of pH 9.00 at 50 °C to give an intense red colored chelate having maximum absorption at 480 nm. The optimization of the experimental conditions is described. The method has been used for the determination of 2.0–50.0 μg/ml of PEH. The molar absorptivity is 5.34×103 L.mol.-1cm.-1 and the accuracy of the method is achieved by the value of average recovery (101.28 % and the precision is supported by relative standard deviation (RSD=1.25 % values. The results of the method was compared with those of the standard method. The interference of excipients was studied. The mechanism of the chemical reaction has been proposed. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the PEH in pharmaceutical syrup formulations.

  17. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    Semenova, E.; Presnyakova, V.; Goncharov, D.; Goncharov, M.; Presnyakova, E.; Presnyakov, S.; Moiseeva, I.; Kolesnikova, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10-5-10-6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.).

  18. Vitamin D-mediated calcium absorption in patients with clinically stable Crohn’s disease: A pilot study

    Kumari, Meena; Khazai, Natasha B.; Ziegler, Thomas R; Nanes, Mark S.; Abrams, Steven A.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is the critical hormone for intestinal absorption of calcium. Optimal calcium absorption is important for proper mineralization of bone in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other important functions. Diseases associated with gut inflammation, such as Crohn’s disease (CD), may impair calcium absorption. This pilot study evaluated vitamin D- dependent calcium absorption in subjects with CD. Male subjects with CD (n = 4) and healthy age-matched controls (...

  19. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Four Components including Acetaminophen by Taget Factor Analysis

    2007-01-01

    UV Spectrophotometric Target Factor Analysis (TFA) was used for the simultaneous determination of four components (acetaminophen, guuaifenesin, caffeine, Chlorphenamine maleate) in cough syrup. The computer program of TFA is based on VC++ language. The difficulty of overlapping of absorption spectra of four compounds was overcome by this procedure. The experimental results show that the average recovery of each component is all in the range from 98.9% to 106.8% and each component obtains satisfactory results without any pre-separation.

  20. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L{sub 2,3}- and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi{sub 2} sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi{sub 2}. Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed.

  1. First-principles Study on Infrared Absorptions of Transition Metal-doped ZnO with Oxygen Vacancy

    Yinhua YAO; Quanxi CAO

    2013-01-01

    Using first-principle theory,the infrared absorptions of transition metal (Mn,Fe,Co,Ni)-doped ZnO were investigated.The results indicate that the absorptions of Mn-and Co-incorporated ZnO without oxygen vacancy are reduced,while those of Fe-and Ni-doped ZnO are raised.This is consistent with the previous experimental results.The effects of oxygen vacancy on the absorptions of the doped systems were predicted.When a neutral oxygen vacancy is introduced,all doping elements decrease the absorptions.On the contrary,the absorptions of the doped systems are enhanced if the vacancies are charged.Degraded absorptions can be obtained by increasing the permeability.However,the appearance of anti-bonding states may cause enhanced absorptions.In the current study,Mn-doped ZnO is the most suitable for use as low infrared absorption materials.

  2. Vitamin D-mediated calcium absorption in patients with clinically stable Crohn's disease: a pilot study.

    Kumari, Meena; Khazai, Natasha B; Ziegler, Thomas R; Nanes, Mark S; Abrams, Steven A; Tangpricha, Vin

    2010-08-01

    Vitamin D is the critical hormone for intestinal absorption of calcium. Optimal calcium absorption is important for proper mineralization of bone in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other important functions. Diseases associated with gut inflammation, such as Crohn's disease (CD), may impair calcium absorption. This pilot study evaluated vitamin D- dependent calcium absorption in subjects with CD. Male subjects with CD (n=4) and healthy age-matched controls (n=5) were studied. All subjects had fractional calcium absorption (FCA; by the dual calcium isotope method), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum calcium and 24 h urinary calcium excretion measurements at baseline. The FCA in response to vitamin D therapy was re-assessed following administration of oral calcitriol 0.25 mcg twice daily for 1 wk, followed by oral calcitriol 0.50 mcg twice daily for 1 wk. Serum calcium and 24 h urinary calcium determinations were re-assessed after each increasing dose of calcitriol as safety measures. There was no significant difference in calcium FCA at baseline or after increasing doses of calcitriol between the CD and controls. FCA in the control and CD group was approximately 35% at baseline, which increased to 60% after calcitriol therapy. No subject developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. Our results suggest that CD patients have a normal response to vitamin D in enhancing the efficacy of calcium absorption. This suggests that stable CD patients can follow calcium and vitamin D guidelines of non-CD adults. Other factors independent of vitamin D status may impair intestinal calcium absorption in CD, including the degree and location of inflammation, presence of surgical resection and/or use of glucocorticoids.

  3. Studies on Absorption and Tansport of Limoninoids from Fructus Evodiae in Caco-2 Cell Monolayer Model

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the intestinal absorption and transepithelial transport of three limoninoids: evodol (EVO), limonin (LIM), and shihulimonin A (SHIA), isolated from Fructus Evodiae [the unripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa and Evodia rutaecarpa var. bodinieri] in the human intestine. Methods The in vitro cultured human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2 cell monolayer model, was applied to studying the absorption and transepithelial transport of the three limoninoids from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) side and from BL to AP side. The three limoninoids were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector. Transport parameters and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were then calculated and compared with those of Propranolol as a control substance of high permeability and Atenolol as a control substance of poor permeability. Results The Papp value of EVO and LIM from AP to BL side for absorption and transport were 1.78 × 10-5 cm/s and 1.16 × 10-5 cm/s, respectively, which was comparable to that of Propranolol with Papp 2.18 × 10-5 cm/s. Conclusion The absorption and transport of both EVO and LIM are main passive diffusion as the dominating process in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, and they were estimated to be high absorbed compounds. SHIA in Caco-2 cell monolayer model may be involved in metabolism in the transport processes.

  4. Sensitive and rapid laser diagnostic for shock tube kinetics studies using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Sun, Kai; Wang, Shengkai; Sur, Ritobrata; Chao, Xing; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2014-04-21

    We report the first application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using a coherent light source for sensitive and rapid gaseous species time-history measurements in a shock tube. Off-axis alignment and fast scanning of the laser wavelength were used to minimize coupling noise in a low-finesse cavity. An absorption gain factor of 83 with a measurement time resolution of 20 µs was demonstrated for C2H2 detection using a near-infrared transition near 1537 nm, corresponding to a noise-equivalent detection limit of 20 ppm at 296 K and 76 ppm at 906 K at 50 kHz. This substantial gain in signal, relative to conventional single-pass absorption, will enable ultra-sensitive species detection in shock tube kinetics studies, particularly useful for measurements of minor species and for studies of dilute reactive systems.

  5. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride in its tablets via derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    2012-01-01

    This study represents the first report on the development of a novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride (CIN) in its tablet dosage forms. Studies were carried out to investigate the reaction between CIN and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 8.5), an orange red-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 490 nm was produced. The stoichiometry and kinetic of the reaction were investigated and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was employed in the development of a simple and rapid visible-spectrophotometric method for determination of CIN in its tablets. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance with CIN concentration was obeyed in the range of 3 - 100 μg/ml with good correlation coefficient (0.9993). The molar absorptivity (ε) was 4.2 × 105 l/mol/cm. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.9 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations (RSD) did not exceed 2%. No interference was observed from the excipients that are present in the tablets. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of CIN in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.80 - 102.23 ± 1.27 - 1.62%. The results were compared favorably with those of a reference pre-validated method. The method is practical and valuable in terms of its routine application in quality control laboratories. PMID:22305461

  6. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride in its tablets via derivatization with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    Darwish Ibrahim A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study represents the first report on the development of a novel spectrophotometric method for determination of cinacalcet hydrochloride (CIN in its tablet dosage forms. Studies were carried out to investigate the reaction between CIN and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS reagent. In alkaline medium (pH 8.5, an orange red-colored product exhibiting maximum absorption peak (λmax at 490 nm was produced. The stoichiometry and kinetic of the reaction were investigated and the reaction mechanism was postulated. This color-developing reaction was employed in the development of a simple and rapid visible-spectrophotometric method for determination of CIN in its tablets. Under the optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law correlating the absorbance with CIN concentration was obeyed in the range of 3 - 100 μg/ml with good correlation coefficient (0.9993. The molar absorptivity (ε was 4.2 × 105 l/mol/cm. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.9 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations (RSD did not exceed 2%. No interference was observed from the excipients that are present in the tablets. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of CIN in its pharmaceutical tablets with good accuracy and precisions; the label claim percentage was 100.80 - 102.23 ± 1.27 - 1.62%. The results were compared favorably with those of a reference pre-validated method. The method is practical and valuable in terms of its routine application in quality control laboratories.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in personal care products

    Lu, Huihui; Ma, Hongbing; Tao, Guanhong

    2009-09-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of triclosan in personal care products was proposed. It was based on the reaction of sodium nitrite with p-sulfanilic acid in an acidic medium to form diazonium ion, with which triclosan further formed an azo compound in an alkaline medium. The resulting yellow colored product has a maximum absorption at 452 nm. A good linear relationship ( r = 0.9999) was obtained in the range of 0-30 mg L -1 triclosan. A detection limit of 0.079 g L -1 was achieved and the relative standard deviation was 0.24% ( n = 11) at 14 mg L -1 triclosan. The proposed method has been applied to the analyses of triclosan in several personal care products and the results were in good agreement with those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  8. Determination of Azithromycin in pharmaceutical dosage forms by Spectrophotometric method

    Suhagia B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of azithromycin in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. In the proposed method, azithromycin is oxidized with potassium permanganate to liberate formaldehyde, which is determined in situ using acetyl acetone, in the presence of ammonium acetate. A yellow coloured chromogen was obtained, having an absorption maxima at 412 nm. The method is found to be linear in the concentration range of 10-75 µg/ml, with regression coefficient of 0.9978. Various reaction parameters such as concentration of potassium permanganate and reagent, time required for oxidation, and maximum colour intensity were optimized. The method was validated, and can be used successfully to assay azithromycin in its pharmaceutical dosage forms viz. tablets, capsules, and injections.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite using salbutamol sulfate as a reagent

    Agrawal, Y.K.; Bhatt, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method for the trace determination of nitrite (NO/sub 2//sup /minus//) is described. Nitrite is reacted with Salbutamol sulfate in acidic medium which gives a yellow color in alkaline medium (less than or equal to pH 7) and can be determined in the presence of several cations and anions. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 1.8 to 27.6 ppm of nitrite with the molar absorptivity 1.8 /times/ 10/sup 3/ 1 /times/ mole /sup /minus/1/ /times/ cm/sup /minus/1/ at 410 nm. The proposed method can also be utilized for the determination of nitrate (NO/sub 3//sup /minus//) after its reduction to nitrite. The method has been applied for the determination of various samples containing traces of nitrite.

  10. Regional spectrophotometric properties of 951 Gaspra

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Vilas, Faith; Choo, Teck; Stockstill-Cahill, Karen R.; Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Hendrix, Amanda R.

    2016-12-01

    Spectrophotometric examination of the Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) observations from the Galileo spacecraft reveal surface compositional heterogeneities in mineral compositions not related to geologic unit. These include variations in olivine and orthopyroxene content on the order of 15% and 25%, respectively. Opaque mineral phases across the inter-ridge regions vary in quantity, but consistently modeled better with ilmenite. The macroscale fraction of metallic iron varies subtly (0-10%) in quantity and in grain size (60-100 μm). Color properties also vary across the inter-ridge regions, indicating variations in regolith maturity. Comparisons of near-infrared ratio-reflectance suggest changes in regolith maturity that are different from those seen on the lunar surface and asteroid 433 Eros, commensurate with Gaspra's higher olivine content. Visible to near-infrared slopes compared to near-ultraviolet to visible slopes are indicative of a nanophase iron content of 0.01%-0.1%. Spectral mixing modeling studies of the SSI color spectra show results consistent with the presence of both microphase (> 50 nm) and nanophase (iron particulates. While the quantity of microphase and nanophase iron appears to be constant within the sample areas studied, the grain size of the microphase component varies. Agglutinates are present in some areas of the inter-ridge regions, but at low abundances (∼5%).

  11. Spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic methods for sensitive determination of bisphenol A.

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Zhou, Meng; Gu, Jia; Li, Xiangmei

    2014-03-25

    A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of bisphenol A based on a diazotization-coupling reaction was developed. In acidic solution, clenbuterol was first diazotized with sodium nitrite, then coupled with bisphenol A to from an azo-compound [I] in NH3-NH4Cl buffer, which shows a maximum absorption at 410 nm. The effects of the amount of sodium nitrite, diazo reaction time, the amount of clenbuterol, coupling reaction time and coupling reaction temperature have been examined. Under the optional conditions, the determination of the linear range of bisphenol A is 0.24-8.4 μg/mL, correlation coefficient is 0.9905 and detection limit of this method is 0.15 μg/mL. The spectrophotometric method is simple, rapid, high sensitivity with better accuracy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique combined with this new spectrophotometric method has been also developed for the measurement of bisphenol A. The analysis was achieved on a C18 column using water and methanol as a mobile phase and the detection was done spectrophotometrically at 410 nm. These reported methods were applied to the determination of bisphenol A in hot water in contact with commercially available table-water bottle samples.

  12. Chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods and high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of seven β-blockers in their pharmaceutical products: A comparative study

    Abdel Hameed, Eman A.; Abdel Salam, Randa A.; Hadad, Ghada M.

    2015-04-01

    Chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were developed for the simultaneous determination of the seven most commonly prescribed β-blockers (atenolol, sotalol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, propranolol, carvedilol and nebivolol). Principal component regression PCR, partial least square PLS and PLS with previous wavelength selection by genetic algorithm (GA-PLS) were used for chemometric analysis of spectral data of these drugs. The compositions of the mixtures used in the calibration set were varied to cover the linearity ranges 0.7-10 μg ml-1 for AT, 1-15 μg ml-1 for ST, 1-15 μg ml-1 for MT, 0.3-5 μg ml-1 for BS, 0.1-3 μg ml-1 for PR, 0.1-3 μg ml-1 for CV and 0.7-5 μg ml-1 for NB. The analytical performances of these chemometric methods were characterized by relative prediction errors and were compared with each other. GA-PLS showed superiority over the other applied multivariate methods due to the wavelength selection. A new gradient HPLC method had been developed using statistical experimental design. Optimum conditions of separation were determined with the aid of central composite design. The developed HPLC method was found to be linear in the range of 0.2-20 μg ml-1 for AT, 0.2-20 μg ml-1 for ST, 0.1-15 μg ml-1 for MT, 0.1-15 μg ml-1 for BS, 0.1-13 μg ml-1 for PR, 0.1-13 μg ml-1 for CV and 0.4-20 μg ml-1 for NB. No significant difference between the results of the proposed GA-PLS and HPLC methods with respect to accuracy and precision. The proposed analytical methods did not show any interference of the excipients when applied to pharmaceutical products.

  13. Experimental study on the sound absorption characteristics of continuously graded phononic crystals

    X. H. Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel three-dimensional (3D continuously graded phononic crystals (CGPCs have been designed, and fabricated by 3D printing. Each of the CGPCs is an entity instead of a combination of several other samples, and the porosity distribution of the CGPC along the incident direction is nearly linear. The sound absorption characteristics of CGPCs were experimentally investigated and compared with those of uniform phononic crystals (UPCs and discretely stepped phononic crystals (DSPCs. Experimental results show that CGPCs demonstrate excellent sound absorption performance because of their continuously graded structures. CGPCs have higher sound absorption coefficients in the large frequency range and more sound absorption coefficient peaks in a specific frequency range than UPCs and DSPCs. In particular, the sound absorption coefficients of the CGPC with a porosity of 0.6 and thickness of 30 mm are higher than 0.56 when the frequency is 1350–6300 Hz and are all higher than 0.2 in the studied frequency range (1000–6300 Hz. CGPCs are expected to have potential application in noise control, especially in the broad frequency and low-frequency ranges.

  14. Study on Absorption and Regeneration Performance of Novel Hybrid Solutions for CO2 Capture

    Gao Jie; Yin Jun; Zhu Feifei; Chen Xin; Tong Ming; Kang Wanzhong; Zhou Yanbo; Lu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a kind of hybrid solution MEA-methanol shows a better CO2 capture performance over aqueous MEA solution. However, the vaporization of methanol is the biggest disadvantage that hinders its application, so it is necessary to minimize the vaporization of methanol during both the absorption and regeneration processes. In this work, two kinds of hybrid solutions were studied and compared with aqueous MEA solution and MEA-methanol solution, including MEA/TEA/methanol solution and MEA/glycerol/methanol solution. The absorption property of MEA/glycerol/methanol solution is better than aqueous MEA solution within a certain period of time and the absorption property of MEA/TEA/methanol solution is too poor to be used in CO2 capture. By increasing the concentration of TEA and decreasing the concentration of MEA, the absorption rate, CO2 capture efifciency and absorption capacity all decreased. Upon adding glycerol, the cyclic capacity decreased and the generation temperature increased, and moreover, the density and viscosity also increased considerably. So after adding TEA and glycerol, the CO2 capture performance of MEA-methanol solvent cannot be improved.

  15. A laboratory experimental setup for photo-absorption studies using synchrotron radiation

    Shastri, A; Saraswati, P; Sunanda, K

    2002-01-01

    The photophysics beamline, which is being installed at the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Indus-l, is a medium resolution beamline useful for a variety of experiments in the VUV region viz. 500-2000 A. One of the major applications of this beamline is gas-phase photo-absorption studies. An experimental set up to be used for these experiments was designed, developed and tested in our laboratory. The setup consists of a high vacuum absorption cell, 1/4 m monochromator and detection system. For the purpose of testing, xenon and tungsten continuum sources were used and absorption spectra were recorded in the UV region. This setup was used to record the absorption spectrum of a few molecules like acetone, ammonia, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in order to evaluate the performance of the experimental system which will subsequently be used with the photophysics beamline. Details of the design, fabrication and testing of the absorption cell and experimental procedures are presented in this repor...

  16. DECal: A Spectrophotometric Calibration System For DECam

    Marshall, J L; DePoy, D L; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard; Behm, Tyler W; Martin, Emily C; Veal, Brannon; Villanueva,, Steven; Williams, Patrick; Wise, Jason

    2013-01-01

    DECal is a new calibration system for the CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope. It is currently being installed as part of the Dark Energy Survey and will provide both broadband flat fields and narrowband (about 1 nm bandwidth) spectrophotometric calibration for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Both of these systems share a new Lambertian flat field screen. The broadband flat field system uses LEDs to illuminate each photometric filter. The spectrophotometric calibration system consists of a monochromator-based tunable light source that is projected onto the flat field screen using a custom line-to-spot fiber bundle and an engineered diffuser. Several calibrated photodiodes positioned along the beam monitor the telescope throughput as a function of wavelength. This system will measure the wavelength-dependent instrumental response function of the total telescope+instrument system in the range 300 < lambda < 1100nm. The spectrophotometric calibration will be performed regularly (roughly once per month) to determ...

  17. Experimental studies of a zeeman-tuned xenon laser differential absorption apparatus.

    Linford, G J

    1973-06-01

    A Zeeman-tuned cw xenon laser differential absorption device is described. The xenon laser was tuned by axial magnetic fields up to 5500 G generated by an unusually large water-cooled dc solenoid. Xenon laser lines at 3.37 micro, 3.51 micro, and 3.99 micro were tuned over ranges of 6 A, 6 A, and 11 A, respectively. To date, this apparatus has been used principally to study the details of formaldehyde absorption lines lying near the 3 .508-micro xenon laser transition. These experiments revealed that the observed absorption spectrum of formaldehyde exhibits a sufficiently unique spectral structure that the present technique may readily be used to measure relative concentrations of formaldehyde in samples of polluted air.

  18. Parameter Optimization on Experimental Study to Reduce Ammonia Escape in CO2 Absorption by Ammonia Scrubbing

    Hao Leng; Jianmin Gao; Mingyue He; Min Xie; Qian Du; Rui Sun; Shaohua Wu

    2016-01-01

    In order to research ammonia escape in CO2 absorption by ammonia scrubbing, ammonia escape was studied in CO2 absorption process using the bubbling reactor in different conditions as gas flow rate, CO2 ratio, absorbent temperature and ammonia concentration and quantity of escaped ammonia was measured by chemical titration. The results indicated that, the amount of ammonia escape can be around 20% of original amount in 90 min and the escaped amount will increase with the rise of gas flow rate, absorbent temperature, concentration of ammonia while decrease as CO2 ratio goes up. Through the analysis of the law of ammonia escape, at the same time, combined with ammonia escape and the influence of the relationship between the CO2 absorption efficiency, reducing ammonia escape working condition parameter optimization is given.

  19. Experimental Study on the Shock Absorption Performance of Combined Aluminium Honeycombs under Impact Loading

    Lei Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock absorption characteristics of combined aluminium honeycomb structures were studied experimentally. In the experiments, a testing platform was design to compare the shock absorption level of different honeycomb specimens quantitatively. The shock response curves of six test points mounted on the platform were recorded with acceleration sensors when the buffer was impacted by a bullet driven by high pressure gas. The maximum acceleration values in time domain and in specifically spectral domain were obtained based on spectral analysis. Comparing the data of combined aluminium honeycomb buffer and single aluminium honeycomb buffer, conclusion can be obtained that shock absorbing characteristic of combined aluminium honeycomb buffer is better. Furthermore, compression properties of three kinds of buffers were tested under quasi-static state. The energy absorption parameters were calculated. The results show suitable combined aluminium honeycomb buffer can smooth the stress and lower the energy applied to the testing platform.

  20. [Study on transient absorption spectrum of tungsten nanoparticle with HepG2 tumor cell].

    Cao, Lin; Shu, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Dong; Wang, Cong

    2014-07-01

    Significance of this study lies in tungsten nano materials can be used as a preliminary innovative medicines applied basic research. This paper investigated the inhibition of tungsten nanoparticles which effected on human hepatoma HepG2 cells by MTT. The authors use transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) technology absorption and emission spectra characterization of charge transfer between nanoparticles and tumor cell. The authors discussed the role of the tungsten nanoparticles in the tumor early detection of the disease and its anti-tumor properties. In the HepG2 experiments system, 100-150 microg x mL(-1) is the best drug concentration of anti-tumor activity which recact violently within 6 hours and basically completed in 24 hours. The results showed that transient absorption spectroscopy can be used as tumor detection methods and characterization of charge transfer between nano-biosensors and tumor cells. Tungsten nanoparticles have potential applications as anticancer drugs.

  1. Study about the capillary absorption and the sorptivity of concretes with Cuban limestone aggregates

    Howland, J. J.; Martín, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the possibility to obtain concretes in Cuba with values of effective porosity below of 10%, using limestone aggregates with high levels of absorption (higher than 1% in many cases), and values of Sorptivity below of 5 x 10-5 m/s1/2 as is established in the document prepared by the DURAR Latin Working Group, for structures exposed to very aggressive environments. The experimental results showed that the use of the trial method of capillary absorpt...

  2. Parametric Study of the Absorption Cross-Section for a Moderately Conducting Thin Cylinder.

    Gurton, Kristan Peter

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section of a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 um. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  3. Parametric study of the absorption cross section for a moderately conducting thin cylinder

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Bruce, Charles W.

    1995-05-01

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section for a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths of the fibers considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 mu m. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  4. Studies on anodic oxide coating with low absorptance and high emittance on aluminum alloy 2024

    Siva Kumar, C. [Department of Post-graduate studies in Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore (India); Sharma, A.K. [Thermal Process Section, ISRO Satellite Centre, Vimanapura Post, Bangalore (India); Mahendra, K.N.; Mayanna, S.M. [Department of Post-graduate studies in Chemistry, Central College, Bangalore (India)

    2000-01-01

    Anodization of AA 2024 in sulfuric acid bath containing glycerol, lactic acid and ammonium metavenadate has been studied to develop white anodic oxide coating. Investigation on the influence of various operating parameters - coating thickness, current density and ammonium metavenadate concentration on the optical properties was carried out to optimize the process. Infrared, atomic absorption spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron micrograph were used to characterize the coating. The obtained oxide coating provides a ratio of solar absorptance ({alpha}) to infrared emittance ({epsilon}), as low as 0.2. The optical properties and hardness values measured under optimum experimental conditions support its use as a thermal control coating.

  5. Study of bulk and interface defects in silicon oxide with X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Tallarida, Massimo [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet, Konrad Wachsmann Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)], E-mail: tallamas@tu-cottbus.de; Schmeisser, Dieter [Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet, Konrad Wachsmann Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2007-11-25

    We show in this work a detailed study of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The Si2p absorption edge was measured for both a thick (50 nm) oxide layer and a native (1.5 nm) oxide. From the comparison between these two spectra we can address XAS features to bulk defects in SiO{sub 2} and to interface defects in the native oxide. We demonstrate the capability of XAS of achieving information about interface defects and suggest its use in more complex systems.

  6. Study on the Interaction Between Tangerine Peel and Beer by Absorption Spectrum

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to study the interaction between tangerine peel and beer by absorption spectrum.The author explores the change laws and the differences of the absorbance on some wave band from the absorption spectrums of tangerine peel and the mixture of tangerine peel and beer. The results show that there is an obvious difference around 323 nm though the absorbance values of the two samples are almost similar in the most bands. The absorbance value of the mixture is obviously greater than ...

  7. Laser-induced absorption and fluorescence studies of photochromic Schiff bases

    Kownacki, K.; Mordzinski, A.; Wilbrandt, R.

    1994-01-01

    Three photochromic Schiff bases: N-salicylideneaniline (SA), N-salicylidene-1-naphthylamine (SN), and N,N-bis-(salicylidene)-p-phenylenediamine (Bsp), were studied in acetonitrile by means of steady-state and time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as semiempirical quantum...... chemical calculations. In all these molecules, the transient absorption and two-step laser-induced fluorescence spectra of long-lived transients are remarkably similar. The photochromic species is tentatively assigned to the non-hydrogen bonded form of the proton transfer reaction product...

  8. Study and development of an in situ acoustic absorption measurement method

    Tijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Sound absorbing materials are used in many applications to attenuate unwanted noise. However, existing measurement methods can only be used on a limited number of material packages and under restricted circumstances. This thesis concerns the study and development of (absorption) measurement methods

  9. The team absorptive capacity triad: a configurational study of individual, enabling, and motivating factors

    Löwik, Sandor; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Groen, Aard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The paper aims to understand how knowledge-intensive teams can develop and enhance their team absorptive capacity (ACAP) level, by exploring whether individual and organizational factors are complements or substitutes for team ACAP. Design/methodology/approach The study applies a configurat

  10. The team absorptive capacity triad : a configurational study of individual, enabling, and motivating factors

    Lowik, Sandor; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Groen, Aard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The paper aims to understand how knowledge-intensive teams can develop and enhance their team absorptive capacity (ACAP) level, by exploring whether individual and organizational factors are complements or substitutes for team ACAP. Design/methodology/approach - The study applies a configu

  11. Vibrational absorption spectra, DFT and SCC-DFTB conformational study and analysis of [Leu]enkephalin

    Abdali, Salim; Niehaus, T.A.; Jalkanen, Karl J.;

    2003-01-01

    The endogenous morphine-like pentapeptide, [Leu]enkephalin, which binds to the opiate receptor in the brain, spinal core and gut, is the subject of this study. Vibrational absorption (VA) measurements were carried out on [Leu] enkephalin in non-polar solvent, DMSO-D6 to stabilize the environment...

  12. Feasibility of a 3D human airway epithelial model to study respiratory absorption

    Reus, A.A.; Maas, W.J.M.; Jansen, H.T.; Constant, S.; Staal, Y.C.M.; Triel, J.J. van; Kuper, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory route is an important portal for human exposure to a large variety of substances. Consequently, there is an urgent need for realistic in vitro strategies for evaluation of the absorption of airborne substances with regard to safety and efficacy assessment. The present study investiga

  13. Experimental and modeling studies on the absorption of NO in aqueous ferrous EDTA solutions

    Gambardella, F; Alberts, MS; Winkelman, JGM; Heeres, EJ; Alberts, Michel S.; Heeres, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes an experimental and modeling study on an industrial relevant process (i.e., the absorption of NO in aqueous Fell(EDTA) solutions) to accurately determine the equilibrium constant of the reaction in the temperature range of 299-329 K. The experiments were carried out in a stirred

  14. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    Cornelius, Andrew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-26

    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  15. An improved model for studies on transdermal drug absorption invivo in rats

    VOLLMER, U; MULLER, BW; WILFFERT, B; Peters, Thies

    1993-01-01

    In rats, transdermal drug absorption can be studied under physiological conditions by cannulating the peripheral skin vein, draining the area of the skin which is used for drug application, and collecting the blood. This method leads to decreased blood volume, which causes a reduction in skin blood

  16. An improved model for studies on transdermal drug absorption in-vivo in rats

    Vollmer, U.; Muller, B.W.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1993-01-01

    In rats, transdermal drug absorption can be studied under physiological conditions cannulating the peripheral skin vein, draining the area of the skin which is used for drug application, and collecting the blood. This method leads to decreased blood volume, which causes a reduction in skin blood flo

  17. The potential of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy in glass studies

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Baert, Kitty; Ceglia, Andrea; Cosyns, Peter; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Terryn, Herman; Thienpont, Hugo

    Absorption spectroscopy is the technique that measures the absorption of radiation as a function of wavelength, due to its interaction with the material. During a research project funded by our home university, we were able to investigate the possibilities of this technique to study ancient glasses. One of our main conclusions is that UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectroscopy is especially suited to characterize colored artifacts in terms of composition and furnace conditions. Moreover, for naturally colored window glasses, we have shown that this technique allows us to classify fragments based on differences in iron impurity levels. It is a semi-quantitative analysis tool that can be applied for a first-line analysis of (large) glass collections. Thanks to the commercial available portable instruments, these measurements can be performed at relative high speed and this in-situ if necessary. To illustrate the possibilities of this technique, we describe in this paper two case-studies. In a first test-case we analyze 63 naturally colored window glasses and demonstrate how groups with different iron concentrations can be identified by calculating the absorption edge position from the measured optical spectrum. In a second case-study 8 modern naturally colored and 31 intentionally colored Roman glass fragments are the point of focus. For these samples we first estimate which samples are potentially fabricated under the same furnace conditions. This is done based on the calculated color values. Finally we identify the type of applied colorants.

  18. Molecular dynamics study of a CNT-buckyball-enabled energy absorption system.

    Chen, Heng; Zhang, Liuyang; Becton, Matthew; Nie, Hong; Chen, Jinbao; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-07-14

    An energy absorption system (EAS) composed of a carbon nanotube (CNT) with nested buckyballs is put forward for energy dissipation during impact owing to the outstanding mechanical properties of both CNTs and buckyballs. Here we implement a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the energy absorption capabilities of several different EASs based on a variety of design parameters. For example, the effects of impact energy, the number of nested buckyballs, and of the size of the buckyballs are analyzed to optimize the energy absorption capability of the EASs by tuning the relevant design parameters. Simulation results indicate that the energy absorption capability of the EAS is closely associated with the deformation characteristics of the confined buckyballs. A low impact energy leads to recoverable deformation of the buckyballs and the dissipated energy is mainly converted to thermal energy. However, a high impact energy yields non-recoverable deformation of buckyballs and thus the energy dissipation is dominated by the strain energy of the EAS. The simulation results also reveal that there exists an optimal value of the number of buckyballs for an EAS under a certain impact energy. Larger buckyballs are able to deform to a larger degree yet also need less impact energy to induce plastic deformation, therefore performing with a better overall energy absorption ability. Overall, the EAS in this study shows a remarkably high energy absorption density of 2 kJ g(-1), it is a promising candidate for mitigating impact energy and sheds light on the research of buckyball-filled CNTs for other applications.

  19. Spectrophotometric and fluorescence quenching studies of the charge transfer complexation of (4-dimethylamino-benzylidene)-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-amine with some organic acceptors

    El-Sayed, Yusif S.

    2011-04-01

    The interaction of organic acceptors such as tetrafluoro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-TFQ), tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-TCQ), tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone (o-TCQ), tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (p-TBQ), tetrabromo-1,2-benzoquinone (o-TBQ) and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) with (4-dimethylamino-benzylidene)-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-amine (SB) as donor is studied spectrophotometrically and fluoremetrically in dichloromethane and trichloromethane. The association constant ( K), thermodynamic parameters (Δ G°, Δ H° and Δ S°), oscillator strength ( f), transition dipole moment ( μ) and stoichiometric ratio are calculated using Benezi-Hildbrand's, Job and straight-line methods, respectively. The results reveal that the interaction between the donor and acceptors is due to π-π* transitions by the formation of radical ion pairs. The fluorescence quenching of SB with different organic acceptors is investigated. The results reveal that the fluorescence quenching obeys the static type mechanism via charge transfer complex formation in the ground state. The effect of temperature on the equilibrium constants of the CT complexes is also studied.

  20. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  1. A study to maximize the crash energy absorption efficiency within the limits of crash space

    Kim, Bae Young; Jeong, Choong Min; Suh, Myung Won [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Woo [Korea Automobile Testing and Research Institute, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    The design of an engine room is important to protect the passenger from a crash impact by improving the absorption of the crash impact energy. The side member in the engine room absorbs most of the crash impact energy when the vehicle experiences a frontal crash. The side member is of two types: hat and 'U.' Analysis of the extent of energy absorption and the mechanism of the side member are necessary through a collapse mode in various load conditions. In this study, the design of experiments was used for evaluating the characteristics of the absorption of crash energy by side members through design variables. First, crash analysis was performed by experiment number extracted from the design of the experiment. Then, using the results of crash analysis, multiple regressions were conducted and sensitivity analysis performed for each design variable. Finally, the optimum design was developed for maximizing the absorption energy per unit weight considering various boundary conditions. In the present study, as a basic step for modeling the fatigue behavior of an extruded Al alloy cylinder, the fatigue crack growth data of the alloy was collected in two orientations. Microstructural analysis revealed that the material had recrystallized grains and clusters of constituent particles aligned in the direction of extrusion. Fatigue life of the samples revealed a shorter fatigue life representing a higher fatigue crack growth rate in the transverse direction.

  2. Development of a dipodal Schiff base ligand with N-imine and O-naphtholate donors: A potential chelator towards Cu(II) metal ion established through potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies

    Baral, Minati, E-mail: minatib@gmail.com; Gupta, Amit [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana (India); Kanungo, B. K. [Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, Punjab (India)

    2015-08-28

    A novel hydroxynaphthaldehyde derived Schiff base ligand N,N’-bis-[2-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)methyleneamino]ethyl]propanediamide (DOTA2HNAP) containing nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms has been developed. The lowest energy molecular structure of DOTA2HNAP and its complexes with Cu (II) metal ion were examined by molecular mechanics using MM+ force which later was re-optimized by semi-empirical method. The theoretical IR and UV spectra of the ligand were obtained using semi empirical/ZINDO/PM3 and were compared with the experimental ones. The coordinating ability of DOTA2HNAP with H{sup +} and Cu(II) ions was investigated in 1:99 (DMSO: water) binary solvent mixture at 25±1°C by potentiometric and spectrophotometric method. The electronic spectra of the ligand show three distinct peaks (253nm, 320nm and 360nm) implicating existence of the Schiff base in quinone form that was well supported by theoretical spectral studies. Out of various complex species forming in solution, all the metal ions show higher stability of complexes when in 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometry, binding through two N-imine and two O-naphtholate groups.

  3. Study on the rapid spectrophotometric determination of saccharin in liquid food%分光光度法快速测定液态食品中糖精含量的研究

    蒋晗; 黄光荣

    2013-01-01

    A rapid spectrophotometric method was proposed to determine saccharin in liquid food.The saccharin reacted with azure Ⅰ to form a blue complex to be extracted with dichloromethane.The optimum absorption wavelength of this blue complex was 640 nm.The reaction was performed in 10.0 mL 0.2 mol/L pH 5.0 phosphatecitric acid buffer with 10.0 mL sample,0.5 mL 0.05% azure Ⅰ for 5 minutes,and then extracted with 10.0 mL dichloromethane.There existed a linear relationship between the absorbance and saccharin in the range of 0 to 120 mg/L.The detection limit of saccharin was 1.5 mg/L.The recovery rate was in the range of 90% to 103% with RSD less than 5.0% when the method was applied to determine saccharin in four kinds of liquid food.%利用糖精在磷酸缓冲液中与天青Ⅰ反应生成蓝色化合物,二氯甲烷能萃取糖精与天青Ⅰ形成的蓝色复合物而不萃取天青Ⅰ,通过分光光度法可以快速简便地测定液态食品中糖精的含量,糖精与天青Ⅰ形成的蓝色复合物的最大吸收波长为640 nm,当样品液取样量为10.0 mL、0.2 mol/L pH5.0磷酸氢二钠-柠檬酸缓冲液用量为10 mL、0.05%天青I溶液用量为0.5mL、显色时间为5 min、二氯甲烷萃取剂用量为10.0 mL时,糖精质量浓度在0~120 mg/L范围内与吸光度值呈线性,最低检出限为1.5 mg/L.该法应用于四种液态食品中糖精含量的测定,回收率在90%~103%之间,相对标准偏差小于5.0%.

  4. Study on Relative COP Changes with Increasing Heat Input Temperatures of Double Effect Steam Absorption Chillers

    Abd Majid Mohd Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers at cogeneration plants generate chilled water using steam supplied by heat recovery steam generators. The chillers are mainly of double effect type. The COP of double effect varies from 0.7 to 1.2 depending on operation and maintenance practices of the chillers. Heat input to the chillers during operations could have impact on the COP of the chillers. This study is on relative COP changes with increasing the heat input temperatures for a steam absorption chiller at a gas fueled cogeneration plant. Reversible COP analysis and zero order model were used for evaluating COP of the chiller for 118 days operation period. Results indicate increasing COP trends for both the reversible COP and zero model COP. Although the zero model COP are within the range of double effect absorption chiller, it is not so for the actual COP. The actual COP is below the range of normal double effect COP. It is recommended that economic replacement analysis to be undertaken to assess the feasibility either to repair or replace the existing absorption chiller.

  5. Study on the prediction of visible absorption maxima of azobenzene compounds

    LIU Jun-na; CHEN Zhi-rong; YUAN Shen-feng

    2005-01-01

    The geometries of azobenzene compounds are optimized with B3LYP/6-311 G* method, and analyzed with nature bond orbital, then their visible absorption maxima are calculated with TD-DFT method and ZINDO/S method respectively. The results agree well with the observed values. It was found that for the calculation of visible absorption using ZINDO/S method could rapidly yield better results by adjusting OWFπ-π (the relationship between π-π overlap weighting factor) value than by the TD-DFT method. The method of regression showing the linear relationship between OWFπ-π and BLN-N (nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths) as OWFπ-π=-8.1537+6.5638BLN-N, can be explained in terms of quantum theory, and also be used for prediction of visible absorption maxima of other azobenzne dyes in the same series. This study on molecules' orbital geometry indicates that their visible absorption maxima correspond to the electron transition from HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital) to LUMO (the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital).

  6. In Situ and in Vivo Study of Nasal Absorption of Paeonol in Rats

    Pengyue Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the in situ and in vivo nasal absorption of paeonol. A novel single pass in situ nasal perfusion technique was applied to examine the rate and extent of nasal absorption of paeonol by rats. Various experimental conditions, such as perfusion rate, pH, osmotic pressure and drug concentration, were investigated. The in situ experiments showed that the nasal absorption of paeonol was not dependent on drug concentration, and fitted a first order process. The absorption rate constant, Ka, increased with an increase in perfusion speed. Paeonol was better absorbed in acidic solutions than in neutral or alkaline solutions. The value of Ka was higher in a hypertonic environment than under isotonic or hypotonic conditions. In vivo studies of paeonol absorption were carried out in rats and the pharmacokinetics parameters of intranasal (i.n. and intragastric (i.g. administration were compared with intravenous (i.v. administration. The bioavailabilities of paeonol were 52.37% and 15.81% for i.n. and i.g, respectively, while Tmax values were 3.05 ± 1.46 min and 6.30 ± 0.70 min. MRT (Mean Residence Time were 23.19 ± 6.46 min, 41.49 ± 2.96 min and 23.09 ± 5.88 min for i.n., i.g. and i.v. methods, respectively. The results demonstrate that paeonol could be absorbed promptly and thoroughly by i.n. administration in rats.

  7. Effect of pH and ionic strength on the spectrophotometric assessment of nucleic acid purity.

    Wilfinger, W W; Mackey, K; Chomczynski, P

    1997-03-01

    The ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280 nm (the A260/280 ratio) is frequently used to assess the purity of RNA and DNA preparations. Data presented in this report demonstrate significant variability in the RNA A260/280 ratio when different sources of water were used to perform the spectrophotometric determinations. Adjusting the pH of water used for spectrophotometric analysis from approximately 5.4 to a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5-8.5 significantly increased RNA A260/280 ratios from approximately 1.5 to 2.0. Our studies revealed that changes in both the pH and ionic strength of the spectrophotometric solution influenced the A260/280 ratios. In addition, the ability to detect protein contamination was significantly improved when RNA was spectrophotometrically analyzed in an alkaline solution. UV spectral scans showed that the 260-nm RNA absorbance maximum observed in water was shifted by 2 nm to a lower wavelength when determinations were carried out in Na2HPO4 buffer at a pH of 8.5. We found RNA A260/280 ratios to be more reliable and reproducible when these spectrophotometric measurements were performed at pH 8.0-8.5 in 1-3 mM Na2HPO4 buffer.

  8. Optimized and validated spectrophotometric method for the determination of uranium(VI) via complexation with meloxicam

    Lutfullah [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)], E-mail: lutfullah786@gmail.com; Alam, Mohd Noor; Rahman, Nafisur; Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2008-06-30

    An optimized and validated spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of uranyl ion in the presence of other metal ions. The method is based on the chelation of uranyl ion with meloxicam via {beta}-diketone moiety to produce a yellow colored complex, which absorbs maximally at 398 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5-60 {mu}g/mL with apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of 5.02 x 10{sup 4} L/mol/cm and 0.1 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}/0.001 absorbance unit, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of uranyl ion in synthetic mixture and soil samples. Results of analysis were statistically compared with those obtained by Currah's spectrophotometric method showing acceptable recovery and precision.

  9. Study on the interaction between diphenhydramine and erythrosin by absorption, fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra

    TANG XiaoLing; LIU ZhongFang; LIU ShaoPu; HU XiaoLi

    2007-01-01

    In pH 4.5 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution, erythrosin (ET) can react with diphenhydramine (DP) to form a 1:1 ion-association complex, which not only results in the change of the absorption spectra, but also results in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and the quenching of fluorescence. Furthermore, a new RRS spectrum will appear, and the maximum RRS wavelength was located at about 580 nm.In this work, the spectral characteristics of the absorption, fluorescence and RRS, the optimum conditions of the reaction and the properties of an analytical chemistry were investigated. A sensitive, simple and new method for the determination of DP by using erythrosin as a probe has been developed. The detection limits for DP were 0.0020 μg/mL for RRS method, 0.088 μg/mL for absorption method and 0.094 μg/mL for fluorophotometry. There was a linear relationship between the absorbance, RRS and fluorescence intensities and the drug concentration in the range of 0.0067-2.0, 0.29-6.4 and 0.31-3.2 μg/mL, respectively. The effects of the interaction of diphenhydramine and erythrosin on the absorption, fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra were discussed. In light polarization experiment, the polarization of RRS at maximum wavelength was measured to be P = 0.9779, and it revealed that the RRS spectrum of DP-ET complex consists mostly of resonance scattering and few resonance fluorescence. In this study, enthalpy of formation and mean polarizability were calculated by AM1 quantum chemistry method. In addition, the reaction mechanism and the reasons for the enhancement of scattering spectra and the energy transfer between absorption, fluorescence and RRS were discussed.

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Pipazethate HCl and Dextromethorphan HBr using Potassium Permanganate

    Gouda, Ayman Abou El-Fetouh; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; El Shafey, Zeineb.; Hossny, Nagda.; El-Azzazy, Rham

    2008-01-01

    Rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of pipazethate HCl (PiCl) and dextromethorphan HBr (DEX) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C) and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λmax=521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2.0-16 and 2.0-15 μg mL-1 for PiCl and DEX, respectively with correlation coefficient (n=6) ≥ 0.9993. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 1.062-1.484 × 104, 3.35-4.51 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 and 29.36-41.03, 8.21-11.06 ng cm-2 for PiCl and DEX, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods. PMID:23675101

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Based on their Oxidation by Potassium Permanganate

    El-Didamony, A. M.; Ghoneim, A. K.; Telebany, A. M. [Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt); Amin, A. S. [Banha University, Banha (Egypt)

    2006-08-15

    A rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of neomycin and streptomycin either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C), and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λ{sub max}=521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 5-10 and 2-7 mg mL{sup -1} for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 5.47-6.20x10{sup 4}, 2.35-2.91x10{sup 5} L mol{sup -1} cm{sup -1} and 7.57-8.59, 5.01-6.2 ng cm{sup -2} for neomycin and streptomycin, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods.

  12. Development and Validation of a UV - Spectrophotometric Method for Quantification of Atorvastatin in Tablets

    Mondal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A UV-spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitativeestimation of atorvastatin in tablet. The present study describes development and validation of UV-spectroscopic method for estimationof atorvastatin in tablet dosage form and validation of newlydeveloped method. During development of analytical method methanol:phosphate buffer (20:80,methanol:water(20:80,methanol:water (50:50,acetonitrile:water (10:90were tried but drug was found to be solublein methanol:water (50:50. Standard stock solution was prepared in methanol: water (50:50. The detection wave length (λmax was found tobe 248nm.Calibration curves were prepared.The proposed method obeysBeer's law in the range of 5-15μg/ml. Absorption maxima was determinedwith 10 μg/ml by scanning in the range of 200-400nm.Percent recoverystudies are in the range of 98.78%-100.36%. The method was validated in terms specificity,linearity,accuracy,range,precision,repeatability,robustness,system suitability,stability of analytical solution.Results of analysis were validated statistically and by specificity studies.From that it was observed that there is no interference of blank,excipients during the estimation of drug in formulation. This showsthe adaptability of the method for routine estimation of atorvastatinin tablet dosage form.

  13. Analysis of Protein by Spectrophotometric and Computer Colour Based Intensity Method from Stem of Pea (Pisum sativum at Different Stages

    Afsheen Mushtaque Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study proteins were analyzed from pea plants at three different growth stages of stem by spectrophotometric i.e Lowry and Bradford quantitative methods and computer colour intensity based method. Though Spectrophotometric methods are regarded as classical methods, we report an alternate computer based method which gave comparable results. Computer software was developed the for protein analysis which is easier, time and money saving method as compared to the classical methods.

  14. Optical Absorption and Electron Injection of 4-(Cyanomethylbenzoic Acid Based Dyes: A DFT Study

    Yuehua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT calculations were carried out to study the ground state geometries, electronic structures, and absorption spectra of 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes (AG1 and AG2 used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The excited states properties and the thermodynamical parameters of electron injection were studied. The results showed that (a two dyes have uncoplanar structures along the donor unit and conjugated bridge space, (b two sensitizers exhibited intense absorption in the UV-Vis region, and (c the excited state oxidation potential was higher than the conduction band edge of TiO2 photoanode. As a result, a solar cell based on the 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes exhibited well photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, nine dyes were designed on the basis of AG1 and AG2 to improve optical response and electron injection.

  15. Refined Study of ECR Wave Propagation and Absorption in the Weakly Relativistic Plasma

    SHIBingren; LONGYongxin

    2001-01-01

    The ECR wave heating is now a routine method for plasma heating and profile control in fusion devices and also in plasma applications. Theoretical study of ECR wave propagation and absorption began very early in 1950's. Basic theoretical work had accomplished in 1970~1980. For toroidal devices like the tokamak, the fundamental O-mode and X-mode with nearly perpendicular propagation were used very often. For pure O-mode and X-mode with kx=O,

  16. Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

    1988-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

  17. Study of frequency and time responses of a separated absorption and multiplication region avalanche photodiode

    Banoushi, A; Setayeshi, S

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the frequency and time responses of a separated absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode are studied by solving the carrier continuity equations, in the low gain regime. The discrepancy between the carrier velocities in different layers is considered for the first time. It is shown that considerable error occurs, if the device d characteristics are calculated assuming uniformly distributed velocities in the depletion layer, especially when the different layers have almost equal thickness.

  18. Resonant absorption induced fast melting studied with mid-IR QCLs

    Lu, Jie; Lv, Yankun; Ji, Youxin; Tang, Xiaoliang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of a pump-probe setup based on two mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) to investigate the melting and crystallization of materials through resonant absorption. A combination of pump and probe beams fulfills the two-color synchronous detection. Furthermore, narrow linewidth advances the accuracy of measurements and the character of broad tuning range of QCLs enables wide applications in various sample and multiple structures. 1-Eicosene was selected as a simple model system to verify the feasibility of this method. A pulsed QCL was tuned to the absorption peak of CH2 bending vibration at 1467 cm-1 to resonantly heat the sample. The other QCL in continuous mode was tuned to 1643 cm-1 corresponding the C=C stretching vibration to follow the fast melting dynamics. By monitoring the transmission intensity variation of pump and probe beams during pump-probe experiments, the resonant absorption induced fast melting and re-crystallization of 1-Eicosene can be studied. Results show that the thermal effect and melting behaviors strongly depend on the pump wavelength (resonant or non-resonant) and energy, as well as the pump time. The realization and detection of melting and recrystallization can be performed in tens of milliseconds, which improves the time resolution of melting process study based on general mid-infrared spectrum by orders of magnitude. The availability of resonant heating and detections based on mid-infrared QCLs is expected to enable new applications in melting study.

  19. Study on solid phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of vanadium with 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline

    Amin, Alaa S.; Saber, Amr L.; Mohammed, T. Y.

    2009-07-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid method has been developed for the determination micrograms per liter level of vanadium ion based on the rapid reaction of vanadium(V) with 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCDHNAQ) and the solid phase extraction of the colored complex with C18 cartridge. The DCDHNAQ reacts with V(V) in the presence of citric acid-sodium hydroxide buffer solution (pH 3.3) and benzyldimethyl tetradecylammonium chloride (zephiramine) medium to form a violet complex of a molar ratio 1:2 [V(V) to DCDHNAQ]. This complex was enriched by solid phase extraction with C18 cartridge and the enrichment factor of 100 was obtained by elution of the complex from the cartridge with acetonitrile. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity of the complex are 2.45 × 10 5 L mol -1 cm -1 and 0.0208 ng cm -2 at 573 nm in the measured solution. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0.01-0.45 μg mL -1, whereas Ringbom optimum concentration ranges found to be 0.025-0.425 μg mL -1. The detection and quantification limits are 3.2 and 9.9 μg L -1, respectively in the original samples. This method was applied to the determination of vanadium(V) in steel, soil, water and biological samples with good results.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    Westre, Tami E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s→3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

  1. Parametric study of power absorption from electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres

    Englert, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    Algebraic expressions in terms of elementary mathematical functions are derived for power absorption and dissipation by eddy currents and magnetic hysteresis in ferrite spheres. Skin depth is determined by using a variable inner radius in descriptive integral equations. Numerical results are presented for sphere diameters less than one wavelength. A generalized power absorption parameter for both eddy currents and hysteresis is expressed in terms of the independent parameters involving wave frequency, sphere radius, resistivity, and complex permeability. In general, the hysteresis phenomenon has a greater sensitivity to these independent parameters than do eddy currents over the ranges of independent parameters studied herein. Working curves are presented for obtaining power losses from input to the independent parameters.

  2. Transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm babies--a pilot study.

    Fernandez, A R; Krishnamoorthy, G; Patil, N; Mondkar, J A; Swar, B D

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm neonates. A mixture of coconut oil and Meadowfoam oil which contains unique fatty acids, which acted as marker fatty acids was applied to the skin of babies. One mL blood was collected before and one hour after post oil application. Both pre and post oil application serum samples were hydrolysed and derivatised with 2-phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride in order to detect fatty acids by HPLC analysis on C-8 column. None of the pre oil application serum sample showed the presence of the marker fatty acids. The post oil application serum sample of all the 12 babies showed the presence of marker fatty acids of Meadowfoam oil which indicates transcutaneous absorption of oil in preterm babies.

  3. Study on the sound absorption mechanism in gradient water-soluble polymer solution

    WANG Yuansheng; YANG Xue; ZHU Jinhua; YAO Shuren

    2006-01-01

    Attention was paid to the study on the sound absorption mechanism of watersoluble polymer during dissolving. A specially designed water-soluble polymer coating was synthesized in our lab. The sound attenuation property was measured in sound tube. The results showed that the sound attenuation of the gradient polymer solution was larger than that of the uniform. Depending on the experimental result and the theory of sound wave propagation in layered medium, a mechanism of gradient water-soluble polymer solution was developed. This mechanism can be described as follows: a water-soluble polymer coating formed a concentration gradient layer when it was dissolved in water. This gradient layer led to multiple reflection and absorption of sound. Finally the sound energy was transferred into heat.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    Westre, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s{yields}3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of dopaminergic drugs used for Parkinson's disease, cabergoline and ropinirole, in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Onal, Armağan; Cağlar, Sena

    2007-04-01

    Simple and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for determination of dopaminergic drugs used for Parkinson's disease, cabergoline (CAB) and ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP), in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on the reactions between the studied drug substances and ion-pair agents [methyl orange (MO), bromocresol green (BCG) and bromophenol blue (BPB)] producing yellow colored ion-pair complexes in acidic buffers, after extracting in dichloromethane, which are spectrophotometrically determined at the appropriate wavelength of ion-pair complexes. Beer's law was obeyed within the concentration range from 1.0 to 35 microg ml(-1). The developed methods were applied successfully for the determination of these drugs in tablets.

  6. Effect of Atomic Coherence on Absorption in Four-level Systems: an Analytical study

    Sandhya, S N

    2006-01-01

    Absorption profile of a four-level ladder atomic system interacting with three driving fields is studied perturbatively and analytical results are presented. Numerical results where the driving field strengths are treated upto all orders are presented. The absorption features is studied in two regimes, i) the weak middle transition coupling, i.e. $\\Omega_2 \\Omega_{1,3}$ and ii) the strong middle transition coupling $\\Omega_2 \\Omega_{1,3}$. In case i), it is shown that the ground state absorption and the saturation characteristics of the population of level 2 reveal deviation due to the presence of upper level couplings. In particular, the saturation curve for the population of level 2 shows a dip for $\\Omega_1 = \\Omega_3$. While the populations of levels 3 and 4 show a maxima when this resonance condition is satisfied. Thus the resonance condition provides a criterion for maximally populating the upper levels. A second order perturbation calculation reveals the nature of this minima (maxima). In the second ca...

  7. Electron Spin Resonance and optical absorption spectroscopic studies of manganese centers in aluminium lead borate glasses

    SivaRamaiah, G.; LakshmanaRao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and optical absorption studies of 5Al2O3 + 75H3BO3 + (20-x)PbO + xMnSO4 (where x = 0.5, 1,1.5 and 2 mol% of MnSO4) glasses at room temperature have been studied. The ESR spectrum of all the glasses exhibits resonance signals with effective isotropic g values at ≈2.0, 3.3 and 4.3. The ESR resonance signal at isotropic g ≈ 2.0 has been attributed to Mn2+ centers in an octahedral symmetry. The ESR resonance signals at isotropic g ≈ 3.3 and 4.3 have been attributed to the rhombic symmetry of the Mn2+ ions. The zero-field splitting parameter (zfs) has been calculated from the intensities of the allowed hyperfine lines. The optical absorption spectrum exhibits an intense band in the visible region and it has been attributed to 5Eg → 5T2g transition of Mn3+centers in an octahedral environment. The optical band gap and the Urbach energies have been calculated from the ultraviolet absorption edges.

  8. Comparison of Flurbiprofen Tablets Available In Pakistani Market and Their Absorption Studies

    Muhammad Hanif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this present work was to compare different parameters of various brands of flurbiprofen tablets collected from different retail pharmacies in the local market of Pakistan. Four brands A, B, C and D were tested for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration dissolution, HPLC assay and in vitro absorption studies in rabbit skin, stomach and intestine by using the prepacked Column RT 250-4.6 Purospher® STAR RP-18 end capped (5 µm and acetonitrile, phosphate buffer (pH 3.7 as mobile phase in the ratio of 1:1. Flurbiprofen was detected at 265 nm at the flow rate of 1 ml/min. Brand B was considered as reference. Similarity factor (f2 of brand B and C and brand B & D was found to be 61 and 51 and dissimilarity factors (f1 values were 5 and 9 respectively in same dissolution medium. Model dependent methods First order, Hixon crowell and Weibull model were used. The method was found to be sensitive and linear in the range of 10 to 700 ppm with 0.999 coefficient of correlation. Everted sac absorption studies of selected formulation showed 50% of drug absorption from stomach in first 3 hours, 21% through intestine and very negligible through skin.

  9. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  10. Pregabalin and Tranexamic Acid Evaluation by Two Simple and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods

    Sher, Nawab; Fatima, Nasreen; Perveen, Shahnaz; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed; Wafa Sial, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates colorimetric visible spectrophotometric quantification methods for amino acid, namely, tranexamic acid and pregabalin. Both drugs contain the amino group, and when they are reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, they give rise to yellow colored complexes showing absorption maximum at 418 nm and 425 nm, respectively, based on the Lewis acid base reaction. Detailed optimization process and stoichiometric studies were conducted along with investigation of thermodynamic features, that is, association constant and standard free energy changes. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–200 µgmL−1 with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9990 in all of the cases. Limit of detection was in range from 0.0041 to 0.0094 µgmL−1 and limit of quantification was in the range from 0.0137 to 0.0302 µgmL−1. Excellent recovery in Placebo spiked samples indicated that there is no interference from common excipients. The analytical methods under proposal were successfully applied to determine tranexamic acid and pregabalin in commercial products. t-test and F ratio were evaluated without noticeable difference between the proposed and reference methods. PMID:25873964

  11. Pregabalin and Tranexamic Acid Evaluation by Two Simple and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods

    Nawab Sher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates colorimetric visible spectrophotometric quantification methods for amino acid, namely, tranexamic acid and pregabalin. Both drugs contain the amino group, and when they are reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, they give rise to yellow colored complexes showing absorption maximum at 418 nm and 425 nm, respectively, based on the Lewis acid base reaction. Detailed optimization process and stoichiometric studies were conducted along with investigation of thermodynamic features, that is, association constant and standard free energy changes. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–200 µgmL−1 with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9990 in all of the cases. Limit of detection was in range from 0.0041 to 0.0094 µgmL−1 and limit of quantification was in the range from 0.0137 to 0.0302 µgmL−1. Excellent recovery in Placebo spiked samples indicated that there is no interference from common excipients. The analytical methods under proposal were successfully applied to determine tranexamic acid and pregabalin in commercial products. t-test and F ratio were evaluated without noticeable difference between the proposed and reference methods.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Mycophenolate Mofetil as Its Charge-Transfer Complexes with Two π-Acceptors

    K. B. Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, selective, and rapid spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM in pure form and in tablets. Both methods are based on charge-transfer complexation reaction of MPM with p-chloranilic acid (p-CA or 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ in dioxane-acetonitrile medium resulting in coloured product measurable at 520 nm (p-CA or 580 nm (DDQ. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 40–400 and 12–120 μg mL−1 MPM for p-CA and DDQ, respectively, with correlation coefficients (r of 0.9995 and 0.9947. The apparent molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 1.06×103 and 3.87×103 L mol−1 cm−1, respectively, and the corresponding Sandell’s sensitivities are 0.4106 and 0.1119 μg cm−1. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ are also reported for both methods. The described methods were successfully applied to the determination of MPM in tablets. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method showed excellent agreement. No interference was observed from the common excipients present in tablets. Both methods were validated statistically for accuracy and precision. The accuracy and reliability of the methods were further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition procedure.

  13. METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DULOXETINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND FORMULATION USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

    Kishore Methuku

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New, simple and cost effective UV-spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of Duloxetine hydrochloride in bulk formulations. Duloxetine hydrochloride was estimated at 290 nm in 20% Acetonitrie. Linearity range was found to be 10–50 μg ml–1 (regression equation: 0.017 + 0.016; r2 = 0.999. The apparent molar absorptivity was found to be 5.922×10-3 mol−1 cm−1 in 20% Acetonitrile. These methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines and USP. The quantitation limits were found to be 0.2405 μg ml–1 and 0.7289 μg ml–1 in 20% Acetonitrile respectively. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (relative standard deviation < 2%, while being simple, cheap and less time consuming and can be suitably applied for the estimation of Duloxetine hydrochloride in different dosage forms and dissolution studies.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of H(2)-receptor antagonists via their oxidation with cerium(IV).

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Hussein, Samiha A; Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Hassan, Ahmed I

    2008-01-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for determination of H(2)-receptor antagonists: cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine and ranitidine hydrochloride. The method was based on the oxidation of these drugs with cerium(IV) in presence of perchloric acid and subsequent measurement of the excess Ce(IV) by its reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde to give a red colored product (lambda(max) at 464nm). The decrease in the absorption intensity of the colored product (DeltaA), due to the presence of the drug was correlated with its concentration in the sample solution. Different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9990-0.9994) were found between DeltaA values and the concentrations of the drugs in a concentration range of 1-20microgml(-1). The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 0.18-0.60 and 0.54-1.53microgml(-1), respectively. The method was validated, in terms of accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness; the results were satisfactory. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the investigated drugs in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms (recovery was 98.3-102.6+/-0.57-1.90%) without interference from the common excipients. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official methods.

  15. Development of spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals using chrome Azurol S

    Hisham K. Fouad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A developed, direct, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals with Chrome Azurol S (CAS as a chromogenic reagent was developed in the present article. The determination was performed without either solvent extraction or ion exchange separation of beryllium from its matrix. The stable 1:1 Be-CAS complex was formed instantly with duration time of at least 24 h with constant absorbance. Different parameters such as wavelengths, pH, EDTA concentration and dye concentration were studied for the optimum determination of beryllium. Interference due to presence of high aluminum concentrations was overcome by adding 5% EDTA disodium salt solution. Maximum absorbance for Be-CAS complex was performed at λmax 568 NM using acetate buffer at pH 4.6. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range from 0.02 to 9 ppm with molar absorptivity ε = 0.22 × 104 mol−1 cm−1 and an average standard deviation of 0.7. The R.S.D for 10 replicate measurements of 1 ppm Be was 1.2%.

  16. Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemifloxacin Mesylate in Pharmaceutical Formulations Through Ion-Pair Complex Formation

    Marothu Vamsi Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four simple and sensitive ion-pairing spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of gemifloxacin mesylate (GFX either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of colored chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the drug with safranin O (SFN O and methylene blue (MB in basic medium; Napthol blue 12BR (NB 12BR and azocaramine G (AG in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 525, 650, 620 and 540 nm for SFN O, MB, NB 12BR and AG, respectively.Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 3-15, 4-20, 2-10 and 2-10 μg/mL with molar absorptivity of 2.81 × 104, 2.20 x 104, 4.02 × 104 and 4.15 × 104 L mole−1 cm−1 and relative standard deviation of 0.077, 0.104, 0.080 and 0.103% for SFN O, MB, NB 12BR and AG, respectively. These methods have been successfully applied for the assay of drug in pharmaceutical formulations. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Results of analysis were validated statistically and through recovery studies.

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of hyoscine butylbromide and famciclovir in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations

    Gouda, Ayman A.; Shafey, Zeineb El; Hossny, Nagda; El-Azzazy, Rham

    2008-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and extractive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) and famciclovir (FCV) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of yellow ion-pair complexes between the basic nitrogen of the drug and four sulphonphthalein acid dyes, namely; bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), bromocresol purple (BCP) and bromophenol blue (BPB) in phthalate buffer of pH range (3.0-3.5). The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform and measured at 420, 412, 409 and 415 nm for HBB and at 418, 412, 407 and 414 nm for FCV using BCG, BTB, BCP and BPB, respectively. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported systems are investigated. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1.0-20 μg mL -1 with correlation coefficient ( n = 6) ≥ 0.9997. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits were also calculated. The composition of the ion pairs was found 1:1 by Job's method in all cases and the conditional stability constant ( Kf) of the complexes have been calculated. The free energy changes (Δ G) were determined for all complexes formed. The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the analysis of the studied drugs in pure and pharmaceutical formulations with percentage recoveries ranges from 99.84 to 100.26. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the official methods.

  18. Spectrophotometric investigation of famotidine-Pd(II complex and its analytical application in drug analysis

    DRAGICA MINIC

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available By using different spectrophotometric methods, it was found that famotidine and palladium(II ions form a complex, Pd(II : famotidine = 1:1, which has an absorption maximum at 345 nm. The formation of the complex between famotidine and palladium(II chloride in Britton–Robinson buffer solution in the pH range 2.23–8.50 was studied. The conditional stability constant of the complex at the optimum pH 2.62 and ionic strength 0.5 M was found to be log K’ = 3.742 ± 0.025. The Beer’s law was verified over the famotidine concentration range from 5×10-5 – 6×10-4 M. The proposed method was found to be suitable for accurate and sensitive analysis of famotidine both as the substance (RSD = 1.02–1.80 % and its dosage forms (RSD = 1.75–1.83 %.

  19. Application of potassium permanganate to spectrophotometric assay of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals

    Devi, O. Zenita; Basavaiah, K.; Vinay, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Two simple, sensitive, and cost-effective spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The methods are based on a redox reaction between MCP and KMnO4 in alkaline and acid media. Direct spectrophotometry (method A) involves treating MCP with permanganate in an NaOH medium and measuring a bluish green product at 610 nm. In indirect spectrophotometry (method B), MCP is treated with a fixed concentration of KMnO4 in an H2SO4 medium, and after a specified time, the unreacted KMnO4 is measured at 545 nm. Under optimum assay conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the ranges of 0.75-12.0 and 2.5-30.0 g/ml for methods A and B, respectively. Molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 2.33•104 and 2.66•104 l/mol cm for methods A and B, respectively, and corresponding Sandell's sensitivity values are 0.015 and 0.013 g/cm2. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported. The applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by the determination of MCP in tablet and injection forms. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed methods were further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition technique.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of H 2-receptor antagonists via their oxidation with cerium(IV)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A.; Hussein, Samiha A.; Mahmoud, Ashraf M.; Hassan, Ahmed I.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for determination of H 2-receptor antagonists: cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine and ranitidine hydrochloride. The method was based on the oxidation of these drugs with cerium(IV) in presence of perchloric acid and subsequent measurement of the excess Ce(IV) by its reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde to give a red colored product ( λmax at 464 nm). The decrease in the absorption intensity of the colored product (Δ A), due to the presence of the drug was correlated with its concentration in the sample solution. Different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9990-0.9994) were found between Δ A values and the concentrations of the drugs in a concentration range of 1-20 μg ml -1. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 0.18-0.60 and 0.54-1.53 μg ml -1, respectively. The method was validated, in terms of accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness; the results were satisfactory. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of the investigated drugs in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms (recovery was 98.3-102.6 ± 0.57-1.90%) without interference from the common excipients. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official methods.

  1. A spectrophotometric flow injection system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples

    Frugeri, Pedro Marcos; Lago, Ayla Campos do; Wisniewski, Célio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2014-01-01

    In this work a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples, is being proposed. The method is based on streptomycin alkaline hydrolysis that forms guanidine, followed by the reaction with Fe(II). The colored product has absorption peak at 520 nm. To evaluate and optimize the system parameters, chemometrics tools, such as factorial design, Pareto chart and Doelhert design, were used. The veterinary samples are diluted in water and introduced in the FIA system, therefore no sample preparation is required. The optimized system presented: linear range of 60 up to 1000 mg L-1, limit of detection of 18 mg L-1 and sampling rate of 36 readings per hour. The precision was checked and the CV for veterinary sample readings were always less than 6.5%. The accuracy was studied by comparison with chromatographic method, thus, five samples of pharmaceutical veterinary were determined by HPLC and by the proposed method, and the results are in agreement (t-test, p = 0.05).

  2. SECOND DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF RIFAMPICIN AND PIPERINE IN THEIR COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

    Khamar Jenil C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present manuscript describe simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and cost effective Second derivative spectrophotometric zero crossing point method for the simultaneous determination of Rifampicin and Piperine in combined capsule dosage form. The utility of Second derivative data processing program is its ability to calculate unknown concentration of components of interest in a mixture containing an interfering component. The Second order derivative absorption at 341 nm (zero cross point for Piperine was used for Rifampicin and 241 nm (zero cross point for Rifampicin was used for Piperine. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 10-60 μg/ml for Rifampicin and 2-20 μg/ml for Piperine. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical dosage form because no interference from the capsule excipients was found. The suitability of these methods for the quantitative determination of Rifampicin and Piperine was proved by validation. The proposed methods were found to be simple and sensitive for the routine quality control application of Rifampicin and Piperine in pharmaceutical capsule dosage form. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  3. In vitro predictions of skin absorption of caffeine, testosterone, and benzoic acid: A multi-centre comparison study

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Cage, S.; Carmichael, P.L.; Dick, I.; Kenyon, S.; Korinth, G.; Larese, F.; Limasset, J.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Montomoli, L.; Nielsen, J.B.; Payan, J.-P.; Robinson, E.; Sartorelli, P.; Schaller, K.H.; Wilkinson, S.C.; Williams, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain better insight into the robustness of in vitro percutaneous absorption methodology, the intra- and inter-laboratory variation in this type of study was investigated in 10 European laboratories. To this purpose, the in vitro absorption of three compounds through human skin (9 laboratories)

  4. Spectrophotometric, conductometric and thermal studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 2-(2-hydroxynaphthylazo)-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-1,3-pyrimidine

    Gaber, Mohamed; Mansour, Ikhlas A.; El-Sayed, Yousif S. Y.

    2007-10-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of 2-(2-hydroxynaphthylazo)-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-1,3-pyrimidine in pure organic solvents of different polarities and in buffer solutions of varying pH are studied. The important bands in the IR and the main signals in the 1H NMR spectra are assigned. The observed UV-vis absorption bands are assigned to the corresponding electronic transitions. The molecular stoichiometry, stability constant, absorption maximum, molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the complexes are calculated. Obeyence to Beer's law and Ringbom optimum concentration ranges are also determined. The ability of using the titled azodye as metalochromic indicator in complexometric titrations was also studied. The effect of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions on the fluorescence of the azodye is also considered. The solid Cu(II) complexes of the titled azodye have been prepared and characterized by elemental, IR, UV-vis spectra as well as by conductometric and magnetic measurements. The data suggest square planar geometry for 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) complexes. The thermal behaviour of the complexes has been studied. The kinetic parameters ( n, E, A, Δ H, Δ S and Δ G) of the thermal decomposition steps are computed using Coats-Redfern equations.

  5. VO 2+ ions in zinc lead borate glasses studied by EPR and optical absorption techniques

    Prakash, P. Giri; Rao, J. Lakshmana

    2005-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra of vanadyl ions in zinc lead borate (ZnO-PbO-B 2O 3) glass system have been studied. EPR spectra of all the glass samples exhibit resonance signals characteristic of VO 2+ ions. The values of spin-Hamiltonian parameters indicate that the VO 2+ ions in zinc lead borate glasses were present in octahedral sites with tetragonal compression and belong to C 4V symmetry. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters g and A are found to be independent of V 2O 5 content and temperature but changing with ZnO content. The decrease in Δ g∥/Δ g⊥ value with increase in ZnO content indicates that the symmetry around VO 2+ ions is more octahedral. The decrease in intensity of EPR signal above 10 mol% of V 2O 5 is attributed to a fall in the ratio of the number of V 4+ ions ( N4) to the number of V 5+ ions ( N5). The number of spins ( N) participating in resonance was calculated as a function of temperature for VO 2+ doped zinc lead borate glass sample and the activation energy was calculated. From the EPR data, the paramagnetic susceptibility was calculated at various temperatures and the Curie constant was evaluated from the 1/ χ- T graph. The optical absorption spectra show single absorption band due to VO 2+ ions in tetragonally distorted octahedral sites.

  6. Studies on absorption of EC waves in assisted startup experiment on FTU

    Ramponi G.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Assistance of EC wave for plasma breakdown and current ramp up is the proposed scenario for the ITER case, characterized by low toroidal electric field. The experimental results on many tokamaks clearly indicate the capabilities of the proposed scheme to have a robust breakdown in ITER. The key aspect of this technique is the EC power required, strongly related to the absorption of the wave in the initial stage of plasma formation. This aspect is generally neglected due to the diagnostics difficulties in the plasma formation phase. As a consequence a multi-pass absorption scheme is usually considered reasonable, leading to a strong absorption after many reflections on the walls. The present study exploits the high temporal and spatial resolution of the fast scanning interferometer of FTU together with the measure of residual power obtained by a sniffer probe. The absorbed EC power is calculated considering also the polarization rotation and the subsequent mode conversion after incidence on the internal wall and compared with that derived from experimental data. The resulting EC power distribution can explain differences observed between perpendicular and oblique injection results, indicating future investigations to define ITER power requirements.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of fluorine in silicate rocks

    Peck, L.C.; Smith, V.C.

    1964-01-01

    The rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate, the sinter-cake leached with water and the resulting solution filtered. Fluorine is separated from the acidified filtrate by steam distillation and determined spectrophotometrically by means of a zirconium-SPADNS reagent. If a multiple-unit distillation apparatus is used, 12 determinations can be completed per man-day. ?? 1964.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical preparations

    Ivama Viviane M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of cefaclor. The method involves alkaline hydrolysis of the drug in ammonia buffer solution at pH 10 to yield diketopiperazine-2,5-dione derivative and subsequent measurement at 340 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 1.8 - 55 mg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations.

  9. ESR and optical absorption studies of gamma- and electron-irradiated sugar crystals

    Flores, J.C.; Cabrera, B.E.; Calderon, T.; Munoz, P.E.; Adem, E.; Hernandez, A.J.; Boldu, J.L.; Ovalle M.P.; Murrieta, S.H. E-mail: murrieta@fenix.ifisicacu.unam.mx

    2000-05-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of the free radicals induced in gamma- or electron-irradiated sugar crystals were performed. The number of radicals increases linearly, pointing out that this material can be used as a dosimeter. The optical absorption studies show the presence of several distinctive bands in the infrared and UV region, whose intensity changes with the irradiation dose. An interpretation of these results in terms of the formation of free radicals and possible crosslinking along the sugar molecular chains is presented.

  10. Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Molybdenum with o-Hydroxythiophenols and Aromatic Amines

    A. Z. Zalov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of molybdenum (VI with o-hydroxythiophenol derivatives (HTPDs and aromatic amines (AAs was studied. The following three HTPDs, which contain different halogen atoms at position 5, were used: 2-hydroxy-5-chlorothiophenol(HCTP, 2-hydroxy-5-bromothiophenol (HBTP, 2-hydroxy-5-iodothiophenol (HITP]. The examined AAs were aniline (An, N-methylaniline (mAn and N,N-dimethylaniline (dAn. The obtained ternary complexes have a composition of 1:2:2 {Mo(V:HBTP:AA}.Optimal conditions for their liquid-liquid extraction (LLE were found: organic solvent (chloroform, pH (4-6, concentration of the reagents ((1.3-1.510–3moldm–3 (HTPD and (1.2-1.510–3moldm–3 (AA and extraction time(colour develops almost immediately after the reagents addition. The absorbance of the extracts is stable for at least 48 hours. The optimum shaking time is 10 min.. Under the optimal conditions, the complexes have absorption maxima (max at 515-538 nm and molar absorptivities (max between 3.1104dm3mol–1 cm–1. The degrees of extraction were 98.4%. The results suggested that linear relationships exist between the spectral characteristics (max or max and some fundamental properties of the halogen substituent in the HTPD (atomic mass and electronegativity. The effect of foreign ions on the LLE-spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum was examined and two sensitive, selective and precise procedures for molybdenum determination were proposed. The relative standard deviations for Mo content of (3-510–4 % were 4% (HCTP-An procedure and 3% (HBTP-An procedure.

  11. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

    Matthew Arhewoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM and Andrographis paniculata (AP as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK and Hunteria umbellata (HU were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected to validation studies following international guidelines at the respective wavelengths obtained.Results: The results showed linearity at peak wavelengths of maximum absorbance of 292, 280, 274 and 230 nm for GK, HU, AM and AP, respectively. The calibration curves for the different concentrations of the extract gave R2 values ranging from 0.9831 for AM to 0.9996 for AP the inter-day and intra-day precision study showed that the relative standard deviation (% was ≤ 10% for all the extracts.Conclusion: The aqueous extracts and isolates of these plants can be assayed and monitored using these wavelengths.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and EPR studies of oriented spinach thylakoid preparations

    Andrews, J.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Structural Biology Div.

    1995-08-01

    In this study, oriented Photosystem II (PS II) particles from spinach chloroplasts are studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine more details of the structure of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). The nature of halide binding to Mn is also studied with Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) of Mn-Cl model compounds, and with Mn EXAFS of oriented PS II in which Br has replaced Cl. Attention is focused on the following: photosynthesis and the oxygen evolving complex; determination of mosaic spread in oriented photosystem II particles from signal II EPR measurement; oriented EXAFS--studies of PS II in the S{sub 2} state; structural changes in PS II as a result of treatment with ammonia: EPR and XAS studies; studies of halide binding to Mn: Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS of Mn-Cl model compounds and Mn EXAFS of oriented Br-treated photosystem II.

  13. Titrimetric, spectrophotometric and kinetic methods for the assay of atenolol using bromate–bromide and methyl orange

    KANAKAPURA BASAVAIAH

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new methods have been developed for the determination of atenolol in bulk drug and in tablet formulation. The methods are based on the oxidation–bromination reaction of the drug by bromine, generated in situ by the action of acid on a bromate–bromide mixture. In the titrimetric method, the drug is treated with a known excess of bromate–bromide mixture in hydrochloric acid medium, followed by the determination of the unreacted bromine iodometrically. The spectrophotometric method involves the addition of a measured excess of bromate–bromide reagent in hydrochloric acid medium to atenolol, and after ensuring the reaction had gone to completion, the unreacted bromine is treated with a fixed amount of methyl orange, and absorbance measured at 520 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of atenolol. The kinetic method depends on the existence of a linear relationship between the concentration of the drug and the time of the oxidation–bromination reaction, as indicated by the bleaching of methyl orange acid colour. The working conditions were optimized. The titrimetric method is based on a 1:1 reaction stoichiometry (atenolol:bromate and is applicable over the 3–20 mg range. The spectrophotometric method permits micro determination of the drug (0.5–4.0 mg ml-1with an apparentmolar absorptivity of 4.13x104 lmol-1 cm-1 and detection limit of 0.07 mg ml-1. The kinetic method is applicable in the concentration range 5–25 mg ml-1 with a detection limit of 3.72 mg ml-1. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of atenolol in tablet preparations with mean recoveries of 97.63 to 101.78 %. The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by the reference method and by recovery studies using the standard addition technique.

  14. Utility of Charge Transfer and Ion-Pair Complexation for Spectrophotometric Determination of Eletriptan Hydrobromide in Pure and Dosage Forms

    Ayman A. Gouda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, sensitive, and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of eletriptan hydrobromide (ELT in pure and dosage forms. The first two methods are based on charge transfer complex formation between ELT and chromogenic reagents quinalizarin (Quinz and alizarin red S (ARS producing charge transfer complexes which showed an absorption maximum at 569 and 533 nm for Quinz and ARS, respectively. The third method is based on the formation of ion-pair complex between ELT with molybdenum(V-thiocyanate inorganic complex in hydrochloric acid medium followed by extraction of the colored ion-pair with dichloromethane and measured at 470 nm. Different variables affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.0–18, 1.0–8.0, and 2.0–32 μg mL−1 for Quinz, ARS, and Mo(V-thiocyanate, respectively. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection, and quantification limits are also calculated. The correlation coefficients were ≥0.9994 with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D%. of ≤0.925. The proposed methods were successfully applied for simultaneous determination of ELT in tablets with good accuracy and precision and without interferences from common additives, and the validity is assessed by applying the standard addition technique, which is compared with those obtained using the reported method.

  15. QUANTITATIVE ASSAY OF ALMOTRIPTAN MALATE IN PURE DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS USING SIMPLE AND CONVENIENT VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

    U. VIPLOVA PRASAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two direct, simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric methods (M1&M2 are described for the assay of almotripan malate in pure and solid dosage forms. The method M1 involves oxidative coupling of drug with brucine in presence of sodium meta periodate and purple red colored species is formed and exhibits absorption maxima at 520nm. The method M2 is based on the formation of yellowish brown colored species by the drug with Folin reagent and exhibits absorption maxima at 450nm. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (8.0-24 μg/ml for method M1, (16-48 μg/ml for method M2 respectively. The proposed methods are applied to commercial available tablets and the results are statistically compared with those obtained by the reported UV reference method and validated by recovery studies. The results are found satisfactory and reproducible. These methods are applied successfully for the estimation of the almotriptan malate in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosageforms. These methods offer the advantages of rapidity, simplicity and sensitivity and normal cost and can be easily applied to resource-poor settings without the need for expensive instrumentation and reagents.

  16. Spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft

    Fornasier, S; Barucci, M A; Feller, C; Besse, S; Leyrat, C; Lara, L; Gutierrez, P J; Oklay, N; Tubiana, C; Scholten, F; Sierks, H; Barbieri, C; Lamy, P L; Rodrigo, R; Koschny, D; Rickman, H; Keller, H U; Agarwal, J; A'Hearn, M F; Bertaux, J -L; Bertini, I; Cremonese, G; Da Deppo, V; Davidsson, B; Debei, S; De Cecco, M; Fulle, M; Groussin, O; Güttler, C; Hviid, S F; Ip, W; Jorda, L; Knollenberg, J; Kovacs, G; Kramm, R; Kührt, E; Küppers, M; La Forgia, F; Lazzarin, M; Moreno, J J Lopez; Marzari, F; Matz, K -D; Michalik, H; Moreno, F; Mottola, S; Naletto, G; Pajola, M; Pommerol, A; Preusker, F; Shi, X; Snodgrass, C; Thomas, N; Vincent, J -B

    2015-01-01

    The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency has been orbiting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) since August 2014 and is now in its escort phase. A large complement of scientific experiments designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted are onboard Rosetta. We present results for the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the nucleus of 67P derived from the OSIRIS imaging system, which consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). The disk-averaged phase function of the nucleus of 67P shows a strong opposition surge with a G parameter value of -0.13$\\pm$0.01 in the HG system formalism and an absolute magnitude $H_v(1,1,0)$ = 15.74$\\pm$0.02 mag. The integrated spectrophotometry in 20 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range shows a red spectral behavior, without clear absorption bands except for a potential absorption centered at $\\sim$ 290 nm that is possibly due to SO$_2$ ice. The nucleus shows strong phase reddening, with disk...

  17. Novel spectrophotometric method for determination of some macrolide antibiotics in pharmaceutical formulations using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate

    Ashour, Safwan; Bayram, Roula

    2012-12-01

    New, simple and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the assay of two macrolide drugs, azithromycin (AZT) and erythromycin (ERY) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was based on the reaction of AZT and ERY with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline medium at 25 °C to form an orange-colored product of maximum absorption peak at 452 nm. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions and the reaction mechanism was postulated. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.5-33.0 and 0.92-8.0 μg mL-1 with limit of detection values of 0.026 and 0.063 μg mL-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 4.3 × 104 and 12.3 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for AZT and ERY, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of AZT and ERY in formulations and the results tallied well with the label claim. The results were statistically compared with those of an official method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test. No interference was observed from the concomitant substances normally added to preparations.

  18. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine

    Madsen, Jan L.; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing

    2014-01-01

    Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolab......Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution...... of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4MBq [75Se]L-SeMet ([75Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period......]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8•2 (SD 1•1)% of the activity. Time–activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera...

  19. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines.

    Puxty, Graeme; Rowland, Robert; Allport, Andrew; Yang, Qi; Bown, Mark; Burns, Robert; Maeder, Marcel; Attalla, Moetaz

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO2 capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO2 absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO2 absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation.

  20. Flow-injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Uric Acid in Urine via Prussian Blue Reaction

    WASEEM Amir; YAQOOB Mohammad; NABI Abdul; MURTAZA Ghulam; HUSSAIN Izhar

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection(FI)spectrophotometric method was reported for the determination of uric acid based on the reduction of Fe(Ⅲ)/ferricyanide in the presence of uric acid.The in situ reduced ions reacted with unreduced portion of ferricyanide/Fe(Ⅲ)to form soluble Prussian blue,which was monitored at an absorption wavelength of 735 nm.The optimized conditions allow a linear calibration graph in a concentration range of 1-100μmol/L.The relative standard deviation was in a range of 0.5%-2.5%,with a detection limit(3σ blank)of 0.3 μmol/L and a sampling frequency of 60 injection/h was obtained.The effect of common substances present in human physiological fluids on the determination of uric acid was examined.The method was applied to determining uric acid in human urine samples with the recoveries in a range of 96%-105%.The results agree well with those by spectrophotometric reference method at a confidence level of 95%.Spectrophotometric procedures for uric acid determination in clinical samples were reviewed briefly.

  1. Selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of cefdinir in formulations based on donor-acceptor complex formation

    2010-01-01

    Cefdinir has broad spectrum of activity and high prescription rates, hence its counterfeiting seems imminent. We have proposed a simple, fast, selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the content assay of cefdinir in formulations. The method is based on complexation of cefdinir and Fe under reducing condition in a buffered medium (pH 11) to form a magenta colored donor-acceptor complex (λ max = 550 nm; apparent molar absorptivity = 3720 L mol-1 cm-1). No other cephalosp...

  2. Spectrophotometric analysis of aqueous mixtures of some chromium (III) complexes. Thesis

    Stevens, G.

    1983-01-01

    Several methods of determining the relative concentrations of Cr(H2O)5C1(+2) and Cr(H2O)6(+3) are described. The three methods studied are curved resolving methods, used in evaluating spectrophotometric results, mixture results, used in verifying curve resolving techniques, and chromium analysis.

  3. Polarographic and spectrophotometric determination of Nifuroxazide in pharmaceuticals. II. Determination of Nifuroxazide in suspensions.

    Szumińska, E; Cisak, A

    1990-01-01

    The properties of Ercefuryl suspensions which contain Nifuroxazide as active constituent were studied by spectrophotometry and polarography. On this basis two analytical methods for determination of Nifuroxazide content in suspensions were devised: one polarographic, based on the electrochemical reduction of the nitro-group, and a spectrophotometric, based on the absorbance measurements at 373 nm.

  4. Metal release in metallothioneins induced by nitric oxide: X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    Casero, Elena; Martín-Gago, José A; Pariente, Félix; Lorenzo, Encarnación

    2004-12-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins that include metal ions in thiolate clusters. The capability of metallothioneins to bind different metals has suggested their use as biosensors for different elements. We study here the interaction of nitric oxide with rat liver MTs by using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques. We univocally show that the presence of NO induces the release of Zn atoms from the MT structure to the solution. Zn ions transform in the presence of NO from a tetrahedral four-fold coordinated environment in the MT into a regular octahedral six-fold coordinated state, with interatomic distances compatible with those of Zn solvated in water.

  5. Total absorption spectroscopy study of $^{92}$Rb decay: a major contributor to reactor antineutrino flux

    Zakari-Issoufou, A -A; Porta, A; Algora, A; Tain, J L; Valencia, E; Rice, S; Bui, V M; Cormon, S; Estienne, M; Agramunt, J; Äystö, J; Bowry, M; Briz, J A; Caballero-Folch, R; Cano-Ott, D; Cucoanes, A; Elomaa, V -V; Eronen, T; Estévez, E; Farrelly, G F; Garcia, A R; Gelletly, W; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Gorlychev, V; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Jordan, M D; Kankainen, A; Karvonen, P; Kolhinen, V S; Kondev, F G; Martinez, T; Mendoza, E; Molina, F; Moore, I; Perez, A; Podolyák, Zs; Penttilä, H; Regan, P H; Reponen, M; Rissanen, J; Rubio, B; Shiba, T; Sonzogni, A A; Weber, C

    2015-01-01

    The antineutrino spectra measured in recent experiments at reactors are inconsistent with calculations based on the conversion of integral beta spectra recorded at the ILL reactor. $^{92}$Rb makes the dominant contribution to the reactor spectrum in the 5-8 MeV range but its decay properties are in question. We have studied $^{92}$Rb decay with total absorption spectroscopy. Previously unobserved beta feeding was seen in the 4.5-5.5 region and the GS to GS feeding was found to be 87.5(25)%. The impact on the reactor antineutrino spectra calculated with the summation method is shown and discussed.

  6. Total Absorption Spectroscopy Study of 92Rb Decay: A Major Contributor to Reactor Antineutrino Spectrum Shape

    Zakari-Issoufou, A.-A.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Agramunt, J.; ńystö, J.; Bowry, M.; Briz, J. A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucoanes, A.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Estévez, E.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garcia, A. R.; Gelletly, W.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Molina, F.; Moore, I.; Perez-Cerdán, A. B.; Podolyák, Zs.; Penttilä, H.; Regan, P. H.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Shiba, T.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Weber, C.

    2015-09-01

    The antineutrino spectra measured in recent experiments at reactors are inconsistent with calculations based on the conversion of integral beta spectra recorded at the ILL reactor. 92Rb makes the dominant contribution to the reactor antineutrino spectrum in the 5-8 MeV range but its decay properties are in question. We have studied 92Rb decay with total absorption spectroscopy. Previously unobserved beta feeding was seen in the 4.5-5.5 region and the GS to GS feeding was found to be 87.5(25)%. The impact on the reactor antineutrino spectra calculated with the summation method is shown and discussed.

  7. X-ray absorption study of tribofilms from ZDDP and overbased salicylate detergents

    Yong Wan; M. Kasrai; G.M. Bancroft

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of overbased salicylate detergents with zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) and its effect on the formation of tribofilms under boundary lubrication have been studied by means of X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. The results show that addition of metallic detergents to neat ZDDP results in the change of surface chemistry of the tribofilm formed from neat ZDDP. Calcium from detergents is digested in the tribofilm. For the high overbased detergents, the deposit of overbasing agent CaCO3 in the tribofilm is also observed along with the formation of calcium phosphate in tribofilms.

  8. X-ray absorption studies of local structure in iron alkylphosphonate ester organogels

    Grady, B.P. [Oklahoma Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering; Ghosh, A.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Fe{sup 3-} complexed organogel materials were investigated using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The aim of the study was to determine the arrangement of atoms around the Fe-based organogels used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The study also aimed to determine why the gel properties were dependent on the manner in which the mixtures were both formed and handled. High and low temperature stoichiometric monoester and high temperature stoichiometric diester reactions were examined. Results of the study showed that the formation of organogels is dependent on the ratio of chelating phosphonate to the bridging phosphonate. Low viscosity gels prepared from a reaction of monoester at room temperature showed large increases in viscosity with the addition of aqueous ammonia. The XAS studies showed that the Fe was coordinated to 6 oxygen atoms, which attributed to oxygen atoms not covalently bonded to organic moieties. Differences in viscosity were attributed to the interactions between chelating groups. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy analyses suggested that chelating groups had significantly lower wavelengths than bridging groups. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Human in vivo and in vitro studies on gastrointestinal absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Jones, Kate; Morton, Jackie; Smith, Ian; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Harding, Anne-Helen; Evans, Gareth

    2015-03-04

    The study was designed to conduct human in vivo and in vitro studies on the gastrointestinal absorption of nanoparticles, using titanium dioxide as a model compound, and to compare nanoparticle behaviour with that of larger particles. A supplier's characterisation data may not fully describe a particle formulation. Most particles tested agreed with their supplied characterisation when assessed by particle number but significant proportions of 'nanoparticle formulations' were particles >100nm when assessed by particle weight. Oral doses are measured by weight and it is therefore important that the weight characterisation is taken into consideration. The human volunteer studies demonstrated that very little titanium dioxide is absorbed gastrointestinally after an oral challenge. There was no demonstrable difference in absorption for any of the three particle sizes tested. All tested formulations were shown to agglomerate in simulated gastric fluid, particularly in the smaller particle formulations. Further agglomeration was observed when dispersing formulations in polymeric or elemental foods. Virtually no translocation of titanium dioxide particles across the cell layer was demonstrated. This study found no evidence that nanoparticulate titanium dioxide is more likely to be absorbed in the gut than micron-sized particles.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of copper in environmental samples by solid-liquid extraction of its 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone monoximate complex into molten naphthalene

    Wasey, A.; Puri, B.K.; Katyal, M.; Satake, M.

    1986-01-01

    A fairly selective and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of copper after extraction of its 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone monoximate complex into molten naphthalene in the pH range of 6.1-8.4. At room temperature, the solid naphthalene containing the metal complex is separated by filtration, dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) and the absorbance measured at 470 nm against the reagent blank. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range, 0.0-9.6 micrograms of copper in 10ml of DMF. The molar absorptivity and sensitivity are 6.30 X 10(4) 1 mol-1 cm-1 and 0.001 micrograms cm-2, respectively. The interference of various ions has been studied and the method has been applied for the determination of copper in various standard reference materials, beers, wines, human hair and environmental samples.

  11. Development and Statistical Validation of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Estimation of Nabumetone in Tablet Dosage Form

    Rote, A. R.; Bhalerao, S. R.

    2010-01-01

    Three new simple, economic spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of nabumetone in bulk and tablet dosage form. First method includes determination of nabumetone at absorption maxima 330 nm, second method applied was area under curve for analysis of nabumetone in the wavelength range of 326-334 nm and third method was First order derivative spectra with scaling factor 4. Beer law obeyed in the concentration range of 10-30 μg/mL for all three methods. The co...

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Various Drugs Using Chloranilic Acid as Chromogenic Reagent - II

    V. Annapurna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, accurate and reproducible visible spectrophotometric method for the assay of drugs such as pyrilamine and fluvoxamine as maleates was established based on the formation of charge-transfer complex and redox reaction between the corresponding drug and substituted p-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid. The optical characteristics such as Beer’s law limits, molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity are reported. Regression analysis using the method of least squares was made to evaluate the slope (b, intercept (a and correlation coefficient (r and standard error of estimation (Se for each drug.

  13. Development and application of spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical formulations

    Asad Raza; Abdul Subhan Ijaz; Shabbir Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cefaclor in pharmaceutical raw and dosage forms based on reaction with ninhydrin is developed, optimized and validated. The purple color (Ruhemenn's purple) that resulted from the reaction was stabilized and measured at 560 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 4-80 µg mL-1 with molar absorptivity of 1.42 × 10(5) L mole-1 cm-1. All variables including the reagent concentration, heating time, ...

  14. Direct spectrophotometric method for analysis of food supplements containing synthetic polyhydroquinones

    Vasilevsky, A. M.; Konoplev, G. A.; Stepanova, O. S.; Toropov, D. K.; Zagorsky, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    A novel direct spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of Oxiphore® drug substance (synthetic polyhydroquinone complex) in food supplements is developed. Absorption spectra of Oxiphore® water solutions in the ultraviolet region are presented. Samples preparation procedures and mathematical methods of spectra post-analytical procession are discussed. Basic characteristics of the automatic CCD-based UV spectrophotometer and special software implementing the developed method are described. The results of the trials of the developed method and software are analyzed: the error of determination for Oxiphore® concentration in water solutions of the isolated substance and singlecomponent food supplements did not exceed 15% (average error was 7…10%).

  15. A study on radon absorption efficiencies of edible oils produced in India.

    Karunakara, N; Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2010-04-01

    A study on absorption of radon by different edible oils of plant origins produced and used in India was conducted in order to identify efficient radon-absorbing oils. A comparative study of radon absorption by edible oils of India with that of olive oil, which is known as a good absorber of radon, was also carried out. The study was performed by bubbling known concentrations of radon through the oil contained in a bottle and then evaluating the bubbled oil by gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. The results show that oils such as coconut oil, gingelly oil (till oil), ground nut oil, mustard oil, sunflower oil, and saffola kardi oil are also good absorbers for radon, and among them coconut oil and gingelly oils are better absorbers than olive oil. The Henry's equilibrium constant (or the concentration factor), an indicator for the solubility of gas in liquids, was also measured for different types of oil by saturating a known volume of the oil with radon. The Henry's equilibrium constant varied in the range 7.32-8.22 for the Indian vegetable oils, and for olive oil it was found to be 7.88. The details of the experimental technique employed and results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Characterization on the Mean Molar Absorptivity of Amino Acids in Microbial Lipopeptides

    2006-01-01

    The molar absorption coefficients of each of 14 kinds of amino acids were determined by the spectrophotometric method, and the mean molar absorption coefficients of 37 different mixtures of each with amino acid composition exactly equivalent to that of the peptide chain of the corresponding lipopeptide were determined based on calculation or experimental. The significance of the results is that the mean molar absorption coefficients strongly demonstrate the regular patterns, though different amino acids bear quite different molar absorption coefficients.

  17. In vitro study of transporters involved in intestinal absorption of inorganic arsenic.

    Calatayud, Marta; Barrios, Julio A; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2012-02-20

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) [As(III)+As(V)] is a drinking water contaminant, and human exposure to these arsenic species has been linked with a wide range of health effects. The main path of exposure is the oral route, and the intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier that iAs must cross in order to be absorbed. However, there is a lack of information about intestinal iAs absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of certain transporters [glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT), organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), aquaporins (AQPs), and phosphate transporters (NaPi and PiT)] in intestinal absorption of As(V) and As(III), using the Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal epithelium. For this purpose, the effects of chemical inhibition and gene silencing of the transporters of interest on iAs uptake were evaluated, and also the differential expression of these transporters after treatment with iAs. The results show that chemical inhibition using rifamycin SV (OATP inhibitor), phloridzin (SGLT inhibitor), phloretin (GLUT and AQP inhibitor), and copper sulfate (AQP inhibitor) leads to a significant reduction in the apparent permeability and cellular retention of As(III). RT-qPCR indicates up-regulation of GLUT2, GLUT5, OATPB, AQP3, and AQP10 after exposure to As(III), while exposure to As(V) increases the expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, especially NaPiIIb. Gene silencing of OATPB, AQP10, and GLUT5 for As(III) and NaPiIIb for As(V) significantly reduces uptake of the inorganic forms. These results indicate that these transporters may be involved in intestinal absorption of iAs.

  18. Synthesis, XRD, TEM, EPR, and Optical Absorption Spectral Studies of CuZnO2 Nanocompound

    T. Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nano CuZnO2 compound is carried out by thermal decomposition method. The crystalline phase of the material is characterized by XRD. The calculated unit cell constants are a=3.1 Å and c=3.4786 Å and are of tetragonal structure. The unit cell constants are different from wurtzite (hexagonal which indicate that a nanocompound is formed. Further TEM images reveal that the metal ion is in tetragonal structure with oxygen ligands. The prepared CuZnO2 is then characterized for crystallite size analysis by employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size is found to be 100 nm. Uniform bright rings are noticed in the TEM picture suggesting that the nanocrystals have preferential instead of random orientations. The selected-area electron diffraction (SAED pattern clearly indicates the formation of CuO-ZnO nanocompound. The nature of bonding is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The covalency character is about 0.74 and thus the compound is electrically less conductive. Optical absorption spectral studies suggest that Cu(II is placed in tetragonal elongation crystal field. The spin-orbit coupling constant, λ, is calculated using the EPR and optical absorption spectral results suggest some covalent bond between metal and ligand. Near infrared (NIR spectra are due to hydroxyl and water fundamentals.

  19. Theoretical studies on the one- and two-photon absorption properties of azulenylporphyrins and azulene-fused porphyrins

    Li Wen-Chao; Feng Ji-Kang; Ren Ai-Min; Zhang Xiang-Biao; Sun Jia-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures, one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of the azulenylporphyrins and azulene-fused porphyrins have been comparatively studied by using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d)and the ZINDO/SDCI method. With the number of azulenyl groups increasing, the OPA wavelengths of all molecules are red-shifted in 400-600 nm and the two-photon absorption cross section is gradually enlarged. The azulene-fused structures facilitate an expanding conjugated area and increasing TPA cross section. The origin of TPA properties of studied compounds is studied with a two-level model. In summary, the azulene-fused porphyrins exhibit strong two-photon absorption.

  20. An experimental study on moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite with coatings exposed to different pH media

    Radhika Londhe

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the moisture absorption and mechanical properties of jute-epoxy composites. Jute fibres are treated with NaOH before manufacturing of composite laminate in order to improve adhesion with epoxy material. Further jute-epoxy composite specimens were coated with epoxy resin and acrylic paint. Composite specimens with and without coatings are subjected to absorption in solutions of different pH media, for 28 days (666 h. The effect of coatings on reduction in moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite is presented in this current work.

  1. An electron microscopic study of the intestinal villus. II. The pathway of fat absorption.

    PALAY, S L; KARLIN, L J

    1959-05-25

    The intestinal pathway for absorbed fat was traced in thin sections of intestinal villi from rats fed corn oil by stomach tube after a fast of 24 to 40 hours. For electron microscopy the tissues were fixed in chilled buffered osmium tetroxide and embedded in methacrylate. For light microscopy, other specimens from the same animals were fixed in formal-calcium, mordanted in K(2)Cr(2)O(7), and embedded in gelatin. Frozen sections were stained with Sudan black B or Sudan IV. About 20 minutes after feeding, small fat droplets (65 mmicro maximal diameter) appear in the striated border between microvilli. At the same time fat particles are seen within pinocytotic vesicles in the immediately subjacent terminal web. In later specimens the fat droplets are generally larger (50 to 240 mmicro) and lie deeper in the apical cytoplasm. All intracellular fat droplets are loosely enveloped in a thin membrane, the outer surface of which is sometimes studded with the fine particulate component of the cytoplasm. This envelope, apparently derived from the cell surface by pinocytosis, has at this stage evidently become a part of the endoplasmic reticulum. Just above the nucleus numerous fat droplets lie clustered within the dilated cisternae of the Golgi complex. As absorption progresses fat droplets appear in the intercellular spaces of the epithelium, in the interstitial connective tissue spaces of the lamina propria, and in the lumen of the lacteals. All of these extracellular fat droplets are devoid of a membranous envelope. The picture of fat absorption as reconstructed from these studies involves a stream of fat droplets filtering through the striated border, entering the epithelial cell by pinocytosis at the bases of the intermicrovillous spaces, and coursing through the endoplasmic reticulum to be discharged at the sides of the epithelial cell into extracellular spaces. From the epithelial spaces, the droplets move into the lamina propria and thence into the lymph. If the lumen

  2. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter loadings and shows that smaller particle sizes (under 10 micron) can readily be seen on the more lightly loaded filters. At higher loadings, however, the particle size is harder to differentiate. This study provides data on actual stack emission samples showing a range of mass loading conditions and visual evidence of particle size and distribution and also presents the difficulties in quantifying self-absorption effects using actual samples.

  3. Determination of sodium in foods by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion: NMKL interlaboratory study.

    Julshamn, Kaare; Lea, Per; Norli, Hilde Skaar

    2005-01-01

    Nine laboratories participated in an interlaboratory method performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of sodium in foods by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion, using a microwave oven technique. Before the study, the laboratories were able to practice on samples with defined sodium levels (pretrial test). The method was tested on a total of 6 foods (broccoli, carrot, bread, saithe fillet, pork, and cheese) with sodium concentrations of 1480-8260 mg/kg. The materials were presented to the participants in the study as blind duplicates, and the participants were asked to perform single determinations for each sample. The repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for sodium ranged from 1.9 to 6.5%. The reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 4.2 to 6.9%. The HorRat values ranged from 0.9 to 1.6.

  4. Spectrophotometric and pH-Metric Studies of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III Metal Complexes with Rifampicin

    A. N. Sonar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-ligand and proton-ligand stability constant of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III metals with substituted heterocyclic drug (Rifampicin were determined at various ionic strength by pH metric titration. NaClO4 was used to maintain ionic strength of solution. The results obtained were extrapolated to the zero ionic strength using an equation with one individual parameter. The thermodynamic stability constant of the complexes were also calculated. The formation of complexes has been studied by Job’s method. The results obtained were of stability constants by pH metric method is confirmed by Job’s method.

  5. Simplification of iron speciation in wine samples: a spectrophotometric approach.

    López-López, José A; Albendín, Gemma; Arufe, María I; Mánuel-Vez, Manuel P

    2015-05-13

    A simple direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the analysis of Fe(II) and total Fe in wine samples. This method is based on the formation of an Fe(II) complex with 2,2'-dipyridylketone picolinoylhydrazone (DPKPH), which shows a maximum green-blue absorption (λ = 700 nm) at pH 4.9. Operative conditions for the batch procedure were investigated including reagent concentration, buffer solutions, and wavelength. The tolerance limits of foreign ions and sample matrix have been also evaluated. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.005 and 0.017 mg L(-1) of Fe(II), respectively, allowing its determination in real wine samples. Finally, the proposed method was used in the analysis of white, rose, and red wines. Results were compared with a reference method of Commission Regulation (ECC) No. 2676/90 of September 1990 determining European Community methods for the analysis of wines for Fe analysis, showing the reliability of the proposed method in Fe analysis in wine samples.

  6. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of iodine in coal by pyrohydrolysis decomposition

    Wu Daishe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: dswu@ncu.edu.cn; Deng Haiwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang Wuyi [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Xiao Huayun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2007-10-10

    A method for the determination of iodine in coal using pyrohydrolysis for sample decomposition was proposed. A pyrohydrolysis apparatus system was constructed, and the procedure was designed to burn and hydrolyse coal steadily and completely. The parameters of pyrohydrolysis were optimized through the orthogonal experimental design. Iodine in the absorption solution was evaluated by the catalytic spectrophotometric method, and the absorbance at 420 nm was measured by a double-beam UV-visible spectrophotometer. The limit of detection and quantification of the proposed method were 0.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 0.29 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. After analysing some Chinese soil reference materials (SRMs), a reasonable agreement was found between the measured values and the certified values. The accuracy of this approach was confirmed by the analysis of eight coals spiked with SRMs with an indexed recovery from 94.97 to 109.56%, whose mean value was 102.58%. Six repeated tests were conducted for eight coal samples, including high sulfur coal and high fluorine coal. A good repeatability was obtained with a relative standard deviation value from 2.88 to 9.52%, averaging 5.87%. With such benefits as simplicity, precision, accuracy and economy, this approach can meet the requirements of the limits of detection and quantification for analysing iodine in coal, and hence it is highly suitable for routine analysis.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of nicradipine and isradipine in pharmaceutical formulations

    S. M. Al-Ghannam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of some 1,4-dihydropyridine compounds namely, nicardipine and isradipine either in pure form or in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the reduction of nicardipine and isradipine with zinc powder and calcium chloride followed by further reduction with sodium pentacyanoaminoferrate (II to give violet and red products having the absorbance maximum at 546 and 539 nm with nicardipine and isradipine, respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range 8.0–180 μg/ml with the detection limit of 1.67 μg/ml for nicardipine and 8.0–110 μg/ml with the detection limit of 1.748 μg/ml for isradipine. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported methods were investigated. The molar absorptivity, quantization limit, standard deviation of intercept (Sa, standard deviation of slope (Sb and standard deviation of the residuals (Sy/x were calculated. The composition of the result compounds were found 1:1 for nicardipine and 1:2 for isradipine by Job’s method and the conditional stability constant (Kf and the free energy changes (ΔG were calculated for compounds formed. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of nicardipine and isradipine in their dosage forms. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the reference or official methods. A proposal of the reaction pathway was presented.

  8. Spectrophotometric studies of visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO2 nanocrystals.

    Mesgari, Zohreh; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Khosravi, Alireza; Gharanjig, Kamaladin

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, preparation and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO(2) nanocrystals (Pc/Fe-TiO(2)) with different Fe doping content (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 3.0 mol% Fe) as photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange have been reported. The study carried out using XRD, FT-IR, EDX, BET, DRS, UV-Vis, SEM and TEM techniques. Results revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals possessed only the anatase phase with crystal sizes of about 10-23 nm and high surface areas of 2.8-37.3 m(2)/g. It can be seen phthalocyanine and Fe(3+) ion exist in photocatalysts based on analysis of FT-IR and EDX. The doping amount of Fe remarkably affects the activity of modified TiO(2) nanocrystals as catalysts. The 0.5 mol% Fe doping exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in this work. It was found that phthalocyanine and Fe induced a shift in the energy band gap to lower energies, which changes from 3.26 to 2.26 eV for pure TiO(2) and Pc/3% Fe-TiO(2) nanocrystals, respectively. Results of the degradation of methyl orange revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals showed much more photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2) under visible light which makes the applicability of TiO(2) photocatalysts even more versatile.

  9. Spectrophotometric and thermal studies on the charge--transfer complexes of 4-(aminomethyl) piperidine as donor with σ- and π-electron acceptors.

    Mostafa, Adel; El-Ghossein, Nada; Alqaradawi, Siham Y

    2014-01-24

    The spectroscopic characteristics of the solid charge-transfer molecular complexes (CT) formed in the reaction of the electron donor 4-(aminomethyl) piperidine (4AMP) with the σ-acceptor iodine and the π-acceptors 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), 2,4,4,6-tetrabromo-2,5-cyclohexadienone (TBCHD) and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) have been studied in chloroform at 25°C. These were investigated through electronic, infrared spectra and thermal analysis as well as elemental analysis. The results show that the formed solid CT-complexes have the formulas [(4AMP)I](+)I3(-), [(4AMP)(DDQ)2] and [(4AMP)(TBCHD)] while in the case of 4AMP-TCNQ reaction, a short-lived CT complex is formed followed by rapid N-substitution by TCNQ forming the final reaction product 7,7,8-tricyano-8-aminomethylpiperidinylquinodimethane [TCAMPQDM] in full agreement with the known reaction stoichiometries in solution as well as the elemental measurements and the thermal analysis confirmed the structure of the obtained compounds. The formation constant kCT, molar extinction coefficient εCT, free energy change ΔG(0) and CT energy ECT have been calculated for the CT-complexes [(4AMP)I](+)I3(-), [(4AMP)(DDQ)2] and [(4AMP)(TBCHD)].

  10. High performance liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric studies on the removal of biogenic amines from some Egyptian foods using organic, inorganic and natural compounds.

    Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Hameed, Azza K Abd; El-Din, A M M Nezam; El-Din, Lara A M M N

    2010-04-01

    This work has been carried out to investigate the conditions which lead to removal of the biogenic amines through the model system. Also, the main goal of this research work is trying to remove biogenic amines; histamine and tyramine, from some Egyptian foods such as tomato, strawberry, banana and mango to prevent their allergy effect. Histamine and tyramine have been affected by pyrogallol, catechol, starch, ascorbic and chlorogenic acids at different levels with different conditions. Some natural additives like glucose, spices, milk, vanillin, starch, orange juice, ascorbic and citric acids, showed an effective effect on disappearance of histamine and tyramine. By studying the effect of some additives on biogenic amines, it was found that tomato showed a decrease in histamine and tyramine concentrations by adding spices. Strawberry and banana showed a clear decrease in histamine and tyramine concentrations by treating them with ascorbic acid. Treating mango by milk led to increase of histamine level while milk with chocolate increases both histamine and tyramine concentrations.

  11. Synthesis, electrochemical, spectrophotometric and potentiometric studies of two azo-compounds derived from 4-amino-2-methylquinoline in ethanolic-aqueous buffered solutions

    El-Attar, Mona A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed M. [Analytical Chemistry Research Unit, Chemistry Department, Tanta University (Egypt); Ismail, Iqbal M., E-mail: maema.2011@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-08-15

    Two azo-compounds, 2-methyl-4-(5-amino-2-hydroxy-phenylazo)-quinoline (2) and 2-methyl-4-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylazo)-quinoline, derived from 4-amino-2-methylquinoline were synthesized. Their chemical structures were characterized and confirmed by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The electrochemical behavior of the starting compound (4-amino-2-methylquinoline) and of the two synthesized azo-derivatives was studied at the mercury electrode in the B-R universal buffer at various pH values (2-11.5) containing 40% (v/v) ethanol using dc-polarography, cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry. Their electrode reaction pathways were elucidated and discussed. The dissociation constants (pKa) of the examined compounds, stability constants and stoichiometry of their complexes in solution with some transition metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), La(III) and UO{sup 2+}{sub 2}) were determined. (author)

  12. Compatible validated spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin by factorial design experiments

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Ayad, Miriam F.; Tadros, Mariam M.

    2015-04-01

    Simple, selective and reproducible spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first proposed spectrofluorimetric method is based on the dansylation reaction of the amino group of vildagliptin with dansyl chloride to form a highly fluorescent product. The formed product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 455 nm after excitation at 345 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-600 μg ml-1. The second proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the charge transfer complex of saxagliptin with tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (p-chloranil). The formed charge transfer complex was measured spectrophotometrically at 530 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 100-850 μg ml-1. The third proposed spectrophotometric method is based on the condensation reaction of the primary amino group of saxagliptin with formaldehyde and acetyl acetone to form a yellow colored product known as Hantzsch reaction, measured at 342.5 nm. Beer's law was obeyed in a concentration range of 50-300 μg ml-1. All the variables were studied to optimize the reactions' conditions using factorial design. The developed methods were validated and proved to be specific and accurate for quality control of vildagliptin and saxagliptin in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  13. Spectrophotometric study of neptunium (VI) complexation by nitrate ions; Etude par spectrophotometrie de la complexation du neptunium au degre d'oxydation (VI) par les ions nitrates

    Pochon, P. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France)]|[Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)]|[Centre Regional Associe de Lyon, 69 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Neptunium(VI) complexation by nitrate ions was investigated by visible and near-infrared spectrophotometry, a technique suitable for observing the appearance and evolution of the species in solution. In the absence of reference spectra for Np(VI) nitrate- complexes, mathematical (factor analysis) tools were used to interpret the spectra. These chemo-metric techniques were first tested and validated on a simpler chemical system: Np(VI)complexation by the SiW{sub 11}O{sub 39}{sup 8-} anion. The test media used to investigate Np(VI) nitrate- complexes generally contain nitrate and perchlorate salts at high concentrations (high ionic strength). Media effects arising from the presence of cations, acidity or the perchlorate ion concentration are therefore significant, and no doubt account for the scattered values of the complexation constants published in the literature. The evolution of the neptunium spectra according to the parameters of the reaction medium illustrated these effects and allowed them to be quantified by a global 'perturbation constant'. In order to minimize the spectrum modifications due to media effects, the neptunium nitrate-complexes were studied at constant ionic strength in weak acidic media (2 mol.kg{sup -1}{sub H2O}) in the presence of sodium salts. The bulk formation constants and the spectrum of the NpO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sup +} complex were determined for ionic strength values of 2.2, 4, 6 and 8 mol.kg{sup -1}{sub H2O}. The constants remained on the same order of magnitude regardless of the ionic strength; the thermodynamic constant {beta}{sub 1}{sup 0} determined from them according to specific interaction theory is thus probably of little significance. Conversely, the bulk constants can be corrected for the effects of the perchlorate ions by taking the global 'perturbation constant' into account. (author)

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride using dipicrylamine.

    Shamsa, F A; Maghssoudi, R H

    1976-05-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride based on the reaction with dipicrylamine was developed. A yellow complex forms and is easily extractable by chloroform at pH 5. The mole ratio of diphenydramine hydrochloride to dipicrylamine in the complex is 1:3. The absorbance of the complex obeys Beer's law over the concentration range of 3-10 mug of diphenhydramine hydrochloride per ml of chloroform. This procedure can be carried out in the presence of other compounds without interference.

  15. [Experimental study on CO2 absorption by aqueous ammonia-based blended absorbent].

    Xia, Zhi-Xiang; Xiang, Qun-Yang; Zhou, Xu-Ping; Fang, Meng-Xiang

    2014-07-01

    A crucial problem for the promising absorbent aqueous ammonia (NH3) is the low CO2 absorption rate. The mass transfer coefficient (K(G)) of CO2 in aqueous NH3-based absorbents on a wetted wall column facility was investigated. Monoethanolamine (MEA), piperazine (PZ), 1-methyl piperazine (1-MPZ) and 2-methyl piperazine (2-MPZ) were introduced into NH3 solutions as additives, all of which significantly increased the mass transfer coefficient of CO2 in the solutions. With CO2 loading of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mol x mol(-1), K(G) of 3 mol x L(-1) NH3 + 0.3 mol x L(-1) PZ blended solution increased by 2, 2.2, 2.2, and 1.9 fold as compared to that of 3 mol x L(-1) NH3. Typically, PZ, the additive with best performance, was chosen for further study. The effects of temperature and PZ concentration on CO2 absorption in PZ solution and the blended NH3/PZ solution. The calculated pseudo first order rate constant [42.7 m3 x (mol x s)(-1)] was analyzed to further elucidate the reaction mechanism in the blended NH3/PZ solution.

  16. Enhanced oral absorption of insulin-loaded liposomes containing bile salts: a mechanistic study.

    Niu, Mengmeng; Tan, Ya'nan; Guan, Peipei; Hovgaard, Lars; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Lian, Ruyue; Li, Xiaoyang; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes containing bile salts (BS-liposomes) significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of insulin (rhINS). However, the underlying absorption mechanisms have not been well understood yet. In this study, the transiting fate of the liposomes was first investigated using fluorescent imaging tools to confirm the effect of enhanced gastrointestinal stability. In order to obtain evidence of enhanced transcellular permeation, the interaction between BS-liposomes and the biomembrane was investigated in Caco-2 cell lines. BS-liposomes were found to be more stable in the gastrointestinal tract by showing prolonged residence time in comparison with conventional liposomes. BS-liposomes were significantly more effective for cellular uptake and transport of rhINS; and this effect was found to be size- and concentration-dependent. A good linear correlation was observed between the concentration of the liposomes and uptake/transport of rhINS. Confocal laser scanning microscopy visualization further validated the transcellular transit of BS-liposomes. The BS-liposomes showed little effect on cytotoxicity and did not induce apoptosis within 24h investigation. It was concluded that BS-liposomes showed improved in vivo residence time and enhanced permeation across the biomemebranes. Mechanisms of trans-enterocytic internalization could be proposed as an interpretation for enhanced absorption of insulin-loaded liposomes.

  17. Adsorption of mercury on lignin: combined surface complexation modeling and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies.

    Lv, Jitao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2012-03-01

    Adsorption of mercury (Hg) on lignin was studied at a range of pH values using a combination of batch adsorption experiments, a surface complexation model (SCM) and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Surface complexation modeling indicates that three types of acid sites on lignin surfaces, namely aliphatic carboxylic-, aromatic carboxylic- and phenolic-type surface groups, contributed to Hg(II) adsorption. The bond distance and coordination number of Hg(II) adsorption samples at pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.5 were obtained from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis. The results of SCM and XAS combined reveal that the predominant adsorption species of Hg(II) on lignin changes from HgCl(2)(0) to monodentate complex -C-O-HgCl and then bidentate complex -C-O-Hg-O-C- with increasing pH value from 2.0 to 6.0. The good agreement between SCM and XAS results provides new insight into understanding the mechanisms of Hg(II) adsorption on lignin.

  18. Femtosecond Transient Absorption Studies in Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystal Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    M. C. Rath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of photo-excited carrier relaxation processes in cadmium selenide nanocrystal thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition method have been studied by nondegenerate femtosecond transient pump-probe spectroscopy. The carriers were generated by exciting at 400 nm laser light and monitored by several other wavelengths. The induced absorption followed by a fast bleach recovery observed near and above the bandgap indicates that the photo-excited carriers (electrons are first trapped by the available traps and then the trapped electrons absorb the probe light to show a delayed absorption process. The transient decay kinetics was found to be multiexponential in nature. The short time constant, <1 picosecond, was attributed to the trapping of electrons by the surface and/or deep traps and the long time constant, ≥20 picoseconds, was due to the recombination of the trapped carriers. A very little difference in the relaxation processes was observed in the samples prepared at bath temperatures from 25∘C to 60∘C.

  19. Regional variations in percutaneous absorption of methimazole: an in vitro study on cat skin.

    Hill, K E; Chambers, J P; Jones, B R; Bolwell, C F; Aberdein, D; Mills, P C

    2015-12-01

    The use of transdermal gel medications in cats has become popular in veterinary medicine due to the ease of administration compared to oral medication. The research to support systemic absorption of drugs after transdermal gel administration and the preferred skin region to apply these drugs in cats is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different skin regions on the percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics of a commercially available transdermal methimazole after a finite dose was applied to feline skin in vitro. A commercial formulation of methimazole (10 mg) was applied to four skin regions (the inner stratum corneum of the ear, groin, neck, and thorax regions) from six cats. The receptor medium was sampled up to 36 h postapplication, and methimazole concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Methimazole was absorbed more completely across the pinnal skin, compared to the groin, neck, and thorax (P < 0.001), which justifies application to the pinna to maximize efficacy and also to minimize the effects of grooming.

  20. Time-resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Electron Transport Study in Warm Dense Gold

    Lee, Jong-Won; Bae, Leejin; Engelhorn, Kyle; Heimann, Philip; Ping, Yuan; Barbrel, Ben; Fernandez, Amalia; Beckwith, Martha Anne; Cho, Byoung-Ick; GIST Team; IBS Team; LBNL Collaboration; SLAC Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The warm dense Matter represents states of which the temperature is comparable to Fermi energy and ions are strongly coupled. One of the experimental techniques to create such state in the laboratory condition is the isochoric heating of thin metal foil with femtosecond laser pulses. This concept largely relies on the ballistic transport of electrons near the Fermi-level, which were mainly studied for the metals in ambient conditions. However, they were barely investigated in warm dense conditions. We present a time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy measured for the Au/Cu dual layered sample. The front Au layer was isochorically heated with a femtosecond laser pulse, and the x-ray absorption changes around L-edge of Cu, which was attached on the backside of Au, was measured with a picosecond resolution. Time delays between the heating of the `front surface' of Au layer and the alternation of x-ray spectrum of Cu attached on the `rear surface' of Au indicate the energetic electron transport mechanism through Au in the warm dense conditions. IBS (IBS-R012-D1) and the NRF (No. 2013R1A1A1007084) of Korea.

  1. Phase-absorption method for studying vibrational relaxation during laser excitation of molecules

    Kuntsevich, V.F.; Pisarchik, A.N.; Churakov, V.V.

    1987-11-01

    The authors investigate the potential of the phase-absorption method for investigating vibrational de-excitation of a laser molecular gas for the case when modulation in the vibrational state populations is done by an infrared laser pulse and the determination of the unknown value is based on measuring the phase difference between the periodic oscillations of the intensities of the excitation radiation and the probing radiation. The gas studied is carbon dioxide. The advantages of using optical rather than electrical pumping for the determination are cited. The method was also assessed for its effectiveness in studying the vibrational relaxation of carbon dioxide comprised of carbon 12/oxygen 18 and carbon 13/oxygen 16 isotopes.

  2. Ray trace algorithm description for the study of pump power absorption in double clad fibers

    Narro, R.; Rodriguez, E.; Ponce, L.; de Posada, E.; Flores, T.; Arronte, M.

    2011-09-01

    An algorithm for the analysis of the double clad fiber design is presented. The algorithm developed in the MATLAB computing language, is based on ray tracing method applied to three-dimensional graphics figures which are composed of a set of plans. The algorithm can evaluate thousands of ray paths in sequence and its corresponding pump absorption in each of the elements of the fiber according to the Lambert-Beer law. The beam path is evaluated in 3 dimensions considering the losses by reflexion and refraction in the faces and within the fiber. Due to its flexibility, the algorithm can be used to study the ray propagation in single mode or multimode fibers, bending effects in fibers, variable geometries of the inner clad and the core, and could also be used to study tappers.

  3. Experimental study of impact energy absorption in aluminium square tubes with thermal triggers

    Nuno Peixinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an approach for the improvement of crashworthiness properties of aluminium tubular structures using initiators introduced through localized heating. The main objective of this approach is to improve the ability to absorb impact energy in a progressive and controlled manner by a local modification of material properties. Through a localized heating in areas previously chosen for initiation, associated with the softening of the aluminium alloy the deformation can be introduced precisely, forcing the tubular structure to deform in a mode of high energy absorption and reducing the maximum load in a controlled manner. This study presents the properties for an aluminium alloy 6061-T5 modified by thermal treatment by the use of a laser beam. Experimental results are presented of quasi-static and impact tests of tubular structures using the proposed approach. This concept appears as possible and effective in the experimental work presented.

  4. USING FLY ASH TO STUDY ON THE MECHANISM OF THE ABSORPTION OF HEAVY METAL IONS IN WASTEWATER

    程建光

    2000-01-01

    Using the method of sedentary thermal experiment, the use of fly ash to remove Zn2+,Cu2+ and Pb2+ in waste water was studied. Special attention was paid to the effects of pH and time degree of activity on absorbing ability. The freundlich model applicable to the absorption data was set. Also the mechanism of absorption and ultra-micro structure of fly ash with the help of TEM was put forward.

  5. Simple, Rapid and Sensitive UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Antidepressant Amitriptyline in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    Pankaj Soni; Deepak Sinha; Rajmani Patel

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes a new and simple approach for spectrophotometric determination of tricyclic antidepressant drug amitriptyline. Enhancement of the colour intensity of the Fe(III)-SCN− complex on addition of the drug amitriptyline forms the basis of the proposed method. The value of molar absorptivity of the Fe(III)-SCN− amitriptyline ion pair complex in terms of the drug lies in the range of (2.82–3.36) × 103 L·mol−1·cm−1 at the absorption maximum 460 nm. The detection limit of the method ...

  6. Smart spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of vitamin B1 and B2 concentrations in complex mixtures

    Nora Hamad Al-Shaalan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, selective and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms using pure formulations and pharmaceutical formulations of chromazurol S (CAS. This method is based on the ion-association between the drugs and the acid dye (CAS in weak base media in the presence of Triton X-100 as a solubilizing agent. The absorption factor was calculated to estimate thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in mixtures without previous separation by applying the absorption factor method and absorbance subtraction method.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of etodolac in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations

    Gouda Ayman A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etodolac (ETD is a non-steroidal anti-inflamatory antirheumatic drug. A survey of the literature reveals that there is no method available for the determination of ETD in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations by oxidation-reduction reactions. Results We describe three simple, sensitive and reproducible spectrophotometric assays (A-C for the determination of etodolac in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods A and B are based on the oxidation of etodolac by Fe3+ in the presence of o-phenanthroline (o-phen or bipyridyl (bipy. The formation of the tris-complex on reaction with Fe3+-o-phen and/or Fe3+-bipy mixtures in acetate buffer solution at optimum pH was demonstrated at 510 and 520 nm with o-phen and bipy. Method C is based on the oxidation of etodolac by Fe3+ in acidic medium, and the subsequent interaction of iron(II with ferricyanide to form Prussian blue, with the product exhibiting an absorption maximum at 726 nm. The concentration ranges are 0.5–8, 1.0–10 and 2–18 μg mL-1 respectively for methods A, B and C. For more accurate analysis, Ringbom optimum concentration ranges were calculated, in addition to molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits. Conclusion Our methods were successfully applied to the determination of etodolac in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations without any interference from common excipients. The relative standard deviations were ≤ 0.76 %, with recoveries of 99.87 % – 100.21 %.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of nateglinide in bulk and tablet dosage forms

    Jain Suresh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nateglinide (NTG is available as tablet dosage form in 60 mg and 120 mg strength. In the present study, two simple, reproducible and efficient UV spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of this drug in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms have been developed. In method I, methanol-AR was used as solvent, while in method II, Methanol-AR + 10% V/V 3N NaOH was used as reference solvent. In method I, nateglinide shows λmax at 216 nm, which is then shifted to 225.4 nm on increasing the basicity of the reference solvent in method II. The linearity for nateglinide was observed to be statistically in the range of 10-100 μg/ml in method I and 100-1000 μg/ml in method II. Both the methods were validated using ANOVA. The recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed methods.

  9. Measurements of the Absorption by Auditorium SEATING—A Model Study

    BARRON, M.; COLEMAN, S.

    2001-01-01

    One of several problems with seat absorption is that only small numbers of seats can be tested in standard reverberation chambers. One method proposed for reverberation chamber measurements involves extrapolation when the absorption coefficient results are applied to actual auditoria. Model seat measurements in an effectively large model reverberation chamber have allowed the validity of this extrapolation to be checked. The alternative barrier method for reverberation chamber measurements was also tested and the two methods were compared. The effect on the absorption of row-row spacing as well as absorption by small numbers of seating rows was also investigated with model seats.

  10. Shock tube study on the thermal decomposition of fluoroethane using infrared laser absorption detection of hydrogen fluoride.

    Matsugi, Akira; Shiina, Hiroumi

    2014-08-28

    Motivated by recent shock tube studies on the thermal unimolecular decomposition of fluoroethanes, in which unusual trends have been reported for collisional energy-transfer parameters, the rate constants for the thermal decomposition of fluoroethane were investigated using a shock tube/laser absorption spectroscopy technique. The rate constants were measured behind reflected shock waves by monitoring the formation of HF by IR absorption at the R(1) transition in the fundamental vibrational band near 2476 nm using a distributed-feedback diode laser. The peak absorption cross sections of this absorption line have also been determined and parametrized using the Rautian-Sobel'man line shape function. The rate constant measurements covered a wide temperature range of 1018-1710 K at pressures from 100 to 290 kPa, and the derived rate constants were successfully reproduced by the master equation calculation with an average downward energy transfer, ⟨ΔEdown⟩, of 400 cm(-1).

  11. Resolution of overlapped spectra for the determination of ternary mixture using different and modified spectrophotometric methods

    Moussa, Bahia Abbas; El-Zaher, Asmaa Ahmed; Mahrouse, Marianne Alphonse; Ahmed, Maha Said

    2016-08-01

    Four new spectrophotometric methods were developed, applied to resolve the overlapped spectra of a ternary mixture of [aliskiren hemifumarate (ALS)-amlodipine besylate (AM)-hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)] and to determine the three drugs in pure form and in combined dosage form. Method A depends on simultaneous determination of ALS, AM and HCT using principal component regression and partial least squares chemometric methods. In Method B, a modified isosbestic spectrophotometric method was applied for the determination of the total concentration of ALS and HCT by measuring the absorbance at 274.5 nm (isosbestic point, Aiso). On the other hand, the concentration of HCT in ternary mixture with ALS and AM could be calculated without interference using first derivative spectrophotometric method by measuring the amplitude at 279 nm (zero crossing of ALS and zero value of AM). Thus, the content of ALS was calculated by subtraction. Method C, double divisor first derivative ratio spectrophotometry (double divisor 1DD method), was based on that for the determination of one drug, the ratio spectra were obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of its different concentrations by the sum of the absorption spectra of the other two drugs as a double divisor. The first derivative of the obtained ratio spectra were then recorded using the appropriate smoothing factor. The amplitudes at 291 nm, 380 nm and 274.5 nm were selected for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT in their ternary mixture, respectively. Method D was based on mean centering of ratio spectra. The mean centered values at 287, 295.5 and 269 nm were recorded and used for the determination of ALS, AM and HCT, respectively. The developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and proved to be accurate, precise and selective. Satisfactory results were obtained by applying the proposed methods to the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form.

  12. Highly sensitive catalytic spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium

    Naik, Radhey M.; Srivastava, Abhishek; Prasad, Surendra

    2008-01-01

    A new and highly sensitive catalytic kinetic method (CKM) for the determination of ruthenium(III) has been established based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of L-phenylalanine ( L-Pheala) by KMnO 4 in highly alkaline medium. The reaction has been followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 526 nm. The proposed CKM is based on the fixed time procedure under optimum reaction conditions. It relies on the linear relationship where the change in the absorbance (Δ At) versus added Ru(III) amounts in the range of 0.101-2.526 ng ml -1 is plotted. Under the optimum conditions, the sensitivity of the proposed method, i.e. the limit of detection corresponding to 5 min is 0.08 ng ml -1, and decreases with increased time of analysis. The method is featured with good accuracy and reproducibility for ruthenium(III) determination. The ruthenium(III) has also been determined in presence of several interfering and non-interfering cations, anions and polyaminocarboxylates. No foreign ions interfered in the determination ruthenium(III) up to 20-fold higher concentration of foreign ions. In addition to standard solutions analysis, this method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of ruthenium(III) in drinking water samples. The method is highly sensitive, selective and very stable. A review of recently published catalytic spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ruthenium(III) has also been presented for comparison.

  13. Application of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to the study of nuclear structural materials

    Liu, Shanshan

    One of key technologies for the next generation nuclear systems are advanced materials, including high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistance core materials and so on. Local structure determination in these systems, which often are crystallographically intractable, is critical to gaining an understanding of their properties. In this thesis, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), including Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), is used to examine the geometric and electronic structure of nuclear structural materials under varying conditions. The thesis is divided into two main sections. The first examines the structural analysis of nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) which are dispersion strengthened by an ultra high density of Y-Ti-O enriched nano-features, resulting in remarkable high temperature creep strength and radiation damage resistance. Titanium and Yttrium K-edge XAS shows commercial alloys MA957 and J12YWT more closely resemble the as received Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti (wt. %) powders, and mechanically alloyed (MA) powders with 0.25Y2O3 (wt. %). It shows that a significant fraction of substitutional Ti remains dissolved in the (BCC) ferrite matrix. In contrast, annealed powders and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidated alloys show high temperature heat treatments shift the Y and Ti to more oxidized states that are consistent with combinations of Y2Ti2O7 and, especially, TiO. The second section describes corrosion studies of Pb with 316L stainless steel, molybdenum and spinet (MgAl2O4) at high temperature by XAS. The corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials by liquid lead at elevated temperatures is an issue that must be considered when designing advanced nuclear systems and high-power spallation neutron targets. The results of ex-situ studies show that a Mo substrate retained a smooth and less corroded surface than 316L stainless steel sample at elevated temperature. In

  14. Microbeam x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of chromium in large-grain uranium dioxide fuel

    Mieszczynski, C.; Kuri, G.; Bertsch, J.; Martin, M.; Borca, C. N.; Delafoy, Ch; Simoni, E.

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron-based microprobe x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to study the local atomic structure of chromium in chromia-doped uranium dioxide (UO2) grains. The specimens investigated were a commercial grade chromia-doped UO2 fresh fuel pellet, and materials from a spent fuel pellet of the same batch, irradiated with an average burnup of ~40 MW d kg-1. Uranium L3-edge and chromium K-edge XAS have been measured, and the structural environments of central uranium and chromium atoms have been elucidated. The Fourier transform of uranium L3-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure shows two well-defined peaks of U-O and U-U bonds at average distances of 2.36 and 3.83 Å. Their coordination numbers are determined as 8 and 11, respectively. The chromium Fourier transform extended x-ray absorption fine structure of the pristine UO2 matrix shows similar structural features with the corresponding spectrum of the irradiated spent fuel, indicative of analogous chromium environments in the two samples studied. From the chromium XAS experimental data, detectable next neighbor atoms are oxygen and uranium of the cation-substituted UO2 lattice, and two distinct subshells of chromium and oxygen neighbors, possibly because of undissolved chromia particles present in the doped fuels. Curve-fitting analyses using theoretical amplitude and phase-shift functions of the closest Cr-O shell and calculations with ab initio computer code FEFF and atomic clusters generated from the chromium-dissolved UO2 structure have been carried out. There is a prominent reduction in the length of the adjacent Cr-O bond of about 0.3 Å in chromia-doped UO2 compared with the ideal U-O bond length in standard UO2 that would be expected because of the change in effective Coulomb interactions resulting from replacing U4+ with Cr3+ and their ionic size differences. The contraction of shortest Cr-U bond is ~0.1 Å relative to the U-U bond length in bulk UO2. The difference in the

  15. Simple spectrophotometric methods for quantification of modafinil us-ing 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate and 2,4-dinitrophenol as analyti-cal reagents

    Burla Sunitha Venkata Seshamamba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two simple visible spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for the quantifica-tion of modafinil using 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid (NQS method and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP method as analytical reagents. The NQS method involves the reaction of modafinil with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate in alkaline medium at room conditions to form a yellow colored product exhibiting maximum absorption at 430 nm. DNP method is based on the proton transfer from 2,4-dinitrophenol to modafinil at room conditions and then we have the formation of yellow colored ion-pair complex exhibiting maximum absorption at 475 nm. Dif-ferent variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. Under the optimized experi-mental conditions, Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges of 10-100 and 8-60 μg/mL with the detection of limit values of 0.486 and 0.258 μg/mL for NQS method and DNP method, respectively The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity for both of the methods are report-ed. The methods were validated in terms of accuracy, precision and robustness. The results were satisfactory. The proposed methods were effectively applied to the analysis of the modafinil in their tablet formulations. The recoveries were 99.92% and 99.96% with RSD and 0.863% and 0.722% for NQS and DNS methods, respectively. The assay was not interfered by common ex-cipients.

  16. Solvent effect on the absorption spectra of coumarin 120 in water: A combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical study.

    Sakata, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Yukio; Nakano, Haruyuki

    2011-01-07

    The solvent effect on the absorption spectra of coumarin 120 (C120) in water was studied utilizing the combined quantum mechanical∕molecular mechanical (QM∕MM) method. In molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a new sampling scheme was introduced to provide enough samples for both solute and solvent molecules to obtain the average physical properties of the molecules in solution. We sampled the structure of the solute and solvent molecules separately. First, we executed a QM∕MM MD simulation, where we sampled the solute molecule in solution. Next, we chose random solute structures from this simulation and performed classical MD simulation for each chosen solute structure with its geometry fixed. This new scheme allowed us to sample the solute molecule quantum mechanically and sample many solvent structures classically. Excitation energy calculations using the selected samples were carried out by the generalized multiconfigurational perturbation theory. We succeeded in constructing the absorption spectra and realizing the red shift of the absorption spectra found in polar solvents. To understand the motion of C120 in water, we carried out principal component analysis and found that the motion of the methyl group made the largest contribution and the motion of the amino group the second largest. The solvent effect on the absorption spectrum was studied by decomposing it in two components: the effect from the distortion of the solute molecule and the field effect from the solvent molecules. The solvent effect from the solvent molecules shows large contribution to the solvent shift of the peak of the absorption spectrum, while the solvent effect from the solute molecule shows no contribution. The solvent effect from the solute molecule mainly contributes to the broadening of the absorption spectrum. In the solvent effect, the variation in C-C bond length has the largest contribution on the absorption spectrum from the solute molecule. For the solvent effect on the

  17. Infrared absorption study of hydrogen shallow donors in rutile TiO{sub 2}

    Herklotz, Frank; Lavrov, E.; Weber, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    An IR absorption study of hydrogen-related defects in rutile TiO{sub 2} has been performed. The previously reported O-H vibrational mode at 3288 cm{sup -1} is found to consist of two components. The modes are assigned to an acceptor-hydrogen complex of an unidentified acceptor and a hydrogen located in the open c-channels. The latter is split into two modes due to the neutral and positively charge states of the defect. Based on the temperature dependence of the stretch mode intensities we identify this defect as a shallow donor with an ionization energy of 10 meV. The effective mass of electrons in the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} is found to be 17m{sub e}.

  18. Electronic topological transition in zinc under pressure: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    Aquilanti, G.; Trapananti, A.; Minicucci, M.; Liscio, F.; Twaróg, A.; Principi, E.; Pascarelli, S.

    2007-10-01

    Zinc metal has been studied at high pressure using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to investigate the role of the different degrees of hydrostaticity on the occurrence of structural anomalies following the electronic topological transition, two pressure transmitting media have been used. Results show that the electronic topological transition, if it exists, does not induce an anomaly in the local environment of compressed Zn as a function of hydrostatic pressure and any anomaly must be related to a loss of hydrostaticity of the pressure transmitting medium. The near-edge structures of the spectra, sensitive to variations in the electronic density of states above the Fermi level, do not show any evidence of electronic transition whatever pressure transmitting medium is used.

  19. Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis for differential diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions

    Е. V. Filonenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-invasive diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions by spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIA-scopy using device for dermatoscopy (SIAscope V by Astron Clinica, Ltd was approved in P.A.Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute. The method is based on analysis of light interaction with wavelength of 440–960 nm anf human skin, which is recorded by change of image on scan. The comparative analysis of SIA-scopy and histological data in 327 pigmented skin lesions in 147 patients showed, that SIA had high diagnostic efficiency for cutaneous melanoma: the sensitivity was 96%, specifity – 94%, diagnostic accuracy – 94%. For study of malignant potential of pigmented lesions by SIA-scopy the most informative capacity was obtained for assessment of melanin in papillary dermis, status of blood vessels and collagen fibres (SIA-scans 3, 4, 5.

  20. Optical Spectrophotometric Monitoring of Fermi/LAT Bright Sources

    Patiño-Álvarez, V; León-Tavares, J; Valdés, J R; Carramiñana, A; Carrasco, L; Torrealba, J

    2013-01-01

    We describe an ongoing optical spectrophotometric monitoring program of a sample of Fermi/LAT bright sources showing prominent and variable {\\gamma}-ray emission, with the 2.1m telescope at Observatorio Astrof\\'isico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) located in Cananea, Sonora, M\\'exico. Our sample contains 11 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) and 1 Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxy. Our spectroscopic campaign will allow us to study the spectroscopic properties (FWHM, EW, flux) of broad-emission lines in the optical (e.g. H{\\beta}) and mid-UV (e.g. Mg II {\\lambda}2800) regimes, depending on the redshift of the source. The cadence of the broad emission lines monitoring is about five nights per month which in turn will permit us to explore whether there is a correlated variability between broad emission line features and high levels of {\\gamma}-ray emission.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of the first hydrolysis constant of praseodymium (III)

    Gonzalez M, R.; Lopez G, H. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rojas H, A., E-mail: hilario.lopez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The behavior of the trivalent ion praseodymium in 2 M of NaCl at 303 K and in CO{sub 2} free conditions, was studied. Spectrophotometric titrations of the soluble species were used, in order to obtain the value of the first hydrolysis constant of Pr(III). The data obtained were treated with both the program Squad and by a graphic method, respectively. The result obtained using Squad was log*{beta}{sub 1}= -8.94 {+-} 0.03, while it was log*{beta}{sub 1}= -8.77 {+-} 0.03, when calculated graphically. These results are similar to the value obtained previously with the potentiometric method. (Author)

  2. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  3. Suitability of skin integrity tests for dermal absorption studies in vitro.

    Guth, Katharina; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Fabian, Eric; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Ben

    2015-02-01

    Skin absorption testing in vitro is a regulatory accepted alternative method (OECD Guideline 428). Different tests can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the skin samples. Here, we compared the pre- or post-run integrity tests (transepidermal electrical resistance, TEER; transepidermal water loss, TEWL; absorption of the reference compounds water, TWF, or methylene blue, BLUE) and additionally focused on co-absorption of a (3)H-labeled internal reference standard (ISTD) as integrity parameter. The results were correlated to absorption profiles of various test compounds. Limit values of 2kΩ, 10 gm(-2)h(-1) and 4.5∗10(-3)cmh(-1) for the standard methods TEER, TEWL and TWF, respectively, allowed distinguishing between impaired and intact human skin samples in general. Single skin samples did, however, not, poorly and even inversely correlate with the test-compound absorption. In contrast, results with ISTD (e.g. (3)H-testosterone) were highly correlated to the absorption of (14)C-labeled test compounds. Importantly, ISTD did not influence analytics or absorption of test compounds. Therefore, ISTD, especially when adjusted to the physico-chemical properties of test compounds, is a promising concept to assess the integrity of skin samples during the whole course of absorption experiments. However, a historical control dataset is yet necessary for a potential routine application.

  4. Vitamin D-mediated calcium absorption in patients with clinically stable Crohn's disease: a pilot study

    Vitamin D is the critical hormone for intestinal absorption of calcium. Optimal calcium absorption is important for proper mineralization of bone in the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, among other important functions. Diseases associated with gut inflammation, such as Crohn's ...

  5. Theoretical modeling of the spectroscopic absorption properties of luciferin and oxyluciferin: A critical comparison with recent experimental studies

    Anselmi, Massimiliano, E-mail: m.anselmi@caspur.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Marocchi, Simone [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Aschi, Massimiliano [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), 67100 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Amadei, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated absorption spectra were compared with experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shapes and absorption maxima were reproduced for luciferin and oxyluciferin spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the solvent largely changes the electronic transition probabilities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher excitations provide an important contribution to the main absorption peak. - Abstract: Firefly luciferin and its oxidated form, oxyluciferin, are two heterocyclic compounds involved in the enzymatic reaction, catalyzed by redox proteins called luciferases, which provides the bioluminescence in a wide group of arthropods. Whereas the electronic absorption spectra of D-luciferin in water at different pHs are known since 1960s, only recently reliable experimental electronic spectra of oxyluciferin have become available. In addition oxyluciferin is involved in a triple chemical equilibria (deprotonation of the two hydroxyl groups and keto-enol tautomerism of the 4-hydroxythiazole ring), that obligates to select during an experiment a predominant species, tuning pH or solvent polarity besides introducing chemical modifications. In this study we report the absorption spectra of luciferin and oxyluciferin in each principal chemical form, calculated by means of perturbed matrix method (PMM), which allowed us to successfully introduce the effect of the solvent on the spectroscopic absorption properties, and compare the result with available experimental data.

  6. The theory study of Metal absorptivity in femtosecond pulsed laser ablation

    LI Li; ZHANG Duan-ming; LI Zhi-hua; TAN Xin-yu; FANG Ran-ran

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of the absorptivity of metal on femtosecond pulsed laser ablation is investigated.The formulas for the absorptivity depending on target temperature are derived from Maxwell Equations and the Lambert-Beer's law.Based on this,a new two-temperature model is proposed to describe the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation with metal.Then,using Au as an example,a finite difference method is employed to simulate the space-dependent and time-dependent absorptivity and the target temperature.The temperature evolution of our model is compared with the result obtained form the heat conduction model taking the absorptivity as constant.It is shown that the absorptivity plays an important role in the femtosecond pulsed laser ablation.The results of this paper are helpful in choosing the best technical parameters in femtosecond pulsed laser ablation.

  7. Study on the improved structure of dye-sensitized solar cells for enhancing light absorption

    LIU Yong; SHEN Hui; DENG Youjun

    2007-01-01

    The absorption coefncients of N719 or N3 dyes at the longer wavelength region (>600 nm)are not enough to catch photons efficiently,but the solar spectrum has a large photon flux in the wavelength region between 500 and 1,000 nm,so it is desirable to enhance the absorption of light by the dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC)to achieve higher efficiencies.To solve this problem,an improved structure Of DSSC for enhancing light absorption is introduced in this paper, and I-V characteristics of DSSC are measured to illustrate the enhancement of the light absorption and efficiency.As a result,the improved DSSC exhibits higher light absorption and solar-to-electric conversion efficiency than traditional DSSC.

  8. Simple Sensitive Spectrophotometric Determination of Vanadium in Biological and Environmental Samples

    B. Krishna Priya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel, rapid, highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method for the determination of traces of vanadium (V in environmental and biological samples, pharmaceutical and steel samples was studied. The method is based on oxidation of 2,4- dinitro phenyl hydrazine(2,4-DNPH by vanadium (V followed by coupling reaction with N-(1-naphthalene-1-ylethane-1,2-diamine-dihydrochloride (NEDA in acidic medium to give red colored derivative or on oxidation of 4-Amino Pyridine by vanadium (V followed by coupling reaction with NEDA in basic medium to give pink colored derivative. The red colored derivative having an λmax 495 nm which is stable for 8 days and the pink colored derivative with 525 nm is stable for more than 7 days at 350C. Beer's law is obeyed for vanadium (V in the concentration range of 0.02 - 3.5 μg mL–1 (red derivative and 0.03 – 4.5 μg mL–1 (pink derivative at the wave length of maximum absorption. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters were investigated to enhance the sensitivity of the present method. The detailed study of various interferences made the method more selective. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vanadium in natural water samples, plant material, soil samples, synthetic mixtures, pharmaceutical samples and biological samples. The results obtained were agreed with the reported methods at the 95 % confidence level. The performance of proposed method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and Variance ratio f-test which indicates the significance of proposed method over reported method.

  9. Study on synchronous detection method of methane and ethane with laser absorption spectroscopy technology

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; You, Kun; Gao, Yan-wei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jian-guo; Liu, Wen-qing

    2016-10-01

    The main ingredient of mash gas is alkenes, and methane is the most parts of mash gas and ethane is a small portion of it. Fast, accurate, real-time measurement of methane and ethane concentration is an important task for preventing coal mining disaster. In this research, a monitoring system with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology has been set up for simultaneous measurement of methane and ethane, and a DFB laser at wavelength of 1.653μm was used as the laser source. The absorption spectroscopy information of methane and ethane, especially the characteristic of the spectrum peak positions and relative intensity were determined by available spectral structures from previous study and available database. Then, the concentration inversion algorithm method based on the spectral resolution and feature extraction was designed for methane and ethane synchronous detection. At last, the continuously experimental results obtained by different concentration of methane and ethane sample gases with the multiple reflection cell and the standard distribution system. In this experiment, the standard distribution system made with the standard gas and two high precision mass flow meters of D07 Sevenstar series whose flow velocity is 1l/min and 5l/min respectively. When the multiple reflection cell work stably, the biggest detection error of methane concentration inversion was 3.7%, and the biggest detection error of ethane was 4.8%. So it is verified that this concentration inversion algorithm works stably and reliably. Thus, this technology could realize the real-time, fast and continuous measurement requirement of mash gas and it will provide the effective technical support to coal mining production in safety for our country.

  10. [Dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate on gold island films: surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy study].

    Guo, Hao; Ding, Li; Zhang, Tian-Jie; Mao, Yan-Li

    2013-05-01

    Dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate (DTSP), an important homobifunctional crosslinker, has been widely used for the covalent immobilization of proteins onto solid supports by amine coupling. In the present study, adsorption of DTSP on vacuum-deposited gold island films was analyzed by means of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS). For the sake of a reliable assignment of the vibrational spectra, IR intensity of the adsorption model of TSP on one gold surface was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the Beck' s three-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) level with the LANL2DZ basis set. SEIRAS and multiple-angle-of-incidence polarization infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy indicated that TSP is arranged orderly in a tilted fashion with a dihedral angle of 65 degrees between the plane of succinimidyl ring and the gold surface. The binding kinetics revealed that that the time constant of self-assembly of the TSP layer is 220 sec. Furthermore, the coupling process of amino-nitrilotriacetic acid (ANTA) with surface-bound TSP monolayer was monitored in situ by SEIRAS. Three negative bands observed at 1 807, 1 776, and 1 728 cm(-1) respectively provided direct evidence for the reaction of the succinimidyl ester. The appearance of one intense band at 1 566 cm(-1) gave a clear support for the presence of the cross-link between ANTA and TSP. We hope that the results in current investigation will contribute to the better understanding of properties of DTSP and related reactions at the molecular level.

  11. Spectrophotometric method for determination and kinetics of amino acids through their reaction with syringaldehyde

    Medien, H. A. A.

    1998-02-01

    A spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of amino acids. The method is based on the reaction between amino acids and syringaldehyde at pH 9.0, by which a color is developed with maximum absorption at 420 nm in aqueous methyl alcohol. The absorption of the product obeys Beer's law within the concentration range of 0.025-0.5 mM of original amino acid. The kinetics of the reaction follows overall second order kinetics, first order in each of the reactants. The rates of the reaction were investigated as a function of pH of the reaction medium and structure of the amino compounds. Logarithms of the second-order rate constants increased with amino acid anion concentration as the pH was increased. The mechanisms of the reaction have been discussed.

  12. Spectrophotometric study on the proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol in methanol, acetonitrile and the binary mixture 50% methanol + 50% acetonitrile

    Al-Ahmary, Khairia M.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.; Al-Obidan, Areej H.

    2016-02-01

    Proton transfer reaction between 2-amino-4-methylpyridine (2AMP) as the proton acceptor with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) as the proton donor has been investigated spectrophotometrically in methanol (MeOH), acetonitrile (AN) and a binary mixture composed of 50% MeOH and 50% AN (AN-Me). The composition of the complex has been investigated utilizing Job's and photometric titration methods to be 1:1. Minimum-maximum absorbance equation has been applied to estimate the formation constant of the proton transfer reaction (KPT) where it reached high values in the investigated solvent confirming its high stability. The formation constant recorded higher value in AN compared with MeOH and mixture of AN-Me. Based on the formation of stable proton transfer complex, a sensitive spectrophotometric method was suggested for quantitative determination of 2AMP. The Lambert-Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 0.5-8 μg mL- 1 with small values of limits of detection and quantification. The solid complex between 2AMP with DCNP has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis to be 1:1 in concordant with the molecular stoichiometry in solution. Further analysis of the solid complex was carried out using infrared and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

  13. The studies of high-frequency magnetic properties and absorption characteristics for amorphous-filler composites

    Li, Z. W.; Yang, Z. H.

    2015-10-01

    Pure amorphous flake fillers and amorphous flakes coated by ferrite nanoparticles with core-shell-like structure were fabricated using mechanical ball-milling. The later with core-shell-like structure can greatly decrease permittivity and improve the absorption properties, as compared to the former. The absorption of all amorphous-filler composites has its origin in a quarter-wavelength resonator. Based on the resonator model, absorption frequency fA and the corresponding return loss RL are calculated, which are well consistent with observed values. It is also found that the resonance frequency is proportional to effective resistivity, based on William-Shockley-Kittel's eddy model.

  14. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MOXIFLOXACIN HCl AND BROMFENAC SODIUM IN EYE DROPS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

    P. J. Vyas*, J. B. Dave and C. N. Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride is a fluorinated quinolone antibacterial and Bromfenac Sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. The combination formulation is used for the treatment of the reduction of post operative inflammatory conditions of the eye. Three new, simple, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride (MOX and Bromfenac Sodium (BROM in their combined dosage forms. Method - I is based on simultaneous equation method using two wavelengths, 294 nm (λmax of MOX and 265 nm (λmax of BROM. Method - II Q‐absorption Ratio method using two wavelengths, 294 nm (λmax of MOX and 276.66 nm (Isoabsorptive point. Method - III involves the use of First order derivative technique. Here 301.71 nm, the zero crossing point of Bromfenac Sodium, was selected for the determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and 293.22 nm, the zero crossing point of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride, was selected for the determination of Bromfenac Sodium. Methanolic HCL (0.1 M was the solvent used in all three methods. Moxifloxacin showed linearity in the range of 1-14 μg/ml and Bromfenac showed linearity in the range of 1-14 μg/ml in all the methods. All methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out. All methods were found to be accurate, precise and reproducible. These methods were applied to the assay of the drugs in marketed formulation, which were found in the range of 98.0% to 102.0% of the labelled value for both Moxifloxacin and Bromfenac. Hence, the methods herein described can be successfully applied in quality control of combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  15. Spectrophotometric and potentiometric determination of piroxicam and tenoxicam in pharmaceutical preparations.

    El-Ries, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Gehad; Khalil, Shaeban; El-Shall, Manal

    2003-01-01

    Two simple and accurate methods are described for the determination of piroxicam and tenoxicam in their pharmaceutical preparations. The spectrophotometric method involves the oxidation of these drugs with potassium iodate in acid medium with the liberation of iodine and subsequent extraction with cyclohexane followed by measuring the absorbance at lambda=522 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 0.05-1.1 and 0.05-0.6 mg x ml(-1) for piroxicam and tenoxicam, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivities of the resulting coloured products are found to be 2.7 x 10(3) and 2.5 x 10(3) l mol(-1) x cm(-1), whereas Sandell sensitivities are 0.012 and 0.013 g x cm(-2) for piroxicam and tenoxicam, respectively. The potentiometric method involves the direct titration of both drugs with N-bromosuccinimide in acid medium and the end point is determined potentiometrically using platinum indicator electrode. Piroxicam and tenoxicam can be determined quantitatively in the concentration range of 0.33-3.37 and 0.33-4.08 mg x ml(-1) for tenoxicam and piroxicam, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation values are found to be ranged from 0.05-0.07 and 0.37-0.98% and 0.025-0.078 and 0.25-1.2% for tenoxicam and piroxicam, respectively. The two methods are accurate within +/-1.0%. Optimum conditions affecting both methods are studied. The proposed methods are applied for the determination of the drugs in pure form and in commercial pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Validated spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of moxifloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations

    Motwani, Sanjay K.; Chopra, Shruti; Ahmad, Farhan J.; Khar, Roop K.

    2007-10-01

    New, simple, cost effective, accurate and reproducible UV-spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the estimation of moxifloxacin in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. Moxifloxacin was estimated at 296 nm in 0.1N hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) and at 289 nm in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-12 μg ml -1 ( r2 = 0.9999) in hydrochloric acid and 1-14 μg ml -1 ( r2 = 0.9998) in the phosphate buffer medium. The apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity coefficient were found to be 4.63 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and 9.5 ng cm -2/0.001 A in hydrochloric acid; and 4.08 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and 10.8 ng cm -2/0.001 A in phosphate buffer media, respectively indicating the high sensitivity of the proposed methods. These methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 0.0402, 0.1217 μg ml -1 in hydrochloric acid and 0.0384, 0.1163 μg ml -1 in phosphate buffer medium, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of moxifloxacin in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, i.v. infusions, eye drops and polymeric nanoparticles). The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (relative standard deviation dosage forms and dissolution studies.

  17. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  18. Toward picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption studies of interfacial photochemistry

    Gessner, Oliver; Mahl, Johannes; Neppl, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    We report on the progress toward developing a novel picosecond time-resolved transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TRXAS) capability for time-domain studies of interfacial photochemistry. The technique is based on the combination of a high repetition rate picosecond laser system with a time-resolved X-ray fluorescent yield setup that may be used for the study of radiation sensitive materials and X-ray spectroscopy compatible photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. The mobile system is currently deployed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and may be used in all operating modes (two-bunch and multi-bunch) of the synchrotron. The use of a time-stamping technique enables the simultaneous recording of TRXAS spectra with delays between the exciting laser pulses and the probing X-ray pulses spanning picosecond to nanosecond temporal scales. First results are discussed that demonstrate the viability of the method to study photoinduced dynamics in transition metal-oxide semiconductor (SC) samples under high vacuum conditions and at SC-liquid electrolyte interfaces during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Opportunities and challenges are outlined to capture crucial short-lived intermediates of photochemical processes with the technique. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science Early Career Research Program.

  19. Studies of ionic liquid solutions by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Rodrigues, Fabio [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26.077, CEP 05513-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Gustavo M. do [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26.077, CEP 05513-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: morari@yahoo.com; Santos, Paulo S. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26.077, CEP 05513-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    Soft X-ray spectroscopies give specific information about the electronic structure around light elements. The high absorption of soft X-rays by almost every molecule, including air, requires studies under vacuum, which represents a great limitation. Solids with high vapor pressure and liquids are very difficult to be studied, making solution chemistry almost neglected. This work explores the use of ionic liquids, organic liquids with very low vapor pressure, as media to study chemical solutions using soft X-ray. N 1s spectra are reported of ionic liquid solutions of 1-methyl-3alkyl-imidazolium cation with different anions and chain lengths, and urea/choline chloride mixtures (a deep eutectic solvent) with several solutes including dyes (Janus Green B and Congo Red), synthetic polymers (polyaniline) and nitrate salts. While there are significant problems with the signal of the solvent, the results do show that it is possible to detect solute signals, and further to see spectral changes attributed to solvent-solute interactions.

  20. Lipid nanoparticles as carrier for octyl-methoxycinnamate: in vitro percutaneous absorption and photostability studies.

    Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Rizza, Luisa; Blasi, Paolo; Schoubben, Aurelie; Perrotta, Rosario; Tarico, Maria Stella; Damiani, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN, and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC) as potential carriers for octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC). The release pattern of OMC from SLN and NLC was evaluated in vitro, determining its percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of OMC-loaded lipid nanoparticles. From the obtained results, ultrasonication method yielded both SLN and NLC in the nanometer range with a high active loading and a particle shape close to spherical. Differential scanning calorimetry data pointed out the key role of the inner oil phase of NLC in stabilizing the particle architecture and in increasing the solubility of OMC as compared with SLN. In vitro results showed that OMC, when incorporated in viscosized NLC dispersions (OMC-NLC), exhibited a lower flux with respect to viscosized SLN dispersions (OMC-SLN) and two reference formulations: a microemulsion (OMC-ME) and a hydroalcoholic gel (OMC-GEL). Photostability studies revealed that viscosized NLC dispersions were the most efficient at preserving OMC from ultraviolet-mediated photodegradation.

  1. Optical absorption, Mössbauer, and FTIR spectroscopic studies of two blue bazzites

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Khomenko, Vladimir M.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    2017-02-01

    Two samples of bazzite, a very rare Sc analog of beryl, from Tørdal, Telemark, Norway and Kent, Central Kazakhstan were studied by electron microprobe, optical absorption, and Mössbauer spectroscopies; the latter sample was also studied by FTIR. Electron microprobe results show that the Norway bazzite is composed of two bazzites with slightly different FeO contents, viz. 5.66 and 5.43 wt%. The Kazakhstan sample consists of several varieties of bazzite displaying strong differences in iron, manganese, magnesium, and aluminum contents (in wt%): FeO from 2.02 to 6.73, MnO from 0.89 to 2.98, MgO from 0.37 to 1.86, and Al2O3 from 0.30 to 1.30. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows different degrees of iron oxidation. The Norway bazzite is completely Fe2+, while the Kazakhstan sample contains roughly equivalent Fe3+ and Fe2+ accommodated in the octahedral site. The difference in iron oxidation causes strong variations in the intensity of the broad optical absorption band around 13,850 cm-1, which is assigned to Fe2+ → Fe3+ IVCT; as a result, there are strong differences in the intensity of blue color. Dichroism (E||c ≫ E⊥c) is much stronger in the Kazakhstan sample than in the Norway one. Intensities of the electronic spin-allowed bands of [6]Fe2+ at 8900 and 10,400 cm-1 are somewhat higher in the latter than in the former. FTIR spectra of the sample from Kent show the presence of only water type II molecules with the H-H vector perpendicular to the c-axis, in contrast to more typical beryls that always show at least weak minor bands of H2O I. This result shows that trapped water molecules in structural channels of studied bazzite occupy only sites next to or between six-membered rings centered by Na atoms. Definite structure can be observed in the vicinities of ν2 and ν3 peaks. Peaks at 1621 and 3663 cm-1 are assigned to "doubly coordinated" H2O (IId), whereas maximums at 1633 and 3643 cm-1 likely represent "singly coordinated" H2O (IIs). Interpretation of the third

  2. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  3. Simple and selective spectrophotometric determination of ruthenium after solid phase extraction with some quinoxaline dyes into microcrystalline p-dichlorobenzene

    Amin, Alaa S.

    2002-07-01

    A simple selective and highly sensitive extraction method has been developed for the determination of ruthenium spectrophotometrically after extraction of its 2,3-dichloro-6-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (I), 2,3-dichloro-6-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrophenylazo)quinoxaline (II) and 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (III) complexes into microcrystalline p-dichlorobenzene. The optimization of experimental conditions for the procedure is studied. The solid p-dichlorobenzene containing the ruthenium-reagent (I-III) complexes is separated by filtration and dissolved in N, N-dimethylformamide. The absorbance is measured at λmax 622, 518 and 542 nm against reagents I, II and III, respectively, as blank. Beer's law is obeyed upto 2.5 μg ml -1 of ruthenium. The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits are calculated, when compared with those parameters without using solid phase extraction method. The interference of various ions has been studied in detail and the statistical evaluation of the experimental results is reported. The proposed methods have been successfully applied for the determination of trace amount of ruthenium in seawater, ore and metallurgy products.

  4. A FIELD STUDY OF INDICATORS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF FOUR ABSORPTION CHILLERS IN THE SUDANO-SAHELIAN REGION OF CAMEROON

    A. N. N. Chedop; N. Djongyang; R.Tchinda; Zaatri, A.; J. D. Kana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a field study of indicators of the performance of absorption refrigerating systems in the Sudano-Sahelian region of Cameroon. A modeling of various components of the system is performed in order to choose the technology best adapted for the region. Based on the characteristics from the manufacturers, four absorption chillers were studied; namely: EAW Schüco LB 15 and 30; Rotartica Solar 045 and Sonnenklima Suninverse. The model of Kühn and Ziegler and meteorological data o...

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Non-Sedating Antihistamines Using Erythrosine B

    Noha N. Atia; Noha M. Hosny; Michael E. El-Kommos; Samia M. El-Gizawy

    2013-01-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of cetirizine (I), ebastine (II), fexofenadine (III), ketotifen (IV), and loratadine (V) based on ion-pair complex formation with erythrosine B. The pink color of the produced complex was measured at 550 nm without solvent extraction. Appropriate conditions were established by studying the color reaction between erythrosine B and the studied drugs to obtain the maximum sensitivity. Beer-Lambert's law is ...

  6. Shock tube/laser absorption studies of the decomposition of methyl formate

    Ren, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Reaction rate coefficients for the major high-temperature methyl formate (MF, CH3OCHO) decomposition pathways, MF → CH3OH + CO (1), MF →CH2O+CH2O (2), and MF→ CH4 + CO2 (3), were directly measured in a shock tube using laser absorption of CO (4.6 μm), CH2O (306 nm) and CH4 (3.4 μm). Experimental conditions ranged from 1202 to 1607 K and 1.36 to 1.72 atm, with mixtures varying in initial fuel concentration from 0.1% to 3% MF diluted in argon. The decomposition rate coefficients were determined by monitoring the formation rate of each target species immediately behind the reflected shock waves and modeling the species time-histories with a detailed kinetic mechanism [12]. The three measured rate coefficients can be well-described using two-parameter Arrhenius expressions over the temperature range in the present study: k1 = 1.1 × 1013 exp(-29556/T, K) s -1, k2 = 2.6 × 1012 exp(-32052/T, K) s-1, and k3 = 4.4 × 1011 exp(-29 078/T, K) s-1, all thought to be near their high-pressure limits. Uncertainties in the k1, k2 and k3 measurements were estimated to be ±25%, ±35%, and ±40%, respectively. We believe that these are the first direct high-temperature rate measurements for MF decomposition and all are in excellent agreement with the Dooley et al. [12] mechanism. In addition, by also monitoring methanol (CH3OH) and MF concentration histories using a tunable CO2 gas laser operating at 9.67 and 9.23 μm, respectively, all the major oxygen-carrying molecules were quantitatively detected in the reaction system. An oxygen balance analysis during MF decomposition shows that the multi-wavelength laser absorption strategy used in this study was able to track more than 97% of the initial oxygen atoms in the fuel. © 2012 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EPR and optical absorption studies of Cu 2+ doped bis (glycinato) Mg (II) monohydrate single crystals

    Dwivedi, Prashant; kripal, Ram

    2010-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of Cu 2+ doped bis (glycinato) Mg (II) monohydrate single crystals is carried out at room temperature. Copper enters the lattice substitutionally and is trapped at two magnetically inequivalent sites. The observed spectra are fitted to a spin-Hamiltonian of rhombic symmetry with the following values of the parameters: Cu 2+ (I), gx = 2.1577 ± 0.0002, gy = 2.2018 ± 0.0002, gz = 2.3259 ± 0.0002, Ax = (87 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Ay = (107 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Az = (141 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1; Cu 2+ (II), gx = 2.1108 ± 0.0002, gy = 2.1622 ± 0.0002, gz = 2.2971 ± 0.0002, Ax = (69 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Ay = (117 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1and Az = (134 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1. The ground state wave function of the Cu 2+ ion in this lattice is evaluated to be predominantly | x2 - y2lbond2 . The g-factor anisotropy is also calculated and compared with the experimental value. With the help of the optical absorption study, the nature of bonding in the complex is discussed.

  8. The mechanism of lowering cholesterol absorption by calcium studied by using an in vitro digestion model.

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai D; Stoyanov, Simeon; Lips, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Studies in humans show that a calcium-enriched diet leads to lower cholesterol in blood serum. This phenomenon is usually explained in the literature with a reduced cholesterol absorption in the small intestine. Our study aims to clarify the effect of calcium on the solubilisation of cholesterol and fatty acid in the dietary mixed micelles (DMM), viz. on the bioaccessibility of these lipophilic substances in the gut. We use an in vitro digestion model which mimics very closely the intestinal pH-profile and the composition of the intestinal fluids. We quantified the effects of Ca(2+) concentration on the lipid solubilization for fats and oils with different saturated/unsaturated fatty acid (FA) contents. We found that the increase of calcium significantly decreases the solubilization of cholesterol, FA and MG. Most importantly, we observe a clear positive correlation between the amounts of solubilized cholesterol, on one side, and solubilized free fatty acids and monoglycerides, on the other side. The main conclusion is that Ca(2+) ions strongly affect the bioaccessibility of both cholesterol and saturated FA. Therefore, calcium may decrease the serum cholesterol via two complementary mechanisms: (1) fatty acid precipitation by calcium ions reduces the solubilisation capacity of the DMM, thus decreasing the levels of solubilised (bioaccessible) cholesterol; (2) the observed strong decrease of the bioaccessible saturated FA, in its own turn, may suppress the cholesterol synthesis in the liver.

  9. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R.S.; Dobson, J. (IIT); (Keele); (Florida); (DRDC)

    2008-06-16

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (< 5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterize anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution {approx} 5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  10. Determination of the acidity constants of neutral red and bromocresol green by solution scanometric method and comparison with spectrophotometric results

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2016-03-01

    The method is based on scanning cells containing the indicator solution with a scanner, and analyzing the color of each cell with a software written in visual basic (VB 6 media to red, green and blue values. The cells were made by making holes in the Plexiglas® sheet. Also, the acidity constants of the neutral red and bromocresol green indicators were studied with spectrophotometrically. HypSpec program has been applied for the estimation of pKa values based on spectrophotometric data. The agreement between obtained pKa values by solution scanometric, spectrophotometric method and values reported in the literature demonstrates the utility of the method here used. Also the HySS 2009 program was applied for drawing of the corresponding distribution diagrams.

  11. Experimental Study on the Absorption of Toluene from Exhaust Gas by Paraffin/Surfactant/Water Emulsion

    Ping Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new paraffin/surfactant/water emulsion (PSW for volatile organic compounds (VOCs controlling was prepared and its potential for VOCs removal was investigated. Results indicated that PSW-5 (5%, v/v provided higher toluene absorption efficiency (90.77% than the other absorbents used. The saturation pressure, Henry’s constant, and activity coefficient of toluene in PSW-5 were significantly lower than those in water, and toluene solubility (1.331 g·L−1 in the PSW-5 was more than 2.5 times higher than the value in water. Several factors potentially affecting the toluene absorption efficiency were systematically investigated. The results suggested that concentration and pH of PSW, absorption temperature, and gas flow rate all had a strong influence on the toluene absorption, but the inlet concentration of toluene had little effect on the toluene absorption. There were different absorbing performances of PSW-5 on different VOCs, and the ketones, esters, and aromatics were more easily removed by the PSW-5 than the alkanes. Regeneration and reuse of the PSW were possible; after 3 runs of regeneration the absorption efficiency of PSW-5 for toluene also could reach 82.42%. So, the PSW is an economic, efficient, and safe absorbent and has a great prospect in organic waste gas treatment.

  12. Experimental study on the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide

    2008-01-01

    The photoabsorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide were measured in the spectral regions of 200-230 nm and 275 315 nm at 298-415 K,using a grating monochromator with a resolution of 0.2 nm.The discrete absorption cross-section is directly correlated with the number of quantum excited from the base state.The absorption cross-sections at the peaks of discrete bands decreased linearly with the increase of temperature,which corresponded to the decrease in the population of vibrational and rotational transitions from the base level to higher excitation levels.The absorption cross-section peaks decreased linearly when the temperature increased from 298 to 415 K,with relative drops of 74.0% and 75.8% at 200-230 nm and 275-315 nm,respectively.Another distinctive feature of sulfur dioxide absorption spectra in the above two spectral regions was the quasiperiodic structure of the absorption peaks,whose equal wavelength intervals were 1.53 nm and 1.95 nm,respectively.Red and blue shifts were not found at the absorption peak positions.

  13. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Emission and Absorption Spectra of meso-Pyridyl Porphyrins upon Soret Band Excitation Studied by Fluorescence Up-Conversion and Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Venkatesh, Yeduru; Venkatesan, M; Ramakrishna, B; Bangal, Prakriti Ranjan

    2016-09-08

    A comprehensive study of ultrafast molecular relaxation processes of isomeric meso-(pyridyl) porphyrins (TpyPs) has been carried out by using femtosecond time-resolved emission and absorption spectroscopic techniques upon pumping at 400 nm, Soret band (B band or S2), in 4:1 dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent mixture. By combined studies of fluorescence up-conversion, time-correlated single photon counting, and transient absorption spectroscopic techniques, a complete model with different microscopic rate constants associated with elementary processes involved in electronic manifolds has been reported. Besides, a distinct coherent nuclear wave packet motion in Qy state is observed at low-frequency mode, ca. 26 cm(-1) region. Fluorescence up-conversion studies constitute ultrafast time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) over the whole emission range (430-710 nm) starting from S2 state to Qx state via Qy state. Careful analysis of time profiles of up-converted signals at different emission wavelengths helps to reveal detail molecular dynamics. The observed lifetimes are as indicated: A very fast decay component with 80 ± 20 fs observed at ∼435 nm is assigned to the lifetime of S2 (B) state, whereas being a rise component in the region of between 550 and 710 nm emission wavelength pertaining to Qy and Qx states, it is attributed to very fast internal conversion (IC) occurring from B → Qy and B → Qx as well. Two distinct components of Qy emission decay with ∼200-300 fs and ∼1-1.5 ps time constants are due to intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) induced by solute-solvent inelastic collisions and vibrational redistribution induced by solute-solvent elastic collision, respectively. The weighted average of these two decay components is assigned as the characteristic lifetime of Qy, and it ranges between 0.3 and 0.5 ps. An additional ∼20 ± 2 ps rise component is observed in Qx emission, and it is assigned to the formation time of

  14. Study about the capillary absorption and the sorptivity of concretes with Cuban limestone aggregates

    Howland, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the possibility to obtain concretes in Cuba with values of effective porosity below of 10%, using limestone aggregates with high levels of absorption (higher than 1% in many cases, and values of Sorptivity below of 5 x 10-5 m/s1/2 as is established in the document prepared by the DURAR Latin Working Group, for structures exposed to very aggressive environments. The experimental results showed that the use of the trial method of capillary absorption of Göran Fagerlund, were obtained concretes with effective porosity below of the 10%, for water/cement ratios of 0.4 and 0.45, but the values of sorptivities were very high. Nevertheless the subsequent use of the trial method of the ASTM C1585, that use cylinders probes with bigger depth and different processing, permits to obtain the desired sorptivity values for water/cement ratios of 0.4 and 0.45 whenever would be fulfilled the Good Practices of the Construction.El objetivo del estudio fue demostrar la posibilidad de lograr en Cuba, con el empleo de áridos calizos de elevada absorción (mayores del 1% en muchos casos, hormigones con valores de porosidad efectiva inferiores al 10% y de velocidad de absorción capilar (Sorptividad inferiores a 5 x 10-5 m/s1/2, tal como establece el documento elaborado por la RED DURAR del CYTED para estructuras expuestas a ambientes muy agresivos. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que con la aplicación del método de ensayo de absorción capilar de Göran Fagerlund se obtuvieron porosidades efectivas inferiores al 10% para relaciones agua/cemento de 0,4 y 0,45, pero los valores de sorptividad fueron muy elevados. No obstante la aplicación posterior del método de ensayo de la ASTM C1585 que utiliza probetas de mayor espesor y diferente tratamiento, permitió obtener los valores indicados de sorptividad para relaciones agua/cemento de 0,4; 0,45 siempre que se cumplan las Buenas Prácticas constructivas.

  15. A study on the inhibitory mechanism for cholesterol absorption by α-cyclodextrin administration

    Takahiro Furune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micelle formation of cholesterol with lecithin and bile salts is a key process for intestinal absorption of lipids. Some dietary fibers commonly used to reduce the lipid content in the body are thought to inhibit lipid absorption by binding to bile salts and decreasing the lipid solubility. Amongst these, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD is reportedly one of the most powerful dietary fibers for decreasing blood cholesterol. However, it is difficult to believe that α-CD directly removes cholesterol because it has a very low affinity for cholesterol and its mechanism of action is less well understood than those of other dietary fibers. To identify this mechanism, we investigated the interaction of α-CD with lecithin and bile salts, which are essential components for the dissolution of cholesterol in the small intestine, and the effect of α-CD on micellar solubility of cholesterol.Results: α-CD was added to Fed-State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF, and precipitation of a white solid was observed. Analytical data showed that the precipitate was a lecithin and α-CD complex with a molar ratio of 1:4 or 1:5. The micellar solubility of cholesterol in the mixture of FeSSIF and α-CD was investigated, and found to decrease through lecithin precipitation caused by the addition of α-CD, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, each of several other water-soluble dietary fibers was added to the FeSSIF, and no precipitate was generated.Conclusion: This study suggests that α-CD decreases the micellar solubility of cholesterol in the lumen of the small intestine via the precipitation of lecithin from bile salt micelles by complex formation with α-CD. It further indicates that the lecithin precipitation effect on the bile salt micelles by α-CD addition clearly differs from addition of other water-soluble dietary fibers. The decrease in micellar cholesterol solubility in the FeSSIF was the strongest with α-CD addition.

  16. Unimolecular decomposition of formic and acetic acids: A shock tube/laser absorption study

    Elwardany, A.

    2014-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), two carboxylic acids which play an important role in oxygenate combustion chemistry, were investigated behind reflected shock waves using laser absorption. The rate constants of the primary decomposition pathways of these acids:(HCOOH → CO + H2 O (R 1); HCOOH → CO2 + H2 (R 2); CH3 COOH → CH4 + CO2 (R 3); CH3 COOH → CH2 CO + H2 O (R 4)) were measured using simultaneous infrared laser absorption of CO, CO2 and H2O at wavelengths of 4.56, 4.18 and 2.93 microns, respectively. Reaction test conditions covered temperatures from 1230 to 1821 K and pressures from 1.0 to 6.5 atm for dilute mixtures of acids (0.25-0.6%) in argon. The rate constants of dehydration (R1) and decarboxylation (R2) reactions of formic acid were calculated by fitting exponential functions to the measured CO, CO2 and H2O time-history profiles. These two decomposition channels were found to be in the fall-off region and have a branching ratio, k1/k2, of approximately 20 over the range of pressures studied here. The best-fit Arrhenius expressions of the first-order rates of R1 and R2 were found to be:(k1 (1 atm) = 1.03 × 1011 exp (- 25651 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %); k1 (6.5 atm) = 9.12 × 1012 exp (- 30275 / T) s- 1 (± 32 %); k2 (1 atm) = 1.79 × 108 exp (- 21133 / T) s- 1 (± 41 %); k2 (6.5 atm) = 2.73 × 108 exp (- 20074 / T) s- 1 (± 37 %)). The rate constants for acetic acid decomposition were obtained by fitting simulated profiles, using an acetic acid pyrolysis mechanism, to the measured species time-histories. The branching ratio, k4/k3, was found to be approximately 2. The decarboxylation and dehydration reactions of acetic acid appear to be in the falloff region over the tested pressure range:(k3 (1 atm) = 3.18 × 1011 exp (- 28679 / T) s- 1 (± 30 %); k3 (6 atm) = 3.51 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s- 1 (± 26 %); k4 (1 atm) = 7.9 × 1011 exp (- 29056 / T) s- 1 (± 34 %); k4 (6 atm) = 6.34 × 1012 exp (- 31330 / T) s

  17. Activable enriched stable isotope iron-58 for monitoring absorption rate of juvenile athletes for iron: a case study.

    Qian, Qinfang; Chai, Zhifang; Feng, Weiyu; Chen, Jidi; Zhang, Peiqun; Pan, Jianxiang

    2002-09-01

    Activable enriched stable isotopes can play a unique role in studies of nutritional status, metabolism, absorption rates, and bioavailability of minerals. As a practical example, eight juvenile athletes were selected to test the absorption rates of iron during training and non-training periods by enriched stable isotope of Fe-58 (enriched degree: 51.1%) via activation analysis Fe-58 (n, gamma) Fe-59 of the collected feces samples. The results indicated that the average iron absorption rates of the juvenile athletes with and without training are 9.1 +/- 2.8 and 11.9 +/- 4.7%, respectively, which implies that the long-term endurance training with high intensity makes the iron absorption rate of athletes lower. In the meantime, the comparison of the activable enriched isotope technique with atomic absorption spectrometry was performed, which showed that the former was better than the latter in reliability and sensitivity. It is because this nuclear method can distinguish the exogenous and endogenous iron in the samples, but not for non-nuclear methods.

  18. Spectral studies of ocean water with space-borne sensor SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS

    M. Vountas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods enabling the retrieval of oceanic parameter from the space borne instrumentation Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS are presented. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT measures back scattered solar radiation at a spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm. The DOAS method was used for the first time to fit modelled Vibrational Raman Scattering (VRS in liquid water and in situ measured phytoplankton absorption reference spectra to optical depths measured by SCIAMACHY. Spectral structures of VRS and phytoplankton absorption were clearly found in these optical depths. Both fitting approaches lead to consistent results. DOAS fits correlate with estimates of chlorophyll concentrations: low fit factors for VRS retrievals correspond to large chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa; large fit factors for phytoplankton absorption correspond with high chlorophyll concentrations and vice versa. From these results a simple retrieval technique taking advantage of both measurements is shown. First maps of global chlorophyll concentrations were compared to the corresponding MODIS measurements with very promising results. In addition, results from this study will be used to improve atmospheric trace gas DOAS-retrievals from visible wavelengths by including these oceanographic signatures.

  19. Effect of low zinc intake on absorption and excretion of zinc by infants studied with 70Zn as extrinsic tag.

    Ziegler, E E; Serfass, R E; Nelson, S E; Figueroa-Colón, R; Edwards, B B; Houk, R S; Thompson, J J

    1989-11-01

    The effect of low dietary intake of zinc was studied in six normal infants with the use of 70Zn as an extrinsic tag. Of the two study formulas, one provided a zinc intake similar to that of customary infant formulas ("high" intake), whereas the other provided a "low" zinc intake. Two zinc absorption studies were performed with each formula (sequence: high-low-low-high). Extrinsically labeled formula was fed for 24 h and excreta were collected for 72 h. Zinc isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). When zinc intake was high, net zinc absorption was 9.1 +/- 8.7% (mean +/- SD) of intake and net zinc retention was 74 +/- 91 micrograms/(kg.d). True zinc (70Zn) absorption was 16.8 +/- 5.8% of intake and fecal excretion of endogenous zinc was 78 +/- 56 micrograms/(kg.d). When zinc intake was low, net absorption of zinc increased significantly (P less than 0.001) to 26.0 +/- 13.0% of intake, but net retention was not significantly different at 42 +/- 33 micrograms/(kg.d). True absorption of zinc also increased significantly (P less than 0.001) to 41.1 +/- 7.8% of intake, whereas fecal endogenous zinc decreased (P less than 0.05) to 34 +/- 16 micrograms/(kg.d) during low zinc intake. Thus, infants maintain zinc balance in the face of low zinc intake through increased efficiency of absorption and decreased excretion of endogenous zinc.

  20. Micellar-mediated extractive spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen sulfide/sulfide through Prussian Blue reaction: application to environmental samples.

    Pandurangappa, Malingappa; Samrat, Devaramani

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive surfactant-mediated extractive spectrophotometric method has been developed, based on the reaction of ferric iron with sulfide to form ferrous iron and its subsequent reaction with ferricyanide to form Prussian Blue, to quantify trace levels of hydrogen sulfide/sulfide in environmental samples. The method obeys Beer's law in the concentration range 2-10 microg of sulfide in 25 mL of aqueous phase with molar absorptivity (epsilon) of 3.92 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1). The colored species has been extracted into isoamyl acetate in the presence of a cationic surfactant i.e. cetylpyridinium chloride, to enhance the sensitivity of the method with epsilon value 5.2 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1). The relative standard deviation has been found to be 0.69% for 10 determinations at 4 microg of sulfide and the limit of detection was 0.009 microg mL(-1). The interference from common anions and cations has been studied. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of residual hydrogen sulfide in the laboratory fume hood as well as ambient atmospheric hydrogen sulfide in the vicinity of open sewer lines after fixing the analyte in ionic form using suitable trapping medium.

  1. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  2. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

    Matthew Arhewoh; Augustine O. Okhamafe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK) and Hunteria umbellata (HU) were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected t...

  3. Intranasal absorption of rizatriptan--in vivo pharmacokinetics and bioavailability study in humans.

    Chen, J; Jiang, X G; Jiang, W M; Gao, X L; Mei, N

    2005-01-01

    Rizatriptan nasal spray was developed to achieve fast a high effectiveness and to overcome limitations associated with oral formulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a rizatriptan nasal spray compared with an oral formulation in a two treatments, two periods, randomized crossover design. At each phase, each subject received 5 mg rizatriptan as a nasal spray or an oral tablet. Plasma concentrations of rizatriptan were determined by HPLC. Rizatriptan was absorbed more rapidly following nasal spray with detectable plasma concentrations 5 min after dosing. There was no statistically significant difference for AUC or Cmax values between the nasal spray and the oral tablet. The relative bioavailability of nasal formulation to oral formulation was 96%+/-16%. All the formulations were well tolerated and adverse events were generally of short duration and of mild intensity. Thus, rizatriptan nasal spray offers more rapidly absorption compared to the oral route, which may be particularly beneficial to those patients who have gastrointestinal disturbances during their migraine attack or who have difficulty in swallowing a tablet.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study on the thermal and hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide

    Liang, Xianqing, E-mail: lxq@gxu.edu.cn [The Colleague of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wang, Yu [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China); Zheng, Huiyuan [The Colleague of Physics Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • XAS study of GO and reduced GO was performed. • Detailed evolution of the electronic structures and chemical bonding of GO was revealed. • A new efficient route for the reduction of GO is proposed. - Abstract: X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was applied to systemically investigate the deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) via annealing and hydrazine treatment. Detailed evolution of the electronic structures and chemical bonding of GO was presented. The enhanced intensity of π{sup *} resonance and the appearance of splitting σ{sup *} resonance in C K-edge XAS spectra suggest high extents of recoveries of π-conjugation upon reduction using thermal annealing or hydrazine. Experimental results revealed that the carboxyl as well as epoxide and hydroxyl groups on the surface of GO were thermally reduced first, followed by the more difficult removal of carbonyl and cyclic ether groups at higher temperatures. The hydrazine reduction could remove epoxide, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups effectively, whereas the carbonyl groups were partially reduced with the incorporation of nitrogen species simultaneously. The residual oxygen functional groups on hydrazine-reduced GO could be further removed after modest thermal annealing. It was proposed that a combination of both types of reductions would give the best deoxygenation efficiency for the production of graphene.

  5. The Advantage of Increased Resolution in the Study of Quasar Absorption Systems

    Narayanan, A; Charlton, J C; Ganguly, R; Narayanan, Anand; Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Ganguly, Rajib

    2006-01-01

    We compare a new R = 120,000 spectrum of PG1634+706 (z_QSO = 1.337,m_V = 14.9) obtained with the HDS instrument on Subaru to a R = 45, 000 spectrum obtained previously with HIRES/Keck. In the strong MgII system at z = 0.9902 and the multiple cloud, weak MgII system at z = 1.0414, we find that at the higher resolution, additional components are resolved in a blended profile. We find that two single-cloud weak MgII absorbers were already resolved at R = 45,000, to have b = 2 - 4 km/s. The narrowest line that we measure in the R = 120, 000 spectrum is a component of the Galactic NaI absorption, with b = 0.90+/-0.20 km/s. We discuss expectations of similarly narrow lines in various applications, including studies of DLAs, the MgI phases of strong MgII absorbers, and high velocity clouds. By applying Voigt profile fitting to synthetic lines, we compare the consistency with which line profile parameters can be accurately recovered at R = 45,000 and R = 120,000. We estimate the improvement gained from superhigh reso...

  6. Photoacoustic study of percutaneous absorption of Carbopol and transdermic gels for topic use in skin

    Rossi, R. C. P.; de Paiva, R. F.; da Silva, M. D.; Barja, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Topical medicine application has been used to treat a good number of pathological processes. Its efficacy is associated to an efficient penetration of the drug in the internal skin layers, promoting systemic effects and excluding the possibility of drug degradation by the digestive tract and hepatic elimination. This work analyzes the penetration kinetics of two soluble bases employed as vehicles for topic application: superficial gel (Carbopol 940) and transdermic (transdermal) gel. Analysis was performed with the photoacoustic technique, based upon the absorption of modulated light by a sample with subsequent conversion of the absorbed energy in heat, generating acoustic waves in the air layer adjacent to the sample. Each of the two vehicles was evaluated through in vivo (human skin) and in vitro application. Measurements in vitro employed samples of VitroSkin (synthetic material with properties similar to those of real skin, employed in the pharmaceutical industry research). Results show that the permeation was faster for the transdermal gel, both for in vivo and in vitro measurements, indicating that in vitro measurements may be utilized in qualitative, comparative permeation studies.

  7. Semi-batch absorption and regeneration studies for CO{sub 2} capture by aqueous ammonia

    Yeh, James T.; Resnik, Kevin P.; Rygle, Kathy; Pennline, Henry W. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O.Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Carbon dioxide transfer capacities of aqueous ammonia solution and monoethanolamine (MEA) solution were compared. The ammonia process for CO{sub 2} capture was simulated using a semibatch reactor, where the flow of gas is continuous. The CO{sub 2} carrying capacity in g CO{sub 2} per g of NH{sub 3} solution (8 wt.%) circulated is 0.07 as compared with 0.036 g CO{sub 2} per g MEA solution (20 wt.%). The energy requirement for liquid mass circulation of ammonia solution is approximately 50% of MEA solution for equal weight of CO{sub 2} carried. In another comparison, the thermal energy required to regenerate CO{sub 2} from the rich solution is substantially less as compared to the MEA process. A 3-cycle absorption-regeneration test was conducted in the semibatch reactor to simulate an approach-to-steady state in a flow system. pH values of the absorbent solution was found to oscillate between 9.6 (CO{sub 2}-lean) and 8.8 (CO{sub 2}-rich) under the test conditions. Thermodynamics study shows that ammonium bicarbonate required the least thermal energy among the ammonium compounds for CO{sub 2} regeneration. (author)

  8. Semiempirical MNDO and UV Absorption Studies on Tautomerism of 2-Quinolones

    Mirek, Julian; Syguła, Andrzej

    1982-11-01

    Semiempirical MNDO calculations with geometry optimization were carried out for seven 4-X-2-quinolone tautomers (X = H, CH3, Cl, OCH3, N(CH3)2, COOH, COOCH3). The results show that 2-hydroxyquinolines are less stabilized compared to 2-quinoIones than 2-hydroxypyridines vs. 2-pyridones. The earlier estimated correction applied to these MNDO results suggests that 4-X-2-quinolones have lower chemical binding energies than the corresponding 4-X-2- hydroxyquinolines by ca. 2.1-3.3 kcal/mol. It is additionally shown that the substituent in position 4 does not influence significantly the relative stabilities of the tautomers. The results of the calculations are verified by UV absorption studies of diluted decane solutions of 2-quinolones at ca. 120°. CNDO/S-Cl-1 calculations based on the optimal MNDO geometries were carried out for 4-X-2- quinolone tautomers. The results generally agree well with the experimental data. A disagreement of the data for 4-COOR-2-quinolones is rationalized.

  9. [Atomic absorption spectrophotometry study of copper ion release by copper-bearing intrauterine devices].

    Berthou, J; Chrétien, F C; Driguez, P A

    1998-11-01

    Copper release from copper-bearing IUD's was studied in vitro and in vivo using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in deionized water, normal saline solution and normal ovulatory cervical mucus. In these media, copper release from a 375 mm2 DIU occurs without latency, showing comparable amounts for identical time intervals. Daily copper release was shown to be respectively 8 and 11 times higher in cervical mucus and normal saline solution than in deionized water. Although copper ions are detectable in ovulatory cervical mucus under physiological conditions, the copper content appears 5 to 6 times higher in women bearing a copper IUD. Obviously, the copper amount is dependent on the copper exposed surface: the daily in vitro release from a 250 mm2 IUD is 18% inferior to that observed from a 375 mm2 model. In vivo, the daily copper release in ovulatory mucus of 380 or 200 mm2 IUD users is respectively 5 and 3.5 times higher than in controls.

  10. Study of Water Absorption in Raffia vinifera Fibres from Bandjoun, Cameroon

    N. R. Sikame Tagne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on the water diffusion phenomenon through the Raffia vinifera fibre from the stem. The knowledge on the behavior of those fibres in presence of liquid during the realization of biocomposite, is necessary. The parameters like percentage of water gain at the point of saturation, modelling of the kinetic of water absorption, and the effective diffusion coefficient were the main objectives. Along a stem of raffia, twelve zones of sampling were defined. From Fick’s 2nd law of diffusion, a new model was proposed and evaluated compared to four other models at a constant temperature of 23°C. From the proposed model, the effective diffusion coefficient was deduced. The percentage of water gain was in the range of 303–662%. The proposed model fitted better to the experimental data. The estimated diffusion coefficient was evaluated during the initial phase and at the final phase. In any cross section located along the stem of Raffia vinifera, it was found that the effective diffusion coefficient increases from the periphery to the centre during the initial and final phases.

  11. Constraints on Hydrodynamical Subgrid Models from Quasar Absorption Line Studies of the Simulated Circumgalactic Medium

    Hummels, Cameron; Smith, Britton; Turk, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy evolution are increasingly able to produce realistic galaxies, but the largest hurdle remaining is in constructing subgrid models that accurately describe the behavior of stellar feedback. As an alternate way to test and calibrate such models, we propose to focus on the circumgalactic medium. To do so, we generate a suite of adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) simulations for a Milky-Way-massed galaxy run to z=0, systematically varying the feedback implementation. We then post-process the simulation data to compute the absorbing column density for a wide range of common atomic absorbers throughout the galactic halo, including H I, Mg II, Si II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, N V, O VI, and O VII. The radial profiles of these atomic column densities are compared against several quasar absorption line studies, to determine if one feedback prescription is favored. We find that although our models match some of the observations (specifically those ions with lower ionization stre...

  12. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Optical Absorption Studies on Copper Ions in Mixed Alkali Cadmium Phosphate Glasses

    G.Giridhar; M.Rangacharyulu; R.V.S.S.N.Ravikumar; P.Sambasiva Rao

    2009-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies were carried out at room temperature on copper doped mixed alkali cadmium phosphate (LiNaCdP) glasses to understand the nature and symmetry of dopant. Three samples with varying concentrations of alkali ions have been prepared. The spin Hamiltonian parameters obtained from room temperature EPR spectra are: g||=2.437, g⊥=2.096, A||=117×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=26×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP1, g||=2.441, g⊥=2.088, A||=121×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=25×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP2 and g||=2.433, g⊥=2.096, A||=125×10-4 cm-1, A⊥=32×10-4 cm-1 for LiNaCdP3. These EPR results indicate that the dopant Cu2+ ion enters the glass matrix into a tetragonally elongated octahedral site. The bonding parameters evaluated by correlating optical and EPR data suggest that bonding between the central metal ion and ligands is partially covalent. The mixed alkali effect in cadmium phosphate glasses was reported.

  13. First in-flight synchrotron X-ray absorption and photoemission study of carbon soot nanoparticles

    Ouf, F.-X.; Parent, P.; Laffon, C.; Marhaba, I.; Ferry, D.; Marcillaud, B.; Antonsson, E.; Benkoula, S.; Liu, X.-J.; Nicolas, C.; Robert, E.; Patanen, M.; Barreda, F.-A.; Sublemontier, O.; Coppalle, A.; Yon, J.; Miserque, F.; Mostefaoui, T.; Regier, T. Z.; Mitchell, J.-B. A.; Miron, C.

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the environmental impacts of combustion generated aerosols. Due to their complex composition and morphology, their chemical reactivity is not well understood and new developments of analysis methods are needed. We report the first demonstration of in-flight X-ray based characterizations of freshly emitted soot particles, which is of paramount importance for understanding the role of one of the main anthropogenic particulate contributors to global climate change. Soot particles, produced by a burner for several air-to-fuel ratios, were injected through an aerodynamic lens, focusing them to a region where they interacted with synchrotron radiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and carbon K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy were performed and compared to those obtained for supported samples. A good agreement is found between these samples, although slight oxidation is observed for supported samples. Our experiments demonstrate that NEXAFS characterization of supported samples provides relevant information on soot composition, with limited effects of contamination or ageing under ambient storage conditions. The highly surface sensitive XPS experiments of airborne soot indicate that the oxidation is different at the surface as compared to the bulk probed by NEXAFS. We also report changes in soot’s work function obtained at different combustion conditions.

  14. Study of electronic structures and absorption bands of BaMgF4 crystal with F colour centre

    Kang Ling-Ling; Liu Ting-Yu; Zhang Qi-Ren; Xu Ling-Zhi; Zhang Fei-Wu

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structures of BaMgF4 crystals containing an F colour centre are studied within the framework of the fully relativistic self-consistent Direc-Slate-theory, using a numerically discrete variational (DV-Xα)method. It is concluded from the calculated results that the energy levels of the F colour centre are located in the forbidden band.The optical transition energy from the ground state to the excited state for the F colour centre is about 5.12 eV, which corresponds to the 242-nm absorption band. These calculated results can explain the origin of the absorption bands.

  15. Theoretical Studies on the Third-order Nonlinear Optical Properties and Two-photon Absorption of Stilbene Derivatives

    REN, Ai-Min(任爱民); FENG, Ji-Kang(封继康); LIU, Xiao-Juan(刘孝娟)

    2004-01-01

    Different types of stilbene derivatives (D-π-D, A-π-A, D-π-A) were investigated with AM1, and specially, equilibrium geometries of symmetrical stilbene derivatives (D-π-D) were studied using of PM3. With the same method INDO/CI, the UV-vis spectra were explored and the position and strength of the two-photon absorption were predicated by Sum-Over-States expression. The relationships of the structures, spectra and nonlinear optical properties have been examined. The influence of various substituents on two photon absorption cross-sections was discussed micromechanically.

  16. Shapes of the $^{192,190}$Pb ground states from beta decay studies using the total absorption technique

    Estevez Aguado, M.E.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Jordan, D.; Fraile, L.M.; Gelletly, W.; Frank, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Dombradi, Zs.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Nacher, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Tengblad, O.; Molina, F.; Moreno, O.; Kowalska, M.; Fedosseev, V.N.; Marsh, B.A.; Fedorov, D.V.; Molkanov, P.L.; Andreyev, A.N.; Seliverstov, M.D.; Burkard, K.; Huller, W.

    2015-01-01

    The beta decay of $^{192,190}$Pb has been studied using the total absorption technique at the ISOLDE(CERN) facility. The beta-decay strength deduced from the measurements, combined with QRPA theoretical calculations, allow us to infer that the ground states of the $^{192,190}$Pb isotopes are spherical. These results represent the first application of the shape determination method using the total absorption technique for heavy nuclei and in a region where there is considerable interest in nuclear shapes and shape effects.

  17. Bimetallic Catalysts and Platinum Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    Roenning, Magnus

    2000-07-01

    Bimetallic catalyst systems used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Co-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and in the naphtha reforming process (Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Additionally, the adsorption of ethene on platinum single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy. In situ EXAFS at the cobalt K absorption edge have been carried out at 450{sup o}C on the hydrogen reduction of a rhenium-promoted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Reductions carried out using 100% hydrogen and 5% hydrogen in helium gave different results. Whereas the reduction using dilute hydrogen leads to bulk-like metallic cobalt particles (hcp or fcc), reaction with pure hydrogen yields a more dispersed system with smaller cobalt metal particles (< 40 A). The results are rationalised in terms of different degrees of reoxidation of cobalt by the higher and lower concentrations of water generated during the reduction of cobalt oxide by 100% and 5% hydrogen, respectively. Additionally, in both reduction protocols a small fraction (3 -4 wt%) of the cobalt content is randomly dispersed over the tetrahedral vacancies of the alumina support. This dispersion occurs during reduction and not calcination. The cobalt in these sites cannot be reduced at 450 {sup o}C. The local environments about the rhenium atoms in Co-Re/{gamma}-A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after different reduction periods have been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A bimetallic catalyst containing 4.6 wt% cobalt and 2 wt% rhenium has been compared with a corresponding monometallic sample with 2 wt% rhenium on the same support. The rhenium L{sub III} EXAFS analysis shows that bimetallic particles are formed after reduction at 450{sup o}C with the average particle size being 10-15 A. Rhenium is shown to be reduced at a later stage than cobalt. The fraction of cobalt atoms entering the support obstructs the access to the support for the

  18. Bimetallic Catalysts and Platinum Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    Roenning, Magnus

    2000-07-01

    Bimetallic catalyst systems used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Co-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and in the naphtha reforming process (Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Additionally, the adsorption of ethene on platinum single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy. In situ EXAFS at the cobalt K absorption edge have been carried out at 450{sup o}C on the hydrogen reduction of a rhenium-promoted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Reductions carried out using 100% hydrogen and 5% hydrogen in helium gave different results. Whereas the reduction using dilute hydrogen leads to bulk-like metallic cobalt particles (hcp or fcc), reaction with pure hydrogen yields a more dispersed system with smaller cobalt metal particles (< 40 A). The results are rationalised in terms of different degrees of reoxidation of cobalt by the higher and lower concentrations of water generated during the reduction of cobalt oxide by 100% and 5% hydrogen, respectively. Additionally, in both reduction protocols a small fraction (3 -4 wt%) of the cobalt content is randomly dispersed over the tetrahedral vacancies of the alumina support. This dispersion occurs during reduction and not calcination. The cobalt in these sites cannot be reduced at 450 {sup o}C. The local environments about the rhenium atoms in Co-Re/{gamma}-A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after different reduction periods have been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A bimetallic catalyst containing 4.6 wt% cobalt and 2 wt% rhenium has been compared with a corresponding monometallic sample with 2 wt% rhenium on the same support. The rhenium L{sub III} EXAFS analysis shows that bimetallic particles are formed after reduction at 450{sup o}C with the average particle size being 10-15 A. Rhenium is shown to be reduced at a later stage than cobalt. The fraction of cobalt atoms entering the support obstructs the access to the support for the

  19. Spectrophotometric study of interaction of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone with diaza-18-crown-6 and diaza-15-crown-5 in acetonitrile and chloroform solutions

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2005-03-01

    Interactions of diaza-18-crown-6 and diaza-15-crown-5, as electron donors, with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), as an electron acceptor, have been investigated spectrophotometrically in acetonitrile and chloroform solutions. The results indicated immediate formation of an electron donor-electron acceptor complex DA: D+A ⇌fastKDA which is followed by two relatively slow consecutive reactions: DA⟶kDA⟶kProduct The pseudo-first-order rate constants for the formation of the ionic intermediate and the final product have been evaluated at various temperatures by computer fitting of the absorbance time data to appropriate equations. The formation constants of the resulting DA complexes have also been determined. The influences of both the azacrown's structure and the solvent properties on the formation of DA complexes and the rates of subsequent reactions are discussed.

  20. Catalytic and kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of vanadium(V by 2,3,4-trihydroxyacetophenonephenylhydrazone

    P.V. Chalapathi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new catalytic and kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of vanadium(V was studied using 2,3,4-trihydroxyacetophenonephenylhydrazone (THAPPH as an analytical reagent. The present method was developed on the catalytic effect of vanadium on oxidation of THAPPH by hydrogen peroxide in hydrochloric acid–potassium chloride buffer (pH = 2.8 at the 20th minute. The metal ion has formed 1:2 (M:L complex with THAPPH. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range 20–120 ng/mL of V(V at λmax 390 nm. The sensitivity of the method was calculated in terms of molar absorptivity (1.999 × 105 L mol−1cm−1 and Sandell’s sensitivity (0.000254 μg cm−2, shows that this method is more sensitive. The standard deviation (0.0022, relative standard deviation (0.56%, confidence limit (±0.0015 and standard error (0.0007 revealed that the developed method has more precision and accuracy. The stability constant was calculated with the help of Asmu’s (9.411 × 10−11 and Edmond’s & Birnbaum’s (9.504 × 10−11 methods at room temperature. The interfering effect of various cations and anions was also studied. The present method was successfully applied for the determination of vanadium(V in environmental and alloy samples. The method’s validity was checked by comparing the results obtained with atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and also by evaluation of results using F-test.

  1. The use of reconstructed human epidermis for skin absorption testing: Results of the validation study.

    Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Bock, Udo; Diembeck, Walter; Düsing, Hans-Jürgen; Gamer, Armin; Haltner-Ukomadu, Eleonore; Hoffmann, Christine; Kaca, Monika; Kamp, Hennicke; Kersen, Silke; Kietzmann, Manfred; Korting, Hans Christian; Krächter, Hans-Udo; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Liebsch, Manfred; Mehling, Annette; Müller-Goymann, Christel; Netzlaff, Frank; Niedorf, Frank; Rübbelke, Maria K; Schäfer, Ulrich; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Schreiber, Sylvia; Spielmann, Horst; Vuia, Alexander; Weimer, Michaela

    2008-05-01

    A formal validation study was performed, in order to investigate whether the commercially-available reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are suitable for in vitro skin absorption testing. The skin types currently recommended in the OECD Test Guideline 428, namely, ex vivo human epidermis and pig skin, were used as references. Based on the promising outcome of the prevalidation study, the panel of test substances was enlarged to nine substances, covering a wider spectrum of physicochemical properties. The substances were tested under both infinite-dose and finite-dose conditions, in ten laboratories, under strictly controlled conditions. The data were subjected to independent statistical analyses. Intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variability contributed almost equally to the total variability, which was in the same range as that in preceding studies. In general, permeation of the RHE models exceeded that of human epidermis and pig skin (the SkinEthic RHE was found to be the most permeable), yet the ranking of substance permeation through the three tested RHE models and the pig skin reflected the permeation through human epidermis. In addition, both infinite-dose and finite-dose experiments are feasible with RHE models. The RHE models did not show the expected significantly better reproducibility, as compared to excised skin, despite a tendency toward lower variability of the data. Importantly, however, the permeation data showed a sufficient correlation between all the preparations examined. Thus, the RHE models, EPISKIN, EpiDerm and SkinEthic, are appropriate alternatives to human and pig skin, for the in vitro assessment of the permeation and penetration of substances when applied as aqueous solutions.

  2. A general enhancement factor model for absorption and desorption systems: A CO2 capture case-study

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    This study derives a general method (GM) for reactive absorption and desorption calculation. It connects the Onda's approximation for reversible reactions with the van Krevelen's approach for instantaneous irreversible reactions. It is set-up for a reversible (m+n)-th order, forward reaction...

  3. A surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure study of tellurium adsorbed onto Si(100)

    Burgess, S. R.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Wilks, S. P.; Dunstan, P. R.; Dunscombe, C. J.; Williams, R. H.

    1996-09-01

    The adsorption of tellurium on Si(100) has been studied using surface extended X-ray adsorption fine structure (SEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW). This particular system is of interest due to its potential applicability in the surfactant aided growth of CdHgTeCdTeSi(100) based infra-red detectors. The Te/Si(100) structure was generated by depositing a thick layer (˜ 100 Å) of CdTe onto a clean Si (2 × 1) double domain surface, and annealing the sample to 350°C. This resulted is a ˜ 1 ML Te terminated surface where the (2 × 1) reconstruction was lost in favour of a (1 × 1) symmetry. X-ray absorption of the Te L 3 edge ( E = 4341 eV), with a photon energy range of 4440-4700 eV, was probed using a total yield detection scheme. The SEXAFS results indicated that the Te atoms sat in 2-fold bridge sites directly above a fourth layer Si atom. The corresponding bond length was measured to be 2.52 ± 0.05 Å. The XSW measurements of the (400) reflection gave a coherent position of 1.63 ± 0.03 Å and a coherent fraction of 0.65. This is consistent with the breaking of the SiSi dimers and thus could be an example of the phenomena of adsorbate-induced dereconstruction of the surface. These results are compared with those of Bennet et al. who examined a similar system using soft X-ray photoemission (SXPS) and the STM study of Yoshikawa et al.

  4. On Absorption by Circumstellar Dust, With the Progenitor of SN2012aw as a Case Study

    Kochanek, C S; Dai, X

    2012-01-01

    We use the progenitor of SN2012aw to illustrate the consequences of modeling circumstellar dust using Galactic (interstellar) extinction laws that (1) ignore dust emission in the near-IR and beyond; (2) average over dust compositions, and (3) mis-characterize the optical/UV absorption by assuming that scattered photons are lost to the observer. The primary consequences for the progenitor of SN2012aw are that both the luminosity and the absorption are significantly over-estimated. In particular, the stellar luminosity is most likely in the range 10^4.8 0.3 micron) and total (absorption plus scattering) V-band optical depth (tau < 20). These do not include the contributions of dust emission, but provide a simple, physical alternative to incorrectly using interstellar extinction laws.

  5. Infrared absorption spectroscopic study of Nd3+ substituted Zn–Mg ferrites

    B P Ladgaonkar; C B Kolekar; A S Vaingankar

    2002-08-01

    Compositions of polycrystalline ZnMg1-Fe2–NdO4 ( = 0.00, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80 and 1.00; = 0.00, 0.05 and 0.10) ferrites were prepared by standard ceramic method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Far infrared absorption spectra show two significant absorption bands, first at about 600 cm–1 and second at about 425 cm–1 , which were respectively attributed to tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites of the spinel. The positions of bands are found to be composition dependent. The force constants, $K_T$ and $K_O$, were calculated and plotted against zinc concentration. Compositional dependence of force constants is explained on the basis of cation–oxygen bond distances of respective sites and cation distribution.

  6. Study on Sound Absorption Properties of Coconut Coir Fibre Reinforced Composite with Added Recycled Rubber

    S. Mahzan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound pollutions have become worsen and creating concerns for many peoples. Conventionally, expensive sound absorption materials are employed to control noise disturbances. However, recent developments on natural fibres have created interest for researchers especially for acoustics application purposes. This paper investigates the viability of coconut coir added with recycled rubber to be implemented as sound absorption panel. The composite is constructed at prescribed percentages of fillers and polyurethane as resin. The two-microphone method was applied to obtain the acoustic properties of the samples. The samples were also tested for physical properties such as density and porosity, as well as the microstructures. The results demonstrate good acoustics performances and highlight the potential of the coconut coir reinforced with recycled rubber as the sound absorption panel.

  7. STUDY ON EVOLUTION REGULARITIES AND ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SULFIDE DURING BITUMINOUS BRIQUETTE HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION

    路春美; 王永征

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution regularity and the absorption characters of sulfide for bituminous briquette burned in a horizontal burning furnace. The evolution rate of sulphur is affected by some factors, such as the sulphur content in the burning coal, burning time and the meane excess air coefficient in the furnace. With processing the experimental result, the calculation related expression has been obtained to predict the evolution rate of sulfide. The sulphur absorption efficiency of briquette is affected by the factors such as the character of the sulphur sorbent, the type of the coal and the operating parameters. "By means of appropriately adjusting the calciumsulphur mole ratio, the mean excess air coefficient and the time-interval between pushing two layer briquettes, a high sulphur absorption efficiency (>74%) can be obtained.

  8. Analysis of Intra- and Intersubject Variability in Oral Drug Absorption in Human Bioequivalence Studies of 113 Generic Products.

    Sugihara, Masahisa; Takeuchi, Susumu; Sugita, Masaru; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji

    2015-12-07

    In this study, the data of 113 human bioequivalence (BE) studies of immediate release (IR) formulations of 74 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) conducted at Sawai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., was analyzed to understand the factors affecting intra- and intersubject variabilities in oral drug absorption. The ANOVA CV (%) calculated from area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) in each BE study was used as an index of intrasubject variability (Vintra), and the relative standard deviation (%) in AUC was used as that of intersubject variability (Vinter). Although no significant correlation was observed between Vintra and Vinter of all drugs, Vintra of class 3 drugs was found to increase in association with a decrease in drug permeability (P(eff)). Since the absorption of class 3 drugs was rate-limited by the permeability, it was suggested that, for such drugs, the low P(eff) might be a risk factor to cause a large intrasubject variability. To consider the impact of poor water solubility on the variability in BE study, a parameter of P(eff)/Do (Do; dose number) was defined to discriminate the solubility-limited and dissolution-rate-limited absorption of class 2 drugs. It was found that the class 2 drugs with a solubility-limited absorption (P(eff)/Do < 0.149 × 10(-4) cm/s) showed high intrasubject variability. Furthermore, as a reason for high intra- or intersubject variability in AUC for class 1 drugs, effects of drug metabolizing enzymes were investigated. It was demonstrated that intrasubject variability was high for drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 while intersubject variability was high for drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. For CYP3A4 substrate drugs, the Km value showed the significant relation with Vintra, indicating that the affinity to the enzyme can be a parameter to predict the risk of high intrasubject variability. In conclusion, by analyzing the in house data of human BE study, low permeability, solubility-limited absorption, and high affinity to CYP3A4 are

  9. Theoretical Study on Absorption of Magnetically Tunable Terahertz Quantum- Well Photodetectors

    CHEN Yu-Ling; GUO Xu-Guang; CAO Jun-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Because of the Zeeman splitting effect in diluted semiconductor (Zn,Cd,Mn)Se, the absorption spectrum of ZnSe/(Zn,Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells can be adjusted by magnetic field effectively. Within the effective-mass approximation, the conduction electronic structure and the absorption spectrum of ZnSe/(Zn,Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells subjected to in-plane magnetic Gelds are investigated. Our theoretical results show that it is possible to use the ZnSe/(Zn,Cd,Mn)Se quantum well as magnetically tunable terahertz photodetectors.

  10. A Relative Study on Two-photon Absorption Properties of C60 and C70

    ZHOU,Xin(周新); REN,Ai-Min(任爱民); FENG,Ji-Kang(封继康); LIU,Xiao-Juan(刘孝娟)

    2004-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the one- and two-photon absorption properties of C60 and C70 using the ZINDO method. From the results it is suggested that the one-photon absorption spectra are in agreement with the experimental observations. It is found that the maximum TPA cross section of C70 is more than twice that of C60,which is consistent with the experimental results. A notable point is that the TPA process of C60 is different from that of C70 as well as other ordinary conjugated molecules.

  11. Quantum theory and experimental studies of absorption spectra and photoisomerization of azobenzene polymers

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Ramanujam, P.S.; Johansen, P.M.;

    1998-01-01

    The microscopic properties of azobenzene chromophores are important for a correct description of optical storage systems based on photoinduced anisotropy in azobenzene polymers. A quantum model of these properties is presented and verified by comparison to experimental absorption spectra for trans...... and cis isomers of cyano methoxy azobenzene. In addition, the trans --> cis quantum efficiency is measured, and hence the combined experimental and theoretical work allows one to determine the essential molecular properties, including magnitude and anisotropy of the absorption cross section and various...

  12. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A in mice, rabbits and dogs by photometric assay (author's transl)].

    Iguchi, H; Matsushita, Y; Ohmori, K; Hirano, S; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T

    1980-02-01

    An anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was given to mice, rabbits or dogs intravenously to study the pharmacokinetics by photometric assay based on the absorption of anthracycline ring. The drug was rapidly eliminated from the blood in these animals. Drug levels were much higher in the blood cells than in the plasma. Tissue levels in dogs were 50 approximately 100 times higher than the blood levels, which showed the drug was rapidly transferred from the blood to tissues after administration. Higher levels were observed in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes, where the drug was present as aclacinomycin A itself and the glycoside-type metabolites that were biologically active. The active form was also detected in the pancreas, heart, thymus, bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. In the liver and kidneys, biologically inactive aglycone-type metabolites were observed. About 2 approximately 4% of the drug given to rabbits or dogs was recovered in the urine by 72 hours after administration, in which only 10% of the excreted drug was active form in rabbits but about 65% in dogs. The rest was inactive aglycone-type metabolites that were excreted almost in the conjugated form. Biliary excretion also contributed to the total clearance of the drug. Aclacinomycin A was absorbed even by oral administration in rabbits and dogs. Tissue distribution of the drug orally given to dogs was similar to that in intravenous administration, except that higher levels of active form were detected in the gastrointestinal tract and of inactive form in the liver.

  13. Feasibility Study of Multi-Wavelength Differential Absorption LIDAR for CO2 Monitoring

    Chengzhi Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of carbon cycle and accurate climate prediction models, highly accurate and temporal resolution observation of atmospheric CO2 is necessary. Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL remote sensing is a promising technology to detect atmospheric CO2. However, the traditional DIAL system is the dual-wavelength DIAL (DW-DIAL, which has strict requirements for wavelength accuracy and stability. Moreover, for on-line and off-line wavelengths, the system’s optical efficiency and the change of atmospheric parameters are assumed to be the same in the DW-DIAL system. This assumption inevitably produces measurement errors, especially under rapid aerosol changes. In this study, a multi-wavelength DIAL (MW-DIAL is proposed to map atmospheric CO2 concentration. The MW-DIAL conducts inversion with one on-line and multiple off-line wavelengths. Multiple concentrations of CO2 are then obtained through difference processing between the single on-line and each of the off-line wavelengths. In addition, the least square method is adopted to optimize inversion results. Consequently, the inversion concentration of CO2 in the MW-DIAL system is found to be the weighted average of the multiple concentrations. Simulation analysis and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the inversion precision of MW-DIAL. For comparison, traditional DW-DIAL simulations were also conducted. Simulation analysis demonstrated that, given the drifting wavelengths of the laser, the detection accuracy of CO2 when using MW-DIAL is higher than that when using DW-DIAL, especially when the drift is large. A laboratory experiment was also performed to verify the simulation analysis.

  14. Tropospheric aerosol scattering and absorption over Central Europe: a closure study for the dry particle state

    N. Ma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses optical properties of the dry tropospheric aerosol measured at the regional GAW observation site Melpitz in East Germany. For a continuous observation period between 2007 and 2010, we provide representative values of the dry-state scattering coefficient, the hemispheric backscattering coefficient, the absorption coefficient, single scattering albedo, and the Ångström exponent. Besides the direct measurement, the aerosol scattering coefficient was alternatively computed from experimental particle number size distributions using a Mie code. Within pre-defined limits, a closure could be achieved with the direct measurement. The achievement of closure implies that such calculations can be used as a high-level quality control measure for data sets involving multiple instrumentation. All dry optical properties showed significant annual variations, which were attributed to corresponding variations in the regional emission fluxes, the intensity of secondary particle formation, and the mixed layer height. Air mass classification showed that atmospheric stability is a major factor influencing the dry aerosol properties at the GAW station. In the cold season, temperature inversions limit the volume available for atmospheric mixing, so that the aerosol optical properties near the ground proved quite sensitive to the geographical origin of the air mass. In the warm season, when the atmosphere is usually well-mixed during day-time, considerably less variability was observed for the optical properties between different air masses. This work provides, on the basis of quality-checked in-situ measurements, a first step towards a climatological assessment of direct aerosol radiative forcing in the region under study.

  15. Feasibility study of mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using electrospray ionization

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Precise detection of trace amount of molecules, such as the disease biomarkers present in biofluids or explosive residues, requires high sensitivity detection. electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a common and effective technique for sensitive trace molecular detection in small-volume liquid samples. In ESI-MS, nano-liter volume samples are ionized and aerosolized by ESI, and fed into MS for mass analysis. ESI-MS has proven to be a reliable ionization technique for coupling liquid phase separations like liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) with the highly specific resolving power of MS. While CE and ESI can be performed on a microfluidic chip having a footprint of a few cm2, MS is typically at least 100 times bigger in size than a micro-chip. A reduced size, weight, and power profile would enable semi-portable applications in forensics, environmental monitoring, defense, and biological/pharmaceutical applications. To achieve this goal, we present an initial study evaluating the use of mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIRAS) in place of MS to create a ESI-MIRAS system. To establish feasibility, we perform ESI-MIRAS on phospholipid samples, which have been previously demonstrated to be separable by CE. Phospholipids are biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases and can be found in biofluids such as blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. To establish sensitivity limits, calibration samples of 100 μM concentration are electrospray deposited on to a grounded Si wafer for different times (1 minutes to 4 minutes with a 1 minute step). The minimum detectable concentration-time product, where a FTIR globar is used as the MIR source, is found 200 μM·s.

  16. Synchrotron soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of carbon and silicon nanostructures for energy applications.

    Zhong, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-12-10

    Carbon and silicon materials are two of the most important materials involved in the history of the science and technology development. In the last two decades, C and Si nanoscale materials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and silicon nanowires, and quantum dots, have also emerged as the most interesting nanomaterials in nanoscience and nanotechnology for their myriad promising applications such as for electronics, sensors, biotechnology, etc. In particular, carbon and silicon nanostructures are being utilized in energy-related applications such as catalysis, batteries, solar cells, etc., with significant advances. Understanding of the nature of surface and electronic structures of nanostructures plays a key role in the development and improvement of energy conversion and storage nanosystems. Synchrotron soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and related techniques, such as X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), show unique capability in revealing the surface and electronic structures of C and Si nanomaterials. In this review, XAS is demonstrated as a powerful technique for probing chemical bonding, the electronic structure, and the surface chemistry of carbon and silicon nanomaterials, which can greatly enhance the fundamental understanding and also applicability of these nanomaterials in energy applications. The focus is on the unique advantages of XAS as a complementary tool to conventional microscopy and spectroscopy for effectively providing chemical and structural information about carbon and silicon nanostructures. The employment of XAS for in situ, real-time study of property evolution of C and Si nanostructures to elucidate the mechanisms in energy conversion or storage processes is also discussed.

  17. Comparative characterisation study of a LaBr$_3$(Ce scintillation crystal in two surface wrapping scenarios: absorptive and reflective

    Saad eAldawood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a 50$times$50$times$30 mm$^3$ monolithic LaBr$_3$:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (PMT, Hamamatsu H9500, representing the absorbing detector of a Compton camera under study for online ion (proton beam range verification in hadron-therapy, was evaluated in combination with either absorptive and reflective crystal surface coating. This study covered an assessment of the energy and position dependent energy resolution, exhibiting a factor of 2.5-3.5 improvement for the reflectively wrapped crystal at 662 keV. The spatial dependency was investigated using a collimated $^{137}$Cs source, showing a steep degradation of the energy resolution at the edges and corners of the absorptively wrapped crystal. Furthermore, the time resolution was determined to be 273 ps (FWHM and 536 ps (FWHM with reflective and absorptive coating, respectively, using a $^{60}$Co source. In contrast, the light spread function (LSF of the light amplitude distribution on the PMT segments improved for the absorptively wrapped detector. Both wrapping modalities showed almost no differences in the energy-dependent photopeak detection efficiency.

  18. Comparative Characterization Study of a LaBr3(Ce) Scintillation Crystal in Two Surface Wrapping Scenarios: Absorptive and Reflective

    Aldawood, Saad; Castelhano, Ines; Gernhäuser, Roman; Van Der Kolff, Hugh; Lang, Christian; Liprandi, Silvia; Lutter, Rudolf; Maier, Ludwig; Marinšek, Tim; Schaart, Dennis R.; Parodi, Katia; Thirolf, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of a 50 mm × 50 mm × 30 mm monolithic LaBr3:Ce scintillator crystal coupled to a position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier (PMT, Hamamatsu H9500), representing the absorbing detector of a Compton camera under study for online ion (proton) beam range verification in hadron therapy, was evaluated in combination with either absorptive or reflective crystal surface coating. This study covered an assessment of the energy and position-dependent energy resolution, exhibiting a factor of 2.5–3.5 improvement for the reflectively wrapped crystal at 662 keV. The spatial dependency was investigated using a collimated 137Cs source, showing a steep degradation of the energy resolution at the edges and corners of the absorptively wrapped crystal. Furthermore, the time resolution was determined to be 273 ps (FWHM) and 536 ps (FWHM) with reflective and absorptive coating, respectively, using a 60Co source. In contrast, the light spread function (LSF) of the light amplitude distribution on the PMT segments improved for the absorptively wrapped detector. Both wrapping modalities showed almost no differences in the energy-dependent photopeak detection efficiency. PMID:26697405

  19. OPTIMIZING CONDITIONS FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS IN WINES USING FOLIN-CIOCALTEU REAGENT

    Daniel Bajčan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a complex beverage that obtains its properties mainly due to synergistic effect of alcohol, organic acids, arbohydrates, as well as the phenolic and aromatic substances. At present days, we can observe an increased interest in the study of polyphenols in wines that have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and many other beneficial effects. Moderate and regular consumption of the red wine especially, with a high content of phenolic compounds, has a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for pectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in wine using Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent. Based on several studies, in order to minimize chemical use and optimize analysis time, we have proposed a method for the determination of total polyphenols using 0.25 ml Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent, 3 ml of 20% Na2CO3 solution and time of coloring complex 1.5 hour. We f

  20. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of piroxicam in pure form, capsule and human blood serum samples via ion-pair complex formation.

    Alizadeh, Nina; Keyhanian, Fereshteh

    2014-09-15

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method involves formation of stable yellow colored ion-pair complexes of the amino derivative (basic nitrogen) of PX with three sulphonphthalein acid dyes namely; bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) in acidic medium. The colored species exhibited absorption maxima at 438, 429 and 432 nm with molar absorptivity values of 9.400×10(3), 1.218×10(3) and 1.02×10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) for PX-BCG, PX-BTB and PX-BPB complexes, respectively. The effect of optimum conditions via acidity, reagent concentration, time and solvent were studied. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 48h. Beer's law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient in the concentration ranges 1-100 μg mL(-1) for BCG, BTB complexes and 1-95 μg mL(-1) for BPB complex. The composition ratio of the ion-pair complexes were found to be 1:1 in all cases as established by Job's method. No interference was observed from common additives and excipients which may be present in the pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PX in capsule and human blood serum samples with good accuracy and precision.

  1. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of piroxicam in pure form, capsule and human blood serum samples via ion-pair complex formation

    Alizadeh, Nina; Keyhanian, Fereshteh

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method involves formation of stable yellow colored ion-pair complexes of the amino derivative (basic nitrogen) of PX with three sulphonphthalein acid dyes namely; bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) in acidic medium. The colored species exhibited absorption maxima at 438, 429 and 432 nm with molar absorptivity values of 9.400 × 103, 1.218 × 103 and 1.02 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for PX-BCG, PX-BTB and PX-BPB complexes, respectively. The effect of optimum conditions via acidity, reagent concentration, time and solvent were studied. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 48 h. Beer’s law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient in the concentration ranges 1-100 μg mL-1 for BCG, BTB complexes and 1-95 μg mL-1 for BPB complex. The composition ratio of the ion-pair complexes were found to be 1:1 in all cases as established by Job’s method. No interference was observed from common additives and excipients which may be present in the pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PX in capsule and human blood serum samples with good accuracy and precision.

  2. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF IRON USING ACETOPHENONE 2’,5’-DIHYDROXY THIOSEMICARBAZONE (ADHTS AS A NEW ANALYTICAL REAGENT

    Prabhakar S. Navarkar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetophenone 2’,5’-dihydroxy thiosemicarbazone (ADHTS is proposed as a new sensitive and selective reagent for the Spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of Iron. The optimum extraction conditions were evaluated by studying various parameters like pH, solvent, reagent concentration, equilibration time and stability of extracted complex. The reagent reacts with Iron to form a yellow colored 1:2 chelate, at the pH 3.6.The complex is extracted in n-Butanol. The absorption spectrum shows maxima at 430 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range 1 to 8 ppm for Iron. The molar absorptivity is 646.06 L mol-1cm–1 and Sandell’s sensitivity is 0.0869μg cm-2 The Limit of Detection for the proposed method was found to be 0.561 ppm. The proposed method is highly sensitive, selective, simple, rapid, accurate, and has been satisfactorilyapplied for the determination of Iron in the synthetic mixtures, and real samples.

  3. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  4. VUV Fourier-transform absorption study of the Lyman and Werner bands in D-2

    Lange, de A.; Dickenson, G.D.; Salumbides, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Oliveira, de N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive survey of the D-2 absorption spectrum has been performed with the high-resolution VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer employing synchrotron radiation. The frequency range of 90 000-119 000 cm (1) covers the full depth of the potential wells of the B (1)Sigma(+)(u), B' 1 Sigma(+)(u), and

  5. Magnetic field dependent microwave absorption studies on a MgB{sub 2} superconductor

    Bhide, M.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Sastry, M.D. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Singh, Ajay; Sen, Shashwati; Aswal, D.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: drgupta@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2001-08-01

    Polycrystalline MgB{sub 2}, synthesized using a conventional solid-state reaction route, has been investigated for its magnetic field dependent microwave absorption using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The changes in microwave absorption as a function of temperature and/or magnetic field were recorded by following the microwave reflectivity of a sample-loaded cavity. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signal was found to be similar to that observed in high-temperature superconducting materials. The field dependent direct microwave absorption in the 0-10 kG range was used to determine H{sub c1} values at different temperatures, and the value of H{sub c1}(0) was found to be 250 G. The absorbed microwave power has been found to obey a (H){sup 1/2} dependence with a change of slope indicating a transition from a strongly pinned flux lattice to the flux flow regime. (author)

  6. [CPFA (coupled plasma filtration absorption) treatment of septic shock. A retrospective study of nine patients].

    Maruccio, Gianfranco; Montanaro, Alessio; Schiavone, Palmira; Fumarola, Martino; Flores, Antonio; Strippoli, Paolo; Caretto, Vincenzo; Paladini, Daniele; Ramunni, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Coupled plasma filtration absorption (CPFA) can increase blood pressure in septic shock and reduce fever during and after treatment. It is not able to stop the activation of intravascular coagulation and does not reduce the need for dialysis or the overall mortality.

  7. X-ray absorption studies of atomic environments in semiconductor nanostructures

    Boscherini, F

    2003-01-01

    The use of X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the investigation of the atomic environment in semiconductor nanostructures is illustrated. After a description of the experimental apparatus two specific examples are reported: the detection of Si-Ge intermixing in Ge quantum dots and the relation between long range elasticity and local distortions in strained InGaAs epilayers.

  8. Study on the Spectrophotometric Determination of Hydroxyl Free Radical from Low Power Trench-Type Ultrasound%低强度超声场中羟自由基分光光度法检测研究

    曹雁平; 袁英髦; 朱雨辰

    2012-01-01

    Under the condition of different pH (7~11) and different ethanol volume fraction (45% to 85%), the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of malachite green were studied in neutral and alkaline ethanol solution, the maximum absorption wavelength at 620 nm was found, and the matching degree of standard curve was better established. In low power trench-type ultrasound apparatus, the absorption of the malachite green solution was measured under ultrasound and non-ultrasound, respectively, the difference values of the ultraviolet absorption of the malachite green solution under low power trench-type ultrasound were measured results of the hydroxyl free radical oxidation degrading malachite green, therefore hydroxyl free radical from low power trench-type ultrasound was determined indirectly. Then the contents of hydroxyl free radical in four conditions were measured. The detection limit of the method of 8. 4×10~6 mmol·L-1 and the relative standard deviation of the method of 9. 4×10-5 ~3. 7×10-4 mmol·L-1 were determined, a higher testing precision and good reproducibility were confirmed. It can be applied for fast detection of neutral and alkaline ethanol solution system in the case of very low concentration of hydroxyl free radicals. Since malachite green is heat sensitive, so compared to measuring temperature, the method possessed better functions for thermal effects of ultrasound.%研究了不同pH(7~11)、不同乙醇体积分数(45%~85%)的孔雀石绿乙醇溶液的紫外-可见光吸收特性,通过最大吸收波长为620 nm处的吸光度与浓度关系工作标准曲线,在低强度超声场中,分别检测超声条件和非超声条件下孔雀石绿溶液吸光度变化,两者的差值就是超声场产生的羟自由基导致的孔雀石绿吸光度变化,从而间接测定了超声场产生的羟自由基浓度.确定了4个超声条件产生的羟自由基浓度,最小检测限达到8.4×10-6 mmol · L-1,相对标准偏差为9.4×10-5~3.7

  9. Spectrophotometric Examination of Rough Print Surfaces

    Erzsébet Novotny

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the impact of the surface texture of individual creative paper types (coated or patternedon the quality of printing and to identify to what extent the various creative paper types require specific types ofspectrophotometers. We used stereomicroscopic images to illustrate unprinted and printed surfaces of creative papertypes. Surface roughness was measured to obtain data on the unevenness of surfaces. Spectrophotometric tests wereused to select the most suitable spectrophotometer from meters with different illumination setup for testing anygiven print. For the purpose of testing, we used spectrophotometers which are commonly available generally used totest print products for colour accuracy. With the improvement of measuring geometries, illumination setup, colourmeasurement becomes more and more capable of producing reliable results unaffected by surface textures. Our testshave proved this fact by showing that the GretagMacbeth Spectrolino with annular illumination is less sensitive tosurface texture than the X-Rite Spetrodensitometer and the Techkon SpetroDens with directional illumination. Furthertests have brought us to the conclusion that there is a difference even between the two devices with directionalillumination. While the X-Rite 530 Spectrodensitometer is more suitable for testing coated surfaces, the TechkonSpectroDens can come close to ΔE*ab values produced by the annular illuminated device for textured surfaces.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were <7.5% in all cases. The optimum range of PAM in each sample is 10-80 microg. The technique can serve as an effective tool in improving PAM application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  11. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for analysis of tramadol, acebutolol and dothiepin in pharmaceutical preparations

    Abdellatef, Hisham E.; El-Henawee, Magda M.; El-Sayed, Heba M.; Ayad, Magda M.

    2006-12-01

    Sensitive spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods are described for the determination of tramadol, acebutolol and dothiepin (dosulepin) hydrochlorides. The two methods are based on the condensation of the cited drugs with the mixed anhydrides of malonic and acetic acids at 60 °C for 25-40 min. The coloured condensation products are suitable for the spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric determination at 329-333 and 431-434 nm (excitation at 389 nm), respectively. For the spectrophotometric method, Beer's law was obeyed from 0.5 to 2.5 μg ml -1 for tramadol, dothiepin and 5-25 μg ml -1 for acebutolol. Using the spectrofluorimetric method linearity ranged from 0.25 to 1.25 μg ml -1 for tramadol, dothiepin and 1-5 μg ml -1 for acebutolol. Mean percentage recoveries for the spectrophotometric method were 99.68 ± 1.00, 99.95 ± 1.11 and 99.72 ± 1.01 for tramadol, acebutolol and dothiepin, respectively and for the spectrofluorimetric method, recoveries were 99.5 ± 0.844, 100.32 ± 0.969 and 99.82 ± 1.15 for the three drugs, respectively. The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction has been studied. The validity of the described procedures was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of the selected drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations with good recoveries. The procedures were accurate, simple and suitable for quality control application.

  12. Spectrophotometric investigation of Phobos with the Rosetta OSIRIS-NAC camera and implications for its collisional capture

    Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Bertini, I.; Marzari, F.; Turrini, D.; Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Thomas, N.; Küppers, M.; Moissl, R.; Ferri, F.; Barbieri, C.; Rickman, H.; Sierks, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Martian satellite Phobos has been observed on 2007 February 24 and 25, during the pre- and post-Mars closest approach (CA) of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft Mars swing-by. The goal of the observations was the determination of the surface composition of different areas of Phobos, in order to obtain new clues regarding its nature and origin. Near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared (263.5-992.0 nm) images of Phobos's surface were acquired using the Narrow Angle Camera of the OSIRIS instrument onboard Rosetta. The six multi-wavelength sets of observations allowed a spectrophotometric characterization of different areas of the satellite, belonging respectively to the leading and trailing hemisphere of the anti-Mars hemisphere, and also of a section of its sub-Mars hemisphere. The pre-CA spectrophotometric data obtained with a phase angle of 19° have a spectral trend consistent within the error bars with those of unresolved/disc-integrated measurements present in the literature. In addition, we detect an absorption band centred at 950 nm, which is consistent with the presence of pyroxene. The post-CA observations cover from NUV to NIR a portion of the surface (0° to 43°E of longitude) never studied before. The reflectance measured on our data does not fit with the previous spectrophotometry above 650 nm. This difference can be due to two reasons. First, the OSIRIS observed area in this observation phase is completely different with respect to the other local specific spectra and hence the spectrum may be different. Secondly, due to the totally different observation geometry (the phase angle ranges from 137° to 140°), the differences of spectral slope can be due to phase reddening. The comparison of our reflectance spectra, both pre- and post-CA, with those of D-type asteroids shows that the spectra of Phobos are all redder than the mean D-type spectrum, but within the spectral dispersion of other D-types. To complement this result, we performed an investigation

  13. Reverse saturable absorption studies in polymerized indole - Effect of polymerization in the phenomenal enhancement of third order optical nonlinearity

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Bhattathiripad, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Siji Narendran, N. K.

    2016-04-01

    We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides.

  14. Theoretical study on S1(1B3u) state electronic structure and absorption spectrum of pyrazine

    2008-01-01

    Making use of a set of quantum chemistry methods, the harmonic potential surfaces of the ground state (S0(1Ag)) and the first (S1(1B3u)) excited state of pyrazine are investigated, and the electronic structures of the two states are characterized. In the present study, the conventional quantum mechanical method, taking account of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation, is adopted to simulate the absorp-tion spectrum of S1(1B3u) state of pyrazine. The assignment of main vibronic transitions is made for S1(1B3u) state. It is found that the spectral profile is mainly described by the Franck-Condon progression of totally symmetric mode ν6a. For the five totally symmetric modes, the present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and the S1(1B3u) state are small. Therefore the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation along with Franck-Condon transition is used to simulate S1(1B3u) absorption spectra. The distortion effect due to the so-called quadratic coupling is demonstrated to be unimportant for the absorption spectrum, except the coupling mode ν10a. The calculated S1(1B3u) ab-sorption spectrum is in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra.

  15. X-ray Absorption by the Low-redshift Intergalactic Medium A Numerical Study of the Lambda CDM model

    Chen, X; Katz, N; Davé, R; Chen, Xuelei; Weinberg, David H.; Katz, Neal; Dave', Romeel

    2003-01-01

    Using a hydrodynamic simulation of a LCDM universe, we investigate the "X-ray forest" absorption imprinted on the spectra of background quasars by the intervening intergalactic medium (IGM). In agreement with previous studies, we find that OVII and OVIII produce the strongest absorption features. The strong oxygen absorbers that might be detectable with Chandra or XMM-Newton arise in gas with T ~ 10^6 K and overdensities delta >~ 100 that are characteristic of galaxy groups. Future X-ray missions could detect weaker oxygen absorption produced by gas with a wider range of temperatures and the lower densities of unvirialized structures; they could also detect X-ray forest absorption by C, N, Ne, Fe, and possibly Si. If the IGM metallicity is 0.1 solar, then the predicted number of systems strong enough for a ~5\\sigma detection with Chandra or XMM-Newton is extremely low, though scatter in metallicity would increase the number of strong absorbers even if the mean metallicity remained the same. Our simulation rep...

  16. Theoretical study on S1(1B3u) state electronic structure and absorption spectrum of pyrazine

    HE RongXing; ZHU ChaoYuan; CHIN Chih-Hao; LIN Sheng-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    Making use of a set of quantum chemistry methods, the harmonic potential surfaces of the ground state (S0(1Ag)) and the first (S1(1B3u)) excited state of pyrazine are investigated, and the electronic structures of the two states are characterized. In the present study, the conventional quantum mechanical method, taking account of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation, is adopted to simulate the absorp-tion spectrum of S1(1B3u) state of pyrazine. The assignment of main vibronic transitions is made for S1(1B3u) state. It is found that the spectral profile is mainly described by the Franck-Condon progression of totally symmetric mode v6a. For the five totally symmetric modes, the present calculations show that the frequency differences between the ground and the S1(1B3u) state are small. Therefore the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation along with Franck-Condon transition is used to simulate S1(1B3u)absorption spectra. The distortion effect due to the so-called quadratic coupling is demonstrated to be unimportant for the absorption spectrum, except the coupling mode v10a. The calculated S1(1B3u) ab-sorption spectrum is in reasonable agreement with the experimental spectra.

  17. Electron spin resonance and optical absorption spectroscopic studies of Cu{sup 2+} ions in aluminium lead borate glasses

    SivaRamaiah, G., E-mail: gsivaram7@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Government College for Men, Kadapa 516004 (India); LakshmanaRao, J., E-mail: jlrao46@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is for the first time to study optical absorption and EPR in these glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal properties are new and interesting in this glass system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is for the first time to report three optical bands for Cu{sup 2+} in oxide glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interesting optical results are due to excellent sample preparation. - Abstract: Electron Spin Resonance and optical absorption spectral studies of Cu{sup 2+} ions in 5 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 75 B{sub 2}O{sub 3} + (20-z) PbO + z CuO (where z = 0.1-1.5 mol.% of CuO) glasses have been reported. The EPR spectra of all the glasses show resonance signals characteristic of Cu{sup 2+} ions at both room and low temperatures. The number of spins and Gibbs energy were calculated at different concentrations and temperatures. From the plot of the ratio of logarithmic number of spins and absolute temperature and the reciprocal of absolute temperature, the entropy and enthalpy have been evaluated. The optical absorption spectra of all the glasses exhibit three bands and these bands have been assigned to {sup 2}B{sub 1g} {yields} {sup 2}E{sub g}, {sup 2}B{sub 1g} {yields} {sup 2}B{sub 2g}, and {sup 2}B{sub 1g} {yields} {sup 2}A{sub 1g} transitions in the decreasing order of energy. It is for the first time to observe three optical absorption bands for Cu{sup 2+} ions in oxide glasses. Such type of results is due to excellent sample preparation. From the EPR and optical absorption spectroscopies data, the molecular orbital coefficients have been evaluated.

  18. Anticancer efficacy and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity studies of Aspergiolide A in early drug development

    Wang Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Wang, Xin Qi, Dehai Li, Tianjiao Zhu, Xiaomei Mo, Jing LiKey Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Since the first anthracycline was discovered, many other related compounds have been studied in order to overcome its defects and improve efficacy. In the present paper, we investigated the anticancer effects of a new anthracycline, aspergiolide A (ASP-A, from a marine-derived fungus in vitro and in vivo, and we evaluated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity drug properties in early drug development. We found that ASP-A had activity against topoisomerase II that was comparable to adriamycin. ASP-A decreased the growth of various human cancer cells in vitro and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells via a caspase-dependent pathway. The anticancer efficacy of ASP-A on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts was further assessed in vivo. Results showed that, compared with the vehicle group, ASP-A exhibited significant anticancer activity with less loss of body weight. A pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study revealed that ASP-A was rapidly cleared in a first order reaction kinetics manner, and was enriched in cancer tissue. The maximal tolerable dose (MTD of ASP-A was more than 400 mg/kg, and ASP-A was not considered to be potentially genotoxic or cardiotoxic, as no significant increase of micronucleus rates or inhibition of the hERG channel was seen. Finally, an uptake and transport assay of ASP-A was performed in monolayers of Caco-2 cells, and ASP-A was shown to be absorbed through the active transport pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that ASP-A has anticancer activity targeting topoisomerase II, with a similar structure and mechanism to adriamycin, but with much lower toxicity. Nonetheless, further molecular structure optimization is necessary.Keywords: aspergiolide A, anticancer

  19. Selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of cefdinir in formulations based on donor-acceptor complex formation

    Babita K. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cefdinir has broad spectrum of activity and high prescription rates, hence its counterfeiting seems imminent. We have proposed a simple, fast, selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the content assay of cefdinir in formulations. The method is based on complexation of cefdinir and Fe under reducing condition in a buffered medium (pH 11 to form a magenta colored donor-acceptor complex (λ max = 550 nm; apparent molar absorptivity = 3720 L mol-1 cm-1. No other cephalosporins, penicillins and common excipients interfere under the test conditions. The Beer's law is followed in the concentration range 8-160 µg mL-1.

  20. Validated UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Fenofibrate in Pure and Pharmaceutical Formulation Using MBTH Reagent

    Sheeja Velayudhan Kutty; Susamma Cicy Eapen; Mohammed Shameer; Faizal P P

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible UV visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative determination of fenofibrate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms using MBTH reagent. The method is based on the measurement of absorbance of fenofibrate in methanol (0.5% MBTH in 0.5% HCl and 1% FeCl3 in 0.5% HCl) at 596 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the linear range 2-5µg /ml of fenofibrate for the method with apparent molar absorptivity value of 1909.5905 L mol-1cm-1. T...

  1. Derivative-ratio spectrophotometric method for the determination of ternary mixture of aspirin, paracetamol and salicylic acid

    El-Yazbi, Fawzi A.; Hammud, Hassan H.; Assi, Sulaf A.

    2007-10-01

    A derivative spectrophotometric method was developed for the assay of a ternary mixture of aspirin (ASP), paracetamol (PAR) and salicylic acid (SAL). The method is based on the use of the first and second derivatives of the ratio spectra and measurement at zero-crossing wavelengths. The ratio spectra were obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the mixture by that of one of the components. The concentration of the other components are then determined from their respective calibration curves treated similarly. The described method was applied for the determination of these combinations in synthetic mixtures and dosage forms. The results obtained were accurate and precise.

  2. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    Abdullah, Yusof, E-mail: yusofabd@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Hamid, Roszilah [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Aziz [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga National, Jalan Ikram-Uniten, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  3. Study on Absorption Heat transfer of Two-Dimensionally Constant Curvature Surface Tubes-1

    Ogawa, Kiyoshi; Isshiki, Naotsugu

    In order to get better heat transfer coefficient of absorption in actual apparatus, it is considered that the wettability of the surface should be high, and that the thickness of liquid film should not be too thin or too thick all over the surface. So, new conception of two-dimensionally constant curvature surface (CCS) for absorption heat transfer has been introduced for the first time by the authors. First, theoretical CCS section curves of CCS tubes were calculated, and some of them were manufactured for the test. The wettability of CCS is tested and compared to the other finned tubes (radial fin tubes of triangular and rectangular profiles). As may be seen from photographs and compared to the other finned tubes, on the CCS surface, the thickness of liquid has shown to be even all over the surface without creating paticulary thick or thin place, so that, liquid films are very wettable on the CCS surface.

  4. Excited-State Dynamics of Carotenoids Studied by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Lee, Ingu; Pang, Yoonsoo [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sebok [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Carotenoids, natural antenna pigments in photosynthesis share a symmetric backbone of conjugated polyenes. Contrary to the symmetric and almost planar geometries of carotenoids, excited state structure and dynamics of carotenoids are exceedingly complex. In this paper, recent infrared and visible transient absorption measurements and excitation dependent dynamics of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al and 7',7'-dicyano-7'-apo-β-carotene will be reviewed. The recent visible transient absorption measurements of 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al in polar and nonpolar solvents will also be introduced to emphasize the complex excited-state dynamics and unsolved problems in the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} excited states.

  5. Study on the interaction between diphenhydramine and erythrosin by absorption,fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra

    2007-01-01

    In pH 4.5 Britton-Robinson(BR)buffer solution,erythrosin(ET)can react with diphenhydramine(DP)to form a 1:1 ion-association complex,which not only results in the change of the absorption spectra,but also results in the great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering(RRS)and the quenching of fluorescence.Furthermore,a new RRS spectrum will appear,and the maximum RRS wavelength was located at about 580 nm.In this work,the spectral characteristics of the absorption,fluorescence and RRS,the optimum conditions of the reaction and the properties of an analytical chemistry were inves- tigated.A sensitive,simple and new method for the determination of DP by using erythrosin as a probe has been developed.The detection limits for DP were 0.0020μg/mL for RRS method,0.088μg/mL for absorption method and 0.094μg/mL for fluorophotometry.There was a linear relationship between the absorbance,RRS and fluorescence intensities and the drug concentration in the range of 0.0067-2.0, 0.29-6.4 and 0.31-3.2μg/mL,respectively.The effects of the interaction of diphenhydramine and erythrosin on the absorption,fluorescence and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra were discussed. In light polarization experiment,the polarization of RRS at maximum wavelength was measured to be P =0.9779,and it revealed that the RRS spectrum of DP-ET complex consists mostly of resonance scat- tering and few resonance fluorescence.In this study,enthalpy of formation and mean polarizability were calculated by AM1 quantum chemistry method.In addition,the reaction mechanism and the rea- sons for the enhancement of scattering spectra and the energy transfer between absorption,fluores- cence and RRS were discussed.

  6. Literature study of microwave-assisted digestion using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Chakraborty, R; Das, A K; Cervera, M L; De La Guardia, M

    1996-05-01

    The literature on the use of microwave-assisted digestion procedures for subsequent sample analysis by means of electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is reviewed. The literature survey reveals that this digestion technique has been applied mainly for biological materials. The elements most extensively determined by this method are cadmium and lead followed by copper, chromium, nickel and iron. The microwave digestion conditions, ETAAS furnace programmes and analytical details of the developed methodologies have been carefully revised.

  7. X-ray absorption studies of the structure of nanocrystalline oxides

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a prime tool in probing the local structure in condensed matter. This contribution describes some of the applications of this technique to probe the microstructure of nanocrystalline oxides. By the use of specific examples four areas will be covered, namely the effect of grain size and preparation route on microstructure, the locating of dopant sites and the chemical nature of metal/oxide catalysts. The materials involved are tin oxide, lithium mobate, titaniu...

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Piperazine Activated MDEA Absorption Solution with Methane and Carbon Dioxide

    2010-01-01

    Regenerative chemical absorption process is widely used in industry for removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas, with activated aqueous solutions of alkanolamines considered a beneficial blend. One of the most promising blends is the aqueous mixture of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) activated by small amount of piperazine, due to the fairly high rate of reaction of piperazine as a cyclic diamine with carbon dioxide and the low heat of regeneration of MDEA as a te...

  9. Studies by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies of Bonding Dynamics at the Graphene/Guanine Interface - A Proposal for High Mobility, Organic Graphene Field Effect Transistors

    2015-07-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0034 Studies by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies of Bonding Dynamics at the Graphene/Guanine...April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Studies by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies of Bonding Dynamics at the Graphene/Guanine Interface - A

  10. Cavity ring-down study of the visible absorption spectrum of the phenyl radical and kinetics of its reactions with Cl, Br, Cl-2, and O-2

    Tonokura, K; Norikane, Y; Koshi, M;

    2002-01-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy coupled with pulsed laser photolysis was used to study the visible absorption spectrum (490-535 nm, B-2(1)......Cavity ring-down spectroscopy coupled with pulsed laser photolysis was used to study the visible absorption spectrum (490-535 nm, B-2(1)...

  11. A comparative study of intervening and associated HI 21-cm absorption profiles in redshifted galaxies

    Curran, S J; Divoli, A; Allison, J R

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming reservoir in the distant Universe can be detected through HI 21-cm absorption arising from either cool gas associated with a radio source or from within a galaxy intervening the sight-line to the continuum source. In order to test whether the nature of the absorber can be predicted from the profile shape, we have compiled and analysed all of the known redshifted (z > 0.1) HI 21-cm absorption profiles. Although between individual spectra there is too much variation to assign a typical spectral profile, we confirm that associated absorption profiles are on average, wider than their intervening counterparts. It is widely hypothesised that this is due to high velocity nuclear gas feeding the central engine, absent in the more quiescent intervening absorbers. Modelling the column density distribution of the mean associated and intervening spectra, we confirm that the additional low optical depth, wide dispersion component, typical of associated absorbers, arises from gas within the inner parsec. W...

  12. Exploratory Study of the X-Ray Properties of Quasars With Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines

    Misawa, Toru; Chartas, George; Charlton, Jane C

    2008-01-01

    We have used archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of quasars hosting intrinsic narrow UV absorption lines (intrinsic NALs) to carry out an exploratory survey of their X-ray properties. Our sample consists of three intrinsic-NAL quasars and one "mini-BAL" quasar, plus four quasars without intrinsic absorption lines for comparison. These were drawn in a systematic manner from an optical/UV-selected sample. The X-ray properties of intrinsic-NAL quasars are indistinguishable from those of "normal" quasars. We do not find any excess absorption in quasars with intrinsic NALs, with upper limits of a few times 10^22 cm^-2. We compare the X-ray and UV properties of our sample quasars by plotting the equivalent width and blueshift velocity of the intrinsic NALs and the X-ray spectral index against the "optical-to-X-ray" slope, alpha-ox. When BAL quasars and other AGNs with intrinsic NALs are included, the plots suggest that intrinsic-NAL quasars form an extension of the BAL sequences and tend to bridge the gap ...

  13. A liquid-He cryostat for structural and thermal disorder studies by X-ray absorption.

    Bouamrane, F; Ribbens, M; Fonda, E; Adjouri, C; Traverse, A

    2003-07-01

    A new device operating from 4.2 to 300 K is now installed on the hard X-ray station of the DCI ring in LURE in order to measure absorption coefficients. This liquid-He bath device has three optical windows. One allows the incident beam to impinge on the sample, one located at 180 degrees with respect to the sample allows transmitted beams to be detected, and another located at 90 degrees is used to detect emitted photons. Total electron yield detection mode is also possible thanks to a specific sample holder equipped with an electrode that collects the charges created by the emitted electrons in the He gas brought from the He bath around the sample. The performance of the cryostat is described by measurements of the absorption coefficients versus the temperature for Cu and Co foils. For comparison, the absorption coefficient is also measured for Cu clusters. As expected from dimension effects, the Debye temperature obtained for the clusters is lower than that of bulk Cu.

  14. Shock induced chemistry in liquids studied with ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry and visible transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Dang, N C; Bolme, C A; Moore, D S; McGrane, S D

    2012-10-25

    The response to ultrafast laser shock loading of nine liquids was monitored in an effort to reveal evidence of chemical changes occurring during the first 350 ps following the shock front. In an effort to compare molecular structures possessing a variety of common bonding patterns, data were acquired for the liquids: cyclohexane, cyclohexene, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, benzene, water, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, tert-butylacetylene, and phenylacetylene. Transient absorption spectra were measured in the spectral region from 440 to 780 nm over shock stress states from 7 to 20 GPa. Ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry was used to measure the shock and particle velocity as well as the shocked refractive index. Significant transient absorption attributed to chemical reaction was observed for shocked phenylacetylene and acrylonitrile. Evidence of volume decreasing chemical reactions was also observed in the ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry data for phenylacetylene and acrylonitrile. The liquid 1,3-cyclohexadiene exhibited volume decreasing reaction in the ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry data but did not exhibit an increase in the transient absorption spectra. There was no evidence of chemical reaction in cyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, water, acetonitrile, or tert-butylacetylene in the first 350 ps, despite the application of shock stress that was in many cases well above the reaction threshold observed at microsecond time scales.

  15. Determination of ametryn in sugarcane and ametryn-atrazine herbicide formulations using spectrophotometric method.

    Shah, Jasmin; Jan, M Rasul; Ara, Behisht; Shehzad, Farhat-Un-Nisa

    2012-06-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of ametryn in agricultural samples. The proposed method was based on reaction with pyridine and further coupling with sulfanilic acid to form a colored product. The absorbance was measured at 400 nm with a molar absorptivity of 2.1 x 10(5) L mol(-1) cm(-1). The method shows a linear range from 0.2-20 μg mL(-1) with limit of detection and limit of quantification 0.16 and 0.54 μg mL(-1), respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of ametryn in sugarcane juice and commercial formulations after separation of ametryn from triazine herbicides based on solvent extraction. Recovery values were found to be in the range of 96.0 ± 0.2% to 98.4  ±  0.1%.

  16. A Simple Spectrophotometric Determination of Phosphate in Sugarcane Juices, Water and Detergent Samples

    Mahadevaiah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of phosphate in sugar cane juice, water and detergent samples. The method is based on the formation of phosphomolybdate with added molybdate followed by its reduction with sodium sulphide in aqueous sulfuric acid medium. The system obeys Lambert-Beer’s law at 715 nm in the concentration range 0.3-12.24 ppm. Molar absorptivity, correlation coefficient and Sandell’s sensitivity values were found to be 6.1x103 mol-1 cm-1, 0.999 and 0.0156 µg cm-2 respectively. The results obtained were reproducible with acceptable standard deviation 3.7% and relative error 3.4%. For a comparison of the method phosphate present in various samples were also determined separately following an official method. The results of the developed method compare well with those of the official method.

  17. A novel spectrophotometric determination of trace copper based on charge transfer complex

    Di, Junwei; Wu, Ying; Ma, Yun

    2005-03-01

    A new type of colored complex, the charge transfer complex, was used to develop the spectrophotometric determination of copper. The method was based on the formation of a colored product, the charge transfer complex of copper substituted tungstophosphate with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethybenzidine (TMB), which was stabilized and sensitized by the addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in aqueous solution. The structure of copper substituted tungstophosphate was Keggin-type according to the results of infrared (IR) spectra. The optimum reaction conditions and other important analytic parameters had been investigated. Beer's law was obeyed in the copper(II) concentration range of 0.003-0.1 μg mL -1, and the molar absorptivity at 660 nm is 2.54×10 5 L mol -1 cm -1. The proposed method was simple, selective, and sensitive. It was applied to the analytic samples with satisfactory results.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of piroxicam and tenoxicam in pharmaceutical formulations using alizarin.

    Amin, Alaa S

    2002-07-20

    New spectrophotometric procedures have been established for the quantitation of piroxicam and tenoxicam. The procedures are based on the reaction between the examined drug and alizarin (I), alizarin red S (II), alizarin yellow G (III) or quinalizarin (IV) producing ion-pair complexes which can be measured at the optimum wavelength. The optimization of the reaction conditions is investigated. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 0.05-2.40 microg ml(-1), whereas optimum concentration as adopted from Ringbom plots was 0.12-2.25 microg ml(-1). The molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection and quantification limits are also calculated. The correlation coefficient was >/=0.9990 (n=10) with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of

  19. Spectrophotometric method for Simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin Calcium & Fenofibrate in tablet Dosage Form

    Hirave Rupali. V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A UV spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of atorvastatin calcium & fenofibrate in tablet dosage form by using simultaneous equation method. The drug obeyed Beer’s law & showed good correlation near to 0.999. Absorption maxima of atorvastatin calcium & fenofibrate were found to be at 246 and 286 nm respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in concentration rang of 1-10 μg/ml for atorvastatin calcium & 2-20 μg/ml for fenofibrate. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy & precision. The recovery was more than 99%. The developed method was found to be accurate, simple, precise, economical, and selective for simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin calcium & fenofibrate in tablet dosage form.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of ajmaline and brucine by Folin Ciocalteu’s reagent

    ARCHANA SAHU

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple spectrophotometric procedure is described for the determination of ajmaline and brucine. The method is based on the development of blue coloured product due to reduction of tungstate and/or molybdate in Folin Ciocalteu’s reagent (FCR by ajmaline and brucine in alkaline medium. The colour is stable for more than 48 h. The chromogenic reaction has lmax at 540 nm with molar absorptivity 1.64×104 and 2.37×103 l mol-1 cm-1 in the Beer’s law range 1–8 mg ml-1 and 10–100 mg ml-1 for ajmaline and brucine, respectively.

  1. Nutrition and magnesium absorption.

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium abs

  2. A FIELD STUDY OF INDICATORS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF FOUR ABSORPTION CHILLERS IN THE SUDANO-SAHELIAN REGION OF CAMEROON

    A. N. N. Chedop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a field study of indicators of the performance of absorption refrigerating systems in the Sudano-Sahelian region of Cameroon. A modeling of various components of the system is performed in order to choose the technology best adapted for the region. Based on the characteristics from the manufacturers, four absorption chillers were studied; namely: EAW Schüco LB 15 and 30; Rotartica Solar 045 and Sonnenklima Suninverse. The model of Kühn and Ziegler and meteorological data of the city of Maroua ((14.33 °E, 10.58 °N were used to assess the coefficient of the performance (COP of these machines. Results showed that the Sonnenklima Suninverse technology is best suited for the climatic conditions of the Sudano-Sahelian region with COP values between 1.5 and 3.5.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of micro quantities of zinc in rocks

    Huffman, C.; Lipp, H.H.; Rader, L.F.

    1963-01-01

    A chemical method is presented for the determination of microgram amounts of zinc in rocks. Zinc is absorbed on anion-exchange resin from 1.2 M hydrochloric acid and eluted with 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. A diethyldithiocarbamate separation removes traces of interfering elements from the eluate. The zinc-diethyldithiocarbamate complex is extracted into chloroform at pH 8.5 and reextracted from other elements in the chloroform solution with 0.16 M hydrochloric acid and finally determined spectrophotometrically as the zincon complex at 621 m??. The coefficient of variation of the method determined from replicate determinations of zinc on 75 selected samples of basalt, ranging in zinc content from 0.004 to 0.018 per cent, was found to be 6.3 per cent and essentially constant in the range of zinc content studied. This method of analysis has been used extensively for a study of zinc in basalts reported by Rader, Swadley, Huffman and Lipp (companion paper, 1963). ?? 1963.

  4. Selective spectrophotometric determination of phenolic beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Salem, Hesham; Saleh, Gamal A

    2002-06-15

    Two simple and selective spectrophotometric methods were developed for the quantitative determination of cefoperazone sodium, cefadroxil monohydrate, cefprozil anhydrous and amoxicillin trihydrate in pure forms as well as in their pharmaceutical formulations. The methods are based on the selective oxidation of these drugs with either Ce (IV) or Fe (III) in acid medium to give an intense yellow coloured product (lambda(max)=397 nm). The reaction conditions were studied and optimized. Beer's plots were obeyed in a general concentration range of 5-30 microg ml(-1) with correlation coefficients not less than 0.9979 for the four drugs with the two reagents. The methods are successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing amoxicillin, either alone or in combination with potassium clavulanate, flucloxacillin or dicloxacillin. They were also applied to the analysis of the other three studied drugs in vials, capsules, tablets and suspensions with good recovery; percent ranged from 99.7 (+/-0.46) to 100.32 (+/-1.05) in the Ce (IV) method and 99.6 (+/-0.50) to 100.3 (+/-1.32) in the Fe (III) method. Interferences from other antibiotics and additives products were investigated.

  5. Spectrophotometric estimation of betahistine hydrochloride in tablet formulations

    Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Betahistine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: For method I and II, in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml in double distilled water were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 15-90 μg/ml and 10-80 μg/ml respectively of betahistine hydrochloride. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of methyl orange for method I and 5 ml of bromo phenol blue for method II reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 421.6 nm and 412 nm for method I and II respectively. Results: The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion: Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of betahistine hydrochloride from tablet formulations.

  6. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in

  7. On the NH3 absorption depression observable at Northern low latitudes of Jupiter

    Tejfel, Victor G.; Vdovichenko, Vladimir D.; Lysenko, Peter G.; Karimov, Alibek M.; Kirienko, Galina A.; Bondarenko, Natalya N.; Kharitonova, Galina

    2016-10-01

    From February to April of 2016, we carried out a special series of spectrophotometric observations of Jupiter to study the current behavior of the ammonia absorption at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, where in 2004 we have found a well-defined depression of the 787 nm NH3 absorption band intensity (V.Tejfel et al., Bull.AAS, 2005, Vol. 37, p.682). In subsequent years, an existence of this depression was annually confirmed by spectral observations, although we were noticing its variable character. During observations of 2016 we obtained more than 2,500 CCD-spectrograms, including the spectra of the central meridian, the GRS, and 12 scans of Jovian disk on different dates (70 zonal spectra in each scan). The 787 nm NH3 absorption band was extracted with using of ratios of the Jovian spectra to the Saturn's disk spectrum that was taken as a reference. The depression of absorption in this band begins almost from the equator, and its maximum occurs at the planetographic latitude of 100N then the absorption increases again approaching to the latitude of 200N. The equivalent bandwidths corresponding to these latitudes are equal to 18.7 ± 1.4 A, 14.4 ± 1.0 A and 17.8 ± 0.8A. The 645 nm NH3 absorption band also shows depletion at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, but it is less pronounced. At the temperate latitudes of the Northern hemisphere this band's absorption is systematically lower than the Southern Hemisphere's ones. We will continue research in this direction, especially because recently a significant depletion of gaseous NH3 has also been found with using of the VLA with high resolution (I. de Pater et al., Science, 2016, Vol. 352, Issue 6290, p.1290-1294) at the low latitudes of the Northern hemisphere in the region of the NEB.

  8. 对乙酰基偶氮氯膦光度法测定烟草中钙的方法研究%Study on Spectrophotometric Determination of Calcium in Tobacc o with p-Acetylchlorophosphonazo

    刘巍; 李忠; 刘思远; 王岚; 施红林; 杨光宇

    2001-01-01

    研究了对乙酰基偶氮氯膦(ACCPP)与钙的显色反应,在pH=8.5的氯化铵-氨水缓冲介质中,乳化剂-OP存在下,ACCPP与钙反应生成1∶1稳定络合物,λmax=680nm,ε =4.01×104L*mol-1*cm-1。钙含量在0—20μg/25mL范围内符合比耳 定律,方法用于烟草样品中钙含量的测定,结果令人满意。%Color reaction of calcium(Ⅱ) with p-acetylchlorophosphonazo (ACCPP) was studied.In the presence of buffer solution pH=8.5 ACCPP can react with calcium(Ⅱ) to form a stable 1∶1 complex.The molar absorptivity is 4.01×104L*mol-1 *cm-1 at 680nm.Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0—20μg/25mL.This method was applied to the determination of calcium in tobacco with satisfactory results.

  9. A New Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method for the Quantitation of Amorolfine

    Poza, Cristian; Contreras, David; Yáñez, Jorge; Nacaratte, Fallon; Toral, M. Inés

    2017-01-01

    Amorolfine (AOF) is a compound with fungicide activity based on the dual inhibition of growth of the fungal cell membrane, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sterols, and the reduction of ergosterol. In this work a sensitive kinetic and spectrophotometric method for the AOF quantitation based on the AOF oxidation by means of KMnO4 at 30 min (fixed time), pH alkaline, and ionic strength controlled was developed. Measurements of changes in absorbance at 610 nm were used as criterion of the oxidation progress. In order to maximize the sensitivity, different experimental reaction parameters were carefully studied via factorial screening and optimized by multivariate method. The linearity, intraday, and interday assay precision and accuracy were determined. The absorbance-concentration plot corresponding to tap water spiked samples was rectilinear, over the range of 7.56 × 10−6–3.22 × 10−5 mol L−1, with detection and quantitation limits of 2.49 × 10−6 mol L−1 and 7.56 × 10−6 mol L−1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully validated for the application of the determination of the drug in the spiked tap water samples and the percentage recoveries were 94.0–105.0%. The method is simple and does not require expensive instruments or complicated extraction steps of the reaction product.

  10. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of selenium and vanadium

    Safavi, A.; Sedghy, H.R.; Shams, E. [Dept. of Chemistry, Shiraz Univ. (Iran)

    1999-11-01

    A sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Se(IV) over the range of 45 to 4000 ng in 10 mL of solution. The method is based on the catalytic effect of Se(IV) on the reduction reaction of bromate by hydrazinium dichloride, with subsequent reaction of Ponceau S with products of the above reaction (chlorine and bromine), causing color changing of Ponceau S. Method development includes optimization of time interval for measurement of slope, pH, reagents concentration, and temperature. The optimized conditions yielded a theoretical detection limit of 33 ng/10 mL of solution of Se(IV). The interfering effects were studied and removed. The method was applied to the determination of selenium in spiked water, Kjeldahl tablet, selenium tablet, and shampoo. Vanadium(V) has an inhibition effect on the catalyzed reaction of bromate and hydrazine by selenium. Using this effect, V(V) can be determined in the range of 70 to 2500 ng in 10 mL of solution. The optimization procedure includes pH and selenium concentration. An extraction method was used for interference removal. The method was applied to the determination of vanadium in petroleum. (orig.)

  11. Simultaneous spectrophotometric and mechanical property characterization of skin

    Bunegin, Leonid; Moore, Jeffery B.

    2006-02-01

    Both reflectance spectroscopy and the determination Young's Modulus of skin have shown promise for identifying skin pathology. At present, these determinations are carried out using separate methodologies. This study demonstrates a new technology combining digital UV/VIS reflectance spectroscopy and vacuum aspiration for simultaneously determining the reflectance spectrum and mechanical properties of human skin tissue. A small hand held prototype device incorporating fiber-optic light guides into a vacuum channel was calibrated using various elastic materials subjected to increments of stress by vacuum from 0 to 25 in Hg. The intensity of a UV/VIS light beam reflected from the material at each vacuum increment was compared to the resulting material strain. The reflected beam was also spectrophotometrically analyzed. Skin types were similarly evaluated comparing normal and scar tissue and skin of various ages and coloration. An exponential relationship between reflected beam intensity and the amount of strain resulting from vacuum increments was observed. Young's Modulus (calculated from Aoki et. al equation) and spectra from normal skin and scar tissue were in agreement with previously published observations. Age related decreases in skin elasticity were also demonstrated. In the reflectance spectra, oxy and deoxy-hemoglobin absorbance bands were detected, becoming significantly enhanced at increased levels of vacuum. Melanin absorbance was also easily detected and appeared to correlate with skin coloration. Since superficial skin pathologies have characteristic spectroscopic and mechanical properties, this technique may provide a promising new approach for rapid, non-invasive method for the evaluation of skin lesions.

  12. Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of potentially pharmacologically active 5-alkyl-5-arylhydantoins: A structure-property relationship study

    Hmuda Sleem F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain an insight into the interactions of potential anticonvulsant drugs with their surrounding, two series of 5-methyl-5-aryl- and 5-ethyl-5-arylhydantoins were synthesized and their absorption spectra were recorded in the region from 200 to 400 nm in a set of selected solvents. The effects of solvent dipolarity/polarizability and solvent-solute hydrogen bonding interactions on the absorption maxima shifts were analyzed by means of the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER concept of Kamlet and Taft. The ratio of the contributions of specific and nonspecific solvent-solute interactions were correlated with the corresponding ADME properties of the studied compounds. The correlation equations were combined with different physicochemical parameters to generate new equations, which demonstrate the reasonable relationships between solvent-solute interactions and the structure-activity parameters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  13. Absorption and fluorescence of PRODAN in phospholipid bilayers: a combined quantum mechanics and classical molecular dynamics study.

    Cwiklik, Lukasz; Aquino, Adelia J A; Vazdar, Mario; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Pittner, Jiří; Hof, Martin; Lischka, Hans

    2011-10-20

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of PRODAN (6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene) were studied by means of the time-dependent density functional theory and the algebraic diagrammatic construction method. The influence of environment, a phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer and water, was taken into account employing a combination of quantum chemical calculations with empirical force-field molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, experimental absorption and emission spectra of PRODAN were measured in cyclohexane, water, and lipid vesicles. Both planar and twisted configurations of the first excited state of PRODAN were taken into account. The twisted structure is stabilized in both water and a lipid bilayer, and should be considered as an emitting state in polar environments. Orientation of the excited dye in the lipid bilayer significantly depends on configuration. In the bilayer, the fluorescence spectrum can be regarded as a combination of emission from both planar and twisted structures.

  14. A comparative study on the ionic liquid [bmim][BF4] and its solution with transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Zhu, Guanglai; Wu, Guozhong; Xu, Xinsheng; Ji, Xuehan

    2011-11-01

    A detailed study was explored to compare the transient absorption spectra of the neat 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF(4)]) with its solution in water or acetonitrile. It was concluded that the excited triplet state (3)[bmim](+*) was produced after 266 nm laser irradiation, and then the neutral radical [bmim] and the cation radical [bmim] (2+) were formed through two possible paths. The transient absorption spectra of the neat [bmim][BF(4)] and its solution were similar but the reaction kinetics were different due to their different local structures such as dimeric or cluster. The energy transfer between excited [bmim][BF(4)] and β-carotene further affirmed the existence of (3)[bmim](+*). And the reaction that the hydrated electron captured by [bmim](+) to produce [bmim] in solution was observed.

  15. Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Miwa, Shinji, E-mail: miwa@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Matsuda, Kensho; Tanaka, Kazuhito; Goto, Minori; Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kotani, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-10-19

    In this study, voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions was investigated via the magneto-optical Kerr effect, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The Fe|MgO tunnel junctions showed enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy under external negative voltage, which induced charge depletion at the Fe|MgO interface. Despite the application of voltages of opposite polarity, no trace of chemical reaction such as a redox reaction attributed to O{sup 2−} migration was detected in the x-ray absorption spectra of the Fe. The VCMA reported in the Fe|MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions must therefore originate from phenomena associated with the purely electric effect, that is, surface electron doping and/or redistribution induced by an external electric field.

  16. A comparative study of intervening and associated H I 21-cm absorption profiles in redshifted galaxies

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.; Divoli, A.; Allison, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The star-forming reservoir in the distant Universe can be detected through H I 21-cm absorption arising from either cool gas associated with a radio source or from within a galaxy intervening the sightline to the continuum source. In order to test whether the nature of the absorber can be predicted from the profile shape, we have compiled and analysed all of the known redshifted (z ≥ 0.1) H I 21-cm absorption profiles. Although between individual spectra there is too much variation to assign a typical spectral profile, we confirm that associated absorption profiles are, on average, wider than their intervening counterparts. It is widely hypothesized that this is due to high-velocity nuclear gas feeding the central engine, absent in the more quiescent intervening absorbers. Modelling the column density distribution of the mean associated and intervening spectra, we confirm that the additional low optical depth, wide dispersion component, typical of associated absorbers, arises from gas within the inner parsec. With regard to the potential of predicting the absorber type in the absence of optical spectroscopy, we have implemented machine learning techniques to the 55 associated and 43 intervening spectra, with each of the tested models giving a ≳ 80 per cent accuracy in the prediction of the absorber type. Given the impracticability of follow-up optical spectroscopy of the large number of 21-cm detections expected from the next generation of large radio telescopes, this could provide a powerful new technique with which to determine the nature of the absorbing galaxy.

  17. Human studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of tea polyphenols.

    Clifford, Michael N; van der Hooft, Justin J J; Crozier, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Recent research on the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols after ingestion of green tea by humans is reviewed. Glucuronide, sulfate, and methyl metabolites of (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin glucuronide reach peak nanomolar per liter plasma concentrations 1.6-2.3 h after intake, indicating absorption in the small intestine. The concentrations then decline, and only trace amounts remain 8 h after ingestion. Urinary excretion of metabolites over a 24-h period after green tea consumption corresponded to 28.5% of the ingested (epi)catechin and 11.4% of (epi)gallocatechin, suggesting higher absorption than that of most other flavonoids. The fate of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, the main flavan-3-ol in green tea, is unclear because it appears unmetabolized in low concentrations in plasma but is not excreted in urine. Possible enterohepatic recirculation of flavan-3-ols is discussed along with the impact of dose and other food components on flavan-3-ol bioavailability. Approximately two-thirds of the ingested flavan-3-ols pass from the small to the large intestine where the action of the microbiota results in their conversion to C-6-C-5 phenylvalerolactones and phenylvaleric acids, which undergo side-chain shortening to produce C-6-C-1 phenolic and aromatic acids that enter the bloodstream and are excreted in urine in amounts equivalent to 36% of flavan-3-ol intake. Some of these colon-derived catabolites may have a role in vivo in the potential protective effects of tea consumption. Although black tea, which contains theaflavins and thearubigins, is widely consumed in the Western world, there is surprisingly little research on the absorption and metabolism of these compounds after ingestion and their potential impact on health.

  18. Bioavailability of dietary (poly)phenols: a study with ileostomists to discriminate between absorption in small and large intestine.

    Borges, Gina; Lean, Michael E J; Roberts, Susan A; Crozier, Alan

    2013-04-30

    A feeding study was carried out in which six healthy ileostomists ingested a juice drink containing a diversity of dietary (poly)phenols derived from green tea, apples, grapes and citrus fruit. Ileal fluid and urine collected at intervals over the ensuing 24 h period were then analysed by HPLC-MS. Urinary excretions were compared with results obtained in an earlier study in which the juice drink was ingested by ten healthy control subjects with an intact colon. Some polyphenol components, such as (epi)catechins and (epi)gallocatechin(s), were excreted in urine in similar amounts in ileostomists and subjects with an intact colon, demonstrating that absorption took place principally in the small intestine. In the urine of ileostomists, there were reduced levels of other constituents, including hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and dihydrochalcones, indicating their absorption in both the small and large intestine. Ileal fluid analysis revealed that even when absorption occurred in the small intestine, in subjects with a functioning colon a substantial proportion of the ingested components still pass from the small into the large intestine, where they may be either absorbed before or after catabolism by colonic bacteria.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MISCANTHUS FLORIDULUS STEMS AND STUDY OF THEIR OIL ABSORPTION ABILITY USING GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    Wayne Liao,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus floridulus, which originated from a high elevation mountain area in Taiwan, is a newly cultivated species of Miscanthus. Instead of Miscanthus × giganteus, M. floridulus can be used as an alternative fuel for energy production as well. Except for leaves, stems of M. floridulus count for a major portion of the biomass. In this study, the lignin and cellulose contents of M. floridulus stems were determined to be 22.33 ± 2.21% and 43.13 ± 2.79%, respectively. In addition, a new application of M. floridulus stems was proposed. Oil absorption ability represented by the amount of soybean and motor oils absorbed by one gram of pulverized M. floridulus stems was estimated to be 2.25 ± 0.25 and 2.33 ± 0.18 g, respectively. Gold nanoparticles were used to investigate the absorption ability of M. floridulus stems. The absorption of gold nanoparticles by M. floridulus stems was visualized using SEM and TEM. In addition, the IR spectrum of M. floridulus stems was recorded for comparison with other studies.

  20. Validation of phenol red versus gravimetric method for water reabsorption correction and study of gender differences in Doluisio's absorption technique.

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method.